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V1 and the Go / No Go Decision

Performance
Performance Engineer
Engineer Operations
Operations
Flight
Flight Operations
Operations Engineering
Engineering
Rob
Rob Root
Root

October
October 2002
2002

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

DAILY NEWS
NEW YORKS PICTURE NEWSPAPER

Friday, September 22, 1989

RRTT
CCO
O-ONN AA O
TTII CCCC RREELL
NNUU IIDD AA
EE EENN TTEE
TTO
O TTSS DD
OCC
O
CCUU
RR!!

35 cents

V1 Go/No Go . 2

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Objectives
Importance of V11
Statistics of Past Rejected Takeoff (RTO)
Accidents and Incidents
Education for a Better Go/No Go
Decision
Avoid future overruns and RTOs!

V1 Go/No Go . 3

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

V1 Misnomer and Definition


V11 is interpreted differently:

Pilots
Engineers
Regulatory Agencies

V11 - is the speed at which the takeoff


should be continued unless the stopping
maneuver has already been initiated.

V1 Go/No Go . 4

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Reasons for RTOs?


NTSB Post Accident/Incident Discoveries
Rejects Were Unnecessary
V11 Technique Improper
The NTSB Concluded:
Pilots faced with unusual or unique
situations may perform high-speed RTOs
unnecessarily or may perform them
improperly.
- February 1990
V1 Go/No Go . 5

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

The Human Factor Approach


Windshear

Takeoff Safety

V1 Go/No Go . 6

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoff Safety Training Aid Development


1990 - 1992

Draft review mailing grew to 137


35 airlines (12 U.S.)
3 pilot associations
7 government agencies
5 industry associations
10 manufacturers
V1 Go/No Go . 7

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoff Safety Training Aid Contents


Section 1

Overview for Management

Section 2

Pilot Guide to Takeoff Safety

Section 3

Example Takeoff Safety Training Program

Section 4

Takeoff Safety - Background Data

Video

Rejected Takeoff and the Go/No-Go Decision

Flexibility to incorporate lessons into your initial, transition,


and recurrent training programs to meet your needs.

V1 Go/No Go . 8

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Driving Factors of Takeoff Safety Training Aid


Lessons Learned
Past Accidents
RTO Safety Task Force
Pilot Performance Study
Objectives
Improve ability of pilots to take
maximum advantage of all takeoff
performance margins
Make best Go/No-Go decisions
Effectively accomplish related procedure
V1 Go/No Go . 9

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

94 RTO Overrun Accidents/Incidents Since 1959


10
10

74
74 overruns
overruns included
included in
in TOSTA
TOSTA study
study
20
20 overruns
overruns since
since TOSTA
TOSTA study
study
Number
Number of
of
events
events per
per
year
year

55

00
1960
1960

1965
1965

1970
1970

1975
1975

1980
1980

1985
1985

1990
1990

1995
1995

2000
2000

Year
Year

V1 Go/No Go . 10

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoffs, RTOs, and Overruns

Takeoffs
RTOs (estimate)
RTO Overrun
Accidents/Incidents

Through
1990

Predicted
2000

230,000,000

20,000,000

76,000

6,700

74

V1 Go/No Go . 11

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoffs and RTO Overrun Incidents/Accidents


( By Decade )
7

162

6.3

180
160
140

5
Rate per 4
10 million
3
takeoffs

120

109

4.2
76

100 Millions of
takeoffs
80

2.6

60
1.4

40

19

1
0

1960s
2

20
1970s

1980s

1990s

RTO overrun accidents/incidents per 10 million takeoffs

Table

Decade

Departures

1960 - 1969
1970 - 1979
1980 - 1989
1990 - 1999

19,045,363
75,984,954
108,963,013
161,957,587

RTO overrun accidents/incidents Rate per 10 million takeoffs


12
32
28
22

6.3
4.2
2.6
1.4
V1 Go/No Go . 12

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Total Industry RTOs

( As a function of Speed )
80
76%
60
RTO overrun accidents
principally come from
the 2% of the RTO's
that are high speed

