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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

ON
STUDY OF RIVETING PROCESS

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR


THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
(Mechanical And Automation Engineering)

AT

MINDA INDUSTRIES LTD. (SWITCH DIVISION)


MANESAR(GURGAON), HARYANA

SUBMITTED BY :
SAMAY SINGH MEENA
00914803610
7M-456

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It brings me immense pleasure for an opportunity to have undergone


training at Minda Industries Ltd. (Switch Division) ManeasarDistt.
Gurgaon, Haryana. I take this opportunity to express my profound
gratitude and deep regards to Mr. P.K.Pankaj and Mr. Pankaj handa for
their guidance and constant monitoring throughout the training.
I also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to Mr.
Vibhor kumar, Mr. Pramodpathak, Mr. Nitin pal and Mr. Ashok Mehta for
their cordial support, valuable information and guidance during the
training period.
I would also like to thank all the workers of Minda Industries working on
the shop floor for the valuable time they took off their work to help me
understand the various manufacturing processes. I thank almighty and
my parents for their constant encouragement without which this
assignment would not be possible.
Finally , I express my indebtedness to all who have directly or indirectly
contributed to the successful completion of my industrial training.

Samay Singh Meena

DECLARATION

I, Samay Singh Meena hereby declare that the project work is an


authentic record of my own work carried out at UNO MINDA (SWITCH
DIVISION), Manesar, Gurgaon for the award of degree of B-Tech in
Mechanical and Automation Engineering, MAIT,GGSIP University, Delhi.
All the information contained in the report is certain and correct to the
best of my knowledge and belief.
This industrial training report is not being submitted to any other
university for award of any other degree, diploma, and fellowship.

Samay Singh Meena

CONTENTS

Page
1. Introduction

2. Business area

3. Study of riveting process

4. Installation and sizes

5. Riveting machines

6. Riveting fixture and its main parts


7. Time study of handle bar switch14

11

INTRODUCTION

Making its mark in the International Grid of Automobile Components


Manufacturing , UNO MINDA steers ahead as a leading Tier 1 supplier of
Proprietary Automotive Solutions to Original Equipment Manufacturers
(OEMs). Spanning three continents and sustaining enterprising business
practices, the technology leader, NK MINDA group has truly arrived.
Incepted way back in 1958 with a meagerstart up capital and now
notching up a group turnover beyond US$ 500 million, speaks volumes
of it.
For nearly five decades ,UNO MINDA has made significant contributions
to the automotive industry supply chain with innovative products,
designed and engineered for efficiency with an emphasis on enhanced
comfort levels and fine-tuned response.
A predominantly technical organization, UNO MINDA is poised for
exponential growth. All structured through advanced developments tools
and support systems. The stringent tests, systems driven processes and
development capabilities, driven by the principles of quality circles,
kaizen catalyse the design and development verticals.
UNO MINDA has 34 manufacturing plants in India, Indonesia and
Vietnam, design centers in Taiwan and Japan, sales office in USA,
Europe and Vietnam. It also has a strategic sourcing office in China.
With the human edge of a highly motivated workforce of 7000 team
members the group is headquartered in Maneser, Haryana,India. They

have engineering research and development centers in Manesar, Pune


and Sonepat.
The UNO MINDA strategic alignment ensures the maintenance of
leadership in providing the ideal project support for their customers.
Drawing on the benefits of this long term customer support relation, UNO
MINDA forges ahead.
It manufactures 2 wheeler switches and handle bar assemblies,
electronics and sensors, 4-wheeler switches and heater control panels,
automotive lamps, automotive horns, alternate fuel systems and CNGLPG kits, seat belts, alloy wheels, wheel covers, air filtration systems
and automatic gear shifters for OEMs technology and innovation are two
key pillars of MINDA philosophy.

