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Listen to the following dialogue between

Ben Johnson and Petra Alboa (TRACK 1):
- P: Excuse me. Is this seat taken?
- B: No, its free. Go ahead! Sit down.
- P: Thank you. Ive never seen the lounge as
crowded as it is today.
- B: Its because of the weather. With the snow
and the wind most flights have been delayed.
My flight was scheduled to take off at 10, but
Ive been waiting for three hours and nobody
knows anything.
- P: Where are you travelling to?
- B: Im going back home, to Boston. Ive been
here for business for a couple of days.
- P: I see. Im sorry about your delay. I live
here, in Madrid, and Im travelling to
If I knew that the planes weren't going to fly
soon, I would take the train. There is a high
speed train which takes only 4 hours to get
- B: Why didnt you take it in the first place?
- P: Id already booked the flight as it only
takes 45 minutes. Yesterday the weather was
here. I couldnt have imagined that this snow
storm would paralyse the city in only a few
hours. What kind of business are you in?
- B: Im a human resources manager. I work
for GHE, one of the largest American banks.
responsible for more than 3,000 people. Im in
charge of recruiting new employees,
providing training, supervising payrolls, firing
peopleWhat about you? What do you do?
- P: Im a TV presenter. Ive got a nightly
show on Channel 9.
- B: How interesting! If I werent so shy, I
would have tried to work in the media. So you
famous here.
- P: Well yes, Im quite well-known, but I
dont have lots of journalists following me
- B: By the way, let me introduce myself. Im
Ben Johnson.
- P: Nice to meet you, Petra Alboa.
- B: Heres my business card. If you ever go to
Boston, give me a call and Ill show you

Disculpe. Est ocupado este asiento?

No, est libre. Vamos, sintese
Gracias. Nunca haba visto la sala tan abarrotada como
Es por el motivo del tiempo. Con la nieve y el viento la
mayora de los vuelos estn retrasados. Mi vuelo estaba
programado para salir a las 10, pero nunca he estado
esperando tres horas y nadie me ha dicho nada.
A dnde viaja?
Regreso a Boston. He estado aqu por negocios durante
un par de das.
Ya veo. Siento lo del retraso. Yo vivo aqu, en Madrid,
y voy de viaje a Barcelona. Si hubiera sabido que los
aviones no fueran a volar pronto, hubiera tomado el
tren. Hay un tren de alta velocidad el cual necesita slo
4 horas para estar all.
Por qu no lo tom desde un primer momento?.
Ya haba reservado el vuelo pues slo necesita 45
minutos. Ayer el tiempo estaba bien aqu. No poda
haber imaginado que esta tormenta de nieve paralizara
la ciudad en slo unas pocas horas. A qu se dedica?
Soy jefe de recursos humanos. Trabajo para GHE, unde
de los ms grandes bancos americanos. Soy el
responsable de ms de 3.000 personas. Tengo la
responsabilidad de contratar nuevos empleados, proveer
formacin, supervisar las nminas, despedir personas.
Y qu de usted? A qu se dedica?
Soy presentadora. Tengo un show nocturno en Canal 9.
Qu interesante! Si yo no fuera tan tmido, yo hubiera
intentado trabajar en los medios de comunicacin.
Entonces t eres famosa aqu.
Bien, s. Soy bien conocida, pero no tengo un montn de
periodistas persiguindome.
Por cierto, permtame presentarme. Soy Ben Johnson.
Encantada, Petra Alboa
Aqu tiene mi tarjeta. Si alguna vez va a Boston,
llmeme y le ensear los alrededores.
Gracias, yo no tengo ninguna tarjeta conmigo ahora,
pero le escribir mi email y nmero de telfono en este
trozo de papel.
Gracias. Le dir a mi esposa que he conocido a una
espaola famosa aqu. Ella es periodista y est muy
interesada. Si el vuelo continua retrasado, yo ver su
show esta noche.
Eso si llego a Barcelona antes de las 7. Si no, no s qu
vamos a hacer.
Es esa mujer de all tambin una persona famosa?
No, ella es poltica. En realidad, es la vicepresidenta del
gobierno. Ella informa al Presidente.
Cul es su nombre? MLL. Es gracioso, ella es tan

- P: Thank you. I dont have any cards with me

now, but Ill write my e-mail and telephone
number on this piece of paper: 0293838477,
- B: Wow! Thank you. Ill tell my wife Ive
met a Spanish celebrity here. She is a
so she will be very interested. If the plane is
still delayed, Ill watch your show tonight.
- P: Thats if Im in Barcelona before 7 p.m
if not, I dont know what are we going to do.
- B: Is that woman over there a celebrity too?
It looks like she has two bodyguards with her.
- P: No, she is a politician. In fact, she is the
vice-president of the government. She reports
the president.
- B: Whats her name?
- P: Maria Luisa Lpez. Its funny, shes so
important but even they cant find a seat here. I
wonder why they didnt go to the authorities
- P: Im going to get something to drink. Could
you keep an eye on my bags, please?
- B: Sure, go ahead. Theyll be safe with me.
- P: Thanks. Ah! And can you keep my seat,
- B: Of course!
* To be read: pialboa (all in one word) at met
dot com
2. Answer the following questions from the
previous dialogue:
a) Where are the protagonists?
b) Are there many people there?
c) Why?
d) What does Ben do for a living?
e) Where is he from?
f) Why are they there?
g) Do they appear to get on with each other?
h) Do they have anything in common?

hire: contratar
fire: despedir
shy: tmido
the media: (newspaper, television)

importante y no puede encontrar un sitio aqu. Me

pregunto por qu no fueron a la sala de las autoridades.
Voy a buscar algo para beber. Podra echar un vistazo a
mis bolsos, por favor?
Por supuesto, vaya. Estar a salvo conmigo.
Gracias. Ah! Puede guardarme mi sitio?
Desde luego.
a) In a VIP lounge at Barajas Airport in Madrid.
b) Yes, the place is crowded
c) Because of the flight delays caused by the adverse
(desfaborable) weather conditions
d) He is a human resources manager in an American
e) The text does not say where he is from originally but
he lives in Boston
f) They are waiting for their flights to be announced, so
that one of them can go back to where he lives and the
other one can fly to Barcelona.
g) Certainly. They are very friendly to each other and in
the end the exchange phone numbers and email
h) They do not seem to have anything in common, apart
form the fact that their flights are both delayed.

You: Hello Bjork, how are you?

- B: Fine, thanks, and you?
- You: Very well, thank you. Let me introduce
you to Spiros Papafritous.
- B: How do you do?
- S. How do I do what?
- You (whispering): You dont need to answer.
Shes just greeting you.
- B: Please take a seat.
- S: Why? Are we going somewhere?
- You (whispering): No, she is just asking you
to sit down.
- S: Oh! No, thank you. I prefer to stand. Look,
the waiter is bringing some glasses of
- B: Well, Mr. Papafritous, tell me about
yourself. What do you do?
- S: Call me Spiro... Im here talking to you!
- You (whispering): No, she means she wants
to know about your job / what you do for a
living / what you
work on, etc
- S. Oh, yes. Im a sales manager. Im in
charge of the Athens region.
- B: And how are things going?
- You (whispering): She is asking you whether
things at work are going well.
- S: Ah, this year has been very tough, because
of the global crisis.
- B: I see. So your branch couldnt make much
- S. Yes, we profited our time by taking some
training courses on customer care.
- You (whispering): She wants to know if you
could manage to make enough profit.
- S. Oh! Sorry. Yes, we had some losses.
Business went down by 20%.

Hola Bjork cmo ests?

Bien, gracias y t?
Muy bien, gracias. Djame presentarte a
Spiros P.
Cmo est?
Cmo est el qu?
T no necesitas responder. Ella te est
simplemente saludando.
Por favor, tome asiento.
Por qu? Nos vamos a algn sitio?
No, ella est simplemente pidindote que te
Oh, no, gracias. Prefiero estar de pie. Mira, el
camarero est trayendo algunas copas de
Bien, Sr. P., cunteme algo sobre usted. A qu
se dedica?
Llmeme Spiro. Estoy aqu, hablando con
No, ella quiere decir, quiere saber a cerca de
tu trabajo, qu haces, en qu trabajas...
Oh, s. Soy jefe de ventas. Soy el responsable
de la regin de Atenas.
Y cmo va todo?
Ella est preguntando si la situacin en el
trabajo est marchando bien.
Ah, este ao ha sido muy duro/difcil por la
crisis global.
Ya veo. Su compaa no ha podido obtener
muchos beneficios?
S, hemos sacado provecho de nuestro
tiempo haciendo cursos de formacin en atencin al
Ella quiere saber si has podido lograr
suficiente rentabilidad.
Oh, lo siento. S, hemos tenido algunas
prdidas. Los negocios bajaron un 20%

a) Kissing each other. Besndose

b) Shaking hands. Apretn de manos
c) Giving each other a hug. Abrazndose
d) Giving each other a five. Chocar los cinco
e) Bowing. Reverencia, inclinacin
f) Greeting with the hand. Saludando con la

J.R. : Hello, Im Ron, John Ron.

You: Nice to meet you, Mr. Ron. My name is
Susan Smith
J.R.: Nice to meet you too.
You: Did you have a nice flight?
J.R: Awful! We had an 8-hour delay, because
of the snow. All the runways were closed.
You: Oh, Im terribly sorry. You would have
thought they would provide an alternative
means of transport in such cases.
J.R.: It seems they werent able to. Its
incredible, being Madrid the capital of Spain.
You: They would have in the US and many
other places I know
J.R.: Its true. But it is much nicer living here.
You: Fair enough. Would you fancy something
to eat? Are you hungry or thirsty?
J.R.: Yes, I am. Hungry and thirsty.
You: What kind of food do you like?
J.R.: - I love Japanese food.
You: Wheres your luggage, by the way?
J.R..:- Its lost. They told me they will send it
to my hotel tomorrow.
You : Oh, dear, thats awful. Is there anything
at all I could get for you?
J.R.: - Maybe, a clean shirt and a shaver?
You: Sure, Ive got a spare shaver at home and
my husband is about your size
J.R. : - In that case I would appreciate if you
could lend me one of yours, and Ill give you
back a new shirt. The airline will pay for it
You: We can get a taxi now and stop at my
house so that I can get both things for you
J.R. : Thank you very much.

Hola, soy Ron, J.R.

Encantada, Mr. Ron. Mi nombre es Susan
Encantado tambin
Tuvo un agradable viaje?
Horrible. Tuvimos un retraso de 8 horas por
la nieve. Todas las autopistas estaban cerradas
Oh, lo siento mucho. Usted ha debido pensar
que ellos podran proveer algn otro tipo de
transporte en tales circunstancias
Parece que ellos no poda. Es increble,
estando en Madrid, la capital de Espaa.
Ellos lo hubieran hecho en US y en otros
lugares, lo s
Es verdad. Pero es ms agradable vivir aqu.
Est bien. Le apetecera comer algo? Est
hambrienta o sedienta?
S, lo estoy. Hambrienta y sedienta
Qu tipo de comida le gusta?
Adoro la comida japonesa
Dnde est su equipaje, por cierto?
Perdido. Ellos me dijeron que me lo enviarn
al hotel maana.
Oh, lo siento. Eso es horroroso. Hay algo que
pueda hacer por usted?
Quizs, una camisa limpia y una afeitadora.
Por supuesto, Tengo una afeitadora de ms en
casa y mi marido lleva su misma talla
En ese caso, le agradecera que me dejara una
y yo le devolver una nueva camisa. La compaa
pagar por ella, de todos modos.
Podemos tomar un taxi ahora y parar en mi
casa y recoger ambas cosas para usted.
Muchas gracias.

It is generally accepted nowadays that

English does not belong to any of the countries
where it is the official native tongue; quite the
contrary, it is firmly consolidated as the global
lingua franca.
The influence of the British Empire is
probably the main reason for the initial spread
of this language beyond (ms all) the British
Isles. Following World War II, the growing
economic and cultural influence of the United
States has significantly accelerated the spread of
the language in all the continents. The
hegemony of the English language is
widespread, including entertainment and
tourism, international politics, law, trade,
finance, communications, diplomacy, science,
business, aviation, and work relations in
general. English is used as the second language
in almost all multilingual texts with foreign
readers, and also one of the official languages of
international organizations like the United
Nations. Because a working knowledge of
English is required in so many fields and
professions, according to the British Council,
speakers of English as a foreign language
outnumber those who use it in the 75 countries
where it is the first language (approximately
750 million people in the world are believed to
speak English as a second language). It
consequently follows that English is above all
(sobre todo, ms que nada) the vehicular
language for communication between non-
natives and, as is well known, the influence of a
language depends more on the number of
people who use it as a second language than on
the number of native speakers.

Please call Stella. Ask her to bring these
things with her from the store: six spoons of
fresh snow peas, five thick slabs of blue cheese,
and maybe a snack for her brother Bob. We also
need a small plastic snake and a big toy frog for
the kids. She can scoop these things into three
red bags, and we will go meet her Wednesday at
the train station.

Actualmente, es aceptado generalmente que

el ingls no pertenece a ninguno de esos pases
donde es el idioma nativo oficial; todo lo contrario,
est firmemente consolidado como la lengua franca
La influencia del imperio britnico es
posiblemente la razn principal para la divulgacin
de este idioma ms all de las Islas Britnicas.
Despus de la segunda guerra mundial, el
crecimiento econmico y la influencia cultural de
los Estados Unidos ha acelerado significativamente
la propagacin del idioma en todos los continentes.
La hegemona del idioma ingls est extendida,
incluyendo espectculo/entretenimiento y turismo,
poltica internacional, leyes, comercio, finanzas,
comunicaciones, diplomacia, ciencia, negocios,
aviacin y relaciones laborales en general. El ingls
es usado como la segunda lengua en casi todos los
textos multilinge para lectores extranjeros, y
tambin es una de las lenguas oficiales en
organizaciones internacionales como las Naciones
Unidas. Porque el conocimiento del ingls es
requerido en muchos campos y profesiones, acorde
al Consejo Britnico, el nmero de hablantes de
ingls como lengua extranjera supera a aqullos
quienes la usan en 75 pases como la primera
lengua (aproximadamente 750 millones de
personas en el mundo se cree que hablan ingls
como segunda lengua). Consequentemente sigue el
hecho de que el ingls es sobre todo la lengua-
vehculo para comunicaciones entre no-nativos y,
como bien es sabido, la influencia de una lengua
depende ms del nmero de personas que la
utilizan como segunda lengua que del nmero de
hablantes nativos.

Por favor, llama a Stella. Pdele que traiga las

siguientes cosas de la tienda: seis cucharas de
"chauchas" (legumbres), cinco trozos gruesos de
queso azul, y quiz un refrigerio para su hermano
Bod. Tambin necesitamos una serpiente pequea
de plstico y una rana grande de juguete (un
mueco rana grande) para los nios y nosotros nos
encontraremos con ella ella el mircoles en la
estacin del tren.

Most non-natives of English find the English

language rather difficult to understand. That is
due to a number of factors: firstly, English
speakers talk rather quietly in comparison to
other languages; secondly, they articulate very

La mayora de los hablantes no nativos del ingls,

encuentran este idioma bastante difcil de entender.
Esto es motivado por numerosos factores: primero,
los hablantes de ingls hablan bastante quietos en
comparacin con otros idiomas; segundo, ellos
articulan muy poco cuando hablan; tercero, el

little when they talk; thirdly, the language is

very rich in vocalic and consonantal sounds, so
the corresponding distinctions are hard to
make for those who do not have them in their
corresponding mother tongues. Additionally, it
could also be argued that they do not assist
their speech with facial or body gestures that
might scaffold the listener. In order to become
proficient in English it is not only necessary to
understand them as they speak naturally at
their own volume and speed, but also to
reproduce the language in similar terms, so
that your speech is not taken to be offensive,
rude, or tiring. Everything in the English
language is related to prudence and economy,
particularly in formal contexts.
You can't be serious! I'm not that naive,
you know?
a) a) Could I have your ticket, please?
a) b) I would like to have a double exterior
b) c) Attention please, next stop: Cambridge.
c) d) Whats on the thirteenth deck?
a) Are there any sleeping cars free?
b) All aboard!
c) Would you prefer a window or an aisle seat?
d) What time do we arrive?
e) Those passengers who are getting off should
take all of their belongings.
f) Have you got any luggage?
g) Where is the dining car, please?
h) Sorry, the flight has been overbooked. Ill
put you on the next one, at 7.
i) Sorry sir, there is no smoking allowed.
j) Do you have a frequent-flyer card?
k) Weve got grand (magnficos) duplex,
penthouses, and apartments.
l) On the thirteenth deck youve got the Sirena
bar, the sports centre, a
whirlpool, a splash pool and a sun-deck.
m) Im travelling with two colleagues. Could
we, please, sit together?
n) Here is your boarding pass. Boarding will
be at 6 oclock.
o) I would like to order a vegetarian meal,
p) Your suitcase is too heavy. Im afraid youll
have to pay an extra $69.
q) Is the gratuity included in the fare?
r) Fares are per person, based on double

idioma es muy rico en sonidos voclicos y

consonanticos, por lo que distinguir la diferencia
correspondiente es difcil para esas personas que
no tienen dichos sonidos en su lengua materna.
Adems, podra argumentarse que ellos no ayudan
su habla con gestos faciales o corporales que
pudieran "ayudar" al escuchante. Para poder llegar
a ser hbil en ingls, no slo es necesario
entenderlos como ellos hablan con naturalidad en
su propio volumen y rapidez sino tambin
reproducir el idioma en trminos similares, as tu
habla no es tomada como ofensiva, grosera, o
pesada. Todo en el idioma ingls est relacionado
con la prudencia y economa, particularmente en
los contextos formales.

No puedes estar "hablando" en serio, yo no

soy tan ingenua, sabes?
Podra ensearme su billete?
Quisiera un camarote exterior doble
Atencin por favor, prxima parada:
qu hay en la cubierta 13?
Hay algn vagn-litera/cama disponible?
Todos a bordo!
Preferira un asiento con ventana o pasillo?
A qu hora llegamos?
Esos pasajeros que se bajan deberan tomar
todas sus pertenencias
Tiene algn equipaje?
Dnde est el vagn comedor, por favor
Lo siento, hay exceso de reservas. Le pondr
en el siguiente
Lo siento seor, no est permitido fumar
Tiene una tarjeta de viajero frecuente?
Tenemos magnficos dplex, penthouses
(ticos) y apartamentos
En la cubierta 13 tiene el bar Sirena, el centro
deportivo, jacuzzi (piscina de hidromasaje),
"piscina de chapoteo" y una cubierta superior
Voy de viaje con dos amigos. Podramos
sentarnos juntos?
Aqu est su tarjeta de embarque. El
embarque ser a las 6
Me gustara pedir una comida vegetarina
Su maleta es demasiado pesada. Me temo que
tendr que pagar 69$ extra.
Est incluida la propina en la cuenta/el
Las tarifas son por persona, basada en
ocupacin doble y en dlares americanos
Tengo que cambiar aviones y tomar un vuelo

occupancy, and are in US dollars.

s) Do I have to change planes and get a
connecting flight?
t) How long does the journey take?

de conexin?
Cunto tiempo dura el trayecto?

Organization chart (Hotel)

1.- General Manager Director general
2.- Assistant Manager Asistente del director
3.- Human Resources Manager: Jefe de recursos humanos.
4.- Recruiting staff (empleados del departamento de personal)
4.- Payroll clerks (oficinistas encargados de las nminas)
3.- Food and Beverage Manager : Jefe de comidas y refrigerios (bebidas)
4.- Head-waiter: camarero jefe
4.1 Waiter; camareros
4.2 Commis waiter: asistente del camarero. A commis waiter is a food service professional who
assists more experienced waiters. Also referred to as assistant waiters, these individuals perform the
duties assigned to them by the senior wait staff. Commis waiters are responsible for setting up the tables
by placing the silverware and tablecloths prior to the opening of the restaurant

4.- Chef : Cocinero jefe.

(4.1 Chef de partie; chef a cargo de una seccin especfica de la cocina) (4.2 Cook;
( 4.3 Prep cook: is on entry level kitchen position ideally suited for an aspiring chef; his
role is to assist in the preparation of meals by chopping vegetables).
4.- Sommelier.- Encargado de recomendar y servir el vino

4.- Barman.- an employee who mixes and serves alcoholic drinks at a bar
4.- Cloakroom Atttendant: encargado del guardarropa
3.- Financial Manager.- Jefe de caja, gestin financiera
4.- Accountant.- contables
5.- Worker.- oficinistas
3.- Maintenance Manager: jefe de mantenimiento
3.- Marketing Manager: jefe de marketing
4.- Clerk: oficinistas
3.- Head Housekeeper Manager: Jefe de camareras de piso
4.- Deputy housekeeper: segunda jefa (sub-)de camareras
5.- Linen keepers: mantenimiento de ropa de cama
Floor housekeeper; mantenimiento de suelos
Florist: florista
6.- Room maids: camareras de piso
Cleaners: limpiadores
Valets: aparcacoches
Porters: mozos, conserjes
3.- Front office manager: Responsible for organizing, planning, directing and
controlling of the Front Office Reception / Cashiers, Reservations, Concierge and

4.- Head-recepcionist (jefe recepcin)

5.- Night-auditor : The Night Auditor is directly responsible for the prompt, and
efficient balancing of the days transactions of the entire hotel. Check in and check out of
guests and for meeting many other guest needs during their stay. The night auditor is also
responsible for the collection of monies for services rendered during a guest stay. The
Night Auditor is responsible for the smooth operation of the front office, and for insuring
that all standard operating procedures pertinent to the Front Office are followed.
5.- Concierge: conserje: A staff member of a hotel or apartment complex who
assists guests or residents, as by handling the storage of luggage, taking and delivering
messages, and making reservations for tours.

(6.-Bell-boy): botones
5.- Cashier: a person responsible for receiving payments for goods, services, etc., as
in a shop

5.- Butler: a manservant (usually the head servant of a household) who has
charge of wines and the table. Butler service is definitely a growing trend, especially in
top five-star hotels and resorts. The exact functions that these professional pamperers
provide differ from property to property; but, generally, the job of the butler is to
centralize the many functions of a hotel or cruise ship in the body of one resourceful,
always available person. To that end, the butler is the equivalent of one-stop-shopping
the go-to guy for requests both large and small. Tell your butler to do it and you dont
have to ask again.

15. (semi-open activity)

a) She is a nurse.
b) He is a film director.
c) She is travel agent.
d) He is a fisherman.
e) He is an executive / a white-collar worker (A blue-collar worker is a member of the
working class who typically performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage.
Bluecollar workers are distinguished from those in the service sector and from whitecollar workers, whose jobs are not considered manual labor.
Notas del ao pasado.
Giving reasons. You can use the following structures:
Because (+ sentence): I must wait at the airport because my flight is delayed.
Because of (+ noun phrase): The plane cannot take off because of the strong wind.
As: I have to spend the night in London as my flight has been cancelled.
Since (more formal): Ill go by train since all the flights have been cancelled.
In that and for can be used in a formal or literary context.
Due to (Formal, used especially in official statements): All flights were delayed due to
the snow/ I couldnt go out due to the snow.
Seeing that (+ sentence; more informal): I could go and visit Ellen seeing that I have
to spend the night in London anyway.
With (+ noun phrase; since there is/are): With so many flights cancelled, I decided to
go by train.
Complete these sentences giving reasons (in the box) with the right preposition (if
The bad weather
I couldnt get a diploma
The rain
The strike
My doctor told me so
a) I couldnt work today because of the strike
b) The flight was cancelled due to the bad weather
c) I have given up smoking since my doctor told me so
d) I cannot become a manager because I couldn't get a diploma
e) Sue is soaked (empapada) because of the rain
f) He left home because of you
Sex differences.
She is a teacher/an architect.
Steward/Stewardess (auxiliar de vuelo)
Host/Hostess: a person who receives or entertains guests, esp in his own home
Landlord/Landlady: One that owns and rents land, buildings, or dwelling units
Apart from the nobility titles (duchess, princess), -ess names have become part of the
politically correct debate and are being used less and less. Airlines now usually refer to

"cabin crew", member of the cabin crew and air steward to cover both sexes. Similarly,
the term "manageress" is not used as often as before (maganer is preferred for both).
Interestingly, the Hollywood establishment prefers "actor" for both sexes. Accordingly,
most textbooks now use only "actor"
If the gender distinction is important, the words male/female can precede the job title:
- usher / usherette: an official who shows people to their seats, as in a church or

- waiter / waitress
- actor / actress
- male writer / female writer
- male author / female author / authoress
- midwife / midwife: A person, usually a woman, who is trained to assist women in
childbirth. Also called regionally granny, granny woman.

- barman / barmaid
- chairman, chair / chair: Also called chairperson (fem) chairwoman a person who
presides over a company's board of directors, a committee, a debate, an administrative
department, etc.

- horseman, male horse rider / female horse rider

19. (semi-open activity)
a) The weather in Rome is partly sunny, partly cloudy.
b) The weather in Athens is sunny (and hot / warm).
c) Light rain is expected in Lisbon today.
d) There is heavy rain in Reykjavik today.
e) It is snowing in the Alps today.

Country Capital

Country Capital

Albania Tirana
Andorra Andorra la Vella
Armenia Yerevan
Austria Vienna
Azerbaijan Baku
Belarus Minsk
Belgium Brussels
Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo
Bulgaria Sofia
Croatia Zagreb
Cyprus Nicosia
Czech Republic Prague
Denmark Copenhagen
Estonia Tallinn
Finland Helsinki
France Paris
Georgia Tbilisi
Germany Berlin
Greece Athens
Hungary Budapest
Iceland Reykjavk
Spain Madrid
Sweden Stockholm
Switzerland Bern
Turkey Ankara
Ukraine Kiev
United Kingdom London
Vatican City Vatican City

Ireland Dublin
Italy Rome
Kazakhstan Astana
Latvia Riga
Liechtenstein Vaduz
Lithuania Vilnius
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Republic of Macedonia Skopje
Malta Valletta
Moldova Chiinu
Monaco Monaco
Montenegro Podgorica
Netherlands Amsterdam and Hague
Norway Oslo
Poland Warsaw
Portugal Lisbon
Romania Bucharest
Russia Moscow
San Marino San Marino
Serbia Belgrade
Slovakia Bratislava
Slovenia Ljubljana

Shower - a brief period of rain, hail (granizo), sleet (agua nieve) or snow

corto periodo de lluvia, granizo, agua nieve o nieve

flurry - A brief, light snowfall

ligera nevada

drizzle - To rain gently in fine, mistlike drops

frost -


Frost: a

white deposit of ice particles, esp one formed on objects out of doors at

hail : Precipitation in the form of spherical or irregular pellets of ice larger than 5

millimeters (0.2 inches) in diameter.


deluge: a great flood of water, torrential rain, downpour (aguacero)

agua torrencial
sleet - Precipitation that falls to earth in the form of frozen or partially frozen

raindrops, often when the temperature is near the freezing point.

agua nieve

rain -


A very heavy snowstorm with high winds. Fuerte tormenta de

nieve y viento


slush - Partially melted (derretida) snow or ice

fog -niebla
lightning An abrupt, discontinuous natural electric discharge in the

hailstones: small pellet (bolita) of ice that falls during a hailstorm (granizada) (A storm with hail)

mist A mass of fine droplets of water in the atmosphere near or in contact with the


dew Water droplets condensed from the air, usually at night, onto cool surfaces.

downpour - A heavy fall of rain.

Thunder.- The crashing or booming sound produced by rapidly expanding air along the

path of the electrical discharge of lightning.

haze Atmospheric moisture, dust, smoke, and vapor that diminishes visibility; reduced visibility in
the air as a result of condensed water vapour, dust, etc., in the atmosphere

tornado - Also called cyclone (US and Canadian informal), twister a violent storm with

winds whirling around a small area of extremely low pressure, usually characterized by
a dark funnel-shaped cloud causing damage along its path

heat wave A period of unusually hot weather.

hot spell: a spell (a period of indeterminate length (usually short) marked by some action or condition; "he was
here for a little while"; "I need to rest for a piece"; "a spell of good weather"; "a patch of bad weather")

of hot


Windy: ventoso
cloudy: nuboso. Full of or covered with clouds; overcast (Covered or obscured, as with

clouds or mist)
Rainy: lluvioso; characterized by a large rainfall
Snowy-: nivoso. Abounding in or covered with snow
Cold Having a low temperature.
Hot Being at a high temperature.
Icy Containing or covered with ice
Chilly Cool or cold enough to cause shivering (To shake with or as if with cold; tremble

To shake involuntarily, as from excitement or anger; quake)

Foggy Full of or surrounded by fog.

