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Substation Automation

and

Basic Concept Of
Numerical Technology

Protection Training

ABB,Bangalore

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Numerical Protection

Development of Protective Relays

Protective relays development has under gone following stages:


Electromechanical Relays Started 100 years ago.

Static or Electronics Relays Introduced in 1960s

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Microprocessor based Relays Present era started in 1980s

Electromechanical Relays
Introduction:
Initially protective relays were of electromechanical design, attracted
Armature or moving disc/cup type. Operating principal / characteristics
of these relays is depended on operating force of electromagnet and
Retarding force of spring.
Four types of Electromechanical relays were widely used: Magnetic
attraction, Magnetic Induction, DArsonval and Thermal units.

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These relays came in existence in the beginning of this century and


were the only choice till 1970.

Electromechanical Relays
Electromagnetic Relay

COIL

SHADING
RING

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DISK

Electromechanical Relays

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The first time-overcurrent relay made by ABB, type


TCB, manufactured 1905

Induction type time over-current relay type RI from 1920

Line distance relay type RYZKC from 1940

Electromechanical Relays
Draw back of Electromechanical Relays:
High operating time due to inertia of moving parts and hence

slow in operating.
High error (upto 10%) of measurement
High burden on CTs and PTs
Drift in characteristics due to ageing of components
No flexibility in use hence become redundant when system
grows and fault level increases.
Bigger dimensions
Frequent maintenance

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Affected by vibrations and shocks caused by external sources

Static or Electronics Relays


Introduction:
The expansion and growing complexity of modern power systems have
brought a need for protective relays with higher level of performance and
more sophisticated characteristics. This has been made possible by the
development of semiconductors and other associated components
which can be utilised in relay designs, generally referred to as
Solid-state or Static Relays.

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These relays use semiconductor devices like Diodes, Transistors,


Thyristors, Resistors, Capacitors and Op-Amps.

Faster operation
More accurate
Low burden on CT/PTs
Compact size
Less maintenance

Static or Electronics Relays

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Typical circuit configuration for a Solid-state instantaneous overcurrent relay

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Static or Electronics Relays

Waveforms of the Solid-state instantaneous overcurrent relay

Static or Electronics Relays

Still static relays have not fully met ever growing needs of
users following short coming still observed in static relays:
Not much flexibility in application

No memory features of previous faults

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No self supervision

Static or Electronics Relays

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Combiflex Assembly

RAZFE full scheme line distance relay - 1975

Microprocessor Relays

Introduction:
After electromechanical and static relays came the
era of Microprocessor based relays.
There has been a significant development in microprocessor based
Technology and it has brought revolutionary changes in all walks of
Life. How can protection relay technology be behind in adopting the same!

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Users now have a choice to use latest state of art microprocessor based
Relays.

Microprocessor Relays

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Logic Devices

Simple Logic Gates

Microprocessor Relays
Logic Devices

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Simple Combinational Circuit

Microprocessor Relays

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Logic Devices

Simple Sequential Circuit

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Microprocessor Relays

Basic Operation:

Microprocessor Relays

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Memories:
ROM:

Read Only Memory, used to store the relaying program

RAM:

Random Access Memory, used for storing samples and


intermediate quantities.

E2PROM:

Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory,


used for storing relay settings.

Microprocessor Relays

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Binary Number Representation:

Microprocessor Relays
Signal Processing is the extraction of information from measured data,
And any subsequent transformation of signals representing this information
For detection, estimation, classification or waveform synthesis.
Signal processing may also include derivation of information and processing
Of it.

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A digital protective relay receives several analogue input signals from


Conventional current and voltage transformers. The digital relay does
Seldom produce analogue output signals. Usually, a digital relay produces
Binary output signals.

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Microprocessor Relays

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Microprocessor Relays

Microprocessor Relays

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Analogue to Digital Conversion:

Successive Approximation Converter

Microprocessor Relays

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Sample and Hold Amplifier:

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Typical Numerical Relay Hardware

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REL5xx Numerical Relay Hardware Platform

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REL5xx Numerical Relay Software Platform

Numerical Relays
Less wiring
BI
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

