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# DKT 122 - DIGITAL SYSTEMS I

## LAB 3: OBSERVING DE MORGAN THEOREM WITH

DIFFERENT EQUATION

OBJECTIVE
1.
2.
3.
4.

## To convert a logic expression into a sum-of-product (SOP) operation.

To perform the necessary steps to reduce a sum-of-product expression.
To use Boolean Algebra and the Karnaugh Map as tools to simplify and design the logic
circuits.
To analyze the waveforms simulated and develop truth tables from these analysis

EQUIPMENTS/COMPONENTS

Computer Unit
Alteras Quartus II Software

INTRODUCTION
Theorem of Boolean algebra are a set of rules used with digital variables and logical operations
to develop, manipulate and simplify logical expressions. Boolean algebra provides systematic
means for discovering expressions. The Lab 3 is focusing more DeMorgan's Theorem.

DeMorgan Theorems.
DeMorgan's theorem allow large bars in Boolean expression to be broken up into the
smaller bars over individual variables. DeMorgan's Theorem says that the large bar
over several variables can be broken between variables if the sign between the
variables is changed. The DeMorgan's first theorem is stated as follows : The
complement of a product of variables is equal to the sum of the complements of the
variables. In another way, the complement of the two or more ANDed variables is
equivalent to the OR of the complements of the individual variables.
1st Theorem : NAND Gate Negative OR Gate

## DKT 122 - DIGITAL SYSTEMS I

Semester 2 Session 2012/13

## The DeMorgan's second theorem is stated as follows, the complement of a sum of

variables is equal to the product of the complements of the variables. In another way,
the complement of the two or more ORed variables is equivalent to the AND of the
complements of the individual variables.
2nd Theorem : NOR Gate Negative NAND Gate

From the above equation, it clear that a NAND gate is equal to a negative-OR and NOR
gate is equal to a negative-AND inputs.
Simplifying Logic Circuits
Once the expression for a logic circuits has been obtained, we may be able to reduce it
to a simpler form containing fewer terms or fewer variables in one or more terms. The
new expression can be then be used to implement a circuit that is equivalent to the
original circuit but that contains fewer gates and connections.
Example,
can be simplified into

The circuit of Figure 1(a) can be simplified to produce the circuit of Figure 1(b). Both
circuits perform the same logic, so it should be obvious that the simpler circuit is more
desirable because it contains fewer gates and will therefore be smaller and cheaper
that the original. Furthermore, the circuit reliability will improve because there are
fewer interconnections that can be potential circuits faults.

## DKT 122 - DIGITAL SYSTEMS I

Semester 2 Session 2012/13

## LAB 3 : OBSERVING DE MORGAN THEOREM WITH DIFFERENT EQUATION

Figure 1 - It is often possible to simplify a logic circuit such as that in part (a) to produce a
more efficient implementation, shown in (b)

## DKT 122 - DIGITAL SYSTEMS I

Semester 2 Session 2012/13

## LAB 3 : OBSERVING DE MORGAN THEOREM WITH DIFFERENT EQUATION

PROCEDURE
Part A- Verifying DeMorgan 1st Theorem
1. By using the Altera QUARTUS II Simulation Software, construct the circuit diagram on spreadsheet
based on the Figure 2 below.

Figure 2
2. Get the simulation waveform for circuit in Figure 2(a) above.
3. Verify the operation for circuit in Figure 2(a) by completing the Table 1(a) below.
A
B
X1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
Table 1(a) NAND Operation
4. Get the simulation waveform for circuit in Figure 2(b)above.
5. Verify the operation for circuit in Figure 2(b) by completing the Table 1(b) below.
A
B
X1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
Table 1(b) Inverting OR Operation
6. Discussed the result obtained in Table 1(a) and 1(b) and also the simulation waveform.
7. Get remarks for both simulation waveform results from instructor.

Remarks: __________________________

## School of Computer and Communication Engineering

Date : _____________________________

## DKT 122 - DIGITAL SYSTEMS I

Semester 2 Session 2012/13

## Part B- Verifying DeMorgan 2nd Theorem

1. By using the Altera QUARTUS II Simulation Software, construct the circuit diagram on spreadsheet
based on the Figure 3 below.

Figure 3
2. Get the simulation waveform for circuit in Figure 3(a) above.
3. Verify the operation for circuit in Figure 3(a) by completing the Table 2(a) below.
A
B
X1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
Table 2(a) NOR Operation
4. Get the simulation waveform for circuit in Figure 3(b) above.
5. Verify the operation for circuit in Figure 3(b) by completing the Table 2(b) below.
A
B
X1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
Table 2(b) Inverting AND Operation
6. Discussed the result obtained in Table 2(a) and 2(b) and also the simulation waveform.
7. Get remarks for both simulation waveform results from instructor.

Remarks: __________________________

## School of Computer and Communication Engineering

Date : _____________________________

## DKT 122 - DIGITAL SYSTEMS I

Semester 2 Session 2012/13

## TASK- Simplification using DeMorgans Theorem

1. By using the Altera QUARTUS II Simulation Software, construct the circuit diagram on
spreadsheet based on the equation below;

## 2. Get the simulation waveform for equation above.

3. Complete the truth table in Table 3 for Output Equation.
Input

Output

0
0

1
1

0
1

1
1

0
1

1
0

Output
Output
Equation Simplified

Table 3
4. Apply the DeMorgans Theorem to the expression in step (1). Get the simplified
expression.
5. By using the Altera QUARTUS II Simulation Software, construct the simplify circuit diagram on

## 6. Get the simulation waveform for equation in step (4).

7. Complete the truth table in Table 3 for Output Simplified
8. Discussed the result obtained in Table 3 and also the simulation waveform.

## 9. Get remarks for both simulation waveforms from instructor.

Remarks: __________________________
School of Computer and Communication Engineering

Date : _____________________________

## DKT 122 - DIGITAL SYSTEMS I

Semester 2 Session 2012/13

## LAB 3 : OBSERVING DE MORGAN THEOREM WITH DIFFERENT EQUATION

REPORT GUIDELINES :
1. Report must have a front page includes with ;
- Name
- Matrics No
- Course
- Lab session
2. Submit all attachments which had been remarked by instructor.
3. Write a discussion and conclusion.