Muggy: Warm and extremely humid.

Damp Slightly wet
Freezing: Informal extremely cold

On the first page of this unit you can see the Iberia VIP
lounge located in terminal 4 at Madrid
Barajas Airport.
Major airlines have VIP lounges at the disposal of their
first class and business clients. Some
companies also issue (expedir) special VIP cards to
passengers who fly in economy class but who want to
enjoy the advantages of these lounges. They have to pay a
yearly fee (no more than $80) to be
able to use the lounges. Also some airline card holders
(for example, of gold and platinum cards)
are usually allowed into the lounges, even if they are
flying tourist class.
In the VIP lounges passengers can wait for their flight in
comfort. Personalised catering is on offer,
with hot and cold drinks, spirits, wine, champagne, and a
variety of snacks (hurried or light meal) and pastries.
Passengers can work as there are plenty of computers with
Internet connection, printers,
scanners, phones and fax machines, as well as meeting
rooms. Travellers can also have a rest as
many of the lounges have some beds to sleep in, in case of
long delays. The bathrooms too are
very well equipped with all kinds of amenities. Some even
have showers.
While passengers wait to board, they can read
international newspapers or magazines, or watch
TV until they hear the announcement with the boarding
information for their flight.
There are some extremely luxurious lounges, such as the
Emirates one, which offers massages, a
spa, full meals, a gym and a swimming pool.
a) Who can use the VIP lounges? First class and business

En la primera pgina de esta unidad, puede ver

la sala VIP de Iberia situada en la terminal 4
del aeropuerto Madrid, Bajaras
La mayor parte de las compaas de vuelo
poseen estas salas VIP y que ponen a
disposicin de sus clientes de primera clase y
negocios. Algunas compaas disponen de
tarjetas especial VIP para pasajeros que vuelan
en clase econmica pero que quieren disfrutar
de las ventajas de este tipo de salas. Ellos
tienen que pagar una cuota al ao (no ms de
80$) para poder usarlas. Tambin, a titulares
de algunas tarjetas de aerolneas (por ejemplo,
tarjetas oro y platino) se les permite el acceso
a estas salas, incluso si ellos viajan en clase
En las salas VIP los pasajeros pueden esperar
por sus vuelos confortablemente. Se ofrecen
caterings personalizados, con bebidas fras y
calientes, licores, vinos, champagne, y una
variedad de aperitivos y dulces (tartas)
Los pasajeros pueden trabajar ya que estn
llenas de ordenadores con conexin a internet,
impresoras, escneres, telfonos y fax, al igual
que salas de conferencia o reuniones. Los
pasajeros tambin pueden descansar pues
muchas de las salas disponen de camas para
dormir, en caso de vuelos retrasados. Los
baos tambin estn muy bien equipados con
toda clase de facilidades. Incluso algunos
tienen duchas. Mientras los pasajeros esperan
para embarcar, pueden leer los peridicos y
revistas internacionales, o ver la televisin
hasta que escuchan el anunciamiento con la
informacin de embarque de su vuelo.

b) What can you find in the lounges? Everything: food,

beverages, press, TV, computing equipment with Internet
connection, meeting rooms, beds, bathroom with shower,

Algunas son tremendamente lujosas, como las

de los Emiratos, las cuales ofrecen masajes, un
spa, comidas completas, un gimnasio y una

c) Are they all similar? Not at all. Some VIP lounges are
extremely luxurious, like the Emirates one.
d) What can you find in an airport apart from VIP
lounges? Many things! (see section 26).
e) What does one typically do there?
Wait for ones flight in the most amusing and pleasurable
possible way!
We understand by tourism both the service industry
related to transportation, accommodation
and related fields, as well as the activity of individuals
going to places for leisure or other reasons.
The World Tourism Organization (WTO) states that
Tourism comprises the activities of people
travelling to and staying in places outside their usual
environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes
not related to the exercise of an activity
remunerated from within the visited place.
There are many other definitions of tourism which can be
found in dictionaries, books and on the
Internet, but they all have some common characteristics
such as physical movement, free choice,
duration and intention.
With regard to free choice, we understand that touristic
activities are carried out as a result of
voluntary choices made by individuals. Tourists are not
paid for their travelling (unless they have
won a raffle, prize or competition for which the prize is a
trip with spending money). Depending
on the interests of the people, there are many types of
tourism, such as:
a. For people who are interested in visiting historical
landmarks and monuments as
well as enjoying the different aspects of the local way of
life: for example, cuisine,
monuments, theatres, architecture, history, etc.
b. For people who are interested in learning or taking part
in a training course: for
example, languages, local arts and crafts (artesana),
medicine, etc.
c. For people who are looking for exciting and sometimes
risky activities, such as heliskiing,

Nosotros entendemos por turismo, de dos

maneras: el servicio relacionado con el transporte,
la acomodacin y todos los campos relacionados y
tambin como la actividad de los individuos que
acuden a lugares por entretenimiento (tiempo
libre) y otros motivos.
Leisure (time or opportunity for ease

(relajar), relaxation).

La organizacin mundial del turismo

establece que turismo comprende las actividades de
las personas que viajan y permanecen en lugares
fuera de su entorno habitual por no ms un ao
consecutivo para entretenimiento, negocio y otros
fines no relacionados con el ejercicio de una
actividad remunerada en el lugar visitado.
Hay muchas ms definiciones de turismo que
pueden buscarse en diccionarios, libros o en
internet, pero todas ellas tienen las mismas
caractersticas: movimiento fsico, libre eleccin,
duracin e intencin.
En relacin a libre eleccin, entendemos que
las actividades tursticas son llevadas a cabo como
el resultado de voluntarias elecciones hechas por
los individuos. A los turistas no se les paga para que
viajen (a menos que ellos hayan ganado una rifa,
premio o competicin en los cuales el premio era un
viaje con los gastos pagados). Dependiendo de los
intereses de las personas, hay muchos tipos de
turismos, tales como :
a) Para personas que estn interesadas en
visitas puntos histricos y monumentos as como
disfrutar de los aspectos locales: por ejemplo,
cocina, monumentos, teatros, arquitectura, historia.
b) Para personas que estn interesadas en
aprender o tomar parte en cursos de formacin: por
ejemplo, idiomas, artesana, medicina, etc

sky-driving, bungee-jumping, rafting, climbing, caving,

d. For people who receive rewards from their employers
for duties performed in their
place of work: for example, the most successful
salesperson of the year is awarded with a
free trip to Brazil.
e. For people who seek relaxation, improving their
physical and spiritual well-being:
spas, meditation or fitness centres, etc.
f. For people who want to travel without causing a
negative impact on the land or
the place they visit, often including activities in close
contact with nature and avoiding
crowds: for example, a trip to the Brazilian rainforests or a
photo safari in South Africa.
g. For people who want to investigate specific aspects
related to their profession or
studies, like an archaeologist travelling to Egypt or a
psychiatrist to New York.
h. For people who travel to places where they can play
their favourite sports that
they might or might not be able to do in their place of
residence: golf, skiing, cycling, tennis,
surfing, etc.

c) Para personas que estn buscando
actividades de emocin y riesgo, tales como ...
trepar, espeleologa, aventuras
d) Para personas que reciben de sus
empresas compensaciones por sus logros en el
puesto de trabajo
e) Para personas que buscan relajacin,
mejorar el estado fsico y espiritual, mantenerse en
forma, spa, meditacin, o gimnasios.
f) Para personas que quieren viajar sin causar
impacto negativo al lugar que visitan, incluyendo
actividades en contacto con la naturaleza y evitando
las aglomeraciones: por ejemplo, un viaje a la selva
brasilea o un safari fotogrfico por frica del Sur.
g) Para personas que quieren investigar
aspectos especficos relacionados con su profesin
o estudios, como un viaje arqueolgico a Egipto o
psiquitrico a Nueva York
RESEARCH (investigacin)
h) Para personas que viajan a lugares donde
practicar sus deportes favoritos que ellos quizs no
puedan hacer en sus lugares de residencia: golf,
esqu, ciclismo, tenis, surf...

Airport area /Action undertaken there

Departures area The part of the airport terminal where all the passengers that are going
to fly congregate, together with any family or friends who have come to
see them off. Some people come by taxi, others are brought by car.
Sometimes you can go in your own car and park it in the airport car
park (but you should be careful since these are expensive!). The
departures area is full of such things as: check-in points and airline
desks, cash dispensers, shops, cafeterias, currency conversion
services, toilets, medical services, places of worship, telephones, etc.
Check in desk You stand in line with other passengers on the same flight as you to show
your one-way or return flight reservation and identity
document (typically a passport), get your boarding card and have your
luggage checked in. Any carry-on luggage will be tagged. These days it
is possible to obtain your boarding pass using an automatic check in
machine found in the departure area of the airport, or on the Web of the
airline before you travel. A boarding pass will have information of the
boarding and take off time, the boarding gate and your seat number.

The reverent
love and
accorded a deity,
an idol, or a
sacred object.

Tagged: A
strip of leather,
paper, metal, or
plastic attached
to something or
hung from a
wearer's neck to
identify, classify,
or label.
take off

Passport control and

security check
Once you have your boarding pass you have to go through passport
control and security. Your carry-on luggage and coats and bags will be
scanned by an X-ray machine to ensure that you do not have anything
that is not allowed by international flight regulations. You will have to
walk through a metal detector in the form of an electronic arch. Once
you go through this point, any family or friends who have come to see
you off have to say goodbye since they are not allowed to follow.
Cafeteria Given the complexities of how an airport operates and the queues that
can form, passengers are typically expected to arrive two hours before
their flight leaves. Since the check-in process is usually finished well
under that time, it is often desirable to use the airport cafeteria to have
something to eat or drink before boarding your flight. Food and
beverages are expensive on board!
Airline desks Representations of the airlines that fly out of a given airport, typically
found in the departure area. You would use them to check on some detail of your flight
before leaving (such as transfer times), buy a
domestic or international ticket if you do not have one or have missed
your flight, change your flight, or to check up on flight status if there
have been a technical problem, delay or, worse, accident.
Airport Duty-free shops Once you have passed though passport control and security there
are shops where things are cheaper because they are exempt from local
taxes and duties, since you will be taking them out of the country.
VIP lounge These lounges, sometimes called first class lounges, are special waiting
areas for passengers with a special type of ticket (e.g., a first class
ticket). Frequent fliers, who have acquired lots of points on their
airline fidelity cards from the journeys they have made, are often also
allowed to use these lounges. They typically contain free food and
drinks, newspapers and magazines, Wi-Fi, etc.
Boarding gate Identified by a code typically made up of a letter and a group of
numbers, for example: A-39. Passengers wait at the boarding gate before
being allowed to board the airplane. When your flight is announced on
the tannoy you form a queue and enter the airplane with the help of the
crew. Sometimes the boarding is undertaken according to the row
number and a letter that corresponds to the position of the seat with
respect to the aisle (window, middle, etc.). Boarding is an inherently (intrnsicamente)
slow process because, unless the airplane is very large, there will be only
one aisle, so people can only enter and get seated one at a time, taking
time to remove their coats and stow (guardar) carry-on luggage under their
seats or in the overhead lockers.
Baggage collection After arriving at your destination, getting off the airplane and going
through passport control, you go to baggage collection (unless you have
only taken carry-on bags). Here you have to check a monitor that shows
which baggage carrier belt will contain the luggage from your flight.
You typically have to wait at the belt for the luggage to be brought from
the airplane. Then the belt will start to move, the suitcases and other types of luggage will
appear on it, and be retrieved by the waiting
Transit lounge When you have a connecting flight, that is to say, your first flight does

6. To rise
into the air or
begin flight: The
plane took off on

Out of:

From within to
the outside of.
check on
someone or

to look
into the
legitimacy or
condition of
someone or

Check up
(on someone
or something):
to determine
the state of
someone or
Tannoy: a
apparatus used
as a public-
address system
esp in a large
building, such as
a university

row: A
series of objects
placed next to
each other,
usually in a
straight line.
stow: To
place or arrange,
especially in a
neat, compact

not go to your destination directly but requires you to change to another

flight in some national or foreign airport, you quite often have to use
what is called a transit lounge, until your next flight is ready for you to
board. These lounges are temporary waiting areas that are there to
make your stay pleasant and more importantly, stop you from leaving
the airport.
Arrivals area This part of the airport is where all passengers who have just arrived on
an airplane, gone through passport control and obtained their baggage
end up. It typically has links to all possible means of transport (such as
buses, metro, trains, car hire, etc.) to enable passengers to get to their
final destinations. People who have come to pick you up will wait
here, either outside the no goods to declare door or at the meeting

retrieve: to
get back; to
rescue or save.

Expressing relations.The more frequently two words appear together, the less chance there is of finfind a
preposition between them.
a) a football league
b) a page book
c) a tree branch
d) a leg of a horse
e) a department of a company
f) a bottle cork
g) a computer mouse
h) a pen top
Have you seen the car of the parents of Mike? Have you seen Mike's parents' car?
The Saxon genitive is always used when the relationship of belonging is real, authentic.
By extension, there are a few other cases where "S" is used:

Children's cloth ( a standard classification criterion for that object) (una forma
estndar de clasificar el objeto)
The soldier's courage (when a personal noun can be rephrased with a verb of
possesion) (se puede construir la frase utilizando un verbo de posesin): The soldier has
The bank's earnings (when it can be rephrased by transforming the second noun
into a verb: puede construirse la frase transformando el segundo nombre en un verbo)
The bank earns

London's Trafalgar Square (place).

Five dollars' worth of sweets (money)(dulces por valor de 5 dlares)
A sonnet of Byron's to indicate authorship (autora); a friend of Henry's
worth: el valor. The quality that renders (to render, hacer, volver) something

desirable, useful, or valuable: the worth of higher education.

authorship: The act, fact, or occupation of writing

women's toilet
men shoes
dog's bone
dolly's arm

user profile
pupils' (alumno) hair
words of the sentence
water of the river
father's pride

Pride: a feeling of
honour and selfrespect; a sense of
personal worth

28. Review of the main prepositions of time:


with exact hours: at 5 oclock / at midnight

periods of time in the year: at Christmas / at the weekend / at weekends, at Easter
some expressions: at the moment / at the age of / at the same time / at present
seasons of the year: in summer
years: in 2013 / in the 80s
months: in April
centuries: in the 19th century
periods of time: in eight hours the plane will be taking off / I have to go in a few
minutes /
Ill take the exam in three months time (Note the apostrophe)
parts of the day: in the morning / afternoon / evening (exception: at night)
in the short term, in the long run

in time
1. Before a time limit expires.
2. Within an indefinite time;


with certain expressions related to tourism: on / upon arrival, on the weekend (Am.
days of the week: on Monday
a certain date: on 4th July / on my birthday / on Christmas Eve
on vacation / on holiday

on time = At the exact time

Complete these lists with other cases you encounter.
24. Fill in the blanks with the right preposition:
a) Columbus discovered America on 12th October 1492.
b) Columbus discovered America in 1492.
c) Columbus discovered America in the 15th century.
d) Columbus discovered America at 4 p.m.
e) Columbus discovered America in the afternoon.
f) Columbus discovered America in October.
g) Columbus discovered America on 12th.

29. Review of the main prepositions of location:

It is used for location where two points meet: Shall we meet at the restaurant?
It is used to show the location of persons who go for short periods of time to a certain
place (exception: at home): Where is Peter? He is at the hospital (he is visiting
someone) / Where is Raquel? She is in hospital (she might be sick and hospitalised for
some months).
When people go to a place and come back regularly we also use this preposition:
Where is your father? Hes at the office (he works there, and goes there every day).

We use this preposition to show location inside a place: The pilot is the cabin. / Lets
meet in the restaurant (not outside, but inside, sat at the table).
In countries or cities: Where is John? In Paris / In France.
With some expressions: In the street.

It indicates physical contact with a surface: The key is on the bedside table / The
picture is on the wall / The business centre is on the first floor (exceptions:

in a

mirror / in a photograph / in a picture).

With left /right: on the left / on the right / on the right-hand side.
With floor: on the first floor / on the third floor.
Where a place is: Lisbon is on the coast / Madrid is on the river Manzanares.
For transportation, we usually use on instead of in: The passengers are on the plane /
bus / ship

(IMPORTANT: exceptions: in the car, in the

Complete this list with other cases you know of.
26. Fill in the blanks with the right preposition:
a) Where is your suitcase? At home.
b) Where is your suitcase? On the car roof
c) Where is your suitcase? In the living-room.
d) Where is your suitcase? In the car.
e) Where is your suitcase? In London.
f) Where is your suitcase? At the petrol station
g) Where is your suitcase? In the lost property
h) where is your suitcase) In Weston-super-Mare
30. Review of the main prepositions of movement.
BEEN TO... TO a place
Mary goes to London.
we went to the beach
The queen is travelling to Australia
Come to Spain soon.

BY... car/ plane/ bus / boat/ ship /bicycle/ road /air / sea / underground
I usually go to work by car
IN... (my) car/ taxi
I usually go to work in my car. When I arrive, I get out of it
ON... foot/ bus/ bicycle/ public transport
Peter normally goes home on foot
Get on this train now! No, get off!

Get on (subirse a) and Get off (train, bus)

Get in (car, taxi) and get out of it

You can get on a bus or a train, Chamyto, but you

really can't get on a taxi unless you climb on top
of it.

a) Have you ever been TO Paris BY coach?

b) How did you go TO London? BY plane
Why don't you fly TO Lisbon? I'm terrified OF
Kim Mata is going to be sent TO prison FOR life
We could travel together IN my new van or catch
the train

Formal letter writing.-
A social letter, for example, is likely no to include an address heading, an inside
address or a subject line (asunto).
An informal business letter may not include a subject line, a postscript (postdata) or
a notation
A letter written in good taste strikes a balance between the conventional format and
the writer's own personal style.

Conventional format:
1.- Address heading (el domicilio del autor de la carta): This is the writer's full
address. An address heading is optional for informal letters. (Parte alta derecha)
2.- Date: This is the month, day and year that the letter is written on.
3.- Inside address: The recipient's (destinatario) full name and address. Generally,
informal letters do not include an inside address. (PARTE ALTA IZQUIERDA)
4.-Attention: with formal letters, the "attention" (full name of recipient) is placed
two spaces below the inside address.

5.- Greeting: also known as the "salutation", this is the introductory phrase, "Dear
(name of recipient)". Either a comma or a colon (dos puntos) can be used at the end of this
phrase. Today, a comma is more extensivily used, with the exception of the use of a title
only, not a proper name (DEAR MEMBER:). In this case, the use of a colon would be more
6.- Subject (tema) matter, topic, theme. A word of phrase to indicate the main
subject of the letter, which is preceded by the word "SUBJECT" or "Re:" (Latin for
"matter"). Subject lines may be emphasized by underlining, using bold front (negrita) or
all capital letters. They can be alternatively located directly after the "inside address",
before the "greeting". Informal or social letters rarely include a subject line.
7.- Body: the subject matter content.
8.- Closing: This is the farewell phrase or word that precedes the signature and is
followed by a comma. Yours truly, Yours sincerely, Regards, etc. THE MOST COMMON
EXPRESSION when YOU DO NOT KNOW your addressee's name is: YOURS FAITHFULLY
9.- Signature: Formal or business letters include the full name of the writer printed
below, the signed name and most often include the writer's title and/or professional
10.- Postscript: Postdata. This is still commonly used in informal letters but not
widely accepted in formal or business letters

It is of utmost importance that a letter is well structured. English writing is generally
top-down, that is, you state the purpose of your writing right at the beginning and then
you develop the arguments as you go along.

Ejemplo de una carta formal: Una disculpa
22 Brown Street
N22 5ZT
23rd May 2005
11 Tree Road
S22 7UK
Dear Sir/Madam (RECIPIENT)
I am writing to apologise for not being able to attend the meeting on Wednesday 15th May.
I was not able to attend due to unforeseeable circumstances beyond my control. I sincerely apologise for this and hope that it did not cause you too
much inconvenience.
I would like to know if it is possible to arrange another meeting in the near future.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully

Jane Smith
Jane Smith

33. Complaints:
Many times in your life you are in a situation where you have to make a complaint. It
can be because your flight is delayed, the food in the restaurant is cold or salty or bad,
or there are problems with your hotel room or with the goods you have purchased. If

this is the case, you will have to fill out a complaint form or write a complaint letter or
In all cases, you must clearly state:
The name (with code or reference if possible) of the goods or service you are
complaining about.
Your personal details (name, address, contact number)
The date, the time and the place where the incident happened or the goods were
Clearly explain the incident that was the cause of your complaint. Mention any
documents, witnesses, etc. you may have.
Ask for compensation, giving several alternatives if possible.
Explain what you will do if you dont get compensation.
Be polite but assertive, concise and factual.
Your address
Date, place
Dear Sir / Madam /( Mr./Mrs Name),
On 23 February 1012 I had to fly from Madrid to Vigo with your company returning the
following day. The departure was scheduled for 9 am from Terminal 4. I was there one hour
before. I had checked in and had my boarding pass ready when I heard an announcement that the
flight was delayed for two hours. I waited for two hours until a new announcement told us that
the flight was again delayed until 5 pm. I went to the airline counter to ask for more information
or to find a solution as I had a wedding in Vigo starting at 5 pm. However, the staff did not know
the reason for the delay and they werent even sure if the plane could take off at 5. I asked for a
refund so I could purchase another ticket with a different airline or even go by car or bus if the
first option wasnt possible, but the supervisor told me that this was not allowed.
To cut a long story short, we boarded the plane at 7 pm, without any explanations or
services, such as drinks or meals. When I arrived at Vigo, the wedding was almost over as I had to
take a taxi and go to my hotel first to get properly dressed. As the reason of the 10 hour delay
wasnt the weather conditions, I think I have the right to compensation which goes further than
the price of the ticket, as I had taken one day off for that wedding and the moral harm of not
being there cannot be financially compensated. Of course, I hope at least to get back the price of
the ticket I paid. Anyway, I am also open to other alternative solutions you might consider.
If I do not get an answer by next month, Ill pass this matter on to my lawyer, so she takes
the necessary legal measures to sort things out.
Yours faithfully,
Your signature
Your name

harm noun aggravation, balefulness, damage, damnum,

deadliness, detriment, disablement, disservice, evil, hurt, hurtfulness, ill
consequence, ill-treatment, impairment, injury, malignancy, malignity,
mischief, misfortune, noxiousness, perniciousness, ruin, scathe, scourge,
... And try not to deceive you: intentar no engaarte (de una manera "polite") En
la carta de agradecimiento podra significar: intentar no defraudarte.

36 . Responding to complaints and apologizing:

In your professional life you will have to answer to many complaint letters, mails,
telephone calls,
etc. Even if the person who complaints is very angry, you have to be friendly and
positive, yet assertive. Try to put yourself in the other persons shoes and understand the
problem, while protecting the image of your company. Express your sympathy and
apologize. If he/she is right offer a reasonable and adequate solution to the problem.

Reference, code, name, etc.

Dear (Name),
First of all, I would like to say I am very sorry for the inconvenience we caused you on 23rd
February 2012.
I have found out that your plane was delayed due to technical problems the pilots discovered in
Rome. The employees at the airport did not know how long the problem would take to repair;
therefore (por tanto, por eso), they could not give an accurate (correcta) answer to you or the rest of
the passengers. However, you should have been offered a free lunch and drinks to help you endure
(soportar, aguantar) the long wait. I must apologize for that too.

In the light of this, we have decided to give you our gold card which allows you to use our
VIP lounges and free parking, together with 50,000 free air miles which are equivalent to 2
international flights within Europe, 1 to Asia or America, or 5 domestic flights. We hope this will
be acceptable to you and that you will continue to place your trust in us and consider us your
favourite airline.
Please let me know if this solution meets with your approval.
Yours sincerely,
EXPRESSING GRATITUDE.In writing or formal speeches you might say things like the following:
I would like to express my gratitude to X for...
My deepest (lo ms profundo) thanks go to X for ...
I'm indebted (agradecido, endeudado) to X for...
Remember that if you use a verb afterwards, it must be in the "ING" form.

The following are very common expressions of gratitude used in conversation:

Cheers (British)

I appreciate it
If it weren't for you I'd

Thank you ever

so much
I'm truly/really...
grateful for...

Notice that the verb appreciate can be followd by different structures:

I appreciate you lending me your chainsaw (motosierra)
I appreciate your lending me your motorbike
There are a number of verbs that allow both a personal pronoun and a possessive
determiner (pronombre personal o determinante posesivo como sujeto) as subject of the
subordinate clause: DID YOU MIND me/my SAYING IT?.
La nica diferencia entre estas estructuras es que el pronombre personal (me) da nfasis
a la persona que realiza la accin y el posesivo determina la accin por s mismo
(described in the -ing clause)
30. How did the author of the letter above apologize? Think of other ways to express
your apologies (the examples are roughly (aproximately) ordered from more to less
formal and more to less emphatic): (de ms a menos formal y de ms a menos
1.-Id like to express my apologies for the inconvenience. La ms formal
2.-Please accept my apologies
3.- Id like to apologize
4.- My apologies for the inconvenience.
5.- Would you forgive me?
6.- Please forgive me for the inconvenience.
7.- Im awfully sorry for the inconvenience.
8.- Im ever so sorry.
9.- Sorry for the inconvenience. La menos formal
The most common prepositions in these sentences are for and about. The former
(primera) is used in more precise sentences (e.g., I m sorry for throwing coffee on your
computer); the latter (segundo, ltimo) is preferred in general apologies (e.g., Sorry
about the mess: desorden). Which prepositions would you use in the following
a) Im sorry for having lost my nerves.
b) Im sorry I lost my nerves.
c) Im sorry about the delay.
d) Sorry about that.
e) I'm ever so sorry for leaving you out of the project
f) Please accept my apologies for having had to leave
g) Please forgive me for my ignorance
h) Please forgive my ignorance.
In a crowded place: to indicate that the other person needs to move so that you can pass
through: EXCUSE ME, please

To indicate the same but after touching or gently pushing that person by accident:
To indicate that the other person needs to repeat what s/he's just said because you did'nt
quite understand it : Pardon?
Why is English important? Talk with your coursemates about it. Then read the text and
answer the questions:
The World Map of the English Language

In this century when global communication is a fact thanks to the Internet and the
affordable (asequible) means of international transportation, people use English as the
lingua franca. /En este siglo cuando la comunicacin global, mundial, es una realidad
gracias a Internet y a los asequible medios de transporte internacional, las personas
utilizan el ingls como lengua franca ( (Linguistics) a language used for communication among people of different mother

Major newspapers and TV channels as well as music and film industries use English as
their major language. But not only the communication and entertainment industries are
English speaking. The scientific world presents its findings (A conclusion reached after examination or
investigation) in articles written in English in prestigious magazines, such as Science or
Nature. Financial transactions all over the world are also made in English.
English is fashionable and in many countries English names can be found in many
businesses and other places (Pepes Pub, Accessorize, Stop, etc.). English is no longer
only a subject to be learnt at school anymore, but a must (necesidad) in modern
society.( must: a necessary or essential thing)
If you ask people in which countries English is the official language, the majority will
mention the United Kingdom and the United States; some others will also think of
Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand; but many will forget Caribbean countries
which were former British colonies, such as: Antigua Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados,
Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent
& Grenadines, and Trinidad & Tobago. Though (aunque = although) these islands are
small, they are culturally and linguistically tied (unida = fasten) to the UK. Also some
islands such as the Cayman Islands, the Virgin Islands, etc.
NOTA : Though: Despite the fact that; although: He still argues, though he knows he's
wrong. Even though it was raining, she walked to work.