1.8

Z_BLOCK
Z_CR
Z_CRG
Z_BC

Z<

BO
2.1

Z_TRZ1
Z_TRZ2
Z_T2

OR
START
AR_CB_READY
AR_CLOSE_CB

AR
1.9

2.2

AR_P3PH

TRIP_EXT_3PH
TRIP_CB_A

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TRIP

1.1

Programmable and Interconnectible Protection Software Blocks and Logic

Numerical technique - Advantages


Less wiring

Conventional
relay

dz
<
dt

Z<

IN

>

10

L
4
I
U 6
DC 4

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Numerical relay

I
U
DC

4
6
4

Z<
dz
<
dt

IN
I>

>

I>

Numerical technique - Advantages


Less wiring
R
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

BL O C K Z O N E

BO

TRZ 1

1.1

CR
CR G
BC

BASZ

Protection
functions
ST A RT _ A R

1.8

CB _RE AD Y

CL O SE _ CB

1.2

P 3P H

ARIF ICIB Auto-recloser


T R IP _ 1P H
1.9

T R I P_ A R_ 3 PH

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SPHT RL

T R IP _ AR _ 3P H
T R I PR

Trip logic

B.1

Numerical technique - Advantages


Less aging problems

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Static relay

Numerical technique - Advantages


Less aging problems

Numerical relay

Z<

I>

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# (01011)

Numerical technique - Advantages


Self supervision
Testing

Fault

Testing

MTTR: year
Conventional
protection

Repair

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Numerical protection
with
self supervision

MTTR: hours

Repair

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Numerical technique - Advantages


Communication

Ready Start
Trip
1993-Nov-02
14:49:25.425
TRZ1 TREFC ZM1

Test Kit

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RTS

C
E

PC
Local MMI
Parametration Parametration Information
Resetting of
Energizing
Automatic
indications
of contacts
testing
Change of
Status check parameters
Reporting
Back-up control
Directional
Simulation
check

SCS
Supervision
Control
Status
monitoring
Sequential
Control
Statistics

SMS
Calculation
Parametration
Evaluation
Expert
analysis

Numerical technique - Advantages


Greater flexibility
X

Four groups of settings

XGFCF
ZM3

Independent setting of all


parameters

ZM4
ZM2

Enable/disable all functions

ZM1

R Software configuration of logic


RGFC2
RGFC1
ZM5

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XGFCR

Software configuration of
binary I/O:s
Reduced requirements
on spares

Numerical technique - Advantages


Better functionality
X

Full scheme distance


protection

XGFCF
ZM3
ZM4

Phase segregated current


differential protection

ZM2
ZM1

R
RGFC2
RGFC1

Phase segregated CS
Built-in DR
Built-in FL

ZM5

Built-in Event Recorder

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XGFCR

Numerical technique - Advantages


Less space

Self supervision

Less wiring

Communication

Less terminations

Greater flexibility

Less components

Better functionality

Less aging problems

Adaptive functions

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There are only advantages!

Numerical technique - Advantages


Better performance
Savings in civil works
Savings in erection, cabling and commissioning
Savings in maintenance
Savings in cost/function

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There are only advantages!

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Numerical technique - Advantages

Automated Substation

Numerical Technique

Not new, but well-proven


REL 531
REC 561

RACID
RACIF
RAMDE

RELZ 100
REG 100
REOR 100

RANZA

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1980

82

84

86

88

REG 150
90

92

REL 501
REL 511
REL 521
REL 551
REL 561
REB 551

94

96

Technology Comparison
Subject
Measuring
Elements &
Hardware

Electromechanical
Induction disc,
Electromagnets,
Induction cup, etc

Static
Discrete R,L,C

Microprocessors,

Transistors

Digital ICs

Analogue ICs

Digital Signal
Processors,

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Comparators

ABB, Bangalore

Numerical

Measuring Method

Electrical
quantities
converted into
Mechanical force,
torque

Level detectors,
comparison with
reference value in
analogue
comparator

Analogue to Digital
conversion,
Numerical
algorithms
techniques
evaluate trip
criteria

Timing Function

Mechanical clock
works, Dashpot

Static Timers

Counters

Visual Indication

Flags, Targets

LEDs

LEDs LCD display

Trip Command

Additional Trip
Relay required

Additional Trip
Relay required

Trip relay inbuilt

Technology Comparison

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Subject

Electromechanical

Static

Numerical

Contacts
Assignments

Fixed

Fixed

Freely
Configurable

Sequence of
Events

Not possible

Not possible

Available

Hardware size

Bulky

Modular, Compact

Most Compact

Parameter settings

Plug setting, Dial


setting

Thumbwheel,
Potentiometers,
DIP switches

Human Machine
Interface,
Softwares

Binary Input &


Output

Not available

Not available

Available & Freely


configurable

Self supervision

No

Partially available

Yes

Calibration

Frequently
required as
settings drift due
to ageing

Required as
settings drift due
to ageing

Not required as
settings are stored
permanently in
memory in digital
format

Technology Comparison

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Subject

Electromechanical

Static

Numerical

Multiple
characteristics

Not possible

Not possible

Possible

Multiple Integrated
Protection Func.