Figure 1

BUSINESS AREA

WIRING HARNESS; 9% PANEL INSTRUMENTS; 1%


HORNS; 2%
LAMPS; 12%

LOCKS; 31%

SWITCHES; 45%

Figure 2

STUDY OF RIVETING PROCESS

RIVET:
A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. Before being installed, a
rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end.
The end opposite the head is called the buck tail. On installation the rivet
is placed in a punched or drilled hole, and the tail is upset, or bucked
(i.e., deformed), so that it expands to about 1.5 times the original shaft
diameter, holding the rivet in place.
To distinguish between the two ends of the rivet, the original head is
called the factory head and the deformed end is called the buck- tail.
Because there is effectively a head on each end of an installed rivet, it
can support tension loads; however, it is much more capable of
supporting shear loads. Bolts and screws are better suited for tension
applications.
1. Types
1.1.Solid / Round head rivets:
Solid rivets are one of the oldest and most reliable types of
fasteners, having been found in archaeological findings dating
back to the bronze age. Solid rivets consist simply of a shaft and
head that are deformed with a hammer or rivet gun. A rivet
compression or crimping tool can also deform this type of rivet.
This tool is mainly used on rivets close to the edge of fastened
material, since the tool is limited by the depth of its frame.
A rivet compression tool does not require two people, and is
generally the most fool proof way to install solid rivets. Solid rivets
are used in applications where reliability and safety count. A typical
application for solid rivets can be found within the structural parts
of aircraft.
Typical materials for aircraft rivets are aluminium alloys, titanium,
and nickel- based alloys.

Figure 3
1.2. High strength structural steel rivets:
Until relatively recently, structural steel connections were either
welded or riveted. High- strength bolts have largely replaced
structural steel rivets. The reason for the change is primarily due to
the expense of skilled workers required to install high strength
structural steel rivets.
Whereas two relatively unskilled workers can install and tighten
high strength bolts, it takes a minimum of four highly skilled
riveters to install rivets in one joint at a time.
Rivets were placed in the furnace and heated to a glowing hot
temperature. The rivet warmer or heater used tongs to individually
remove rivets and throw them to a catcher stationed near the joints
to be riveted. The catcher caught the rivet in a leather or a wooden
bucket with an ash lined bottom, placed the glowing hot rivet into
the hole to be riveted, and then quickly turned around to await the
next rivet.

Figure 4

1.3. Semi tubular rivets:


Semi tubular rivets are similar to solid rivets, except they have a
partial hole at the tip. The purpose of this hole is to reduce the
amount of force needed for application by rolling the tubular
portion outward. The force needed to apply a semi tubular rivet is
about of the amount needed to apply a solid rivet. Tubular rivets
can also be used as pivot points since the swelling of the rivet is
only at the tail. The most common base metals are steel, brass,
copper ,aluminium.
Semi- tubular rivets are the fastest way to rivet in mass production,
but require capital investment.

Figure 5
1.4.Blind rivets:
Blind rivets, commonly referred to as pop rivets (pop is the brand
name of the original manufacturer, now owned by Stanley
Engineered Fastening, a division of Stanley Black & Decker) are
tubular and are supplied with a mandrel through the center. The
rivet assembly is inserted into a hole drilled through the parts to be
joined and a specially designed tool is used to draw the mandrel
into the rivet. This expands the blind end of the rivet and then the
mandrel snaps off. These types of blind rivets have non- locking
mandrels and are sometimes avoided for critical structural joints
because the mandrels may fall out, due to vibration or other

reasons, leaving a hollow rivet that has a significantly lower load


carrying capability than solid rivets.
Unlike solid rivets, blind rivets can be inserted and fully installed in
a joint from only one side of a part or structure, blind to the
opposite side. Blind rivets are mainly used when access to the joint
is only available from one side. The rivet is placed in a drilled hole
and is set by pulling the mandrel head into the rivet body,
expanding the rivet body and causing it to flare against the reverse
side. Blind rivets are made from soft aluminium alloy, steel and
copper.

Figure 6
1.5. Drive rivets:
A drive rivet is a form of blind rivet that has a short mandrel
protruding from the head that is driven in with a hammer to flare
out the end inserted in the hole. This is commonly used to rivet
wood panels into a place since the hole does not need to be drilled
all the way through the panel, producing an aesthetically pleasing
appearance. They can also be used with plastic, metal and other

materials and require no special tool than a hammer and possibly


a backing block placed behind the location of the rivet while
hammering it into place. Drive rivets have less clamping force than
most other rivets.

Figure 7
2. Installation:
There are several methods for installing solid rivets.
Manual with hammer and handset or buckling bar.
Pneumatic hammers.
Riveting machines.
Pin hammer, rivet set.

3. Sizes:
Most rivets come in two basic sizes Imperial units with diameters such as 1/8(3.175) or 5/16 (7.938).
SI units with more readily understood diameters such as 3mm,
8mm and these have been adopted in Europe and in many
emerging countries.

4. Riveting machines:
Riveting machines are used to automatically set rivets in order to
join materials together. The riveting machines offer greater
consistency, productivity and lower cost when compared to manual
riveting. The downward force required to deform the deform the

rivet with an automatic riveting machine is created with the help of


pneumatic cylinder.
4.1. Impact riveting:
Impact riveting machines set the rivet by driving the rivet
downwards, through the materials to be joined and on into a
forming tool. This action causes the end of the rivet to roll over in
the roll set which causes the end of the rivet to flare out and thus
join the materials together. Impact riveting machines are very fast
and cycle time of 0.5 seconds is typical.