In Africa there are many English speaking countries: Botswana, Cameroon, Gambia,
Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Nigeria,

Sierra Leona, Seychelles, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zambia
and Zimbawe.
In Asia, there are the old British colonies of Singapore and Hong Kong (since 1997
belonging to China), Pakistan and India.
Even in Europe there are places like Gibraltar, Malta, and the Channel Islands where
English is the official language
39. Write the names (in English) of all the countries in the world where Spanish,
French, German, Italian and Dutch are spoken:
San Marino
Nicaragua Cameroon Luxembourg
Vatican City
Venezuela Congo
of Congo
Guatemala Cote d'Ivoire
Costa Rica Luxembourg

40.- The UK and the Commonwealth of

Nations. Read the text and learn the regions
that make up the UK. (Make up: formar)
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland (commonly known as the
United Kingdom, the UK, and Britain) is a
state located off the northwestern coast of
Europe. It is part of an archipelago including
Great Britain, the northeastern part of the
island of Ireland, and many small islands.
Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK
with a land border, which it shares with the
Republic of Ireland. Other borders are the
Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English
Channel and the Irish Sea. Great Britain is
linked to France by the Channel Tunnel.
The United Kingdom is a constitucional
monarchy and unitary state consisting of four
countries: England, Northern Ireland,
Scotland and Wales. It is governed by a
parliamentary system and the parliament is
located in London, the capital. The other three
cities with varying powers are Belfast, Cardiff
and Edinburgh, the capitals of Northern
Ireland, Wales and Scotland respectively. The
UK has several overseas territories that are
remnants of the British Empire, which at its
height in 1922 occupied almost a quarter of
the world's land surface.
The UK is a highly developed country, with
the world's sixth largest economy. It was the
world's first industrialised country and the
international foremost (primera = First in
time or place) power during the 19th and
early 20th centuries, but the economic and
social cost of two world wars and the decline
of its empire in the latter half of the 20th
century disminished its leading (destacado)
role in global affairs. The UK nevertheless
remains (To continue in the same state or
condition): a great power with strong
economic, cultural, military, scientific and
political influence. British influence can still
be observed in the language, culture and legal
systems of many of its former ( 1. belonging to
or occurring in an earlier time former glory

Reino Unido de Gran Bretaa y el Norte de

Irlanda (comnmente conocido como Reino
Unido, UK, y Bretaa) es un estado situado
en la costa noroeste de Europa. Forma parte
de un archipilago que incluye Gran
Gretaa, la parte noreste de la isla de
Irlanda y muchas pequeas islas.
El norte de Irlanda es la nica parte de UK
con tierra fronteriza, la cual comparte con
la Repblica de Irlanda. Limita con el
Ocano Atlntico, el mar del Norte, el
Canal Ingls y el mar Irlands. Gran
Bretaa est unida a Francia por el Channel
Tunnel (Canal de la Mancha)
Reino Unido es una monarqua
constitucional y un estado nico compuesto
de cuatro estados: Inglaterra, Norte de
Irlanda, Escocia y Gales. Est gobernado
por un sistema parlamentario localizado en
Londres, la capital. Las otras tres ciudades
con poderes compartidos son Belfast (Norte
de Irlanda), Cardiff (Gales) y Edinburgh
(Escocia), las capitales del Norte de Irlanda,
Gales y Escocia respectivamente. Reino
Unido tiene muchos territorios en el
exterior que pertenecen a restos del imperio
britnico, el cual en su "momento cumbre"
en 1922 ocupaba casi una cuarta parte de la
superficie mundial.
UK es un territorio fuertemente desarrollado,
con la sexta economa mundial. Fue el primero
del mundo es industrializarse y la primera
potencia internacional durante el siglo 19 y
comienzo del 20, pero el coste social y
econmico de dos guerras y el declive de su
imperio a finales de la mitad del siglo 20,
disminuyeron su protagonismo en el exterior. A
pesar de ello, UK, continua con un gran poder
econmico, cultural, militar, cientfico y una
gran influencia poltica. La influencia britnica
puede todava observase en el idioma, la
cultura, el sistema legal de muchas de sus
antiguas colonias y en el resto del mundo. Es
reconocido su armamento nuclear y sus gastos
en mantenimiento militar, cuyo ranking
mundial ocupa el tercer o cuarto puesto en el
mundo. Es estado miembro de la Unin

2. having been at a previous time a former

3. denoting the first or first mentioned of two in
the former case
4. near the beginning) colonies and by extension

in the rest of the world. It is a recognised

nuclear weapons state and its military
expenditure ranks third or fourth in the world.
It is a member state of the European Union,
the United Nations Security Council, the
Commonwealth of Nations, G8, G20, and
NATO, among other international
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally
referred to as the Commonwealth and formely
known as the British Commonwealth, is an
intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four
independent member states. All but two of
these countries (Mozambique and Rwanda)
were formely part of the British Empire, out
of which it developed. The member states
cooperate within a framework (marco) of
common values and goals, which include: the
promotion of democracy, human rights, good
governance, the rule of law, individual liberty,
egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and
world peace. The Commonwealth is not a
political union, but an intergovernmental
organisation through which countries with
diverse social, political and economic
background are regarded as equal status.
Activities of the Commonwealth are
carried out through the permanent
Commonwealth Secretariat, and biennial
meetings between Commonwealth Heads
of Government. The symbol of their free
association is the Head of the
Commonwealth. This position is currently
held by Queen Elizabeth II, who is also
monarch, separately and independently, of
sixteen Commonwealth members
REALMS). The Commonwealth is a
forum for a number of non-governmental
organisations. These strengthen (confirm,
sustain) the shared culture of the
Commonwealth, which extends through
common sports, literary heritage, and
political and legal practices. Due to this,
Commonwealth countries are not

Europea, del Consejo de Seguridad de las

Naciones Unidas, La Commonwealth de las
Naciones, el G8, G20 y la OTAN (NATO),
adems de otras organizaciones internacionales.
El vocablo ingls ''Commonwealth'' (de common y el antigua weal que
deriv en wealth) significa literalmenteriqueza comn. Actualmente se usa en
relacin con una comunidad poltica.

La Commonwealth o Comunidad Britnica de

Naciones, creada en 1931, es una asociacin de
estados independientes, en su mayora ex colonias,
ms algunas dependencias britnicas, tales como
Las Bermudas, Las Islas Malvinas y Gibraltar. Los
miembros trabajan juntos para lograr ciertos fines
como la paz mundial, fomento del comercio y la
defensa de la democracia. Cada dos aos se celebra
una reunin de todos los jefes de gobierno de la
Comunidad (the Commonwealth Conference), para
debatir asuntos de carcter poltico y econmico.
Cada cuatro aos se celebran los Commonwealth
Games, competencia deportiva en el que uno de los
miembros es el anfitrin.
La C. de las Naciones, conocida como C. o la
C. Britnica, es una organizacin
intergubernamental de 54 estados miembros
independientes. Todos a excepcin dos
(Mozambique y Ruanda) formaron parte del
imperio britnico, fuera del cual se
desarrollaron. Los estados miembros cooperan
en el marco de valores y objetivos, los cuales
incluyen: la promocin de la democracia, los
derechos humanos, libre comercio, buena
gubernabilidad, la ley, la multiculturalidad y la
paz mundial.
La CW. no es una unin poltica, pero es
una organizacin intergubernamental a travs
de la cual los pases con diversidad social,
poltica y desarrollo econmico son
considerados de igual forma.
Las actividades de la CW. son llevadas a
cabo por la secretara permanente de la CW y
hay una reunin de todos los jefes de gobierno
cada dos aos. El smbolo de su libre asociacin
es la "Cabeza: Jefe" de la CW. Esta posicin est
actualmente liderada por la Reina Isabel II, quien
es tambin monarca, separada e
independientemente, de 16 miembros de la CW
(Es reina tambin de esos pases)
La CW es un foro de organizaciones no
gubernamentales. stas refuerzan la cultura
comunitaria/compartida de la CW, la cual
extienden a travs de los deportes, la herencia
literatura, y prcticas polticas y legales.
A razn de esto, los pases de la CW no son

considered to be "foreign" to one another. considerados extraos los unos a los otros.

Countries that belong to the Commonwealth:

(Current Commonwealth Realms (16 members) *
1.- Antigua y Barbuda **
2. Australia **
3. The Bahamas **
4. Bangladesh
5. Barbados **
6. Belize **
7. Botswana
8. Brunei Darussalam
9. Cameroon
10. Canada **
11. Cyprus
12. Dominica
13. Fiji Islands
14. The Gambia
15. Ghana
16. Grenada **
17. Guyana
18. India
19. Jamaica **
20. Kenya
21. Kiribati
22. Lesotho
23. Malawi
24. Malaysia
25. Maldives
26. Malta
27. Mauritius
28. Mozambique
29. Namibia
30. Nauru
31. New Zealand **
32. Nigeria
33. Pakistan
34. Papua New Guinea**
35. Rwanda
36. St Kitts and Nevis *
37. St Lucia *
38. St Vincent and the Grenadines **
39. Samoa

40. Seychelles
41. Sierra Leone
42. Singapore
43. Solomon Islands *
44. South Africa
45. Sri Lanka
46. Swaziland
4 7. Tonga
48. Trinidad and Tobago
49. Tuvalu *
50. Uganda
51. United Kingdom *
52. United Republic of Tanzania
53. Vanuatu
54. Zambia

Additions: 1+ 1 ( to be read: one plus one equals two)

Subtractions: 2-1 = 1 ( to be read: two take away one
Multiplications: 2 x 2 = 4 (to be read: two times two
equals four)
Divisions: 6/2= 3 (to be read: six divided by two
equals three).
Percentages: 5% 100 = 20 (to be read: five per cent of
a hundred is twenty)

1. What would you say if you wanted to take a seat to the person next to

a) I want to sit here, please.
b) Is this seat sat upon, please?
c) Is this seat taken, please?

The second sentence is rather awkward since passives often require a
conscious agent. The first one is grammatically correct but the form I
want to sounds far too strong for requests.

2. How do you express that the flights are running behind schedule?
a) The flights have been delayed.

b) The flights are on strike.

c) The flights are late.

To go on strike requires a personal subject. The third sentence is
grammatically correct but the sentence which is best expressed and most
precisely is the first one. The verb delay is the most adequate one to
express that a given means of transport is running behind schedule.

3. At what time is your flight?
a) It takes off in half an hour.
b) It leaves in half an hour.
c) It flies in half an hour.

The three sentences are grammatically correct but the verbs which
collocate (go with naturally) with air artifacts are take off and land.

4. How do you ask about the duration of a journey?
a) How much time does it need to get to Barcelona?
b) How long does it take to get to Barcelona?
c) For how long does it travel to Barcelona?

The correct way to ask for time duration is using how long. You only use
for how long if the verb requires that preposition (e.g., to wait for) or if
the expected answer is a period of time introduced by for (e.g., for 2
years). Also, the most common verb to refer to the duration of actions is
take (e.g., It takes me twenty minutes to get ready in the morning).

5. How is the following symbol @ read in English as part of an email
a) monkeys tale
b) a
c) at
Definitely c.

6. Which of the following sentences is correct?:
a) High-speeded trains can get there in 6 hours.
b) High speed trains take 6 hours to get there.
c) Trains of high speed travel there in a period of 6 hours.
Speed is neither a verb nor an adjective, just an ordinary noun
premodifying another one. Also, as mentioned above, the most common

verb to refer to the duration of actions is take (e.g., It takes me twenty

minutes to get ready in the morning).

7. What is your job about?
a) I have 30 people under my command.
b) I charge 30 people.
c) Im responsible for 30 people.
Another way to express that you are responsible for something is to say
that you are in charge. The verb to charge means to make someone
pay (as in I was charged 200US$ for the repair). Sentence a is correct
but sounds slightly pompous if you are not in the army, construction
works or a similarly disciplined body.

8. You get up to go to the bar because you are thirsty. What would you
a) Im going to drink.
b) I want to have something down my throat.
c) Im going to get something to drink.

The second one sounds very vulgar and the first one is odd in that to
drink is a transitive verb and, in any case, social drinking in English is
referred to with expressions like: to go for a drink and to have a drink.

9. Which of the following structures is grammatically correct?:
a) She stopped being a cleaner because of him.
b) She stopped being a cleaner seeing that him.
c) She stopped being a cleaner since him.
Only because of can be followed by a noun phrase (sintagma nominal)
and not a whole clause (you could say: seeing that / since he opposed
to it).

10. How would you call a woman who is an astronaut?:
a) she-astronaut
b) astronautess
c) female astronaut.

b) does not exist (the number of feminine nouns that take ess is very

limited). The pronoun she- is typically used with animals (e.g., a she-

11. _____ so many delayed flights, I suspect ours will be late too.
a) Since
b) With
c) Seeing that
With is the only preposition that can introduce a cause or reason; the
other two are conjunctions (and, therefore, introduce whole clauses).

12. What do you typically say in a warm spring morning?:
a) Its nice and sunny.
b) Its dry and hot.
c) Its fine and fair.
This English expression is rather fixed: nice and sunny.

13. How would you describe an oppressively humid day?:
a) damp (slightly wet, moist)
b) muggy (bochornoso)
c) flurry (ligera nevada)
Muggy means warm and extremely humid.

14. What cannot be done in a VIP lounge in an airport?:
a) Work in a meeting room.
b) Have a swim in the pool.
c) Travel.

The only thing for sure you cant do in a VIP lounge is travel!

15. What is incentive tourism about?:
a) Visiting historical landmarks.
b) Taking part in a training course.
c) Being awarded a trip for duties well performed at work.
The first one is cultural tourism and the second one, educational tourism.

16. Which of the following structures is correct?:
a) If there were a heat wave, the population would have to evacuate.
b) If there would be a heat wave, the populationd have to evacuate.
c) If there had been a heat wave, the population would have to evacuate.

It is the main clause only that takes the verb in the conditional form. Also,
there must coherence between the tenses of the verbs in both clauses.


If + presente // presente o futuro

If + pasado simple o continuo // would + infinitivo

If + had + participio pasado // would + have + participio pasado

17. William Shakespeare died _____ April 23rd 1616. OJO!!!!
a) at
b) on
c) in

Dates can only be introduced by on.

18. What sentence would not be appropriate in a complaint letter?:
a) If I dont get a reply, Ill pass this matter to my lawyer.
b) I think I have the right to a compensation.
c) I want to refund you generously at once.

The only thing you are not expected to do when you complain is offer a

19. What would not be a conciliatory sentence in a reply letter to a clients
a) I hope this solution compensates your mood and understandable bad
b) Please let me know if this solution meets with your approval.
c) We think that youll find these measurements to be reasonable and
The first one would be by far the least conciliatory!

20. In which of the following countries is English not the official language?:
a) Lesotho.
b) Guyana.
c) Chad.
Chad is an African francophone country.

21. Review the conditional clauses:
Frases condicionales.

True or real conditions: if + present / present or future. (Verdad o condiciones reales)
Primera oracin: si + presente; oracin segundaria: presente o futuro.
If I eat too much pasta, Ill get fat.
Water boils if its temperature reaches 100C.
If you need more money, ask your boss for a pay raise.
Possible but very unlikely or imaginary conditions: (posibles pero poco probable o
condiciones imaginarias):
Si + pasado simple o continuo y en la oracin secundaria: would + infinitivo
If + simple (or continuous) past / would + infinitive.
If he were really rich, he would have a better car. (Note the use of were instead of was)
If they caught the plane, theyd get there on time for the match.
Unreal or Impossible conditions: If + had + past participle / would + have + past
participle. En oraciones imposibles o irreales
If I had been a man, I would have been a football player (Im a woman, so that is
22. Fill in the blanks with the right forms of the verb in brackets:
a) If you (buy)...the food, I (cook) for you. If you buy the food, I will cook for

b) If Madonna (come) to Spain, I (go). to her concert. If Madonna comes to

Spain, I will go to her concert.

c) If it (snow) in Austin, we (go). to the ski resort last winter. If it snowed in

Austin, we would go to the ski resort last winter

d) If I (eat). too much bread, I (get) fatter. If I eat too much bread, I will get

e) I (lend).. you some money if I (have) a job. I would lend you some money if

I had a job or If I had a job, I would lend you some money

TEMA 2.- From the factory to the client.

How many stages (fases) are there in a business process? Which one do you find
most interesting? Which one are you most familiar with?

air steward or stewardess = flight attendant

Escucha la entrevista (Mandy, una azafata de vuelo
1. Listen to the interview (Mandy, a flight attendant,
y Timothy, un locutor de radio)
and Timothy, a radio

speaker) (TRACK 10):

T: Good morning, Mandy Watkins. Welcome to the
show. Please, tell us, how long
have you been flying?
M: For 14 years.
T: Have you ever worked as anything else before?
M: I used to be a secretary but I got really bored with
the monotony of office life.
Since I could speak English, French and Spanish
correctly, I decided to take the
exam to become a flight attendant and I passed with
flying colors.*
T: What else do you need to become a flight
M: Among other things, you have to be between 18
and 35 years old, in good
physical shape and, although nobody says it
directly, they look for people who are
good looking.
T: How do you feel about your job so far?
M: I love it because Ive been able to travel all over
the world, I can go shopping
and I love working with my friends on the plane.
After all these years, its like we
are a little family. I also love meeting different kinds
of people and the passengers
on board can be really interesting.
T: It all sounds great, but havent you ever had

problems with any of the passengers?

M: Well, yes. In all these years a few things have
happened. Sometimes people
travelling in Tourist Class try to sneak into **
Business Class. Actually, sometimes
when we go to pass out the meals, we find that there
are eight people and only five
meals. So we ask the passengers for their boarding
pass and we send them back to
their seats. Another thing that happens often is that the
people who are sitting in the
emergency exit row dont want to put their bags up
into the overhead compartment.

Buenos das, Mandy Watkins. Bienvenida. Por favor,

dinos, cunto tiempo llevas volando?
14 aos.
Has trabajado en algo diferente antes?
Fui secretaria pero realmente estaba aburrida con
la montona vida de oficina.
Desde que pude hablar infls, francs y espaol
correctamente, decid prepararme para azafata de
vuelo y aprob el examen con excelente resultado.
Que ms necesitas para ser azafata de vuelo?
Adems de otras cosas, tienes que tener entre 18 y
35 aos, estar en buena condicin fsica... y, aunque
nadie te diga nada directamente, se busca gente
bien parecida.
Como te sientes con tu trabajo?
Me encanta porque he podido viajar alrededor del
mundo, puedo ir de compras y adoro trabajar con
mis amigos en el avin. Despus de todos estos
aos, es como si furamos una pequea familia.
Tambin me encanta conocer diferentes clases de
personas y los pasajeros a bordo pueden ser
realmente interesantes.
Suena todo fantstico, pero no has tenido nunca
problemas con alguno de los pasajeros?
Bien, s. En todos estos aos han ocurrido algunas
cosas. Algunas veces personas viajando en clase
turista intentan escabullirse dentro de la clase
En realidad, algunas veces cuando vamos a
distribuir las comidas, encontramos que hay 8
personas y slo 5 comidas. Entonces les solicitamos
sus tarjetas de embarque y los enviamos de vuelta a
sus asientos. Otra cosa que sucede a menudo es que
la gente sentada en el pasillo de salida de
emergencia no quieren poner sus bolsos en el

M: Is that all?
T: Well, also sometimes overweight people have
difficulties fitting into their seats
and fastening their seat belt. Some airlines even make
them pay for an extra seat.
And people in Tourist Class also complain about the
food and the prices.
M: Do you always charge for the food?
T: Yes, we do on domestic and most European flights.
We dont charge on flights
that last over 4 hours. For example, I just got back
from a flight to El Cairo and on
that flight we provided complimentary food. We used
to serve hot food but now we
serve cold trays of food, but these are free of charge.
M: Yes, well, now with the current economic
situation the recession and
everything, companies are really cutting back on
costs. Your airline is now charging
for each additional suitcase. You can only check one
without having to pay extra.
T: Thats true, but there are other airlines that have
been charging extra for
particular seats on the plane or even to use the
bathroom, and theyve been doing it
for quite some time now.
M: What different kinds of planes have you flown in?
T: Boeing 737, MD series 80, Airbus 320 and Boeing
747. In the near future we
will be flying on an Airbus 340 to America.
M: What are the inconveniences of your profession?
T: Its a nightmare (a terrifying or deeply
distressing dream) with all the different time zones
and getting a good nights sleep,
or timing meals or other activities you might want to
do, like if you want to take
classes in your free time, or go to the gym or things
like that. Our schedule is not
fixed, so you dont always have the same days off
each week. It is also hard because
I dont have the same vacation schedule as my friends,
so that complicates things if
we want to take a trip together. Family holidays, like
Christmas and Easter, are
difficult too, since they are both peak (a pointed
end, edge, or projection) season for travelling and
air traffic.
M: But, is it worth it?
T: Well, yeah, of course. The salary is great, the
environment is fun and my office

compartimento de arriba.
Eso es todo?
Bueno, algunas veces, personas con sobrepeso
tienen dificultades para caber en sus asientos y
abrocharse el cinturn. Algunas aerolneas les
hacen pagar un asiento extra. Y la gente en clase
turista se queja sobre la comida y los precios.
Siempre cobran por la comida?
S, lo hacemos en los vuelos domsticos y en la
mayora de los vuelos europeos. No la cobramos en
los vuelos de ms de 4 horas. Por ejemplo, acabo de
llegar de un vuelo a El Cairo y en ese vuelo
ofrecimos comida complementaria. Solamos servir
comida caliente pero ahora servimos bandejas de
comida fra, y stas son gratuitas.
S, bien, ahora con la situacin econmica, la
recesin y todo eso, las compaas estn realmente
recortando gastos. T aerolnea est ahora
cobrando por equipaje adicional. Slo se puede
facturar una sin tener que pagar extra.
Eso es verdad, pero otras aerolneas han estado
cobrando extra por asientos en concreto en el avin
o incluso por usar el bao, y ellos lo han estado
haciendo desde hace ya algn tiempo.
En qu tipo diferente de aviones has volado?
... En el futuro nosotros volaremos en un .. a
Cules son los inconvenientes de tu profesin?
Es una pesadilla con todas las diferencias zonales y
conciliar una buena noche de sueo, o coordinar las
comidas u otras actividades que tu quieras hacer,
como si quieres ir a clase en tu tiempo libre o al
gimnasio o cosas as. Nuestro
programa/horario/calendario no es fijo, por eso no
siempre tienes los mismos das libre cada semana.
Es tambin duro porque no tengo el mismo horario
de vacaciones que mis amigos y eso lo complica
todo si queremos viajar juntos. Las vacaciones
familiares como navidad y semana santa, tambin
son difciles, ya que son las temporadas de mxima
"demandas" para viajar y para el trfico areo.
Pero... vale la pena?
Desde luego. El salario es estupendo, al ambiente es
divertido y mi oficina tiene las mejores vistas.

has the greatest views!

*To pass with flying colours - To easily pass an

exam with excellent results.
**To sneak into - To go in secretly without
anybody noticing.

shape: forma
sneak: entrar a hurtadillas, escondidas
hand out: repartir
row: fila
What different kinds of planes have you flown (flew/flown, volar) in?
nightmare (pesadilla, odisea)
schedule (calendario, programa)
timing (coordinando)
since they are both peak (alcanzar su nivel ms alto) season for travelling
environment (ambiente)
*To pass with flying colours - To easily pass an exam with excellent results.
**To sneak into - To go in secretly without anybody noticing.
drop off (dejar) our suitcases
come over: venir
unload (descargar)
beyond (ms all) our control
Are you pulling my leg? (Te ests quedando conmigo?)
(arise; surgir)
spread (extender)
leading (destacada, importante)
discourse (discurso, conversacin),
unstressed: tona, dbil
leaflet (folleto, panfleto)
a dark suit for the men and a full-length
evening gown for the ladies: etiqueta hombre y vestido largo (traje de fiesta)

2. Answer the following questions from the previous dialogue:
a) What does Mandy do for a living? She is a flight attendant.

b) What are the requirements for this job? You must be within a certain age range,
fit and physically attractive.

c) What are some of the inconveniences of this profession? Changing the time zones,
so often, which causes physical and social problems since you are never able to coincide
with family and friends for vacations or celebrations.

d) Is this job worth it, in spite of (a pesar de) all the downsides (lado negativo)? Yes,
because it pays well and the job is interesting and fun.

3. Imagine you have a meeting in New York with a colleague (C) of yours who
does not speak English well. You have to help him with the conversation between
the two of you and the CEO. * (TRACK 11)
- CEO: Good afternoon. Please have a seat.

- You: Good afternoon.

- CEO: I hope you had a good flight.
- You: Yes, thank you. Everything was perfect. There werent many people on
board and we were able to sleep a little. We didnt have any delays, so we were
even able to stop by the hotel to drop off (dejar) our suitcases before we came over.
- CEO: Wonderful. So, tell me, what happened with the rug shipment to South
America? How could it have taken them more than six weeks?
- C: No, nobody has taken them!
- You (whispering): No, he is asking you about the reasons for the delay in the transportation to South
- C: Ah, sorry. I mean, the transportation took two weeks, but the crane operators (operarios de gras)
at the port in Buenos Aires were on strike, so we couldnt unload until yesterday.
- CEO: I see. Well, the result is that weve lost over 2000 euros because in the contract it says that we
are to be charged if there are any delays.
- C: Im sorry, but cant we say that this delay was due to circumstances beyond our control?
- CEO: Are you pulling my leg?
- C: No, Im not even touching you! (Looking under the table)
- You (whispering): No, he is asking you if you are joking
- C: Oh, sorry. No, really, I think that our insurance might cover the costs in this case.
- CEO: No, no way!
- C. Sorry, no way to where?
- You (whispering): No, he means that he is not in agreement/disagrees (with you) because it is
impossible to get the insurance to pay in this particular case..
- C: Oh, sorry again. Anyway, we need to read the contract once more to see if its possible or not.
- CEO: If it isnt, well lose about 2,000 euros.
- You: How many containers are there at the port?
- CEO: 123. And have they already gone through Customs?
- C: Traditional customs, you mean?
- You (whispering): No, he means whether the containers have been checked by the police control.
- C: No, not yet.
*CEO: Chief Executive Officer.

drop off - leave or unload; "unload the cargo"; "drop off the passengers at the hotel"
unload, put down, set down, discharge, drop

crane operators.- operadores de gra.

unload: descargar

beyond: on the other side of something, ms all, ms lejos. "It is beyond me"
(no lo entiendo, me sobrepasa)

Are you pulling my leg? (Te ests quedando conmigo?)

Giving reasons. You can use the following structures:

Because (+ sentence): I must wait at the airport because my flight is delayed.
Because of (+ noun phrase: frase nominal): The plane cannot take off because of the

strong wind.
As: I have to spend the night in London as my flight has been cancelled.
Since (more formal): Ill go by train since all the flights have been cancelled.
In that and for can be used in a formal or literary context.
Due to (Formal, used especially in official statements): All flights were delayed due to
snow/ I couldnt go out due to the snow.
Seeing that (+ sentence; more informal): I could go and visit Ellen seeing that I have
spend the night in London anyway.
With (+ noun phrase; since there is/are): With so many flights cancelled, I decided to
go by train.

Giving reasons:
I couldn't work today because of the strike.
The flight was cancelled due to the bad weather.
I have given up smoking since my doctor told me so.
I cannot become a manager because /as/since I couldn't get a diploma.
Sue is soaked (calada, empapada) because of the rain.
He left home because of you.

REBUTTAL: When debating, each party (consisting of one more people) present
points in favour of their case). They will also spend some time criticizing the arguments
presented by the other team. This is called REBUTALL (refutacin)
1.- Logic.- 2.- Pick the important points.- 3.- Play the ball (do not criticise the
individual speakers, criticise what they say)

Matter, method and manner

rebuttal rebuttal - the speech act of refuting by offering a contrary

contention or argument
noun disproof, negation, refutation, invalidation, confutation, defeat

- S: Good evening. Welcome aboard the Sea Kiss. Could I see your tickets,
- P: Here you are. It's only us two
- S: Thank you very much. Follow me. Ill take you to your cabin. It is on the first
deck and has a sea view.
- P: Oh, how fortunate! For same reason I thought we had interior cabins
- S: Yes, you are lucky. There are quite a few interior cabins and they are much
smaller than yours. Here we are. This is your electronic key card to open the
door. Go on in.
- P: This is truly beautiful! I really like it. What an elegant and tasteful decoration and
the room is so spacious. We are going to love it here.