Not possible

Not possible

Possible

Range of settings

Limited

Wide

Wide

Service value
indication

Not possible

Not possible

Possible

Disturbance
recording

External hardware

External Hardware

Inbuilt

Communication
facility

Not possible

Not possible

Available

Burden on CTs
and PTs

Higher

Lower than
Lower
Electromechanical.

Technology Comparison

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Subject

Electromechanical

Static

Numerical

Protection,Control,
Monitoring

Only protection

Protection,
Monitoring

Protection,
Control,
Monitoring

Solution

Fixed

Fixed

Extension and New


development
possible, open
architecture

Fault History

Not possible

Not possible

Stored in Memory

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CONTROL AND PROTECTION


1 - Distance protection

1
2
3
4 5
7
6
8
9

10

11 12
13 14
15
16
17

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Two relay panels 600mm x 650mm x 2250mm

2 - Three phase power swing unit


3 - Directional earth fault protection
4 - AC supervision circuits
5 - DC supervision circuits
6 - STUB protection
7 - Auxiliary relays
8 - Fault locator
9 - (Printer for fault locator)
10 - Disturbance recorder
11 - Signaling unit
12 - Parts of event recorder
13 - Breaker failure protection - 1 CB
14 - Tripping relays
15 - Autoreclosing for one CB
16 - Synchro check for one CB
17 - Auxiliary transformers for
disturbance recorder

CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Philosophy

Platform concept
Flexible functionality selection

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Application well proven


algorithms using new
technology

An open and modular concept

(E.g. 12 U + 12I)

A/D
5 kHz

Disturbance recording for


40 analog
channels
Memory, HMIup
andto
Control
& Monitoring
communication
and 100 disturbances

~
~
~
~

Fundamental
50/60 Hz
2nd, 3rd, 5th

24 analog channels
~
Current and/or voltage)

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PDIS

RPSB

PSOF

PIOS

POCM

PEFM

PTTR

RBRF

PTOC

RPLD

PUVM

POVM

600
PDIS
PTOF MHz
600
MHz
CPU
CPU
PFRC
PGPF
RDIF

Logic
PTRC
GGIO

I/O

PTUF

RSYN

RREC

PSCH

RFLO

MMTR

RDRE

11/14 I/O Boards


(E.g. 96 BO + 160 BI)

Trip
&
Signal
Matrix

Remote Protection Communication (Differential, Inter trip etc.)

Main Basic Functions in IED670


Service Value Measurement (I,U,P,Q,S,f)
Configurable logic and event counter
Signal and Tripping matrix
Remote communication (6 x 32 signals)
Event list (1000 signals)
Disturbance recorder for 40 analogue &
96 digital channels for 100 disturbances
Trip value & internal signals report
Self supervision & diagnostics
Supervision of I, U and mA inputs
Real time clock with external sync.
1 ms time resolution
6 selectable pre-defined parameter sets
>< U, I, I1 , I2 , 3I0 , f, Z configurable functions

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See Buyers Guide for more

Main Application Functions in IED670


Five Zone full scheme distance protection
Five terminal line differential protection
Six input transformer differential protection
High impedance and restricted EF differential
Ultra High Speed bus differential protection*
Phase segregated directional comparison
Adaptive Breaker Failure Protection
Four step Dir/Undir overcurrent protection
Four step Dir/Undir earthfault protection
Over Excitation & Over Load Protection
Multi purpose protection (E.g. Generators, Mho)
Multi bay & Multi breaker Control, AR & SC
Multi input measurement (24 AI)
High accuracy fault locator

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See Buyers Guide for more

*Next release end 2005

Functionality Screens
Co n t r o l

Control Screen

Sc r een
BB 1 4 2 1 k V
0 kV
BB 2
QB 1

QB 2

QC 1
QA 1
QC 2
0A
0 kV
QB 9
QC 9
So u t h Po i n t

4 0 0 k V OH L

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Las t D i s t u r bance
Re c # 0 6 0
2004 - 12 - 16
Fa u l t l o c a t i o n : 2 4 0 . 5 km
of
0 1 1 TOC1 - TR I P
0 1 2 TR I P - TR I P
of
0 2 5 ZM1 - S T L 1
of
2004 - 12 - 17 08 : 37
No r

