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PRELEC 01

Management System

COMPO04Introduction to Database

OBJECTIVES:
To define what database management is.
To identify the advantages of Database Management System and its capabilities.
To acknowledge the importance of planning a Database.
WHAT IS A DATABASE?
A Database is a collection of related information or interrelated data which is organized in
a useful manner that provides basic procedures like retrieving information, drawing conclusions,
and making decisions. Its information is presented and stored in a table with rows and columns.
A Database Management System integrates the data files into a database and provides
different views to different users it enables the database users to satisfy multiple views of the
needed. It includes techniques in building up a file that produces data for inquiry and reporting
purpose.
The examples of a database are dictionary, telephone directory, bank accounts, student records,
personnel and employees records, inventories, cookbooks, personal file supplies etc.
A Record is a set of information to be processed a unit in a row 1. A field is the separate
item in a record
STUDENT ID
20082124
20082125
20082126

LAST NAME
Mendoza
Castillano
Enguito

FIRST NAME
Levan
Dave
Ray Albert

COURSE
BSIT
ACT
BSIT

The Example table is a Record and its field is STUDENT ID, LAST NAME, FIRST NAME, and COURSE
OBJECTIVES OF DATABASE
Data Integrity stores information in one place and allows each application to access it.
Data Integration links between data must be maintained, in order to achieve the objectives or
data centralization, it must be possible to access data records using a wide variety of search
keys. This results to cost reduction of new applications wherein multiple references are made to
the same data.
Data Independence allows the data to be changed without the need to reprogram, and the
program can be modified without the reorganization of data.
FUNCTIONS OF DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

It protects data against unauthorized access


It provides recovery and restart facilities after a hardware and software failure
It safeguards data against corruption
The frequently used data can be placed in a readily accessible form.

THE ADVANTAGES OF DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Data Independence is a separation of data from the application programs that use data. The
organized data can be changed and evolved necessitating changes in application programs that
process data.
Sharing Data allows all the authorized users in an organization to share its data. It provides
the user to precise view of data required to make a decision or perform some functions without
making the user aware of the overall complexity of the database.
Integrated Data is considered integrated for any item of data that can be used to satisfy an
inquiry or report. This advantage is related to the reduced redundancy advantage, for data can
be retrieved from any place in the database.
PREPARED BY : Mr. Levan Mendoza

PRELEC 01
Management System

COMPO04Introduction to Database

Ease of Application Development reduces cost and time for developing business
applications. A program can code and debug a new application at least 2 to 4 times faster than
with conventional data files.
Data Accessibility and Responsiveness Provides multiple retrieval parts to each item of
data, providing the user greater flexibility in locating and retrieving data than with data files it
results to easily retrieved more and better information.
Uniformed Security, Privacy and Integrated Controls to improve the data protection
centralized control and standard procedures provided by a dispersed data file systems. The
database will be vulnerable data conventional files which is exposed to more users of proper
controls are not applied.
Reduce Redundancy Data carried in separate files tend to repeat some of the same data
over and over, that information appears at least only once.
DISADVANTAGES OF DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Access This refers to users who have improper access to a database. The employees must be
trained to the correct ways of using database management system especially in a large
organization.
Expense It is usually expensive to set up and maintain a database. The employees must be
trained to use the database properly.
Excess In an organization that carries more data than expectation, it is theoretically possible
for a database to carry unsuitable data.

Application Programs used to create and maintain the database and provides information to
users.
Repository It contains all screen and report formats, all data information and definition or
other organizations and system components which is a centralized knowledge based.
PREPARED BY : Mr. Levan Mendoza

PRELEC 01
COMPO04Introduction to Database
Management System
Database Management System (DBMS) A commercial program that is used to create and
maintain the database and providing the information to the users.
System Developers These are persons who design and develop new application programs
such as programmers and system analysis.
Data Administrators Persons who are responsible for the overall information resources of an
organization.
End Users These are the persons within the organization who operate and modify the data in
the database and who request or receive information from it.
TYPES OF FILES
1. System Files it is an operating system program files hold data that is related to application
software, such as memo you typed using word processing software. It is used to start the
computer system and to provide services and control of software and files as you proceed.
Create a command that invokes the program name if you need to use the operating system files
directly.
2. Application Software Files it is software needed for an application such as word
processing. Data files are used with applications to supply input data or to store the files you
create.
3. Data Files Most users deal with output data files. Output data files usually contain data
created by you and may be used only by you, especially in an academic environment.
METHODS OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
Information Retrieval is a file processing which objective of retrieving information to produce
accurate and useful information.
1. Retrieval To access the data within the fields. it is the act of transferring a record from a
secondary storage to main memory.
2. Insertion it is the process of adding new record to an existing file.
3. Writing To transfer a record from main memory to secondary storage.
4. Updating It makes changes to the contents of a record maintained on a file to reflect its
new status.
5. Deleting The act of removing a record from the file
6. Merging It could be a record merging or a file merging. It is a combination of two or more
files in same sequence into a single output file.
7. Sorting It is the act of rearranging the records in a file to produce ordered reports.
8. Searching To satisfy specific criteria that involve looking for records with a certain key
value.
9. Matching To compare two or more records against other records in order to ensure that
there is a complete set of records for each key. Mismatch records are highlighted for subsequent
action.
DATA TYPES PROCESSING FILES
1. Master File It is a file that consists of permanent or semi-permanent data consolidated for
reference and updating. It is to be updated to reflect the current status of the data contents.
Example : Payroll Master File, Stock Master File.
PREPARED BY : Mr. Levan Mendoza

PRELEC 01
COMPO04Introduction to Database
Management System
2. Work File It is a temporary file used for the storing of immediate data for further
processing.
3. Transaction File It is a file that contains source data or transaction data about recorded
events used to update the master file, like sales transactions files is used to update the stock
master file.
4. Security or Backup File It is a backup copy of a file to safeguard against the damage or
loss of current versions.
5. Transition File It is a temporary file created during the processing for a specific use like
customer details extracted from master and transaction files to form a statement detail file. Used
for printing of monthly customer statements.
6. Audit File It will enable the auditor to check the correct functioning of computer based
procedures by keeping a copy of all transactions that cause the permanent files to be changed.

PREPARED BY : Mr. Levan Mendoza