- S: Im glad you like it. Here is the bathroom, the mini bar, the safe, the remote
control for the TV and music The control for the air conditioning is over there
on the wall. I recommend you close the windows at night because the sea can
get rough and a wave could come in through the window.
- P: Oh, dear, what happens if somebody leaves the window open all night by mistake
because they are hot? Is it dangerous to do so?
- S: No, it really isnt, but just in case. Here is your telephone and you can call
reception if you need anything at all.
- P: At what time will dinner be served?
- S: The first round is from 8 to 9 and the second one is between 9:30 and 10:30.
Here is a leaflet with the meal times and a map of the ship. You can also find the
schedule for the gym, the spa, and the pools.
- P: Thank you ever so much. It all sounds fantastic. I cant wait to try everything
- S: Oh, I almost forgot! On Tuesday you are having dinner with the Capitan.
Remember to wear formal attire: a dark suit for the men and a full-length
evening gown for the ladies.
- P: Oh-oh! I have a feeling I forgot my bowtie (pajarita) Is there anything I can do?
- S: Dont worry. You can buy one in one of our many onboard boutiques.
rough: b. Characterized by violent motion; turbulent: rough waters.

leaflet: A printed, usually folded handbill or flier intended for free

attire: To dress or clothe, especially in fine or elaborate garments.
full-lenght evening gown: A long, usually formal dress for a woman.
bowtie - a man's tie that ties in a bow

American English
first floor
garbage (basura)
round trip (ida y vuelta)

British English
bank note
tap (llave, grifo)
ground floor
return trip
queue (cola)



11.- Word stress. Listen to the following words (track 8) and indicate their stressed

Prsent (N, Adj) Imprt (N)
Dessrt (N) (postre) Cntract (N)
Contrl (N)
Presnt (V)
mport (V)
Dsert (N) (desierto) Contrct (N)
Contrl (V)
xport (N)
Exprt (V)

bject (N)
Objct (V)

nsult (N)
Inslt (V)

Old-fashioned Blckbird
To overflw
To understnd

12.- The schwa.- (pronunciation/sonido). Indicate the syllable which carries the
Adapt Decimal Medium Synthesis Harmony Syringe (jeringuilla)

La schwa es el sonido voclico ms comn en ingls, la vocal inacentuada en muchas
slabas inacentuadas, como a en about o la o en synonym. Por lo general, se describe como
el sonido estadounidense "uh" o el britnico "er". Se trata de un sonido voclico muy corto
y neutro y, como todas las vocales, su calidad precisa vara segn las consonantes
adyacentes. En la mayora de las variedades del ingls, el schwa slo se da en slabas
tonas (the schwa is the vowel sound in many unstressed syllables in words of more than
one syllable)

There are many terms related to microeconomics, macroeconomics, finances, etc.
Employment rights, market, to be on strike, to go on a 24 hours strike, strikebreaker
(esquirol), blackleg (esquirol, rompehuelgas), trade union (sindical, sindicato), be on the
dole (estar parado), be given the sack (despedir), be made redundant (despedir a alguien
por reduccin de plantilla= to make somebody redundant)
Contract, consumption (consumo), part timer (a tiempo parcial), self-employed
worker, casual worker, inquiry (pregunta, informacin), take disciplinary action against
someone, student record (nota alumno), seniority (antigedad), merits (mritos).
Stock market (mercado burstil), share (participacin), interest, crisis, surplus
(supervit), inflation, recession, taxation (impuestos, rgimen tributario o fiscal), VAT,
taxpayer (contribuyente).

What kind of information can be shown in this type of chart (grfico)?
A substancial and persistent rise (subida) in the general level of

prices related to an increase in the volume of money and resulting
in the loss of value of currency


The opposite of inflation. A fall in the general price level or a

contraction of credit and available money .
The utilization of economic goods in the satisfaction of wants or in
the process of production resulting chiefly (principalmente) in
their destruction, deterioration, or transformation
A charge for borrowed money, generally a percentage of the
amount borrowed.


The available supply of (suministro) or potential demand for

specified goods or services.

14. The working enviroment.

mousemat: alfombrilla para el ratn
piece of paper
filing cabinet: archivador
stapler: grapadora
staple: grapa
paper clip

copy machine
fax machine
mail tray: bandeja de correo
adding machine: sumadora, calculadora simple
cell phone: mvil
briefcase: A portable, often flat case with

handle, used for carrying papers or books.
folder: carpeta
wastepaper basket: papelera

carrying out: llevar a cabo, realizar
promoting: ascender, promocionar
overseeing: supervisar
implementing: llevar a cabo, poner en prctica
managing: dirigir
organizing (twice)
recording: registro
ensuring: asegurar, garantizar
reviewing: revisin, estudio, examinar, repasar
updating: renovar, actualizar
chairing: presidir, moderar
developing: formacin, desarrollo
arranging: concertar, ordenar, fijar, organizar

a) Using a range (gama, lnea, surtido) of office software,

including email, spreadsheets, and databases (bases de datos).

El empleo/uso de un surtido de software de oficina, incluyendo email, programas de
contabilidad y base de datos

spreadsheet: A piece of paper with rows and columns for recording

financial data for use in comparative analysis.

b) managing filing (archivador) systems

manage: To exert (ejercer) control over: "Managing the news . . . is
the oldest game in tow

c) developing (desarrollo) and implementing (llevar a cabo) new

administrative systems, such as record management;

implementing: to carry out; put into action; perform to implement a
Records Management es una disciplina que estudia el tratamiento adecuado en las
organizaciones a ciertos activos de informacin denominados Records, trmino que no
tiene traduccin correcta al Castellano.
Records management is a "field of management responsible for the efficient and
systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use, and disposition of records,
including the processes for capturing and maintaining evidence of and information about
business activities and transactions in the form of records"

d) recording (registro) office expenditure and managing the

Budget(Economics, Accounting & Finance / Accounting & Bookkeeping) an itemized summary of expected income and expenditure of a
country, company, etc., over a specified period, usually a financial year

e) Organising the office layout (distribucin) and maintaining

supplies of stationery (mobiliario de oficina) and equipment;

organize - bring order and organization to; "Can you help me organize
my files?"
coordinate, organise

noun arrangement, design, draft, outline, format, plan, formation,

f) Maintaining the condition of the office and arranging for

necessary repairs

g) Organising and chairing (presidiendo) and meetings with your
staff -in lower paid roles this may include typing the agenda and taking
minutes, but senior managers usually have an administrative assistant
to do this;

senior: higher in rank or length of service

h) Overseeing the recruitment of new staff, sometimes including

training and induction;


verb supervise, run, control, manage, direct, handle, conduct, look

after, be responsible for, administer,

Induction = initiation

i) Ensuring adquate staff levels to cover for absences and peaks in

workload, often by using temping agencies;

Ensure: make certain of. Assure, guarantee, insure,

secure, doom, make, proof, check off, tick off, control, verify

2 peak - the period of greatest prosperity or productivity
. efflorescence, flush, heyday, prime, blossom, flower, bloom
period, period of time, time period

Workload: 1. The amount of work assigned to or expected from a

worker in a specified time period.

temp - a worker (especially in an office) hired on a temporary basis
temporary, temporary worker
worker - a person who works at a specific occupation; "he is a good

j) Carrying out staff appraisals (valoracin), managing perfomance

(rendimiento) and disciplining staff;

Appraisal= estimate, judgment, evaluation, opinion
performance - the act of performing; of doing something successfully;
5. carrying out, (realizacin) practice, achievement, discharge,
execution, completion, accomplishment, fulfilment, consummation

k) Delegating work to staff and managing their workload and

output (productividad)
delegating - authorizing subordinates to make certain decisions
relegating, relegation, delegation, deputation

noun production, manufacture, manufacturing, yield, productivity, outturn

l) Promoting staff development and training;

m) Implementing (llevar a cabo, poner en prctica) and promoting
equality and diversity policy

n) Writing reports for senior management and delivering
(pronunciar) presentations (dar presentaciones);

o) Responding to customer enquiries and complaints;
Enquiries: query, question, inquiry, interrogation, research

p) Reviewing and updating health and safety policies and ensuring

they are observed (cumplir)
to look at or examine again to review a situation
policy - written contract or certificate of insurance; "you should have read
the small print on your policy"
insurance policy, insurance

observe (b-zrv)
v. observed, observing, observes
5. To adhere to or abide by: observe the terms of a contract.

q) Arranging regular testing for electrical equipment and safety

arranger n.
Synonyms: arrange, marshal, order, organize, sort, systematize

r) Attending (asistir) conferences and training.
attending - the act of being present (at a meeting or event etc.)

Conference = meeting, session, summit, gathering, assembly,

convention, caucus

Most Canadians will find their mailboxes empty today after Canada Post
suspended operations across the country after 12 days of rotating strikes
(huelgas rotativas) by its 48,000 unionized urban workers. The
government-owned corporation(corporacin propiedad del gobierno) was forced to
declare the lockout (cierre forzoso) late last night after the rotating work
stoppages (interrupciones, suspensiones) caused mail volume and revenue to drop

(cada de los ingresos) significantly. The move (movimiento, medida) halts

nearly all mail delivery. The post office estimated it lost $97 million after
the largest rotating strikes took place yesterday in Montreal and Toronto,
where about 60% of the country's mail is handled.
"While we'd hoped to avoid a disruption (interrupcin) to service to
Canadians, we feel we can't continue to let this drag on (alargarse)," says a
Canada Post rep. The postal corporation also says talks with the Canadian
Union of Postal Workers were at an impasse (punto muerto), with the two
sides "far apart" on several key issues and no progress at the negotiating
table for weeks. Canadians had already been feeling the effects of the labor
dispute, not just from the rotating strikes, but because Canada Post had
scaled (reducido) back mail delivery in cities to Mondays, Wednesdays and
Fridays before declaring the lockout.

The government-owned corporation (corporacin propiedad del gobierno)
Lockout (cierre instalaciones, paro forzoso)
work stoppages (interrupciones, suspensiones)
revenue (renta, ingresos)
drop (cada, bajada)
halt: detener.
handle: ocuparse de, responder
disruption (interrupcin
drag on (alargarse)
impasse (punto muerto)
scaled (reducido, rebajado

Answer these questions on the text:
What economic sector is decribed to have gone on strike in Canada? Urban Postal
Which places are most affected by it? Big cities like Montreal and Toronto
What are the consequences for the citizens? They consequences are that que citizens
are not receiving the mail, important letters, telegrams, etc. They do not get their own mail
delivered or get any incoming mail.
Is the process within the limits of employment law? Yes, I do think so; The
employees are allow to do strikes following some rules. Yes, but a lockout is about to the


Since the beginning of time, humans have looked for ways to move from one place to
another. Starting with the most basic form, walking, all the way to the most
sophisticated forms that exist nowadays which allow us to reach other planets, human
transportation has evolved at the same pace (paso) as scientific advances.
The wheel was the first great invention of humankind because it led to the development
of the cart (carreta), first pulled by animals, then bicycles, tricycles and, finally, by cars.

the last century, the development of the automobile industry has been astounding
Currently there are millions of cars in the world, which travel along roads, highways,
and freeways at speeds of up to 300km/h. Most drivers, however, must respect their
countrys speed limits, which does not generally exceed 120 km/h. The latest trend in
the automobile industry is investment in electric or hybrid cars, with the aim (objetivo)
reducing pollution. These days the developed cities of the world are investing in ways
of reducing the use of private cars for transportation in favor of public transportation
systems such as subways, buses, light railways, as well as individual means of
transportation such as bicycles, scooters, skateboards, skates or, just simply, walking.
The railroads, too, have seen great changes in a relatively short time, from the first
railways that ran on coal, to the new high speed trains. In Spain the AVE network is
getting larger and larger every day and will soon connect with France and Portugal,
allowing people to travel all over Europe comfortably and quickly. In France, this kind
of train, the TGV, has been running for quite some time. So, too, has the ICE in
Germany or the bullet (bala) train (Shinkanshen) in Japan. The users of this kind of
transportation are well aware that they are saving time. This is not only because of the
high speeds at which the trains travel, but also because they leave from train stations
which are located in the city center.

Name at least five words from the text which show the American origin of its author.

traveling, freeways, favor, scooters, highways, km (as

opposed to mi.), subways, center.

pace (paso)
cart (carreta, carro)
astounding (increble).
highways (carretera, autopista)
freeways (autopista)
trend (tendencia)
railroads (ferrocarriles, trenes),
railways (ferrocarril)
coal (carbn)
network (red)
bullet (bala)

Answer the following questions on the text:
a) How many means of transportation are mentioned? Walking, carts, bicycles,
tricycles, cars, subways, buses, light railways, scooters, skateboards, skates, trains, steam
trains, high-speed trains, bullet train.
b) What are cars like these days? Cars these days can be very fast and there is interest
in electric and hybrid cars in order to reduce pollution
c) Are trains a convenient means of transport? Yes, not only because of the high speed
of some of them, but also because train stations are usually located in the city centre


In reference to air transport, starting at the pioneers of flight who flew in hot air
balloons a few centuries ago, all the way up to the astronauts who flew rockets (cohetes

espaciales) to Mars,there have also been many advances which have made the
aeronautical industry veryprosperous. There are bigger and more profitable airplanes
every day which havebrought about low cost airlines. These companies offer affordable
prices for all social classes, which result in airplanes packed (lleno, atestado) with
passengers that just barely (apenas) cover the cost of fuel with the price of the tickets.
They also make money by charging extra costs to the passengers, such as checking
luggage, buying food and drinks on board, charging overweight passengers for extra
seats, and some even charge to use the bathroom. On the other extreme, there are
airlines like Virgin, which offer space travel starting at 150,000. Although interested
passengers will have to wait a few years, there are already some brave people who have
filled the waiting list. Who knows, maybe we will spend our future spring breaks
(vacaciones de primavera) in a space station instead of a train station.
There are also many people who prefer maritime or river travel. In Europe there are
many river cruises that go through cities like Amsterdam or Bruges. There are also
others such as Venice, which offers no other kind of transport. More and more tourists
are choosing to spend one or two weeks of vacation travelling through a country on its
rivers or canals.
Transatlantic cruises have also become more popular in recent years. The days of the
Titanic when a cruise was considered an exclusive luxury for rich people are over and
nowadays this form of travel is more and more affordable with a great variety of offers.
There are cruises which go through the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, the Nordic
Fjords, or through Argentinas Patagonia. Passengers are not only made up of senior
citizens but also families of any age or social class, young singles and, of course,
couples celebrating their honeymoon.
No matter what form of transportation, it is important to offer excellent service at an
affordable price in order to keep the tourism industry working, especially in Spain
where tourism makes up almost 12 % of the GNP of the country.

profitable - yielding material gain or profit; "profitable speculation on the

stock market"
advantageous - giving an advantage; "a contract advantageous to our
country"; "socially advantageous to entertain often"
productive - producing or capable of producing (especially abundantly);
"productive farmland"; "his productive years"; "a productive collaboration"
useful, utile - being of use or service; "the girl felt motherly and useful"; "a
useful job"; "a useful member of society"
unprofitable - producing little or no profit or gain; "deposits
abandoned by mining companies as unprofitable"

adjective inexpensive, fair, cheap, reasonable, moderate, modest, lowprice, low-cost, economical beautiful clothes at affordable prices
inexpensive dear, expensive, costly, exorbitant, prohibitively
expensive, unaffordable, uneconomical, beyond your means

adjective filled, full, crowded, jammed, crammed, swarming,
overflowing, overloaded, seething, congested, jam-packed, chock-full,

bursting at the seams, cram-full, brimful, chock-a-block, packed like

sardines, hoatching (Scot.), loaded or full to the gunwales The streets
were packed with people.

over - having come or been brought to a conclusion; "the harvesting was complete"; "the affair is over, ended, finish
all over, concluded, ended, terminated, complete
finished - ended or brought to an end; "are you finished?"; "gave me the finished manuscript"

abbreviation for
(Economics) gross national product

18.- Vocabulary:
hot air balloons (globos)
rockets (cohete espacial)
affordable (asequible) prices
barely (apenas)

Answer these questions on the text:
a) What kind of transport is used in Venice? Boats
b) How do low cost airlines make their profit? The charge for almost everything:
extra costs to the passengers, such as checking luggage, buying food and drinks on board,
charging overweight passengers for extra seats... Apart form the price of the tickets,
particularly those of overweight passengers, food and beverages on board, luggage and
sometimes even using the toilet.
c) Are cruises elitist nowadays? No, they used to be but nowadays there are variety
of offers for everybody. No, there are many kinds of cruises with many different prices. They
have become popular.

Arguing in favour and against.

In an argumentative essay you must try to convince the reader on your point of view.
First, you introduce the topic. Then, you write about its advantages and disadvantages,
if you are for or against it, etc. You have to make a clear distinction between the
objective facts (or the authorised opinion) and your own opinion. You must adopt a
criterion to present your arguments. The most common one is importance or relevance
but it is not the only one (e.g., chronological order). Provide examples and finish with a
You can use the following words and expressions:
To talk about advantages
and disadvantages
A further (ms) / major (importante)
Another positive / negative
aspect of
The greatest
The most serious
The strong point of(punto fuerte)

The weak point of (punto dbil)

To show contrast: (para contrastar, comparar)
Despite(a pesar de)
In spite of.. (a pesar de)
Even though (aunque, a pesar de que)
However.. (sin embargo, no obstante)
Nevertheless(sin embargo, no obstante)
Notwithstanding(no obstante, a pesar de que)
On the one hand /on the
other hand
Still(todava, an)
Whereas(mientras, as)
Yet (todava, an)
To criticize a point made
As this argument is not very convincing(este argumento no es muy convincente...)
As, in my opinion, this point has not been made clear enough(en mi opinin, este
punto no ha sido aclarado lo suficiente)
However,(comoquiera que sea...)
I cannot believe that
I find too many week points(encuentro muchos puntos dbiles)
Nobody could even consider
Serious doubts can be raised against this(serias dudas podran crecer en contra de
Other useful sentences to express your opinion:
I firmly believe
In my view
Im convinced
Its a matter of opinion
I share (comparto) your opinion on the matter

To show the results of scientific evidence:
Someone has published his/her research on
His/her theory provides evidence to support
Someones paper clearly shows/ proves that

Speed/velocity/haste (In her haste to finish on time she made a number of
mistakes; the letter had clearly been written in haste) /rapidity

Comfort/ ease. These are both words for the state of being relaxed and free from
pain or worry.


noun recurrence, repetition, constancy, periodicity, commonness,
frequentness, prevalence The cars broke down with increasing

availability. the quality of being at hand when needed

noun accessibility, readiness, handiness, attainability, obtainability the
easy availability of guns
reliability - the quality of being dependable (formal, digno de confianza) or reliable
responsibleness, responsibility - a form of trustworthiness; the trait of being answerable to
someone for something or being responsible for one's conduct; "he holds a position of great

1. security, protection, safeguards, assurance, precautions, immunity,
safety measures, impregnability The report makes recommendations to
improve safety on aircraft.

noun novelty, imagination, creativity, innovation, new ideas, individuality,
ingenuity, freshness, uniqueness, boldness, inventiveness, cleverness,
resourcefulness, break with tradition, newness, unfamiliarity, creative
spirit, unorthodoxy, unconventionality, creativeness, innovativeness,
imaginativeness the startling originality of his writing

21.- Nominal and verbal modifiers and complements.

The irresistible sales worked out well
Her presentation was nice and easy to follow
He is a very easy person to talk to.
Her five-minute talk was enough to convince the whole audience.

When he started talking he couldn't stop coughing.
I used to leave things till the next day but then I decided to change
She is looking forward to meeting us all again.

The adjective usually appears before the noun: a young man. There are a few
exceptions, like indefinite pronouns:

He said something unintelligible; I need somebody free for this job.

After some verbs, like be / become / get / feel / taste / look / smell / sound /

She is nice / Peter seems intelligent / I feel good / This milk tastes bitter / You
sound tired.

If there are two or more adjectives together, the relative order is:
- Subjective adjectives, which depend on the opinion of the speaker: Mary is a
nice person.

- Objective adjectives, which are facts: The North Pole is a very cold place.

- Subjective adjectives go before objective adjectives: The Raffles is a
magnificent luxurious hotel.

If there are more than two adjectives, the order usually is: size (the
dimensions, proportions, amount, or extent of something) + length (LARGO)
(length - the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest

dimension of something that is fixed in place; "the length of the table was
5 feet") + shape (a. The characteristic surface configuration of a thing; an
outline or contour.
b. Something distinguished from its surroundings by its outline.
2. The contour of a person's body; the figure.)
+ width (ANCHO) (1. The state, quality, or fact of being wide.
2. The measurement of the extent of something from side to side) + age +
colour + origin + material:
Britney was a tall young blond lady; Give me that small leather jacket.

Si hay ms de dos adjetivos, el orden usual es: talla(dimensin), largo, forma, ancho,
edad, color, origen y material.

A noun modifying another noun is place right before it, e.g., an old stone church.
Un nombre que modifica a otro nombre se coloca antes

22. Make sentences with the following adjectives in the right order:
a) Spanish / young / man / a A young Spanish man
b) French/ a / silk / blouse A French silk blouse
c) Bracelet / silver / a / special A special silver bracelet
d) Old / kind / a man A kind (amable) old man
e) Car / pink / wonderful / a A wonderful pink car
f) Small / thin / hamster / brown / a A small thin brown hamster
g) Song / old / German /beautiful / a A beautiful old German song
h) Delicious / cream / cakes / French Delicious French cream cakes
i) Jackets / blue / American / new / navy New navy blue American jackets
j) Computer / portable / equipment Portable computer equipment
k) A / successful / idea / original / business A successful original business idea
l) Real / a / ring / expensive / gold / ring An expensive real gold ring

a small old round black american leather handbag

Opinion before description.

Order of descriptive words








I always have lunch in a little downtown cafe.
I am always hungry by 2 o'clock
The have always tried to support the local economy
The guide was dead (total, absoluto) serious whe he told us the legend
We urged her to quickly phone her family
We urged her to phone her family expeditiously

If an adverb refers to a whole clause, it is typically placed at the beginning and is
followed by a comma:
Luckily, this topic is very simple to understand. Unfortunately, it is still Monday.

Remember that most adjectives which come from verbs (e.g., confused, worried,
tired) and those with more than two syllables use more + Adjective + than to
make the comparison, and the most + Adj. + of / in for the superlative form.

This train is more expensive than the one we took yesterday.

The Peninsula is the most beautiful hotel in the world. (note the
preposition in)
Daniel is the fastest of all the players. (note the preposition of)
Otherwise we use: Adj. + -er / than and the Adj. + -est for the superlative form:

This taxi is older than my car.

This taxi is bigger than my car.
The Shinkansen is the fastest train in the world.
Notice the change of endings:
Nice: nicer-nicest
Funny: funnier, funniest
Big: bigger, biggest
Keep in mind the irregular forms of some irregular adjectives:
Far: further/ the furthest
Old: older-elder / the oldest-the eldest
To compare indicating equality we use as + Adj. + as:

This assistant helps as cautiously (cautelosamente,

prudentemente) as expected

Paris is just as interesting as London.

For the negative we use not so / as + Adj. + as:

London is not so interesting as New York.

London is not so interesting as New York is. (Note that these
sentences can end
in an auxiliary depending on how formal the context is)

23.- Fill in the blanks with the right comparative or superlative form and
a) The President is more important than the General Manager.
b) The hotel by the beach is cheaper than the hotel in the city.
c) Peter is the most intelligent man in the class.
d) The trip was more expensive than I thought.
e) Woody Allen is the most funniest actor in Hollywood.
f) We are not as aware of the problem as you are.

25. Adjectives ending in -ed/-in.

- There are some pairs of adjectives which can be easily confused, like interested /
interesting; bored (estar aburrido)/boring (algo o alguien es aburrido), etc.
- Some of those are:
Amazed-amazing (de asombro, increble, alucinante)
Amused-amusing (de divertido)
Annoyed-annoying (de enfado, rabia)
Astonishing-astonished (increble, asombroso)
Confused (confundido)-confusing (confuso)
Frightened-frightening (asustado)
Horrified-horrifying (horrorizado)
Shocked-shocking (horrorizado, escandalizado)
Terrified-terrifying (aterrorizado)

- When the adjective talks about how a person feels, it ends with ed. If the
adjective describes things, events, etc. we use ing:
23. Write the correct form of the adjective ending with ed or in.
a) Jane was surprised with the party his husband had prepared for her.
b) My son was very excited with his present.
c) This trip is really exciting
d) Arent you satisfied with your salary?
e) The whole situation is annoying
f) I find his lack of interest highly worrying

John is very bored because the film he is watching is boring. After 8 hours working I
feel very tired. My job is tiring. It was disappointing to realize that nobody congratulated
me on my birthday.

If your are asked to write a critical sumary, you may want to ask yourself questions
such as:
Does the author succeed? (conseguir o lograr hacer algo)
How and why or why not?
What are the strengths/weaknesses? Why? (puntos fuertes y dbiles)
What did the author do well/not well) Why?

goal: objetivo
loose (sueltos)
grasp: comprender
utmost (mayor, sumo)
sense: sentido
concern (inters, preocupacin)
condensed: resumido
dealt with (deal, abordar)
restate: repetir
proud: orgulloso
supporting: mantenimiento, apoyo,
glassware: cristalera
unbeatable: inmejorable, insuperable
state: nombrar, citar
rephrase: expresar de otro modo
remainder: resto
restate: repetir, replantear
accurately: precisin, fielmente
succeed: tener xito, surtir efecto
utmost: mayor, sumo
loose (not precise) definition
function words: preposisiones, artculos
unbeatable: inmejorable, insuperable
deal with: abordar
template: plantilla

Vocabulario 30.
mostly: en su mayor parte
forestry engineer: ingeniera forestal
Bering Strait: Estrecho de Bering
either: cualquiera, uno de dos
forebear: antepasado
Whether you like it or not
inhabited: habitado
field: campo
mainland: masa principal de un pas o continente
to figure out: entender, calcular, resolver
disease: enfermedad
drop off: entregar, dejar
warfare: enfrentamiento blico, guerra
load of laundry: cargar la lavadora
seaboard: costa, litoral
sew: coser
onward: hacia delante
werewolf: hombre lobo
possess: tener, poseer (muy formal)
toe: punta del pie
greatly: enormemente
trick: engaar
candy: golosinas
treating (treat): tratar, considerar, invitar)
scarecrow: espantapjaro
hood: capucha
jack-o-lantern: lmpara de calabaza
trick or treating: broma o trastada (truco o
carve: cortar, tallar
glow: brillar, resplandecer
pull any tricks: engaar
supposedly: supuestamente
yard: jardn, patio
last: durar (verb)
settled: colonizar
gravy: salsa
feast: banquete, festn
pecan: nuez
mashed potatoes: pur de patatas
beside: adems, junto a,

mostly: la mayora
bits and pieces: trastos y cosas

Los Estados Unidos de Amrica, tambin llamados Estados Unidos, la U.S., USA,
Amrica y los Estados es una repblica constitucional federal con ms de 300 millones de
habitantes, y que comprende 50 estados y un distrito federal. El pas, ubicado en su mayor
parte en la zona central de Amrica del Norte, donde con sus 48 estados contiguos y
Washington, D.C., el distrito capital, se sita entre el Pacfico y el Ocano Atlntico, bordeado
por Canad hacia el norte y Mjico hacia el sur. El estado de Alaska est en el noroeste del
continente, con Canad al este y Rusia al oeste cruzando el estrecho de Bering. El estado de
Hawaii es un archipilago en mitad del Pacfico. El pas tambin posee muchos territorios en
el Pacfico y en el Caribe
La economa de la USA es la mayor del mundo y es una de las naciones ms
multiculturales y tnicas del mundo, producto en gran escala de la inmigracin de muchos
pases. Los Indgenas descienden de los antepasados que emigraron desde Asia y que haban
habitado lo que ahora es la parte central de Estados Unidos durante miles de aos.
La poblacin nativa americana se redujo enormemente por enfermedad y guerras
despus del contacto europeo. Los Estados Unidos estaban fundados por 13 colonias
britnicas situadas a lo largo de la costa atlntica y no fue hasta el 4 de julio 1776, cuando
firmaron la Declaracin de Independencia, la cual proclamaba sus derechos a la
autodeterminacin y el establecimiento de una unin de cooperacin. Todo lo concerniente a
USA desde y hacia delante es bien conocido por el pblico en general, particularmente a
travs de su prolfera industria cinematogrfica.

My wife drops our kids at school in the morning: Mi esposa deja los nios en el cole
por la maana.
It works out really well. Funciona muy bien.
Out the door. Fuera (ya han salido)

Usually (por lo general, normalmente) OJO!!!!!

Actually: realmente OJO!!!!
I usually start a load of laundry: Normalmente comienzo cargando la lavadora and
pick yo the kitchen (recoger la cocina) and go take a shower... and decided to be a stay at
home dad... so even though my daughter was still at home (y aunque an mi hija estaba en
casa). It actually (en realidad)... mostly through word of mouth.
I often find myself running out the door at 2:45 to get to the school by the time
school gets out at 3:00
...in the spring and soccer (ftbol) in the fall (otoo, cada), so he gets a ride home
(es trado a casa) with one of his friends from practice.
She is actually really good at it
She doesn't really like them (piano lessons) but we make her go
I am already a sleep at 10

Lately (ltimamente). I either sew them myself ( o los coso yo personalmente) or we
piece them together from things...or by borrowing...werewolf (hombre lobo) from head to
toe (desde la cabeza hasta los pies)
trick or treating (truco o trato) neighborhood (barrio).
Candy (golosinas)
Scarecrows: espantapjaros. Jack-o-lanterns: lmparas de calabaza
We carve faces into pumpkins: tallamos caras en las calabazas ...so they glow: brillan
We are going to dress up as zombies.
Hopefully everybody will be good and won't pull any tricks on us like throwing eggs
or covering our front yards (jardn, patio) with toilet paper
Thanksgiving is a tradition in the States. This day commemorates the Pilgrims, the
first Europeans who settled (colonizar) here.
Hunt (cazar)
Feast: fiesta.