12 : 43 : 57 . 349
f
f
f
t

- >on
- >on
- >on
h Co n n e c t i o n

Can be used as Default Screen


Single Line Diagram allows user to view and
operate the apparatuses in one bay
Last two disturbances displayed at the bottom
of the screen. - the two disturbances change
cyclically, after a fixed time
- configurable (if theres no DR, the
SLD covers the whole screen)
Important measurements are displayed on the
single line

IED670 is designed for YOUR requirements


want

Unique open system which can be


configured for integrated or distributed
protection & control architecture
Pre configured for all protection and
control applications....
...or freedom to distribute all functions &
logical nodes in any IED
Unique library of optimized algorithms +
customizer to solve special functions

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You can tailor the protection & control of


your substation for the performance,
redundancy and cost you want to have

It is flexible

Configurating IED670 for your needs


Object Protection & Monitoring
Lines & Cables
Transformers & Generators
Busbar & Breaker

Bay Control & Measurement


Single Bay
Multi Bay
One-and-a-half breaker

Integrated Bay/Object Automation


Bay Control & Protection
Object Protection & Control

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Customized Combinations

Configuring IED670 for each customer


Pre- configured IEDs are fully documented,
pre-tested and ready to use products for:
General utility & industry end users & integrators
REL670, RED670, RET670, REC670, REB670*
Pricelist & short delivery time

Customized IEDs are configured for specific


requirement as a service offer to:
Larger customers with own specification
Application & Simulation Service Package

Open IEDs for licenced partners


Licencees (ABB, ECP & selected end users)

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Training, Licence & Support from ABB

*Next release end 2005

Type solution 3a Breaker-and-a half x 5 bays

Bus 1

Bay Control
Breaker Protection

Bus 2

1
REC670
REB 670

REB 670

Line Protection
(Breaker Protection)
CB1
REL670

2
REL670

CB2
REC670

1
RET670

Combiflex

Combiflex

2
REC670

RET670

CB3

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Transformer Protection

ore reasons to improve your netwok with IED


00 MHz state-of-the-art CPU for high performance algorithms
x 4 = 24 analog inputs (24I, 12I + 12U, 18I + 6U, 21 I + 3U)
pre configured setting groups

applications in ONE IED (line, cable, transformer, reactor, bay, bus)


pages for different single line diagrams in graphical HMI

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1850 enabled from start (Designed for 61850 - not an after thought)

70

REB500 update
Fully supported as REB500
distributed & centralized
bus & breaker protection and as
REB500sys station protection
(bus, breaker, line, transformer)
REL316 algorithms integrated
as back up distance protection
RET316 algorithms integrated as
back up transformer protection

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Optional IEC61850 on request for


central unit

REx5xx series update


1994 Version 1.1 of REL, REB and REC
1998 Version 2.0 of REL, REB and REC
1999 Version 2.1 of RET
2000 Version 2.3 of REL, REB, REC and RES
2001 Version 2.3 of RET and version 1.0 of RED
2003/2004 Version 2.5 of REL, REB, REC, RES & RET

2005 REL, REB, REC, REO, RES, RED & REO 5xx
Fully supported with optional 61850 for selected versions on request*

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2005 IED670 first release for REL, RED, RET, REB, REC
Gradually offer equal & extended options to 316/500-series with
full IEC61850 implementation as well as new applications
*with converter

670 vs 500 series Evolution not Revolution


Same mechanical 19 design
Same internal CAN bus & I/O boards
Same basic algorithms & logic
Extended modular hardware
Max 24 Analogue Inputs
Max 14 I/O Boards (E.g.160 BI/98BO)

Higher CPU & memory capacity


Extended Function Library
Extended Disturbance Reporting (100 x 40)

Extended communication
5 terminal Line Differential
2 + 2 IEC61850/Ethernet

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Optional larger HMI


Multiple objects application

A major leap in grid reliability

Designed to

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communicate

A major
In Grid
Reliability

Summary of customer benefits


Reliable: Ensures grid reliability through innovation,
experience and commitment - Made in ABB
Efficient: Provides efficient substation automation solutions for
any high voltage application
Flexible: You can tailor the protection & control of your
substation for the performance, redundancy
and cost you want to have
Informative: Impoved availability and asset management
through right information,
in right time, to the right user, for right decisions
User friendly: Simple to select, set, operate and maintain
through pre configurated IEDs with built in multi page HMI and
advanced PCM tool

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Forever young: Adds value to your investment for the total life
cycle through simple re-configuration, evergreen upgrades and
interoperability

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