Figure 8

4.2. Orbital riveting:


Orbital riveting machines have a spinning forming tool(known as
peen) which is gradually lowered into the rivet which spreads the
material of the rivet into the desired shape depending upon the
design of the tool. Orbital forming machines offer the user more

control over the riveting cycle but the cycle time which can be 2 or
3 seconds.
Orbital riveting machines are used in a wide range of applications
including brake linings for commercial vehicles, aircraft and
locomotives, textile and leather goods

Figure 9

5. Riveting fixture and its main parts:


The following are the main parts of riveting fixture.
5.1. Pressure regulator:
Pressure regulators are used to control the pressure to lower
pressure system and higher pressure system or to regulate system
pressure at a desired value. The most important parameter to

consider when specifying pressure regulators is regulating or


adjusting range.

Figure 10

5.2. Riveting frame:


It isa housing in which all the parts are assembled together to
function individually. It is made of mild steel

5.3. Push button:


It is fixed with the side plate made of mild steel. The main function
of push button is to provide housing for emergency button, start
button.

Figure 11

5.4. Solenoid valve:


A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve. The
valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid. In the
case of two-port valve the valve is switched on or off; in the case of
three port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet
ports. Multiple solenoid can be placed together on a manifold.
Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in
fluidics their tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix
fluids.
Solenoids offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long
service life and compact design.

Figure 12

5.5. Pneumatic cylinder:


Pneumatic cylinders are mechanical devices which use the power
of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear
motion. Once actuated, compressed air enters into the tube at one
end of piston and, hence imparts force on the piston. In case of
riveting, pneumatic cylinders are used as it is quieter, cleaner and
do not require large amounts of space for fluid storage.

Figure 13

TIME STUDY
OF
HANDLE BAR SWITCH
(SW-0640V)

OPERATION NAME: START ASSY


Data start assy.(18.26)
OPERATION NAME:SOLDERING

Pick start knob and place on locater.(1.51)


Pick wire and move till tip.(3.25)
Dase soldering 1.(4.26)
Dase soldering 2.(4.23)
Wait, checking and put aside.(2.75)
Daselequering.(3.73)

OPERATION NAME:CASE LOWERING ASSY


Pick case rear and place on fixture.(1.95)
Pick case front and place on fixture.(2.25)
Pick wire and inspect symbol and place on case front.
(4.65)
Pick cord clamp (4.32)
Pick case rear and put aside.(2.18)
OPERATION NAME:DUST COVER ASSY AND SWITCH
COMPLETE

Pick assy and cut cord clamp.(3.35)


Pick dust cover and assemble.(3.75)
Pick rear cover and put on front cover.(1.87).
Pick stud and place into cover.(2.85)
Length tightening and put aside.(4.75)

OPERATION NAME:VISUAL INSPECTION AND PACKING

Pick switch and inspect and load on fixture.(3.82)


Insert coupler.(1.73)
Unload and loosening screw and put in bin.(4.86)

DESCRIPTION OF WORK STATION


WORK STATION 1: start assy
WORK STATION 2: soldering
WORK STATION 3: case lowering assy
WORK STATION 4: dust cover assy and switch complete
WORK STATION 5: testing
WORK STATION 6: visual inspection and packing

According to MINDA, the cycle time of a particular workstation


is the second least value from the set of different values.
WORK STATION 1: 18.26
WORK STATION 2: 19.78
WORK STATION 3: 18.50
WORK STATION 4: 18.12
WORK STATION 5: 18.65
WORK STATION 6: 15.86

25

20

15
TIME
10

Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category5 Category6

Customer reqirement = 30,000 per month, 1000 per day


Time available=27000
s.no
WORKSTATION
1
WORKSTATION
2
WORKSTATION
3
WORKSTATION
4
WORKSTATION
5
WORKSTATION
6

CATEGORY
1
18.26

CATEGORY
2

CATEGORY
3

CATEGORY
4

CATEGORY
5

CATEGORY
6

19.78
18.50
18.12
18.65
15.86

TAKT TIME= TIME AVAILABLE / CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT


TAKT TIME=27000/1000 = 27 SEC
CYCLE TIME= 19.78
CONCLUSION: Cycle time is found out more than the takt time. This is
the main objective of time study.