Mashed potatoes: pur de papas

gravy: salsa ... and the list goes on (la lista contina)
pecan pie: tarta de nueces
everybody helps and everybody loves it

33.- Answer these questions on the previous texts:
a.- Does this American family usually have a really large breakfast? No, during the week
they usually have the typical continental breakfast and full fried breakfast only on the

b.- Does Jack work? Yes, he has a paper goods business and he desings cards for all
occasiones. Besides, he does housework.
c.- How do the kids get home from school? Mostly it is their father that picks them up,
although the son is sometimes given a lift by one of his friends from baseball.

d.- Where do they usually get their Halloween costumes? Their father and grandmother
help them make the costumes with their own hands, and also borrow bits and pieces from

e.- Does Jack like Thanksgiving? He does, although it is hard work because their extended
family is large and they prepare real banquets.

5. What do you say when you feel observed?
a) I wish to know why those people are staring at me.
b) I wonder why those people are staring at me.
c) I need to know the reason for those people to look at me.

a) is wrong for grammatical reasons: the verb to wish is followed by the subjunctive ( I wish I
knew, I wish I were) and c) is also grammatically incorrect: the reason WHY those people
ARE LOOKING at me would be correct.

16. How do you ask someone to assume responsibility when something goes slightly wrong in
a delivery?
a) Who is the responsible for paying for the delay?
b) Who is payable for the delay?
c) Who is to be charged for the delay?
Responsible is an adjective so it does not take an article. b) is grammatically correct in
this case but is not appropriate since it means who should be paid and not who is

20. Which of the following sequences is preferable?
a) A French funny savoury old dish.
b) An old savoury funny French dish.
c) A funny old savoury French dish. (SASHCOMN) pero recuerda, adjetivo subjetivo antes del

c) is correct because it has the right sequence of adjectives in the right order of semantic


Messed (mess up) estropear
Put up.- ofrecer, contribuir con, aportar, levantar, abrir, izar, aumentar
rudeness: mala educacin, grocera
bet: apuesta
unreliable: de poca confianza, informal
Top it all off: para colmo de males
sneezed (sneeze) estornudar
blew (to blew one's nose) sonarse la nariz
chopsticks: palillos
stuck: clavar, poner
sort of took (tomar, coger) bites (mordisco) off (take off =quitar, despegar)
skewer: brocheta
drawn to it (atrada a ello) (draw)
barely: apenas
hug: abrazo
bow: reverencia
pat: palmada
frowning (frown): fruncir el ceo
readily: fcilmente
fight: luchar, pelear
host: anfitrin
fair: justo, imparcial, limpio
bring out: sacar
bunch: manojo
unheard: no odo, no atendido
swear: jurar
nod: saludo con la cabeza

We really messed a few things up Nosotros estropeamos unas cuantas cosas
realmente. Mess up es el verbo
...for them to have to put up with our rudeness
...and to top it all off... you sneezed (estornudaste) and blew (sonaste) your nose
sort of took bites off
I'm just not that drawn to it. No me siento atrada a ello
Have I done anything else to ruin business?
When in Rome, do as the Romans do!

What did Elena Lpez do wrong with the Japanese visitors? The Spanish team as a
whole were late when they arranged to meet the Japanese. On top of that, Ms Lpez sneezed
and blew her nose, she couldn't use chopsticks, handed in her business card with one hand,
greeted the Japanese group by hugging them, and called the members by their first name.

Was that the first time the Spanish group lost business because of her behaviour
(comportamiento)? What did she do wrong with the Germans? Previously Ms Lpez had
also made the Spanish group cause a bad impression by calling the members of a group of
German by their first name.

What Spanish custom (tradicin) do all foreigners like?

Spaniards are keen (entusiasta) to pay for bills and foreigners do not seem to have any
problem with that. Quite the contrary.

Nod: saludar con la cabeza

Bad manners:
Burping (eructar)
Farting (echarse un pedo)
Picking your nose (hurgarse la nariz)
Scratching your hair (rascarse el pelo)
Scratching your face
Talking with your mouth full of food
Making noise with your cutlery while someone is talking
Picking food from your teeth with your fingernails
Picking food from your teeth with a toothpick

Sneezing (estornudar)
Yawning (bostezar)
When finished eating, leaving your cutlery together on the plate signaling 5 o'clock if
the plate were a clock face.
When you are done eating soup, leaving the spoon in the bowl.
If the food is hot, blowing on it to cool it down. (blow on: soplar)
When finished eating, leaving your cutlery on the plate forming a cross
Leaving your napkin on the table during the meal, using it from time to time.
(Bad manners) Peel the gruit with your hands, eat food from your knife, tilt the bowl
towards you for the last spoonfuls.

Not talk with you mouth full; leave your cutlery on the plate when you are pausing
while eating, and softly wipe your mouth before drinking (good manners)

Softly cleaning your mouth after drinking (good manner)

pomegranate: granada
beyond the mere: ms all de lo simple
brunette: morena
cheeks: mejillas, cachetes
smooth: liso, suave
deep: profundo
slender: delgado
"legs went on forever": (go on forever: parece no terminar nunca)
warmth: calor
sore throat: dolor de garganta
chest: pecho.
nasty cough: desagradable tos
hiccup: hipo
dizzy: mareado

drowsy: somnoliento, adormilado.

feverish: con fiebre
bear: llevar, soportar
blue high heel shoes: tacones altos
borrow: pedir prestado
lend: to lend something to somebody: prestar algo a alguien
bothered: molest, preocup
trend: tendencia
scorn: desdear, despreciar
I have a nasty cough (desagradable tos)

hiccups: hipo
sneeze: estornudar

Polite questions: (no TO WANT!!!)
I was looking for a pair of blue high heel shoes, please
I'd like a chocolate ice-cream, please
May I have a new report, please?
May I use your toilet, please
Please, can you pass me the salt? (some salt at the table)
Is it ok if I use the printer? (To use a common printer)
May I use your dictionary for a second, please? To use someone's English dictionary
Do you mind if I go out with you? (Join a group of people to go out)
May I have a new report at your earliest convenience, please? ... tan pronto como le
sea posible.

(Informal) Do you fancy coming for a drink?

I can't be bothered, thank you (informal) (No tengo ganas,
I don't feel like it (informal) (No me apetece)

I don't fancy it right now, thank you

scorn: desprecio

9.- Try to find the everyday (possibly slightly politically incorrect) alternatives for
the following trendy (trend= tendencia) words:

lazy// motivationally deficient- (poca motivacin) laid-back (tranquilo,

uneducated (inculto)// alternatively schooled - illiterate (ignorante,

stupid// intellectually challenged(deficiente) - stupid

dishonest (deshonesto, fraudulento) // ethically disoriented (ticamente
desorientado)- criminal

fat // larger-than-average citizen/ horizontally challenged/ differently

sized/ person of size/ person of substance/ possessing an alternative body
image - fat

crazy // emotionally different - hysterical

old // chronologically gifted (talento, inteligente)/ experientially enhanced

ugly // cosmetically different /aesthetically challenged - ugly

slow pacer - invalid

visually challenged -blindold (ciego)

bald (calvo) // hair-disadvantaged (desfavorecido)-bold

failure (fracaso) // incomplete success /deficient achievement
(realizacin) -failure

loss// negative cash flow -bankruptcy (quiebra, bancarrota)

worst // least best (menos mejor) -worst

to be fired // get unemployed// to get a career change opportunity -get
the sack (despedido)

asleep // drunk// stoned (colocado -from drugs-) in a reduced state of
awareness (conciencia) -drugged

white// person of non-colour - white

prostitute// sex care provider - prostitute

homeless // involuntarily undomiciled /underhoused -homeless

poor// economically exploited -slave (esclavo)

7. (semi-open activity)
We have to pick up Papadopoulos from the aiport.
- Sure thing, which terminal is he flying to?
I think T4
- Are you coming too to pick him up?
I'll try, but I have a full schedule today and I don't know if I'll be able to. Plan on (contar
con) going alone.
- I hate going on my own. I always get the worst jobs
It's not the worst. You get to meet people and get out of the office.
- Im not good at meeting new people, particularly foreigners.

Well, I think you are. Here, take this bottle of wine for him as a gift from us.
- Isnt he lucky? Do you think hes got a present for us too?
I doubt it, but if he does, remember not to open it until he leaves. In Greece it is rude to
open a present in front of the person who gave it to you.
- Isnt that what you said about Japanese people too?
Yes, it's the same in Japan. Don't you remember our last trip there?
- I dont know what youre talking about.
The look on their face when we opened the present they gave us...
- How were we supposed to know? Its not our fault
We should have looked into these things before going there.
- Whatever. Ill try to bear ( aguantar, soportar, llevar) it in mind for the next time.
I'm not sure there will be a next time. I thing our new colleague Astrid, is going to take
over the Asia accounts. She speaks Chinese and Japanese fluently, so you can forget
about those trips for the time being (por ahora, loc.adv.)
- I dont care. Does that mean that well stay at home from now onwards (a partir de
ahora) and we can forget about travelling between here and there all the time?
Well, now we are doing the Mediterranean, so get ready for the salziki and the
taramasalata (comida griega/asitica)


Human character and moods (humor)

depressed: deprimido, abatido
range: gama, mbito, campo
epithets: apelativos, sobrenombres
overwhelming: abrumada, agobiada
unique: nico
average: promedio, media
empowering: empoderar (otorgar poderes)
personal traits (caractersticas personales)

ambitious: ambicioso
bad-tempered: malhumorado
boring: aburrido
carefree: despreocupado
charming: encantador
conservative: conservador
cruel: cruel
friendly: simptico, agradable
honest: honesto

mean: tacao, mezquino, miserable
laid-back: tranquilo, relajado, despreocupado
open-minded: mentalidad abierta

nave: ingenuo, cndido, inocentn
self-confident: seguro de s mismo, confiado

proud: orgulloso

sensitive: sensible
stubborn: terco, testarudo
touchy: susceptible
understanding: comprensivo
big-headed: credo, engredo
annoying: molesto, fastidioso

brave: valiente
careless: descuidado
cheerful: alegre
conventional: tradicional, clsico
dull: torpe, lerdo, aburrido
introverted: introvertido
lazy: perezoso, holgazn

pious: piadoso
narrow-minded: cerrado, intolerante

selfish: egosta
sympathetic: comprensivo, compasivo
weird: raro, extrao
argumentative: discutidor
cantankerous: cascarrabias
conceited: engredo, presuntuoso
flirtatious: coqueta, piropo
kind: amable
moody: caprichoso, malhumorado
polite: educado
sensible: sensato, prudente
talkative: parlanchn
alarmed: asustadizo
complacent: satisfecho
depressed: deprimido, abatido
embarrassed: avergonzado
grumpy: grun, malhumorado
indignant: indignado
nostalgic: nostlgico
relaxed: relajado
terrified: aterrorizado, aterrado
alert: despierto, atento
confident: seguro
disappointed: desilusionado, decepcionado
emotional: afectivo
homesick: nostlgico
irritable: quisquilloso, irritable
offended: ofendido
relieved: aliviado
thrilled: encantado
amazed: asombrado
confused: confundido
disheartened: descorazonado, desalentado
enthusiastic: entusiasmado
hopeful: esperanzado
resentful: resentido, rencoroso
touched: emocionado
impressed: impresionado
miserable: abatido, desgraciado, desdichado,
despreciable, vil
puzzled: confundido
sleepy: sooliento, adormilado
weary: cansado, harto

inborn: innato
trait: caracterstica
vary: variar
gorgeous: precioso, divino, magnfico

quarrelsome: peleador, pelon

shy: vergonzoso, tmido
trustworthy: fidedigno
bitchy: malicioso
cautious: cauteloso, cauto
cowardly: cobarde
hard-working: trabajador
loyal: leal
naughty: malo, travieso, pcaro
reliable: fidedigno, fiable
strict: estricto, severo
two-faced: falso, dos caras
disillusioned: desencantado, desilusionado
frustrated: frustrado, descontento
hostile: hostil
listless: aptico, indiferente
playful: pcaro, travieso, juguetn
restless: inquieto, agitado, impaciente
uncomfortable: incmodo
ashamed: avergonzado, apenado
contented: contento, satisfecho
distressed: afligido, angustiado
furious: furioso
humiliated: humillado
merry: alegre
pleased: satisfecho, contento (happy, contented)
satisfied: satisfecho
upset: disgustado, alterado, ofendido,
astonished: estupefacto, pasmado
curious: curioso
dizzy: mareado
glad: contento, alegre
hurt: lastimado, herido
mischievous: pcaro
proud: orgulloso
shocked: estupefacto, horrorizado
wary: cauteloso, desconfiado
calm: tranquilo
dejected: abatido, desalentado
eager: entusiasta, ansioso, deseoso
gloomy: pesimista, triste, sombro
cheerful: alegre, animado, risueo
edgy: tenso, nervioso
groggy: grogui, aturdido,
indifferent: mediocre, indiferente, despegado
nervous: nervioso
rejected: marginado, rechazado
surprised: sorprendido

gill: agalla. To go green about the gills (ponerse blanco como un o el papel)
gentle: dulce, suave, discreto, diplomtico

I'm not in the mood: Ahora no me apetece; no tengo ganas ahora

He feels a bit under the weather = You are not feeling well
She is over the moon with the news = She is extremely happy and pleased
Why are you in such a good/bad mood?
Don't count on me: I'm not in the mood for dancing (No cuentes conmigo)
She is in one of her moods: a temporary state of mind or temper

12. Classify the following words in the box according with their origin. Use
your intuition first, and then check them up with your dictionary if
necessary. Are they the same in your language?:
Casino, Fiasco,

Cul de sac
Abandon, Ablation

Yawning: bostezar
Drowsiness: modorra, adormecimiento
biting the nails: morderse las uas
tip of the shoe: la punta del zapato




Threat: amenaza
Shoe sole: suela del zapato
among: entre

- Men kiss each other hello
- To stick to a hand shaking

a) What is more important according to the text: verbal language or body language? Body language,
but in the sense that it is much harder to fake, so it reveals more of a person's personality and

b) What can be offensive in Arabic or Asian countries? Handing in things with your left hand and
showing the shoe sole.

c)How can we know if one person feels comfortable with another? When they do not sit near to the
other person, sit with their arms and legs crossed, avoid making eye contact, change posture and
look at their watch.

d) What must we do/ not do in formal work situations? We have to control our own body language,
observe the other's, and try not to take any initiative regarding body contact and gestures

The first impression is always the most important. It has been proven that attention is
focused in the first few seconds. Therefore, you will easily remember the physical
features (rasgos fsicos) of someone you have been introduced to, but not his/her name.
Physical appearance and body language transmit an impression which stays in other
people's minds. Human resources managers admit they cannot help but be influenced by
this first impression. If it is negative, even if the candidate has very good qualifications,
they tend (tender) to offer the job to someone else.
Employers need persons who transmit energy and security, without being too
aggressive. Some people have these inborn qualities, some do not. If you belong to the
latter (ltimos), do not despair (desesperar). All you need to do is modify your body
language to feel and be felt as a refined, reassuring (tranquilizadora) person.
Let us analyze the process of body positions involved in an interview and how to correct
common mistakes.
- Standing: If you have to wait, do not lean (apoyarse) on the wall to rest your spine and
feet. That will create an impression of indolence (desidia) and carelessness (descuido).
Observe those waiting for their buses or at the underground station. They present the
widest rank of lazy postures like leaning on the walls, standing with separated legs and
feet, charging the weight onto one hip (cadera) and then the other, crossing arms, etc.
To make things worse, they usually combine these acts with the bending of their spines,
acquiring an S-like aspect, for example, protruding (sobresalir) belly (barriga)-arched
back-lowered head (parte baja posterior de la cabeza). All these gestures are wrong and
should be avoided, more so when you realize that someone is watching you. They are
hazardous (peligrosas) for your health as they alter your bone structure little by little.
They also make breathing difficult. A good posture is the foundation of not only good
health, but also of looks and energy. It is health promoting because it enables (permitir)
you to breathe (respirar) better.
When you slump (bajar, descender), your rib cage (caja torcica) collapses, preventing
(impidiendo)the diaphragm from expanding fully, making respiration shallow (menos
profunda) and inadequate. In addition, it also provides you with
a thinner and taller silhouette. A good standing posture sends across a message of selfassurance (confianza en uno mismo) and self-confidence (sinnimos). And, as we all
know, when you look confident, you feel it too.
Practise in front of a mirror. Basically a good standing posture entails (implica) level,
widened shoulders, level hips, a lengthened (alargada) but not stiffened (tensada) spine
(espina dorsal), slightly bent (flexionadas) knees and a tension- free lifted head. Imagine
a string (cuerda) attached to the centre of your head pulling it up as if you were a
marionette. Feel your shoulders placed back and the sensation of your head floating. Do

not force yourself into it. Using force to realign (realinear) your body only stiffens up
(poner tenso) muscles. Do not push your head up with your shoulders or back; follow
the upward (hacia arriba) motion (movimiento) of your head, relaxing into a proper
alignment (alineacin). Remember that upwards does not necessarily mean ceiling-ward
(hacia el techo), your chin (barbilla, mentn) should be parallel to the floor. Think
of lengthening (alargar, extender) instead of contracting your body - moving your head
away from your body, widening your shoulders and moving your torso far from your
hips. Once you have a good position, check your limbs (extremidades). Arms should not
be crossed (negative attitude,meaning uneasy sensations, something to hide), not inside
your pockets (nervousness) or hanging along your hips as if you were a soldier (fear,
nervousness). The best way is to keep both hands slightly crossed on your lap (regazo)
Legs should be kept closed together with knees slightly bent, or adopt the "Miss"
posture, i.e. place your feet together, put your right foot half a step outwards (hacia
fuera) while the right knee is slightly bent and the other leg completely straight,
supporting the weight of the body.
- Walking in: Your time has arrived; you are asked to go in. You will probably be
nervous and tend to look down at the floor. Or you will try to look secure and walk with
long loud (enrgicos) steps waving (agitando) your arms towards your interviewer.
Unfortunately, all these are incorrect. Keeping your spine head and body upright, walk
confidently but carefully into the room, with normal silent steps. Avoid long strides or
short quick geisha-style steps. You should walk as if there is an imaginary straight line
in front of you. You should look straight up at those coming towards you. While you
walk, your toes should not be turned in or out. Keep them straight, slightly bent
outwards. Looking at the soles of your shoes will tell you if you have been walking
correctly or not. If one side is worn out (desgastado) it shows that you tend to walk with
your toes in or out, or one in and the other straight, or any kind of combinations. To
correct these problems, you must first be aware of them. If possible, videotape your
movements and look at them critically. To rectify any fault, practise in front of a mirror,
keeping the right body posture, toes straight, normal light steps following an imaginary
line and with your chin (barbilla, mentn) parallel to the floor. You can put a telephone
book or something heavy on your head to avoid looking down.
- Sitting: Do not sit until you have been asked to. Do not flop down (dejarse caer)when
you sit. Sit down slowly, first on the edge of the chair of sofa, then go backwards until
your spine leans (apoyarse) straight on the back of the seat. Never slump (dejarse caer,
desplomarse). Doing so is aesthetically awful (sagging (hundiendo) breast on protruding
belly (sacando barriga)) as well as indicating carelessness. Avoid sitting on
the edge of the seat with your body leaning towards the table, as it indicates impatience.
Never cross your arms as it is a sign of a defensive attitude. Gestures not only express
but also influence other people's feelings. Imagine two shop attendants, one with
crossed arms and one without. Unconsciously you will head towards the one with
"open" arms as it signals a willingness to help (disposicin a ayudar). Legs should not
be crossed. Keep them closed together, like your feet.
- Hands: Avoid a limp or damp handshake (evitar una estrechez de mano floja o
hmeda). Gripping (agarrar) a hand too hard or pumping (mover con fuerza) it is also a
no-no (algo prohibido)Also avoid fiddling (juguetear) with rings, pens, papers, coins,
etc, because doing so
reveals (revelar) your nervousness. Touching or scratching your face or head in the
presence of others is impolite (maleducado) and repulsive.

When you are talking, do not put your hand across your mouth. Apart from mopping
(limpiar) out the sound, it will indicate you are lying. Your hands should be on your lap
(regazo) or handbag or on the arms of the seat. You can move them a little while you
converse with the interviewer, but never raise (levantar, alzar) your elbows (codos) and
arms along Italian-style, as it shows the passionate character of a person who can easily
lose control.
- Eyes: The eyes are our most important facial features. You can tell how someone feels
by just looking at them. Keep eye contact with the interviewer, but do not look at
him/her so intently that it might seem aggressive or arrogant. To look down is a
consequence of feeling insecure, inferior or having something to hide. However,
pausing to think and looking down for a few seconds is alright. If you are tired of
looking at the other person's eyes, relax by looking at the space between his/her
eyebrows (cejas).
- Standing up: When the interview is over do not stand up (levantarse) and hold out
(tender) your hand. A person who invades the vital space of others or who touches them
first is viewed as dominant. The interviewer will think you are trying to wrest (restar)
control from him/her and he/she will resent (ofender) it. Wait until he stands, then rise.
Do it softly by holding your back as straight as possible, and helping yourself with a
hand on the seat, while you keep your eyes on your interviewer. Let him/her finish and
be the first to hold out his hand to you.
As you turn to leave, smile and say "thank you". You will have transmitted a very
positive image of yourself, and if your qualifications are right, you are likely to be
offered the job.

I look forward to hearing from you in due course

(en su debido momento)

take up: iniciar, comenzar, emprender. I would like to take up my career here
career: carrera, profesin
gain: ganar, obtener. This would enable me to gain knowledge and experience
I would be particularly glad to join. Yo estara particularmente contento
At your earliest convenience: tan pronto como usted pueda.
Depth: profundidad

to have pride: estar orgulloso

commitment: responsabilidad, entrega, dedicacin
to attend appraisal/assess as required: asistir a evaluacin, valoracin
To ensure that all hygiene regulations are adhered (observadas) to at all times
Based: con sede en
Annual leave: vacaciones remuneradas
fringe benefits: beneficios adicionales
convey: transmitir
devise: crear, concebir, idear
avant-garde: innovador, vanguardia
conquer: conquistar, vencer
long-lasting: duradero

appealing: atractivo, atrayente
straightforward: sencillo, claro, conciso
post: empleo, puesto
duties: funciones, responsabilidades +
due course: a su debido tiempo
convey: transmitir, comunicar
whiter: ms blanca
avant-garde: vanguardista
conquer: vencer, conquistar
therefor: por tanto, por eso

swear: jurar (swear the truth)

Phrasal verb:
give in: ceder, sucumbir, rendirse = yield
give out: repartir, distribuir = distribute
give up: dejar, ceder = stop doing something
give off: emanar, desprender = send out a liquid, gas
or smell
give round = pass something round to be shared

maple: arce
outwards: hacia afuera

Advertising slogans:
Connecting people: Nokia // A diamond is forever: De Beers // I'm loving it: McDonald's // Probably
the best larger in the world: Carlsberg.

Phrasal verb:
give in: ceder, sucumbir, rendirse = yield
give out: repartir, distribuir = distribute
give up: dejar, ceder = stop doing something
give off: emanar, desprender = send out a liquid, gas or smell
give round = pass something round to be shared (compartido)

Multiword verbs:

Come on, hurry up or we'll be late!
He drank up and ate up in no time because he was in a rush // drink up: acabar de un trago //
eat up: acabarse, devorar: I eat up the last of the potatoes
Smoking in restaurants is usually frowned upon // mal visto, produce malas caras
Make up your mind and let's do something // formar, inventar +
If you don't look after your things, you'll lose them
When she heard the terrible news, she passed out// desmayarse, perder el conocimiento
Can you help me make a decision? I can't make my mind up
When the little boy saw the size of his opponent he just gave in
Don't rush to make a decision, think it through carefully // don't rush: no te apures
It took me three years to do the research (investigacin) and just three months to write up my
doctoral thesis // write up: hacer un informe, reportar, anotar.


Native Canadians (the Inuit or Eskimo = Esquimales) are thought to have lived there for
millennia, but it was at the end of the 15th century that the first European explorers
arrived, mainly from Britain and France.
The French explorer Samuel de Champlain is known as "the father of Quebec", the
French-speaking part. The Seven Years' War in Europe (1756-1763) had important
consequences for Canada, since France lost most of its colonies in North America,
including Quebec.
Canada became independent gradually. It achieved its right to self-government
in 1867 and continued adding territory to the Confederation until the 20th century. The
culmination of its autonomy from the United Kingdom was the Canada Act (1982). In
1995 there was a referendum to decide the independence of Quebec, but they voted to
remain (seguir, permanecer) part of Canada.
The country still belongs to the Commonwealth of Nations, formed by former British
colonies which recognize Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state.
Canada is the second largest country in the world, after Russia. However, only
32 million people live there, most of them close to the border (frontera) with the USA.
It is formed by large areas of forests, lakes, agricultural land, frozen tundra and high
mountains with maple trees (arces), the symbol of the country.
Canada comprises one francophone province (Quebec), one bilingual (New
Brunswick) and eight Anglophone (de habla inglesa) Alberta, British Columbia,
Manitoba, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island
and Saskatchewan) together with three territories. Ottawa is the capital and Toronto is
the largest city, as well as the centre of finance, science and culture, whereas Montreal
is the largest French-speaking city.
Famous writers
Canadian literature is characterized by the "garrison mentality" (looking
outwards and building metaphorical walls against the outside world in order to create
their own identity). Important elements are nature, frontier life and ethnic and cultural
diversity. The most famous Canadian writers belong to the 20th and beginning of 21st
century: Lucy Maud Montgomery (Ann a/Green Gables: Ana de las Tejas Verdes),
Margaret Atwood (The Blind Assasin), Yann Martel (Life of Pi), Rohinton Mistry (A
Fine Balance), Alice Munro (The Love of a Good Woman) and Michael Ondaatje
(The English Patient).
Main celebrations
Canadians share some celebrations with Britain (e.g. Boxing Day: 26/12, da de regalos)
and the USA (e.g. Thanksgiving, although they celebrate it on the second Monday in
Specific Canadian holidays are Canada Day (1st July), which commemorates the
independence of the country and Victoria Day (the Monday before May 24th),
celebrating the birthday of Queen Victoria.

Answer the following questions on the text:

Is Thanksgiving celebrated in Canada on the same day as in the Usa?
No, Thanksgiving in the States is celebrated the fourth Thursday of November and in Canada, on the
second Monday of October

How many languages are officially spoken in Canada?
Two: English and French

What is Canada's current status with respect to the UK?
It is an independent country but, as a former British colony, it belongs to the Commonwealth of
Nations, so the British monarch is its head of state

What does the "garrison mentality" refer to?
This mentality is assumed to come from part of the Canadia identity that fears (teme) the emptiness
(vaco) of their landscape and fears the oppressiveness of other nations (namely: a saber, the US)

/fear/ temer; /emptiness/ vaco; /landscape/paisaje;

Vocabulary page 112/114

Expressing sadness (tristeza) relaxing facial muscles and looking down
Expressing indifference/impotence/ignorance (raising eyelids (prpados) and shrugging the
shoulders (encogindose de hombros)
Expressing fear (opening your eyes wide)
Expressing thirst: simulating swallowing (tragar, beber)
Expressing disgust: shrugging the nose and showing the teeth
Indicating that somebody is mad (putting your index finger next to your temple (sien) and rotating it.
Indicating hout/cold temperature (blowing (solplar) slightly and fanning (abanicar) your face with
your hand/faking (imitando) a slight river)
Indicating big/small size (putting both hands apart in parallel/putting the thumb (dedo gordo) and
index (dedo ndice) of the same hand in parallel)
Showing agreement: nodding: (cabeceo) the head
To wait briefly (raising a hand with the palm towards the person)
Banging (golpeando)
Refusal (rechazo, negativa): raising both hands with the palms towards the interlocutor/shaking
(agitar) your head wagging (meneando) a finger and breaking eye contact
Expressing worry (frowning (fruncir el ceo) and rubbing (frotar) the face)
Expressing tiredness (cansancio)/boredom: screwing (frotarse) the eyes up and puffing (resoplar)
Expressing pain: (screwing the eyes up and biting the lower lip) (regaar los ojos y morderse el labio
Wishing good luck (giving a thumbs-up (levantar el pulgar) while nodding for emphasis)

Misbehave (portarse mal)

Indicating that certain people really get along: progresar, mejorar (crossing the
index finger and the middle finger of the same hand)
Indicating that certain people really hate each other: knocking the fists: puos

accuracy: precisin, exactitud

awareness: conciencia
seek: buscar, tratar de encontrar
greater: ms grande que
behaviour: comportamiento, conducta
disregarded: ignorar, despreciar
mistrusted: desconfianza, recelo
frowning and rubbing: ceir y frotar
tiredness: cansancio, fatiga
puffing: soplar, resoplar
biting the lower lip: morderse el labio
giving the thumbs-up: levantar el dedo pulgar

domain: campo, mbito

swallowing: trago (beber)
shrugging: encogerse de hombros
nodding: mover la cabeza
briefly: por poco tiempo
misbehaved: portarse mal
banging: golpear
wagging a finger: desaprobar
nodding: cabecear
get along: llevarse bien (cruzar los dos dedos)
knocking: golpear
fists: puos
draw upon: hacer uso

1.- Which type of information is least expected to appear in a job advert? Retirement conditions
2.- What type of food are you most likely to find in a VIP lounge? Pastries
3.- In what type of tourism do people try to avoid causing negative enviromental impact where they
go? Ecotourism
4.- What is another way of saying "at the exact time"? On time. /Nota: antes de tiempo: in time/
5.- How do you give somebody a deadline for a reply? I need an answer from you by next month
6.- Which country is not in Africa? Belize
7.- If you are a prudent person you do things... just in case
8.- He got ON the train, she got in the taxi and they got ON the bus
9.- Which order is preferable? A long unfunny brown joke
10.- How would you contradict somebody? I appreciate your claims and reasons, notwithstanding

(no obstante) I must disagree with you.

11.- And again? (How would you contradict somebody?)
However reasonable your arguments, I don't quite agree with them
12.- What is the prettiest colour there is? It's a matter of opinion
13.- If you have been busier than usual lately, you've been extra busy
14.- If everybody's willing to accept something... they'll all readily (fcilmente, de buena gana)
accept it.
15.- What may happen if more than one person is willing (estar dispuesto) to pay? There might be a
little fight over the bill.
16.- Which of the following English words has a non-European origin? Futon
17.- In a job interview, the interviewer should... be the one to hold out his hand to you.
18.- Which of the three sentences conveys its message most naturally? I've been sent a secret
valentine card this year
19.- How should you not star a covering letter? I wish to obtain information about/ My name is X and
I'm interested in...
20.- What kind of attitude is common in Canadian literature? The Garrison mentality.

TEMA 4.- Stay and eat

/Hence/: de ah, por lo tanto, por consiguiente
/prospective/: posible, eventual, futuro
/end up/: terminar, acabar
/average/: media, promedio

Why does the prospective (posible) client require a king size bed?
Because the is too tall and large even for the average double bed

Does this type of room cost the same as an individual one?
No, there is an increment over the standard room price.

Does the prospective client like the room price?
No, he considers it to be far too expensive

Does he end up making the reservation on the phone?
No, he say that he is going to try to make the reservation on the Internet

Does he decide to try another hotel before making his mind up?
He does not say anything of the sort (tipo, clase)

/exerting/: ejercer, emplear
/encourage/: animar
/skill/ habilidad
/trustworthy/: digno de confianza
/assertive/: autoritario, enrgico, firme
/reliable/: fiable, fidedigno, responsable
/knowledgeable/: entendido, informado
/conversely/: al contrario
/bossy/: mandn
/patronizing/: condescendiente
/deserve/: merecer(se)
/regret/: arrepentirse, lamentar
/soaking wet/ empapada hasta los huesos
/dressing gown/: bata
/hassle/: rollo, lo
/staring/: mirar fijamente

You deserve nothing but the best (No te mereces nada ms que lo mejor); hence...
You should take into account that...
You won't regret it (no lo lamentars)

Exercise 6.- Dialogue
Reception, Jonathan speaking. How can I help you?
I'm afraid I've got a problem. My shower broke while I was in the middle of having a
shower and I don't know what to do.

Don't worry ma'am. I'll send a maintenance person to see what's wrong and sort the
problem out.
But what am I supposed to do in the meanwhile? I'm soaking wet (empapada hasta
los huesos) and cold, with soapy hair (pelo enjabonado) and all the towels in the bathroom
are wet too.
I'm really sorry, ma'am. What we can do is bring you dry new towels and dressing
gown and we can let you use the bathroom of a nearby bedroom.
So, where can I finish my shower then?
Let's see... the closest vacant room is 241, which is right on the right hand corner
from where your room is.
And then, what can I do afterwards?

While you finish your shower, the maintenance people will have a look at your
bathroom and try to fix it.
You mean by the time I finish having my shower I can go back to my room and I'll
find everything sorted out?
Oh, most likely, yes
What about going to the changing room next to the swimming pool in the basement?
As you like, ma'am, but I think it'd be easier for you and less hassle (rollo, lo)
Hello, I'm calling your from the second floor. I'm the client whose shower broke
fifteen minutes ago. I'm afraid I forgot the key in room 241 where I had my shower and I'm
in the middle of the corridor in my dressing gown and a towel around my head.
Everybody's staring at me!
Well, actually, the plumbers have just arrived at the reception desk after solving the
problem with your shower. Don't worry, I'm sending you the bellboy to open your room
for you now.

8. Read and interpret the following dialogue between two friends, one of which has just
visited an apartment and is giving her negative impressions to her friend (TRACK 38):
Andy: Have you seen the apartment?
Kim: Yes, and Im not going to buy it.
A: Why? Was it ugly? How was it?
K: It wasnt really terrible, but it was old, too small and quite expensive.
A: How many square meters did it have?
K: Only 50. They told me it had two bedrooms, two bathrooms, a large living-room, a
kitchen and a veranda (Mirador, balcn cubierto con cierre
de cristales.) with a superb view of the city skyline.
A: And?
K: And it had a small living room (saln) The kitchen was actually part of the living
room. It was old and dirty, with chipped (cascada, rota, astillada) brown cupboards and
old electrical appliances. The living room had beige carpet and you could see the stains
(manchas) on the floor and patches where the carpet was missing as if it had been
chewed (mordida) on by a
dog. There was flowered wall paper and old fashioned furniture.
A: I see.
K: The bedrooms were dark and small. I couldnt even walk straight in, I had to enter
sideways. And if I opened the window, I could shake hands with the next door

A: Were the bedrooms facing the patio?
K: Yes, as were the bathrooms. Well, what they called bathrooms, but there wasnt a
bathtub (baera). Only one bathroom with a toilet and a sink, and another one with a
rusty mouldy shower (ducha oxidada y mohosa)
A: How terrible! But then, the price
K: The price was outrageously (escandalosamente) high. The real estate agent asked me
for 300,000 euros.
A: Its expensive, but not that much if you take into account the prices in Madrid.
K: Yes, I know, but I cant help comparing the capital of Spain, to my hometown, the
capital of Washington State.
A: What do you mean?
K: I mean that I could buy a large house there for the price I have to pay here for an
apartment which only has 50 square meters. For example, the house I lived in when I
was a child, was a lot bigger. It had three storeys (plantas), a front and back yard (patio,
jardn), and a two-car garage. Inside there were four large bedrooms, three full
A: What do you mean by full? Were there many people inside?
K: No, ha, ha, ha All three had a bathtub and a shower, apart from the toilet and the
sink. You know, we dont use bidets. Well, anyway, there was a large kitchen with a
dining room attached, a large living room with a fireplace and a deck (terraza)
overlooking a lake. Then, the basement was the recreation room.
A: Recreation room?
K: Yes, we had a TV, a pool table, and video games.
A: Wow! You guys must have been rich.
K: Not really, we were middle class. Thats typical in that area of the States.
A: You know what? Do you know where I could find information about living and
looking for a job there? It must be paradise!

What kind of flat is Kim looking for?
She wanted a modern two-bedroom flat nice, newish (bastante nuevo), luminous,
spacious and inexpensive

What didn't she like about the flat she visited?
She didn't like the small size of the rooms, the American kitchen or the bathrooms.
As for the decoration, she found the apartment dark, cheap (de mal gusto),

nasty (repugnante, asqueroso) and shabby(gastado, muy

usado). And she didn't like its price either!

Do you think Andy sympathizes with her?
Perhaps not so much at the beginning but he gradually does when she starts
describing the flat.

In which ways is Washington described to be better than Madrid?
Apparently, you can live in quite a mansion for a very reasonable price.

At the hotel and at the restaurant.
Liquour cabinet.
Soft drinks: refrescos
refreshments: refrigerio, refresco
spirits: bebidas alcohlicas, licores

off-licence beverages: A store that sells bottles or cans of alcoholic

beverages for consumption off the premises (fuera del local).
peanuts: cacahuetes
crisps: chips
nuts: nueces

beermat: posavasos
coaster: posavasos
straw: pajita
wardrobe: armario
cupboard: armario
hanger: percha
peg: colgador, perchero
drawer: cajn, gaveta
knob: tirador, pomo
dressing room: camerino
changing room: vestuario, probador (en una tienda)
chest of drawers: cajonera, cmoda
purse: monedero
chest: arcn
canopy: dosel, toldo (cama)
plaster: escayola, yeso
bin: cubo basura, papelera
valence sheet: faldn de la cama
bedding: ropa para la cama
restroom: bao, servicios
toilet holder: portarrollos
basin: lavabo, lavamanos, cuenco,...
bathtub: baera
tray: bandeja
mixer: batidora
tap shower: grifo de la ducha
bath screen: mampara ducha
plug: enchufe
magnifying: (espejo) de aumento
shaving mirror: espejo de tocador
fitted cabinet: armario empotrado, hecho a medida
handle: mango, tirador, manija

OJO! Se dice: I can't make my mind up...

bay: baha
lead to: llevar, conducir
seated: sentado
draft (there seems to be a draft)= corriente de aire
vegan: vegetariano estricto
net curtain: visillo

magazine rack: revistero

lace curtain: cortina de encaje
night stand: mesilla de noche = bedside table
hourglass sundial: reloj de arena
shop window: escaparate
grandfather clock: reloj de caja, de pie
officials: oficial, funcionario, directivo
display cabinet: armario de muestra, vitrinas donde se colocan cosas
grandmother clock: otro tipo de reloj
chandelier: lmpara tipo araa (de luces)
glass cabinet: vitrina
glass door: puerta de cristales, puerta vidriera
crockery: loza, vajilla
plate/dish: plato, fuente
food warmer: calienta comidas
garnish: guarnicin
stool: banco, taburete

side dish: racin, guarnicin
en-suite bedroom: "en suite"- The hotel has en-suite bathrooms
dry cleaning: limpieza en seco
escape route: salida
nursery: guardera
linen sheets: sbanas de lino
exclusive hand woven rugs: alfombras tejidas a mano

gathering: concurrencia
buzz: zumbido, rumor
bruch: entre desayuno y almuerzo
stroll: paseo
acclaimed: aclamado
amidst: en medio de, entre
reveal: dejar ver, revelar
features: rasgos, caractersticas
cater: satisfacer, proveer, atender, satisfacer
stylish: con mucho estilo, elegante
grand: grandioso, esplndido
imposing: impresionante, imponente
trained: cualificado
butlers: mayordomo

Hotel Ritz Madrid is located in the very heart of Madrid, opposite the Prado and
Thyssen Bornemisza museums and just a short stroll from the picturesque Retiro Park
and Botanical Gardens. Madrid's most emblematic hotel has 137 individually decorated
rooms and 30 suites, each furnished in true belle poque style incorporating linen sheets
and exclusive hand woven rugs that make the Hotel Ritz Madrid experience so unique.
Dining In
The highly acclaimed Goya restaurant offers a wide selection of typical Spanish and
Mediterranean specialties amidst (en medio de, entre) a relaxed and elegant atmosphere.
In spring and summer the famous Ritz Terrace and Garden open to reveal (dejar ver)
their splendour to the cream of Madrid's society. Here one can lunch, dinner or
alternatively take a cocktail "al fresco" before embarking on a discovery of one of

Europe's most exciting capitals.

Recreation and Health
In-house fitness center with sauna, massage service, and solarium. Golf, tennis, riding,
and other sport activities nearby.
Features (rasgos, caractersticas)
Elegant public areas. Banquet and reception rooms for 20 to 450 people. Hair salon.
Private car airport transfers included in suite rates. Garage facilities. Business center.
Plan an event.
To cater for: proveer comida para.
There are five salons available for meetings at the Hotel Ritz, ranging from small and
stylish (pequeo y con estilo) to grand and imposing (grandioso e imponente), as well
as the...distinctive (particular) in character whilst providing an impressive (imponente,
impresionante) setting (escenario) for any type of event.
Trained and experienced teams (equipos cualificados y experimentados) of chefs,

Butler (mayordomo), housekeeper, servant, maid, chambermaid,

cleaner. The butler is the chief male servant of a household who
is in charge of other employees, receives guests, directs the
serving of meals...
Valet, in modern american english a valet is a person who parks
the car for you at a hotel or restaurant.

What type of hotel is the Ritz Madrid? A top five-star hotel, with a great tradition of
luxury and glamour.
What does its clientele seek (buscar) when they stay at this hotel? They tipically
seek comfort and luxury. Apart from its elegant atmosphere and top service and facilities,
it is very well located within the centre of Madrid

What type of meals does its restaurant offer? It has a very good reputation and it

excels (destacar) in Spanish and Mediterranean food.

Is it possible to celebrate parties there? Yes, its infrastructure allows parties for up
to 450 people.

15. Read the following text on how to make a souffl:

This recipe is from my sister-in-law and it is a great dish to serve for a Sunday brunch.
Put it together the night before, refrigerate and pop (put inside) in the oven about an
hour and a half before serving. Delicious!
Butter, softened (ablandar)

10 slices white bread

12 ounces SHARP cheddar cheese, shredded (rallado)
12 ounces mozzarella cheese, shredded
8 eggs, lightly beaten (ligeramente batidos)
3-1/2 cups half & half
1/4 teaspoon paprika
1 teaspon minced onion
1/2 teaspoon curry powder
1/8 teaspoon red pepper (ground): MOLIDA
1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
1 teaspoon dry mustard (mostaza en polvo)
Butter sides and bottom of a 13 x 9 inch baking dish or 2 (9-inch) square or round
baking dishes.
Remove crusts (corteza) from bread, butter each slice, and cut in cubes. Place half of the
buttered cubes in baking dish (or, if using two dishes, use a 1/4 of the bread) and
sprinkle (espolvorear) with half the cheddar and mozzarella cheeses (or if using two
dishes, use a 1/4 of the cheese). Then add the remaining bread in another layer (capa)
and top with the remaining cheeses. Combine eggs, half & half, paprika, onion, curry
powder, red pepper, Worcestershire sauce and mustard. Pour over (servir por encima,
vertir, derramar encima) bread and cheese mixture.
Cover and refrigerate overnight.
Bake at 325 degrees for 1 hour, or until knife inserted in the center comes out clean and
top is lightly browned.
It makes 8 to 10 servings.



awkward: delicado, incmodo, inoportuno

tow-way: remolcar

1 hard to do or deal with.
2 causing or feeling uneasy embarrassment.
3 not smooth or graceful.
(the examples below are divided according to their
level of courtesy):

You may say PLEASE at the beginning or at the end of your

request, but the FORMER is more polite.

Please, kindly give me an explanation for whats happened.

Would you be so kind as to?
Kindly sit down and keep your arms to yourself.
Can you, please, do the following for me: ?
Dont interrupt the speaker, please.
Stop what youre doing at once.
Do sit down, will you?
Dont you ever dare (atreverse) do that again

a) Do you mind if I smoke? Fine by me, just ask your father as well.
b) Is it alright if I leave early? I'm afraid it won't be possible today. We are short of
c) Is it okay if Sammy commes with us? No problem, our pleasure
d) Is it okay if I borrow (te pido prestadas)these keys? Yes, take them
e) Is it ok if I drink my tea here? No, go ahead
f) Would you mind if I asked you something? No, what?
g) May I use your pencil? I'am actually busy with it right now
h) Would you like some company (aqu hacer compaa)? Sure, make yourself
i) Would it be alright if I parked here? No, this is a tow-away zone. (zona de
remolque, gras)
j) Is it okay if I turned the lights off? Not just yet; please leave it on (dejar


Weve known each other since our first year in kindergarten. She has always been my
best friend, and our friendship has remained (permanecido) intact throughout the years.
We lived in the same neighbourhood (barrio), our parents were friends, our brothers
were friends and our first dates were friends. How could we not be friends?
Ive always trusted her because she has backed (respaldar) me up in bad situations, like
when I was bullied (intimidado) at school and she defended me in front of the bad guys,
or when I lost my dog and she helped me to look for it until we found it five days later
and 200 km away, or when my wife and I got a divorced and she took me on a cruise to
the Caribbean to
cheer me up (animar)
She has always given me good advice, as she is very reflexive and looks at things from
a distance to see the problems and analyse them and try to find the best solutions. She is
not only bright, but very witty (ocurrente) and intelligent. She studied Law and
Economics, and joined the Bar just a year after finishing her studies. She can sometimes
be a bit
stubborn (cabezota), but she is always willing to compromise. Although she seems very
serious, shes very talented and creative. She can write exquisite poems, paint beautiful
colours, and dance classical ballet.

Physically, you could say that she is an attractive woman. She is still quite pretty. She is
tall, slim, classy, always dresses very well. Her face is oval with pronounced
cheekbones (pmulos) and full lips, which makes her look very exotic. Her green eyes
used to be very pretty, but shes now wearing thick round glasses and has got laughter
lines (lneas de expresin, sonrisa) If I were her, Id wear contact lenses and let my hair
grow longer, since she has a hair cut that, in my opinion, does not suit her at all. She is
only 45 but it makes her look ten years older.
Anyway, what I do not understand is why she never got married. After having gone out
with Jean Paul for ten years, she got tired of him and they broke up, which left him
depressed. Since then, she has never gone out with anyone else.

remained: permanecido, quedarse, mantenerse

neighbourhood: vecindad, barrio
back up: respaldar, dar apoyo moral
bully: intimidar, amedrentar
cheer up: animarse, alegrarse, dar nimos
bright: brillante
witty: ocurrente, agudo, gracioso
stubborn: cabezn, terco, testarudo
willing: dispuesto, gustoso, deseoso
classy: elegante, con estilo
cheekbones: pmulos
laughter lines: lneas de expresin (lneas de risa)

Cultural Identity in Education

1. Introduction
2. Cultural identity in the modern world
3. Cultural identity in educational system
4. The role of cultural identity in educational process
5. Conclusion
6. Bibliography
Nowadays, the problem of cultural identity should not be underestimated. In fact, in the
modern globalized world there is a strong trend to losing national identity in the result
of the amalgamation (fusin) of culture, or, to put it more precisely, in the result of the
growing impact of western culture on other culture of the world.
At the same time, individuals naturally (de manera natural) cannot live without identity.
This is why willingly or not they develop certain cultural identity under the impact of a
variety of internal and external factors that actually shape their personality. In fact,
individuals identity is inseparable from their personality [1].
Consequently (por consiguiente), human relations are, to a significant extent (en gran
medida) predetermined by their cultural identity that affects dramatically their

communication. As a result, it is always necessary to take into consideration the

peculiarities of cultural
identity of each individual, especially in education because modern education, being an
extremely complicated process, is based on the idea that each individual is unique and
his/her needs should be met (reunir, cumplir) in the process of education.

Cultural identity in the modern world

Before discussing cultural identity in the context of education, it is primarily necessary
to briefly dwell upon (brevemente hacer incapi) the concept of cultural identity in the
modern world. In fact, the modern concept of cultural identity is based on two key
elements, notably (particularmente, notablemente) modern identity implies being alike
(parecido) other people within a group and common categorizing (clasificacin) of
outward phenomena (fenmeno exterior, externo), such as race or clothes people wear
[2]. However, in recent year such an attitude to identity is considered to be simplistic
and specialists insist that it should be expanded (ampliarse).
Obviously, such a definition of identity implies that cultural identity is basically formed
in the process of the development of individual, i.e. it is acquired in the result of social
relationships of an individual with other people. In stark contrast, to this position, there
is an ultimately opposite view on cultural identity as the product of human nature.
Thus (as, de este modo), taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to
conclude that nowadays the cultural identity is extremely important and affects the
educational process dramatically. It is necessary to underline that in the current situation
cultural identity cannot remain (seguir, continuar) fixed (fijada), especially in the sphere
of education but, instead,
should be constantly modified in order to make students conscious of their own cultural
identity and that it is not always an objective concept.
Moreover (es ms, parece ser que), one of the major tasks (tarea) of progressive
(progresista) educators is to treat students equally and objectively, taking into
consideration their cultural identity. What is more, teachers possess certain authority in
education process, consequently, they should use it properly in order to avoid
revengeful (revanchas, venganzas) or scornful (desprecio) attitude to students. At the
same time, in relation to lower class students (estudiantes de estrato social bajo),
teachers could change the cultural identity of such students for better and improve
(aumentar) their self-esteem (autoestima).
22. Hiding the agent.
There are several ways to hide the identity of the agent:
Using the 3rd person plural personal pronoun: They always say that children these
days are less cultured than ever, but it cant be true
Using a general noun like people, experts, etc. People think we are manipulated

by the big stores at Christmas.

Using the passive voice.
We use the passive voice when the subject of the sentence is not important, not known,
you want to hide its identity for whatever reason, or there is a more prominent part:
The results of the elections were broadcast (emitidas) by 8 p.m.
For example, it is also used in polite situations, not to blame someone:
A dish has been broken.
In many shop windows we can read: "English spoken".
The waiter would serve the liqueurs (active form)
The liqueurs would be served by the waiter (passive form)
With modals:
The waiter may serve the first course (active form)
The first course may be served by the waiter (passive form)
Auxiliary + perfect infinitive:
The waiter should have served the aperitifs (active form)
The aperitifs should have been served by the waiter (passive form)

If the passive corresponding to the active past continuous is needed, normally the noncontinuous past form is used:
The waiter has been serving olives and nuts all day (active form)
Olives and nuts have been served all day (passive form)
Usually the passive is constructed with the corresponding form of be + past participle,
but we can also use get in a more familiar register:
John got carried away (ARRASTRADO, EMBELESADO) by the crazy music.

Only transitive verbs can be used for passive constructions, but

not all of them can be converted into passive. Those are: become /
contain / fit / hold / lack / resemble / suit:
*The computer is contained in the box.
Some intransitive verbs can also sometimes be used in a transitive way and form a
passive structure:

The cargo will be flown out tomorrow (fly out: salir, despegar).
More buses will be run on the day of the general strike (run).
This sculpture must be stood on the stand (stand: colocar de pie).
The dog has to be walked daily (walk).

Usually we have a direct object in the active structure which becomes the subject of the
passive one, but sometimes there are two objects in the active voice: the direct and the
indirect object:

Mary told me the news. The news were told to me (by Mary) I
was told the news (by Mary).
See a few more common examples and notice how they are likely (probable) to be
preferred (preferido) to their respective active counterparts in most situations:
You will be shown the right way (Somebody will show you the right way).
She was told to be reasonable (Somebody told her to be reasonable).
We were offered a cup of tea (They offered us a cup of tea).
He should be promised nothing (They should promise him nothing).
Note in the example above that the main preposition to indicate agent hood is by.
Authorship may be indicated by a double possessive:
She really likes that play of Shakespeares.
To denote the means or the instrument prepositions with or in are used:

The garden was covered with snow.

The letter is written in ink (tinta).
He was killed with a stone (Notice

the difference in the responsibility of

the action: He was killed by a stone).
The parcel is goint to be sent tomorrow or will be sent tomorrow
The composition must be finished by tomorrow morning
Yesterday my bed was made by my husband
The car has been fixed this morning
We were/were going to be considered for the job but we were rejected it in the
They should be explained what to do so that they don't make mistakes
The bride (novia) and the bridegroom (novio) have been asked to wait at the altar
when they arrive

My boss was sent all the dossiers of her employees an hour

Our new model is going to be shipped/ will be shipped over next Wednesday
I hate to be told what to do by everybody all the time

trend: tendencia
amalgamation: fusin
willingly: con gusto, de buen agrado
shape: forma a, formar, determinar
actually: en realidad, en efecto
met (to meet): reunir, cumplir
briefly: por poco tiempo, brevemente
dwell: pensar, hacer hincapi
upon: en, encima de, sobre... (once upon a time...rase una vez)
alike: parecido
categorizing: clasificar, catalogar
outward: externo, exterior
phenomena: fenmenos
race: raza ...
such an attitude: tal actitud, postura
thus: as, de este modo
remain: seguir, permanecer, continuar
fixed: fijo, permanente
instead: en lugar de, en vez de
possess: poseer, reunir
revengeful: revanchista, vengativa
scornful: deseoso, despreciativo
self-esteem: autoestima, honra
ink: tinta
cargo: cargamento, carga

Summarize the text in section 19 of unit 3
The author talks about the importance of body language in job interviews. S/he starts
by noting (nota, apuntar algo) how important first impressions are, and goes on to describe
which features (rasgos) are crucial for job interviews. Thus (de este modo), when standing
(estar de pie, parado) it is important not to lean (apoyarse) against anything, which can give
an appearance of indolence or lazines (pereza, holgazanera). A good posture with widened
shoulders (hombros anchos) and level hips (caderas niveladas) can be practiced in front of a
mirror. When talking try to look secure and use long steps. You should sit down slowly, in a
controlled way, an never cross your arms since it is a defensive sign. Handshakes should be
firm but not too hard. When you are talking you should not put your hands in front of your
mouth. Our eyes are our most important facial feature, since you can assess (evaluar)
someone's mood (humor) by just looking at them. Hence (por lo tanto, por consiguiente), eye
contact should be kept with the interviewer but not in an aggressive way. When the interview
is over (terminado, acabado), stand up slowly and let the other person offer you his/her
hand. As you leave, say "thank you". The author has obviously great command of what works
and does not work for the applicants (candidatos, aspirantes) in this type of meetings.

26. Transform eacho of these sentences into the passive voice

a) The hotel was run by the president very cleverly. (The president ran the hotel
b) These premises are sold today (by Peter). (Peter sells these...)
c) The purse may have been left by Anna deliberately. (Anna may have left

d) The assignments have been finished by the students. (The students have
e) A brunch will be prepared by my friend at midday. (My friend will prepare a
f) A pay rise was offered to me by my boss. (My boss offered me a...)
g) Basque is spoken by the personnel of this hotel. (The personnel of this hotel
h) A speech must be given during the ceremony. (The must give a speech
i) All the details must be considered before we make the decision / making
the decision/ the decision is made. (We must consider all the details before making the
j) This sentence was written in haste (apresuradamente) by the authors. (The
authors wrote this sentence in haste)
25. Adding and omitting elements.

It is rather common in the English language to leave long and complex

elements towards the end of the sentence. Compare the following examples.
Which of the three sounds least natural?:
To talk to Steven when he is in a good mood is very easy. (Least natural)
It is very easy to talk to Steven when he is in a good mood.
Steven is very easy to talk to when he is in a good mood.
As you can see, in the second and third sentences the information about Steven is put
towards the end of the sentence, so the subject position is filled with it.

Consider a few more similar examples:

It is raining cats and dogs outside.
It was late so we packed up and left.
It is true that prices have been raised too fast lately
Elements can be omitted to avoid repetitions:
The third and fourth candidates walked in for the interview.
The tallest men and women were selected for the match.
I drank tea and she coffee.

Subjects can only be omitted when the clause forms part of a

coordinated sentence (two or more clauses link by "and", "or",

She inhaled the smoke and///////started to cough profusely.
They disagreed with the decision and /////// left the meeting.

*We established the norms because //// had been

appointed to do it. (INCORRECT) /FALTA EL
a) To hide away from me wont solve anything. OK
b) There is a man waiting outside for you, shall I call him in?
c) It was three days a week that we had to have the treatment.
d) It was after midnight that I left the office. OK
e) Ive had enough with this place Im leaving for good! OK
f) They shook hands and left.
g) The doctor told us the diagnosis so s/he gave us the treatment.
h) Although the student had studied hard, they failed.
i) The secretary is not here because he went for a coffee or is making photocopies. (Se
ve claramente en la tercera clusula como no se pone el sujeto "he", est bien, pues es
una frase coordinada y cuyo nexo es "or")
j) She wrote a new novel and he did too.

27. Read this factual information about Australia. Pay attention to the highlighted words
Australia is the sixth largest country in the World. Surprisingly enough (lo realmente
sorprendente), there are only 20 million inhabitants, who live in the largest cities such
as Canberra, the capital, Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.
Australia has been populated for over forty two thousand years by the Australian
aborigines. After the sporadic visits of northern fishermen, and European explorers and
dealers which started in the 17th Century, the eastern half of the continent was claimed
(reclamada) by England in 1770. In 1788 this part of the world was established as a
penal colony an uncomfortable situation which made it gain the nickname of the
rubbish bin, due to the appalling (vergonzoso) sociocultural profile (perfil) of its early
European inhabitants (mainly delinquents and criminals) in New South Wales.
During the 19th Century five other British colonies were established after the arrival of
settlers (colonos, pobladores), the demographic increase, and the exploration of new
areas. On March 25th 1954, all six colonies federated and formed the Australian
Commonwealth. From this moment it has had a liberal democratic political system and
it has remained a monarchy within the British Commonwealth.
In the conventional organization of continents, Australia belongs to Oceania, which also
groups the Pacific islands. However, English speakers typically refer to the Australian
continent, in spite of the fact that Australia does not constitute a continent from a
geological point of view. New Zealand and its neighbouring islands do not form a
continent together with Australia either, as they do not belong to the Sahul platform, but
this association is motivated by historical and political proximity.

In geology, a continent is a well defined concept and, for example, from a geological
viewpoint, India is a separate continent from Asia.
The early writings about the discovery of this new land by European explorers date
back to the beginnings of the 17th Century. It seems highly probable that it took place
in the 16th Century, because the northern coast of Australia appears represented in the
Spanish and Portuguese cartography of the time, and some sketches (esbozos) in French
cartography. However, what is certain is that in 1601, Portuguese Godinho de Heredia
reached the point known today as Van Diemen cape (cabo). Luis Vez de Torres, a
Portuguese sailor at the service of the Spanish crown, most probably caught sight of (to
catch sight of: ver) the northern Australia coast as he navigated through the strait that
holds his name, between New Guinea and the Peninsula of Cape York between the 1st
and the
9th October 1606.
In 1770 the Endeavour expedition lead by James Cook navigated and charted (trazar)
the east coast, disembarked for the first time in the continent in Botany Bay on April
29th. Cook then sailed northwards and, before leaving, he disembarked in Possession
Island, in the Strait of Torres on August 22nd 1770. There he formally claimed the
eastern Australian coast and called it New South Wales. Since his discovery resulted in
the first
European settlement (colonizacin), he is often considered the discoverer of Australia,
although the true discovery had taken place more than a hundred and sixty years before.
Alter his return to England, the reports that had been written during the expedition
caused great interest about the continent since it was considered that it could be a
solution to the problem of the overpopulated British prisons, which was worsened by
the loss of the American colonies. Therefore, on May 13th 1787 eleven ships left from
Portsmouth commanded by Ar. Phillip towards Botany Bay with about one thousand
five hundred people on board, including sailors and officials, apart from 772 cows.
The fleet (flota) arrived at Botany Bay but, since the place was inhospitable, they went
to Port Jackson, the current location of Sydney.
The captain became the first colony governor and the day of the disembarkation,
January 26th 1788, the first national day.
The Northern Territory was funded (financiado) in 1863 as part of the Southern
Australia colony. Victoria and Southern Australia had been funded as free, that is to
say, that they were never penal colonies, although they had previously received some
prisoners from Tasmania, but never from the United Kingdom. Western Australia was
also funded free, but later on it accepted the transportation of convicts due to the lack of
labour hand it
was suffering. New Zealand belonged to New South Wales until 1849, when it became
a colony of its own.
The transportation of convicts was not progressively abolished in the whole
Australia until 1840-64.

Australia and New Zealand
surprisingly enough: lo realmente sorprendente
populated: poblada (sparsely populated: poca densidad de poblacin)

dealer: comerciante
claimed: reclamada
penal colony: colonia penal
appalling: vergonzoso, terrible, horroroso, psimo
profile: perfil
settler: colono, poblador
La Commonwealth o Comunidad Britnica de Naciones, creada en 1931, es una asociacin de
estados independientes, en su mayora ex colonias, ms algunas dependencias britnicas,
tales como Las Bermudas, Las Islas Malvinas y Gibraltar. Los miembros trabajan juntos para
lograr ciertos fines como la paz mundial, fomento del comercio y la defensa de la democracia.
Cada dos aos se celebra una reunin de todos los jefes de gobierno de la Comunidad (the
Commonwealth Conference), para debatir asuntos de carcter poltico y econmico. Cada
cuatro aos se celebran los Commonwealth Games, competencia deportiva en el que uno de
los miembros es el anfitrin.

remained: quedar, permanecer, seguir
In spite of the fact that: a pesar de que
date dack to the beginnings: retrocede a los comienzos de
sketches: bocetos, esbozos
cape: cabo (geog.) Cape Town (cabo Ciudad)
to catch sight of (caught :pp): ver
strait: (geog.) estrecho
endeavour: esfuerzo
lead: conducir, llevar, guiar
charted: trazar, hacer un seguimiento
sail (sailed): navegar, zarpar
northwards: hacia el norte
claim (claimed): reclamar
settlement: convenio, colonizacin
alter: cambiar, modificar
report: informe, noticia...
worsen (worsened): empeorar
fleet: flota
disembarkation: desembarco
had been funded: ha sido dotada/financiada
due to the lack of labour: debido a la falta de mano de obra
abolish: abolir, derogar
landmass: masa continental, masa de tierra
shelf: plataforma
remoteness: lejana
settled: colonizado, poblado
isolation: aislamiento
distinctive: distintivo, caracterstico
mild: suave, templado
sharp: puntiagudo
peak: cima, cumbre, pico
treaty: tratado
number: ... cantidad
sharply and conflicts escalated: conflictos repentinamente/bruscamente intensificados
deep: profundo
being overtaken: siendo adelantada, superada
dairy products: productos lcticos

Answer the following question about the text:

Is Australia densely populated?
a) No, quite the contrary, it is sparsely populated.

Is Autralia an independent country from the United Kingdom?
b) Yes, although its head of state is the Queen of England and it belongs to the British

Does it form a continent of its own?
c) Politically, historically and geographically it does, but geologically it does not.

When was Australia discovered and by whom?
d) Australia was known for hundreds of years by the aborigines, and later on by
northern fishermen, and European explorers and dealers, but it was England that
claimed it in 1770.

Does New Zealand belomng to the same continent as Australia?
e) The general public considers New Zealand to belong to the same continent because of
the physical proximity between both countries. However, geologically New Zealand is not
on the same continental shelf.

What did the Europeans bring to New Zealand?
f) The Europeans arrived in the 17th century and the brought their culture, advances, etc.
However, conflicts also arose (surgir) and the local culture and animal life were negatively

Is it true that Australia was for a long time a British penal colony? Australia was first
colonised by the British in order to relieve (calmar, liberar) the overly full British prisons. However,
only relatively small parts of Australia were used as penal settlements. Indigenous Australians
inhabited the rest of the continent as well.
The threat of Aboriginal attack, together with the fact that the continent was surrounded by water
was considered enough insurance to prevent any convicts ever escaping back to England - which was
the primary and original purpose of the colonies.
As well as Sydney, convict colonies were begun in Victoria, Moreton Bay (Queensland), Hobart and
Newcastle. The colony of South Australia was never a penal settlement (asentamiento, poblado,
resolucin). Swan River (Perth) began as a free settlement, but convicts were sent there later as free

It was decided that with the loss of the American colonies after the American war of independence
that England needed a place to send convicts. Upon receiving favourable reports by Lieutenant Cook,
on his return from his first expedition, that New South Wales (the name given to the eastern half of
Australia) was an ideal place for a convict settlement and as the French were expanding in the Pacific,
it would be advantageous to settle NSW rather than let the French get a foothold (afianzarse)

What is not typically considered a room facility in a hotel bathroom? A sink
What do you say on the phone when you want to spend the night in a hotel? I'd like to
make a reservation for a room
When a room is cheaper if you book it on the web, the hotel has launched an offer on the
How do you call a two-way journey? A return journey
Which of the following persuasive sentences is the least polite? If you know what's good
for you, you'd do what I'm suggesting
Which of the following is another word for "loft" (of a house)? Attic

Which of the following is not likely to appear by the fridge of a hotel room? A plaster
Which of the following sentences is an unlikely instruction? The batteries are to be
Which of the following three sentence is the least polite? Kindly shut up
What is fundamental in descriptive essays? to organize the information properly
What would you typically say to protect the identity of the person who told you a secret?
I've been told you're quitting (renunciando, abandonando)
They were paralyzed with fear
Which of the following is preferable? They both greeted each other and left
If you don't give food for free you charge for it
What would you ask somebody who pays a high price for something? Is it worth it?
Which of the following words does not belong to the British English variant? Garbage
What do you say when you get to the grocery (tienda de comestibles) store? Who's last?
How do you show concern (preocupacin) for somebody? Are you alright?
Which of the following post does not depend on the floor housekeeper of a hotel? Valet
How would you express helplessness (indefensin, impotencia) indirectly? I don't know
what I'm supposed to do...

OJO CON LAS CONJUNCIONES.BOTH Mary and I agree on where to go for our summer
Neither Mary nor I can make our minds up about where to
go for our...
Either Mary or I will come will come with you so that
you don't have to be waiting there by yourself


TO- Listen to me, Juan, what you have to do is come for the weekend just to try. That
way youll be able to advertise it so much better.
TA- Id love to, honestly. If my boss agrees, Ill come this weekend straightaway.
Could I bring my family with me?
TO- Hmmmm, I dont think so, sorry. Double rooms cost 200 a night. You might find
it excessive I could ask anyway, if you want me to.
TA- Thatd be really kind of you. I hate leaving my family on their own for the whole
weekend. If that were the price Id consider going with them just for one night.
TO- Ill do what I can. Ahhhh, youll see what a wonderful place this is. The landscape
is just gorgeous, clean unpolluted air The hotel is completely integrated in nature and
the personnel are really kind.
TA- They are locals, arent they?
TO- Yes, almost without exception. Weve been training them for the last couple of
years and many of them have quite high posts now. They are just as concerned as us to
offer a type of leisure that is ecological and makes guests happy so that they come
back and pass on the info.
TA- Is the energy clean?
TO- Almost 100%. We have solar panels that produce hot water and help towards
heating. Fireplaces do the rest, and there is one in almost every room, but most clients
dont even bother lighting them. The hotel is one of the few in the area with a water
recycling system and top rate insulation.
TA- I see why you got the Eco-hotel Award last year.
TO- And the good thing is that all this ecological concern sells. I mean, like the
courtesy toiletries such as the tiny shampoo and shower gel bottles and all that. Natural
products are environmentally friendly, good for your skin and they smell gorgeous.
Clients just love them.
TA- It sounds great and really well thought out. Im eager to see everything by
myself. Please try to do your best so that were given a good price.
TO- Very well then. Ill call you back in a while with an answer, OK?

TA- Alright then. Talk to you soon.

sustainable: 1. Capable of being sustained.

2. Capable of being continued with minimal long-term effect on the
environment: sustainable agriculture.

advertise - make publicity for; try to sell (a product); "The salesman is aggressively pushing the
new computer model"; "The company is heavily advertizing their new laptops"
advertize, promote, push
praise - express approval of; "The parents praised their children for their academic performance"
propagandise, propagandize - spread by propaganda
plug - make a plug for; praise the qualities or in order to sell or promote
bill - advertise especially by posters or placards; "He was billed as the greatest tenor since Caruso"

straightaway - without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening; "he answered immediately";
"found an answer straightaway"; "an official accused of dishonesty should be suspended
forthwith"; "Come here now!"
forthwith, immediately, instantly, like a shot, at once, right away, straight off, directly, now

landscape: The aspect of the land characteristic of a particular

region: a bleak New England winter landscape

1. magnificent, grand, beautiful, superb, spectacular, splendid,
glittering, dazzling, luxurious, sumptuous, opulent
LOCAL(en el texto) 1. resident, native, inhabitant, character
(informal), local yokel (disparaging) That's what the locals call the place.
fireplace - an open recess in a wall at the base of a chimney where a fire
can be built; "the fireplace was so large you could walk inside it"; "he laid
a fire in the hearth and lit it"; "the hearth was black with the charcoal of
many fires"
hearth, open fireplace
chimney - a vertical flue that provides a path through which smoke
from a fire is carried away through the wall or roof of a building

insulation - the act of protecting something by surrounding it with

material that reduces or prevents the transmission of sound or heat or
protection - the activity of protecting someone or something; "the
witnesses demanded police protection"
lining - the act of attaching an inside lining (to a garment or curtain etc.)
An article, such as toothpaste or a hairbrush, used in personal grooming
or dressing.

adjective small, little, minute, slight, mini, wee, miniature, trifling,
insignificant, negligible, microscopic, diminutive, petite, puny, pint-sized (informal),
infinitesimal, teeny-weeny, Lilliputian, dwarfish, teensy-weensy, pygmy or pigmy
Though she was tiny, she had a very loud voice.

conceived and developed by careful thought a well thought-out scheme

1. anxious, keen, raring, hungry, intent, yearning, impatient, itching,
thirsty, zealous Robert was eager to talk about life in the Army.
Who is the travel agent talking to? What is his job about?

A tour operator, that is, somebody who typically combines tour and travel components
to create a holiday. The most common example of a tour operator's product would be a flight
on a charter airline plus a transfer from the airport to a hotel and the services of a local
representative, all for one price.

What is the travel agent trying to convince his interlocutor to do?

To try a sustainable hotel for a weekend, so that he can advertise it subsequently.

Is the tour operator keen on that type of tourist product?
He is very keen on that type of hotel but he wants to go with his family and finds it
rather expensive.

keen: eager or enthusiastic; very enthusiastic about, interested in or

fond of She's keen on sailing; She's been keen on that boy for years.

What features are mentioned that may qualify the hotel as "sustainable"?

The natural surroundings, the integration of the hotel therein, the personnel, both
their local origin and their attitude, the use of clean energy, recycling and insulation
system, and the use of natural products

1. aspect, quality, characteristic, attribute, point, mark, property, factor, trait, hallmark,
facet, peculiarity The gardens are a special feature of this property.
nearby, neighbouring, adjacent, local, bordering, adjoining, abutting Aerial bombing of
the surrounding area is continuing.
plural noun
environment, setting, background, location, neighbourhood, milieu, environs a
peaceful holiday home in beautiful surroundings
therein - (formal) in or into that thing or place; "they can read therein what our plans are"
in that, in this
formality - compliance with formal rules; "courtroom formality"

1. opinion, thinking, feeling, thought, view, position, approach, belief, mood,
perspective, point of view, stance, outlook, viewpoint, slant, frame of mind the general
change in attitude towards them
2. manner, air, condition, bearing, aspect, carriage, disposition, demeanour, mien
(literary) He has a gentle attitude.
3. position, bearing, pose, stance, carriage, posture scenes of the king in various
attitudes of worshipping

Does the tour operator decide to go there in the end?
It depends on whether he can get the accommodation at a good price

Where do you think this hotel is located?
Anywhere in the countryside, away from urban centres

noun country, rural areas, outdoors, farmland, outback (Austral. &
N.Z.), green belt, wide open spaces (informal), sticks (informal) I've
always loved the English countryside.

weekly basis: una vez por semana, semanalmente

next to nothing: Fig. hardly anything; almost nothing. This car's worth next
to nothing. It's full of rust. I bought this antique chair for next to nothing.

ever: all times, always

leak (filtrar, escape, goteo)
1. escape, pass, spill, release, discharge, drip, trickle, ooze, seep, exude, percolate
The pool's sides had cracked and the water had leaked out.
2. disclose, tell, reveal, pass on, give away, make public, divulge, let slip, make known,
spill the beans (informal), blab (informal), let the cat out of the bag, blow wide open
(slang) He revealed who had leaked a confidential police report.
1. leakage, leaking, discharge, drip, oozing, seepage, percolation It's thought a gas
leak may have caused the blast.
2. hole, opening, crack, puncture, aperture, chink, crevice, fissure, perforation a leak in
the radiator
3. disclosure, expos, exposure, admission, revelation, uncovering, betrayal,
unearthing, divulgence Serious leaks involving national security are likely to be

AT LEAST: por lo menos, como mnimo

a. Land and the buildings on it.
b. A building or part of a building.

kitchenette, kitchenet [ktnt]

a small kitchen or part of another room equipped for use as a kitchen

investigation, study, inquiry, analysis, examination, probe, exploration,
scrutiny, experimentation, delving, groundwork, fact-finding His
groundbreaking research will be vital in future developments.
investigate, study, examine, experiment, explore, probe, analyse, look
into, work over, scrutinize, make inquiries, do tests, consult the archives
They research the needs of both employers and staff.
dripping - a liquid (as water) that flows in drops (as from the eaves of house)
flow, flowing - the motion characteristic of fluids (liquids or gases)
dripping - the sound of a liquid falling drop by drop; "the constant sound of dripping irritated him"
sound - the sudden occurrence of an audible event; "the sound awakened them"
dripping - extremely wet; "dripping wet"; "soaking wet"
soaking, sopping

Llave, grifo
tap - a faucet for drawing water from a pipe or cask
hydrant, water faucet, water tap
faucet, spigot - a regulator for controlling the flow of a liquid from a reservoir
plumbing fixture - a fixture for the distribution and use of water in a building
draught proof, draughtproof;
US draft proof, draftproof adj

(sealed against draughts) a prueba de corrientes de aire

loc adj
We need to install a draft proof door on the garage.
sellado (para evitar el paso del
aire) adj
El mdico nos recomend tener ventanas selladas para
que no entraran corrientes de aire al cuarto del beb.

1. breeze, current, wind, movement, flow, puff, influx, gust, current of air
Block draughts around doors and windows.

(TAMBIN: nombre

corriente (de aire)

(de lquido) trago
draught (beer), cerveza de barril
GB draughts pl, juego de damas)

amazed: asombrado, sorprendido

adjective astonished, surprised, stunned, staggered, bewildered,
astounded, dazed, confounded, perplexed, gobsmacked (informal),
dumbfounded, flabbergasted (informal), stupefied I was amazed to learn
that most people travel without insurance.

1. acquire, get, receive, achieve, earn, pick up, win, secure, collect,
gather, obtain, build up, attain, glean, procure Students can gain valuable
experience doing part-time work.
2. profit, make, earn, get, win, clear, land, score (slang), achieve, net,
bag, secure, collect, gather, realize, obtain, capture, acquire, bring in,
harvest, attain, reap, glean, procure The company didn't disclose how
much it expects to gain from the deal.
profit lose, forfeit
3. put on, increase in, gather, build up Some people gain weight after

they give up smoking.

4. attain, earn, get, achieve, win, reach, get to, secure, obtain, acquire,
arrive at, procure Passing exams is no longer enough to gain a place at

support (apoyo, respaldo)

1. help, back, champion, second, aid, forward, encourage, defend,
promote, take (someone's) part, strengthen, assist, advocate, uphold,
side with, go along with, stand up for, espouse, stand behind, hold
(someone's) hand, stick up for (informal), succour, buoy up, boost
(someone's) morale, take up the cudgels for, be a source of strength to
He supported the hardworking people.
help oppose, undermine, hinder, reject, go against, walk away from, hold
out against, stab in the back, turn your back on
2. provide for, maintain, look after, keep, fund, finance, sustain, foster,
take care of, subsidize I have children to support, and a home to be
provide for live off, sponge off
3. bear out, confirm, verify, substantiate, corroborate, document, endorse,
attest to, authenticate, lend credence to The evidence does not support
the argument.
bear out deny, contradict, refute, challenge
4. bear, hold up, carry, sustain, prop (up), reinforce, hold, brace, uphold,
bolster, underpin, shore up, buttress the thick wooden posts that
supported the ceiling
5. follow, back, champion, encourage, favour, advocate, side with,
espouse I've supported Newcastle all my miserable life.

encourage - contribute to the progress or growth of; "I am promoting the

use of computers in the classroom" (ANIMAR, ALENTAR)
promote, further, boost, advance
connive at, wink at - give one's silent approval to
conduce, contribute, lead - be conducive to; "The use of computers in the
classroom lead to better writing"
back up, support - give moral or psychological support, aid, or courage to;
"She supported him during the illness"; "Her children always backed her

(keen) eyesight agudo, bueno;hearing fino, agudo, bueno;

tell off - reprimand; "She told the misbehaving student off" (REPRENDER, LLAMAR LA
brush down
call on the carpet, chew out, chew up, chide, dress down, have words, bawl out, berate, rebuke,
reproof, scold, take to task, call down, lambast, lambaste, lecture, reprimand, remonstrate, trounce,
jaw, rag - censure severely or angrily; "The mother scolded the child for entering a stranger's car";
"The deputy ragged the Prime Minister"; "The customer dressed down the waiter for bringing cold

flat out rude: completamente grosero

cool [k:l]
I nombre
1 fresco, frescor
2 familiar calma
to keep/loose one's cool, mantener/perder la calma
I adjetivo
I 1 (algo fro) fresco,-a: it was cool last night, haca fresco anoche Ver nota en
fresco 2 (agradable) a cool drink, una bebida fresca
a cool place, un sitio fresquito
3 sereno,-a, tranquilo,-a
to keep cool, mantener la calma
4 familiar guay

representative, stand-in, substitute, ambassador, agent, commissioner,
delegate, lieutenant, subordinate, proxy, surrogate, second-in-command,
nuncio, legate, vicegerent, number two France's minister for culture and
his deputy attended the meeting.
assistant, acting, supporting, helping, substitute, stand-in, temporary, fillin, subordinate, depute (Scot.) the academy's deputy director

stoop (descender, bajar, inclinarse)

1. hunch, walk with a stoop, be bowed or round-shouldered She was

taller than he was and stooped slightly.

2. bend, lean, bow, duck, descend, incline, kneel, crouch, squat He
stooped to pick up the carrier bag of groceries.

growl (GRUIDO) - the sound of growling (as made by animals)

cry - the characteristic utterance of an animal; "animal cries filled the
disguise (DISIMULANDO) - make unrecognizable; "The herb masks the garlic taste"; "We
disguised our faces before robbing the bank"
conceal, hide - prevent from being seen or discovered; "Muslim women hide their faces"; "hide the
cloak, mask, dissemble - hide under a false appearance; "He masked his disappointment"
dissimulate - hide (feelings) from other people
masquerade - take part in a masquerade
camouflage - disguise by camouflaging; exploit the natural surroundings to disguise something;
"The troops camouflaged themselves before they went into enemy territory"

1. faint, slight, vague, minimal, feeble He turned to her with a look of mild
2. gentle, kind, easy, soft, pacific, calm, moderate, forgiving, tender,
pleasant, mellow, compassionate, indulgent, serene, easy-going,
amiable, meek, placid, docile, merciful, peaceable, forbearing, equable,
easy-oasy (slang) He is a mild man, reasonable almost to the point of
gentle strong, powerful, violent, severe, harsh, unpleasant, unkind
3. temperate, warm, calm, moderate, clement, tranquil, balmy The area is
famous for its mild winters.
temperate cold, wild, violent, bitter, rough, fierce, harsh, stormy
4. bland, thin, smooth, tasteless, insipid, flavourless The cheese has a
soft, mild flavour.
5. soothing, mollifying, emollient, demulcent, lenitive Wash your face
thoroughly with a mild soap.
6. light, humane, compassionate, clement, lenient, merciful A mild
punishment might be 50 pressups on the spot

How to tell people off in a mild way:

I'm really upset about the situation
I don't think that's fair/on
I'm not having/putting up with this. (No puedo soportar/tolerar esto)
Enough is enough

More direct and aggressive:

I've had enough of this nonsense (tonteras). I'm not taking any more.
What do you think you're doing?
Are you mad or something?
I think you have gone crazy.
What on earth/the hell (demonios) was all that about? Qu rayos/qu
demonios/qu narices...?
Who is responsible for this mess (desastre, lo, embolado) now?
Are you trying to say that you know better?
Well, let me tell you that you've got a lot to learn!

nonsense - a message that seems to convey no meaning

Few ironical comments:
Oh, so you know better than everybody else, do you?
Was that the "wonderful idea" that was going to solve the problem?
I'm so "overwhelmed" ("abrumado") that I don't know what to say
Please, spare me with your expertise next time
Is that the best you can come up ("hasta donde puedes llegar)" with?

5.- Now think of what you would say in the following situations:
a) Your secretary has forgotten to send an important letter yet again

When I ask you to do something, I expect you to do it

b) Your employee has missed the deadline to write up a proposal

I'm very annoyed with you for having missed the deadline and I sincerely
hope you have an explanation

c) Your boss has failed (fallado) to promote you again this year
I honestly don't think this is fair
d) Your partner has hidden information from you
I thought we trusted each other so I'm very hurt (dolido) about this

e) You've caught your child lying

That was bad, I'm very angry at ??? you. What do you have to say for
I am angry with you
This should be the right way to say that you are not happy with someone.
Angry on: cannot be used in English. Even though 'on' is the right preposition to use after 'angry'
in Arabic, and it would be wrong to use it in English.
Angry at: again is not 100% acceptable in English in such a sentence. If you want to use 'at' the
sentence would be:
I am angry at what you did/have done.
English is again terribly illogical here. As I tried to explain before, this site is a poor way to try to learn
English. The answers you are getting are not all correct or complete (see the question on do/have).
"on you" is definitely wrong in all cases.
With a personal object like "you", meaning the person being spoken to, there are two expressions that
mean EXACTLY the same thing. One is somewhat more formal than the other:
1. "I am angry with you." (somewhat more formal 2. below) with the modifier "angry", you must use


2. "I am mad at you." (somewhat less formal than 1. above) with the modifier "mad" (which means the
same as "angry"), you must use "at"
If your sentence has a different type of object; a person, act, or thing ABOUT which the speaker is angry =
mad, then the sentence is constructed with "about":

"I am angry/mad ABOUT what Jim said."

f) The bank has charged you for something that doesn't correspond to
I expect this matter to be solved as soon as possible

g) The insurance company refuses to pay some domestic damage

I strongly suggest you reconsider this matter or I'll be forced to take legal

h) Your landlord has raised your rent for the second time this year.
This is completely unjustifiable and I'm afraid I refuse to pay.

T.: Boo, Ive just come back from an allegedly (supuestamente) ecological trip in Brazil
and it was a con.(estafa, fraude)
F.: How do you mean? In what way?
T.: Well, everything looked green, but it was a fake what they call green-washing
(publicidad ecolgica engaosa).
F.: Oh, dear. If it was all foreign then it must have been very dear (muy caro)
T.: The company takes you by plane to the middle of the wild forest everything looks
green everything IS green! But then you realise that they pollute (contaminar) the air
and everything they do is against the most elementary green rules. Even the hotel is part
of an American chain. All the management posts are in the hands of Americans.
F.:It sounds terrible. Was it really that bad?
T.: Exactly. The prices were impossible. It was all very classy, very posh, very
exclusive, but not ecological or sustainable in the slightest.
T.: To give you an idea, all the plastic things were non-recyclable, the fountains
werent recyclable either, and the golf course had obviously caused a great agricultural
area to shut down.
F.: You should leave your impressions on the web to warn (prevenir, informar) other
people against this place
T.: Exactly, thats what I thought!

allegedly /leddli / || /leddli/ adverbio (indep) supuestamente,

segn se dice;
she ~ visited him that morning supuestamente or segn se dice lo habra
visitado esa maana

con (ESTAFA) noun

swindle, trick, fraud, deception, scam (slang), sting (informal), bluff I am

afraid you have been the victim of a con.

1. contaminate, dirty, mar, poison, soil, foul, infect, spoil, stain, taint,
adulterate, make filthy, smirch, befoul beaches polluted by sewage
pumped into the sea

adjective costly, high-priced, lavish, extravagant, rich, dear, stiff,
excessive, steep (informal), pricey, overpriced, exorbitant He has a lot of
expensive recording equipment.

adjective (Informal) high-class, select, exclusive, superior, elegant,
stylish, posh (informal, chiefly Brit.), swish (informal, chiefly Brit.), upmarket, urbane, swanky (informal), top-drawer, ritzy (slang), high-toned
Her parents lived in Rome's classy Monte Mario quarter.

1. small, minor, insignificant, negligible, weak, modest, trivial, superficial,
feeble, trifling, meagre, unimportant, paltry, measly, insubstantial, scanty,
inconsiderable It's only made a slight difference.

warn - notify of danger, potential harm, or risk; "The director warned him
that he might be fired"; "The doctor warned me about the dangers of
The golf course had obviously caused a great agricultural area to shut
shut down - cease to operate or cause to cease operating; "The owners
decided to move and to close the factory"; "My business closes every
night at 8 P.M."; "close up the shop"
close down, close up, fold, close
adjourn, retire, withdraw - break from a meeting or gathering; "We
adjourned for lunch"; "The men retired to the library"

1. schedule, programme, agenda, list, diary, calendar, order of the day
The timetable was hopelessly optimistic.

prospective - of or concerned with or related to the future; "prospective earnings"; "a prospective
mother"; "a prospective bride"; "the statute is solely prospective in operation"
C: My name is Les Read. Im calling about a reservation I made just under a month ago.
Id like to change it for Easter because Ive got timetable problems.
R: I'll have to check whether there are vacancies (habitaciones libres) at that time of
year. It's usually quite busy.
C: You mean I have to change my vacations?
R: No, no, I havent checked it yet.
C: Please, go ahead and check. The dates would be between April 12th and 19th.
R: How many people is the reservation for?
C: Six people: two adults and four children. Theyre quite small so wed rather sleep all
together in the same room.
R.: I can see you had reserved a family room. You could actually (en realidad) use the
same room in Easter (semana santa)
C: Oooh, what a relief.
R: This family room has views of the cow stable. The children might like to go there
early in the morning to help milk the cows (OJO ORDEAR LAS VACAS)
C: Can we have cows milk?
R.: Of course you can, but not straight after milking the cow. It needs to be pasteurised
C: Everything sounds like fun, thanks. Im sure theyll love your resort.
R: There're lots of things they can do. They can help in the organic orchard (huerto) go
fishing in the river, go horse riding
C: Yes, I know. Ive read the brochure with the list of activities for children. Knowing
my children, theyll want to try everything.
R: Very well, sir. We'll expect you on April 12th then

What type of holidays is the prospective client looking for?

Family holidays in a sustainable resort with children activities

What sort of problem does he have?

He can't come on the dates he had made the booking for

Is the Ruralia Natural Resort the sort of place he was looking for?

Is the family going there in the end?

Yes, even the same room is available

Cuando el infinitivo termina en "d" o "t" la pronunciacin de -ed es: /id/:

needed, attended, visited, created
Cuando el infinitivo termina en una consonante sorda, la pronunciacin
de "ed" es /t/: stopped, worked, spotted, missed

Cuando el infinitivo termina en una vocal o en consonante sonora, la

pronunciacin de "ed" es /d/: played, grabbed, lived, controlled

threat (amenaza)
1. danger, risk, hazard, menace, peril the threat of tropical storms
2. threatening remark, menace, commination, intimidatory remark He may
be forced to carry out his threat to resign.
3. possibility, prospect, likelihood, chance, risk, danger, probability The
company was reprieved from the threat of closure.
4. warning, foreshadowing, foreboding The people who lived there felt a
permanent sense of threat.

gather (reunir, juntar)

1. congregate, assemble, get together, collect, group, meet, mass, rally,
flock, come together, muster, convene, converge, rendezvous, foregather
In the evenings, we gathered round the fire and talked.


A) BIRD: Beak, crown, breast, nape, back, belly, tail,

wings, feet, legs

Beak (pico de pjaro)

crown: ... The top or highest part of the head. The crest of an animal,
especially of a bird.
breast [brest] nombre
1 (general) pecho
(de mujer) pecho, seno
2 Culin (de pollo, etc) pechuga
LOC: figurado to make a clean breast of it, confesarlo todo

nape - the back side of the neck (NUCA)

back 1 /bk/ sustantivo
countable ( Anat ) (of human) espalda f;(of animal) lomo m;
belly / beli/ sustantivo (pl -lies)
(of person) vientre m, barriga f (fam);(of animal) panza f, vientre m;
foot 1 /ft/ sustantivo (pl feet)
countable (of person) pie m;(of animal) pata f;(on sewing machine) pie m;
leg 1 /le/ sustantivo
( Anat ) (of person) pierna f;(of animal, bird) pata f
tail 1 /tel/ sustantivo (of horse, fish, bird) cola f;(of dog, pig) rabo m, cola f;
wing 1 /w/ sustantivo (ALAS)
countable or uncountable ( Zool ) ala f;a bird on the ~ un pjaro volando ;

B) HORSE: hoof, face, rump, throat, loin, forearm,

knee, back, crest
hoof 1 /hf / ||/huf/ sustantivo (pl hoofs or hooves) ( Zool ) (of horse)
casco m, vaso m (RPl), pezua f (Mx);
(of cow) pezua f
rump /rmp/ sustantivo
countable (of horse) grupa f, ancas fpl
throat: garganta, cuello
loin /ln/ sustantivo (lomo)
loins pl ( Anat ) (liter) entraas fpl; The part of the body of a human or

quadruped on either side of the backbone and between the ribs and hips

forearm 2 (frrm, fr-)

2. The corresponding part of the foreleg in certain quadrupeds, such as a

crest [krst]
1. (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Zoology) a tuft or growth of
feathers, fur, or skin along the top of the heads of some birds, reptiles,
and other animals
4. (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Zoology) a ridge on the neck of a
horse, dog, lion, etc.
mane [men] nombre
1 (de len, persona) melena
2 (de caballo) crin

C) FISH: eye, mouth, pectoral fin (aletas pecho),

dorsal fin (aleta dorsal), gill (branquias, agallas), tail
or caudal fin (cola), snout (hocico, morro)
gill 1 (gl) (BRANQUIAS, AGALLAS)

tail 1 /tel/ sustantivo: COLA

(of horse, fish, bird) cola f;(of dog, pig) rabo m, cola f;
snout /snat/ sustantivo (of animal) hocico m, morro m

d) LANGOSTINO: KING PRAWN (algo parecido):

Leg, tail, eye, scales, mouth, antennae, thorax,
SCALES: escamas

e) FLOWER: bud (capullo), sepal, leaf (leaves), stamen

(estambres), stem, thorn (espina)

bud 1 /bd/ sustantivo

( Bot ) brote m, yema f;(of flower) capullo m;
leaf 1 /lif/ sustantivo (pl leaves)
(of plant, tree) hoja
stamen / stemn/ sustantivo
estambre m
stem 1 /stem/ sustantivo
(of plant) tallo m;(of leaf) peciolo m, pecolo m
thorn espinas

f) TREE: branch (ramas), roots, leaves, bark

(corteza), crown/canopy, fruit, trunk (tronco), seeds
CANOPY .- 5. The uppermost layer in a forest, formed by the crowns of
the trees. Also called crown canopy.
trunk (of tree) tronco m
(torso) tronco m
(of elephant) trompa f
bark 1 /brk / || /bk/ sustantivo
uncountable (on tree) corteza f
countable (of dog, seal) ladrido m;her/his ~ is worse than her/his bite perro
que ladra no muerde or (Esp) perro ladrador, poco mordedor

POLL es una especie de loro o la coronilla (parte redonda sin pelo)

de los monos o curas
poll - a tame parrot
poll parrot
parrot - usually brightly colored zygodactyl tropical birds with short
hooked beaks and the ability to mimic sounds
BARBELLS (pesas de gimnasio, piercing)
NOSTRILS: agujeros de la nariz

barbell (brbl)
A bar with adjustable weights at each end, lifted for sport or exercise.
ANUS: ano

claw 1 /kl/ sustantivo (of tiger, lion) zarpa f, garra f;

(of eagle) garra f;
(of crab, lobster) pinza f;

Sustainable Tourism
According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), the development of sustainable
tourism responds to the needs of tourists and of hosting regions, and it aims (aspirar,
querer) at protecting and improving their future opportunities. This form of tourism is
focused towards the management of all resources so that they satisfy all economic,
social and aesthetic needs.
At the same time they have to respect cultural integrity, the elementary
ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems.
For there to be sustainable tourism, the environment has to be preserved in the short,
medium and long term, and boost (estimular) local economic growth, as well as aiming
at the clients satisfaction.
In many regions of this planet this is the only alternative to economic growth. Lets
remember the recent tragedy in Haiti, with such little economic growth shared with the
Dominican Republic, so much richer thanks to the development of the tourism industry.
For this country in ruins, making a sustainable tourism plan could help the population
get out of misery.
If they manage to obtain international help, they could promote the creation of
sustainable hotels and everything that goes with it: little restaurants and shops around
the hotels, sports facilities like golf courses, transport infrastructure (taxis, rental cars,
aeroplanes) and all the providers of services for all these small industries. This would
be a golden opportunity particularly for young people and for women.
Another advantage of this type of tourism would be intercultural communication, since
the population would get to know people from different countries and tourists would
know the culture, art, handcraft, and habits and way of life of the locals.
The risk that both European and American multinationals attempt to colonize tourist
opportunities should be prevented. If they start building luxury hotels without
considering the environment, they will end up contaminating natural resources and
exploiting the place economically, taking the benefits back to their respective countries,
and leaving back just the salaries of no or little qualified employees, like waiters and
Hosting (acoger, hospedar)

1. enhance, better, add to, upgrade, amend, mend, augment, embellish,
enhance damage, harm, mar, worsen, impair
2. get better, pick up, look up (informal), develop, advance, perk up, take

a turn for the better (informal) The weather is beginning to improve.

3. make better, perfect, polish, strengthen, temper, refine, cultivate,
elevate, hone He said he wanted to improve his football.
4. recuperate, recover, rally, mend, make progress, turn the corner, gain
ground, gain strength, convalesce, be on the mend, grow better, make
strides, take on a new lease of life (informal) He had improved so much
the doctor cut his dosage.
management / mndmnt/ sustantivo
uncountable (act)
( Busn ) direccin f, administracin f, gestin f;
resource / risrs / || /rss/ n countable
recurso m;
natural/human ~s recursos naturales/humanos;
FOR THERE TO BE: Por consiguiente
PRESERVED: protegido
boost [bu:st]
I nombre estmulo, empuje: that drink sure gave me a boost!, esa bebida s que me
ha puesto en rbita!
I verbo transitivo
I 1 empujar hacia arriba
(los beneficios, precios) aumentar
2 (la moral) levantar
3 (el turismo, las exportaciones, etc) fomentar

Turismo sostenible.
Acorde con la Organizacin Mundial del Turismo (WTO), el desarrollo del
turismo sostenible responde a las necesidades de los turistas y las
regiones que los acogen y su objetivo de proteger y mejorar sus futuras

Esta modalidad de turismo est orientada hacia la administracin de

todos los recursos y as poder satisfacer todas las necesidades
econmicales, sociales y esttica (medioambiental???)
Al mismo tiempo, ellos deben respetar la integridad cultural, el proceso
bsico/elemental ecolgico, la diversidad biolgica y el sistema de
soporte vital (el mantenimiento de la vida)

Por consiguiente, el medio ambiente tiene que estar protegido en el

corto, medio y largo espacio de tiempo y fomentar el crecimiento
econmico local, as como el objetivo de "conseguir" la satisfaccin del
En muchas regiones de este planeta, sta es la nica alternativa de
crecimiento. Basta recordar la reciente tragedia en Haite, con tan
pequeo crecimiento econmico compartido con la Repblica
Dominicana, ms rica gracias al desarrollo de la industria turstica. Para
esta regin en ruinas, la realizacin de un plan de turismo sostenible,
podra ayudar a la poblacin a salir de la miseria.
attempt 1 /tempt/ verbo transitivo
(try) to ~ to + inf/-ing tratar de or intentar + inf
Prevent: (prevenir, impedir, evitar): foreclose, forestall, preclude, forbid, save,
obstruct, frustate, keep, keep out, keep away, kibosh, stop, block
prairie / preri / || / preri/ n countable or uncountable
pradera f, llanura f;

admission fee: entrada, cuota de admisin

brochure - a small book usually having a paper cover

booklet, folder, pamphlet, leaflet
camping site - a site where people on holiday can pitch a tent
city centre - the central part of a city
cruise ship - a passenger ship used commercially for pleasure cruises
twin beds npl

(two single beds)

camas gemelas nfpl

downtown 1 / dantan/ n uncountable (AmE) centro m (de la ciudad);

(before n) ~ New York el centro de Nueva York;
fortnight (esp BrE) quince das, dos semanas;
( Busn ) quincena
guesthouse / ( Tourism ) (in UK) casa f de huspedes, pensin f
hiking trail


camino de montaa n

Brit a person who goes on holiday US and Canadian equivalents

vacationer vacationist
HOSTEL: a hotel providing overnight lodging (alojamiento) for travelers.
Auberge / hostelry / inn / lodge / youth hostel

inn /n/ sustantivo (tavern) taberna f;

(hotel) hostal m, hostera f;
( Hist ) posada f
motor home n

casa rodante nf

deal n

paquete nm

(all-inclusive offer)

parking lot n US aparcamiento

ROUND TICKET (US) A round ticket covers a round trip, which is otherwise
called a two-way or return trip.

return ticket
Brit a ticket entitling a passenger to travel to his destination and back
again US and Canadian equivalent round-trip ticket

single ticket
Brit a ticket entitling a passenger to travel only to his destination, without
returning US and Canadian equivalent one-way ticket Compare return
sightseer - a tourist who is visiting sights of interest
excursionist, rubberneck, tripper
holidaymaker, tourer, tourist - someone who travels for pleasure
sunscreen/sun lotion/sunblock - a cream spread on the skin; contains
a chemical (as PABA) to filter out ultraviolet light and so protect from
sunburn ['snb:n] nombre quemadura de sol
park n


parque de atracciones nm

mountaineering / mantnr / || / mantnr/ n uncountable

alpinismo m, andinismo

mountaineering - the activity of climbing a mountain

mountain climbing
unrelated / nrletd / || / nrletd/ adjetivo facts/events no
relacionados (entre s)

I'm sick of this computer hanging all the time

I'm over the moon with your news, congratulations
I don't give a damn (condena) about what you say or
do ANGER (enfado) (damn: Used to express anger,
irritation, contempt, or disappointment)

Leave me alone, I beg you! DESPERATION

Oh, my goodness, I don't know what to do now.
ANGUISH (angustia)
I've never ever met somebody as capable (capaz,
compentente) as you, well done!. ADMIRATION
I'm desperate to know if he's been promoted. I really
can't wait! CURIOSITY
Oooh, poor thing, pull yourself together; you'll be
alright. SYMPATHY
I don't mind at all that she's more successful than
me. As if I care!. JEALOUSY

What? I don't mind... whatever you like.

I'm definitely going for it this time. I promise!.

I don't know what's wrong with me. I don't fancy

doing anything. APATHY (apata)

Hurray! We're the best in the west! ENTHUSIASM.

pull yourself together


informal (regain your


recobrar la compostura loc


Altering the position of the direct and the indirect objects

The secretary gave the documents to his boss. // The secretary gave his boss the
documents. (Note that if the indirect object appears before the direct object, the
preposition disappears).
The guest bought a small present for her hostess. // The guest bought her hostess a
small present.
This shift is possible only with a small number of verbs. (cf. The city dedicated a
monument to the hero. // *The city dedicated the hero a monument).
Another alteration occurs when the sentence is not fully assertive (1).- either because
it is conditional, 2).- there is a negative linking element at the beginning, 3).- there is a
negative adverb of frequency).
This causes the relative order of the subject and the verb (or auxiliary) to modify

Not only was he happy, he also gave the day off to all his
employees to show his gratitude.
Not only did they sing the national anthem (himno nacional),
the stood up (dar la cara, defender) with great solemnity

He didn't like herring (arenque) salad, nor (tampoco) did he

like raw (crudo) herring (arenques crudos)
nor /nr/ , /nr / ||/n(r)/ conjuncin
neither nor see neither 1
(usu with neg) tampoco;I mustn't be late ~ (must) I no debo llegar tarde
yo tampoco or ni yo;~ does my client deny the fact that tampoco niega mi
cliente el hecho de que...

Into the room ran a king penguin (pinguino emperador)

In the garden is an oak (roble) tree (mal)
EST MAL LA FRASE: The city dedicated the hero a monument.
Subject + verb + objects+ complements.
Primero CD y despus CI.
20. Provide a subject-verb/auxiliary inversion when possible:

a) The two squirrels (ardillas) scurried (corrieron a refugiarse)

upon (encima de, sobre) the roof. UPON THE ROOF
b) A bloody scarf was hanging from the lamp. FROM THE
c) If I were a millionaire, I wouldnt quit my job. WERE I A
d) He seldom (rara vez, pocas veces, casi nunca)brushes his teeth.
SELDOM does he brush his teeth
e) A strange stain (mancha) was found on the wall. ON THE
WALL WAS FOUND (ojo es el participio pasado de FIND) a
f) If you had known what was coming, you would have warned
(advertido) me, wouldnt you? HAD YOU KNOWN WHAT


(cuando la primera frase es negativa)
I drink coffee and eat biscuits ( el sujeto en la segunda frase se omite;
esto slo es posible en frases coordinadas)
You can either stay or go; it's up to you
He means well, but he always has his mind somewhere
She doesn't worry about trivial things nor does she spend
any time on them (inversin en la segunda oracin)
BOTH Mary and I agree on where to go for our summer
Neither Mary nor I can make our minds up about where to
go for our...
Either Mary or I will come will come with you so that you
don't have to be waiting there by yourself.
Algunos verbos estn complementados por otros que les siguen. El ltimo
puede tener su propio sujeto " I suggest that you study your part well before
the meeting" o no. En este caso, el verbo de la oracin subordinada puede
ser un verbo terminado en "ing" or un infinitivo con la partculo "to".
He gave up playing (DEJ DE TOCAR) the cello after the accident.
The usher (ACOMODADOR) used to ask for a tip
Verbs of command (e.g., order, demand) and volition (e.g., want, desire) are
normally followed by an infinitive with to:

The piano man asked the audience to be quiet.

I would like you to teach me how to play the trombone.
Sometimes, verbs indicating the beginning or the end of an action can take

The baritone began coughing / to cough helplessly.

They are at the point of setting up (establecer) a record company.

There is a curious change in meaning when some verbs indicating the end of an
action are followed by an ing form or an infinitive:

The band stopped to greet their fans. (meaning: they stopped what
they were doing previously)
The band stopped greeting their fans. (meaning: they ceased to
greet them because they had had enough)

used [j:zd] adjetivo

1 usado,-a, viejo,-a
2 [j:st] to be used to, estar acostumbrado,-a a: she's used to getting up
early, est acostumbrada a levantarse temprano
I just can't get used to this hot weather,

errata nf

either 3 pronombre (esp BrE) cualquiera;

(with neg) ninguno, -na;
(in questions) alguno, -na;
~ (one) would be suitable cualquiera (de los dos) servira;
I couldn't wear ~ of those dresses no podra ponerme ninguno de esos
loath /l/ adjetivo (pred) to be ~ to + inf resistirse a + inf
abhor /bhr / || /bh(r)/ verbo transitivo -rr- (frml) detestar,

The piano man asked the audience TO BE quiet

I would like you to teach me how TO PLAY the trombone
Algunos verbos que indican el comienzo o el final de una accin
puede tomar cualquiera (ver):

The baritone began coughing/to cough (TOSER) helplessly (SIN

They are at the point of setting up (ESTABLECER) a record
Hay un cambio curioso cuando los verbos que indican el final de
una accin estn seguidos por la partcula "ing" o por infinitivo:
The band stopped to greet their fans (meaning: they stopped what
they were doing previously). Aqu se entiende que la banda par
para saludar a sus fans.
The band stopped greeting their fans (meaning: they ceased to
greet them because they had had enough). Aqu se entiende que la
banda par de saludar a sus fans
Although / Even though: an, aunque
Whether: si. I don't know whether he's in (or not)
Since: desde que (ever)... Since I saw (pasado) her
(in addition, moreover)
besides 1 /bsadz/ preposicin
(in addition to) adems de;

adems adv

thread 1 /red/ sustantivo

countable or uncountable (filament) hilo m;to follow/lose/pick up the ~ of a
plot/conversation seguir(conj.)/perder(conj.)/retomar el hilo de una
trama/conversacin; to hang by a ~ pender de un hilo

Embedded clauses (encierra oraciones)

Although/ Even though she's always had a very good musical ear, she doesn't
play any instrument.
Whether or not the plan succeeds, we've had enormous fan working on it
Since their ideas were brilliant, we decided to incorporate them all
If she is expected to make an informed decision, she says she needs to know
more data
Please repeat evetyhing to me while we're waiting for them to come.
The conductor told the musicians to STAND UP
The soprano is about TO SING her part
The public wants the singer TO DO more encores (repeticin: otra, otra!)
We started to

collect/collecting old records

flashbacks: escenas restrospectivas

Of course, flashbacks have to follow a certain logic and be dosified in a motivated way,

like the clues (pistas) in a mystery story

unbiased: imparcial
reliable: fiable
narrative irony: Make the reader believe that s/he knows more
than the narrator.
A Narrative sample: Falling in love.
It was 5 oclock in the evening and the Paseo de la Castellana avenue was collapsed
with traffic. On arriving at the junction at Mara de Molina street, I saw that the traffic
jam (atasco) carried on all the way to the airport route. I thought it was a mistake to
have taken a taxi. I was covered in perspiration (transpiracin, sudor, sweat) with
anxiety, which was increasing with the little electronic noise of the taximeter. I had
another glimpse (a brief, incomplete view or lood) and it indicated 30 euros.
I got even more nervous when I thought how much the final price of the journey was
going to be by the time we arrived at the airport. Probably more than the plane ticket
itself. I was flying with a low budget company and had manager to pay only 60 euros
for my return flight to Rome. Dario would be waiting for me there when I arrived and I
was eager(enthusiastic) to see him again. I considered whether I should get off the taxi
and get the underground, but the problem was the size and weight of my luggage.
It took almost an hour for us to arrive at the airport and I paid a small fortune for a
journey that was barely 9 kilometers. Once inside the terminal building I ran to the
check-in desk expecting to be told that it was too late to check in only to be told that my
flight was going to have a delay of at least seven hours.
Angry, frustrated, and sweaty, I decided to go to one of the cafeterias in the building.
There were no trolleys in sight (visible)...
He pointed out (indicar, sealar) that there were three more free chairs.
I thought to my self.... certainly not bein sat... at the terminal...We rushed (to move or
act swiftly, hurry) to each other
IRELAND.Ireland is the third largest island in Europe. It lies to the northwest of continental
Europe and is surrounded by a large number of islands and islets. To the east of Ireland
is the Irish Sea, which separates it from the Great Britain island. The government of the
island of Ireland is divided between two independent jurisdictions: 1).- the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and 2).- Ireland (the state, also known
as "the Republic of Ireland"). The Republic covers five-sixths of the island. The island
has lush (abundant) vegetation, a product of its mild but changeable oceanic climate,

which avoids extremes in temperature.

Ireland has been populated for over 9,000 years but there is very little information about
the Palaeolithic and Neolithic inhabitants of this island. During the last 1,000 years,
there has been influence from the Normans and the Vikings, who funded several ports.
However, 80% of the Irish population comes from the original inhabitants who came
after the Ice of Age. During many years it was believed that the Irish were of a Celtic
origin but recent DNA evidence demonstrates that the people from the west are closely
related genetically to the population in the north of Spain (apparently, the toponym
Galicia comes from the root Gael, which derived into Celt in Latin).
The total population of Ireland is over 4 million and approximately 1.7 million in
Greater Dublin. In 1841 the population was about 6.5 million and it went down to 5,1
million in 1850 after the Great Irish Famine /death of millons of people from starvation
(hambre) and disease (enfermedad)/ not only due to life loss but also massive
emigration. The population continued decreasing until 1960, where there were only 2.8
million people living in the country. Today, Dublin, the capital, has over 1,500,000
inhabitants. After this, the largest towns are Cork, Limerick, Galway and Waterford.
Ireland has traditionally been an emigrant country due to the economic situation. This
situation has changed in the last 15 years and today over 10% of the population living in
this country is of foreign origin. Irelands economy has depended for centuries on
agriculture, but today services and industry take the lead in the countrys economy. The
latter represents 38% of the GNP, around 80% of exportations and 30% of jobs. In
particular, Ireland is one of the main exporters in the world in services and products
related to software.
One of the many things for which Ireland is admired worldwide is its music. Irish
Music is the generic term for music that has been created in various genres on the
island of Ireland. The indigenous music of the island is termed Irish traditional music.
It has remained vibrant (lively, vital) through the 20th, and into the 21st century, despite
globalizing cultural forces. In spite of emigration and a well-developed connection to
music influences from Britain and the United States, Irish music has kept many of its
traditional aspects and has itself influenced many forms of music, such as country and
roots music in the USA, which in turn (a su vez) have had some influence on modern
rock music.
It has occasionally been fused with rock and roll, punk rock and other genres. Some of
these fusion artists have attained mainstream success (han logrado importantes xitos),
at home and abroad.
In recent decades Irish music in many different genres has been very successful
internationally. However, the most successful genres have been rock, popular and
traditional fusion, with performers such as Enya, Bob Geldof, The Corrs, The
Chieftains, Riverdance, Van Morrison, Sinad O'Connor, and, of course, U2, achieving
success nationally and internationally.
Hence: De ah
To name but a few
A survey: un estudio, encuesta
Researchers took into account not just income...
cozy: de los ms conveniente

a) What

is the earliest link between Ireland and Spain?

Early inhabitants from the west of Ireland have been found to be genetically related to
the population in the north of Spain, so it is thought that the latter migrated (emigraron)
there at some point in the past

b) What is the Great Irish Famine?

The Great Famine was a period of mass starvation, disease
and emigration between 1845 and 1852. It was caused by
a potato disease commonly known as potato blight (plaga,
cncer, peste) linked to the fact that one-third of the
population was entirely dependent on the potato for food.
c) What has its economy been based on in the past? What is it based on today?
Ireland's economy used to be based mainly on agriculture. Today, it has been largely

replaced by services and industry, mainly

software development.

Bush: monte
near-death: cercana a la muerte
downward slope: ladera baja
overtaking: adelantando
honking: tocando la bocina
edge: borde, orilla
burst: reventar
skidded: derrapado
collarbone: clavcula
bashed: golpeado
life-threatening injuries: peligro para la vida
wreck: restos
shuttle bus: public transport
on pain: hurt, injuries
flee/fled/flee: huir, escapar
tow truck: gra, remolque
goatherds: cabreros
scrapheap: desguaces
As the soon-to-be spouse: como pronto me casara

allegedly: supuestamente
good bill of health: informe mdico
physician: mdico
Hat's off to: quitarse el sombrero
Mummified: momificada
handover: entrega
intricately: detalladamente
eye socket: rbita ojo
savage: salvaje
overruled: invalidado, desautorizado
fear (feared): temer
incantations: ensalmos
sought after: deseado, buscado
burial: entierro
slaves: esclavos
what did you do during your work breaks? We made the
most of our time by taking extra classes.
Which of the following sentences is right? By the time we
arrived, the show was almost over
MAL: By the time... the show has almost finished. By the
time... the show has almost ended.
WRONG: Whichever she wears, she always looks
GOOD: No matter what she wears, she always looks
splendid. It doesn't matter what she wears...
GOOD: a wonderful crispy chilly winter morning
Which of the following is NOT a Canadian celebration?

July 4th.
S lo es Boxing Day and Thanksgivig Day.
Which replay to "thank you" would be inappropiate?
At all.
Which of the following sentences does NOT show that the
speaker is really upset?
Too much is too much.
S lo son: I don't think that's on (No creo que eso sea todo)
I'm not putting up with this (No puedo soportar esto)
Which of the following sentences would be a natural
Knowing you, I bet you didn't appreciate her answer
Which of the following trees is not deciduos (de hoja
Oak tree (roble), Pine tree (pino). MAPLE (arce)
Crow: cuervo
If you manage to do something... you succeed in doing it.
Which of the following sentences is meaningful (con
For there to be plants, water is needed.
MAL: If plants are to be, watter is required. If plants are
there to be, water is necessary.
Which of the following inversions is NOT acceptable?

Under the pillow the boy's tooth is.

Est bien: Were I in your place, I'd back out of that deal.
Not only did he congratulate me, he also invited me out
for a meal.
Which sentence is NOT acceptable?
She helped me preparing the schedule.
Estn bien: She helped me to prepare... She helped me
prepare the...
Which is the most natural way of expressing regret
(lamentar) or confession?
What we did was against the most elementary rules of the