Percent
40
of total
18%

20

4%
0

80 knots
or less

80 to 100
knots

100 to
120 knots

2%
Above 120
knots

V1 Go/No Go . 13

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

RTO Accidents/Incidents - 74 Events


( Initiation Speed )

Unknown

Unknown

19%
Less than/
equal to V1

23%

20%
Greater than V1

58%

1959 - 1992

Less than/
equal to V1

26%

Greater than V1

54%

1959 - 1999

V1 Go/No Go . 14

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

RTO Accidents/Incidents - 74 Events


( Runway Condition )

Not reported

28%

Snow

Not reported

Dry

29%

38%

39%

Wet

Wet

24%

23%

10%

Snow

Dry

9%

1959 - 1992

1959 - 1999

V1 Go/No Go . 15

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Reasons for Initiating RTO - 74 Events


1959 - 1992

Engine
Wheel/Tire
Configuration
Indicator/Light
Crew Coordination
Bird Strike
ATC
Other/Not Reported

12%
10%
8%
7%
3%
13%

1959 - 1999

Engine
Wheel/Tire
Configuration
Indicator/Light
Crew Coordination
Bird Strike
ATC
Other/Not Reported

24%
23%

10
Number of events

15

20
21%
21%

12%
14%
11%
7%
2%
12%

10
Number of events

15

20
V1 Go/No Go . 16

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Review of the 74 Events Revealed:


80% Were Avoidable
By continuing
the takeoff

55%
By better
preflight
planning

Unavoidable

20%

9%
By correct stop
techniques

16%
V1 Go/No Go . 17

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

What Do The Statistics Mean?

RTOs are not common


Infrequency leads to complacency
Pilot must be prepared
V1 Go/No Go . 18

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Decision Time?

Oops, I think I should have already made my decision


V1 Go/No Go . 19

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Key Subjects for Flight Crews


Regulatory Rules and Certification Criteria
Takeoff Performance
Effects of Airplane & System Configuration
Takeoff Safety Margins

V1 Go/No Go . 20

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

V1 Is Two Concepts
V11 - Stop
( Maximum STOP Speed )

V11 - Go
( Minimum GO Speed )

35 ft

V1 Go/No Go . 21

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Official V1 Definition : (Prior to March 1, 1978)


[FAR Paragraph 25.107(a)]
V11 Critical engine failure speed.
V11 is the critical engine failure speed. It shall
not be less than the minimum speed at which
controllability by aerodynamic controls alone
is demonstrated during the takeoff run to be
adequate to permit proceeding safely with
the takeoff using average pilot skill, when the
critical engine is suddenly make
inoperative.
V1 Go/No Go . 22

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Official V1 Definition : (After March 1, 1978)


[FAR Paragraph 25.107(a)(2)]
V11 Takeoff decision speed.
It cannot be less than VEF
EF plus the speed
gained with the critical engine inoperative
during the time interval between the instant
the critical engine has failed and the instant
the pilot has recognized and reacted to the
engine failure by application of the first
retarding means.

V1 Go/No Go . 23

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Official V1 Definition (FAR Paragraph 25.107)


V11:
application of first retarding means during
accelerate - stop tests...

NOTE: In reality it is the speed where the flight


crew has begun to take action to either stop or
to continue the takeoff.

V1 Go/No Go . 24

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoff Rules

FAR Takeoff Field Length (Case #1)

35 feet
V22 + 10 to 25 knots*
V11
All engines
Go Distance (115% actual) VRR

*(Varies with airplane


type)
VLOF
LOF

1.15 times the actual distance

V1 Go/No Go . 25

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoff Rules

FAR Takeoff Field Length (Case #2)

35 feet
One engine inoperative
Accelerate-Go Distance

VEF
EF

V11

V22
VRR

VLOF
LOF

1 sec

V1 Go/No Go . 26

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoff Rules

FAR Takeoff Field Length (Case #3)

One engine inoperative/


all-engine

V
V 11
Accelerate-Stop Distance event

1 sec

RTO transition
complete
Stop
Transition

V1 Go/No Go . 27

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoff Rules

FAR Takeoff Field Length

35
35 feet
feet
V
10 to
to 25
25 knots*
knots*
V22++ 10
*(Varies
*(Varies with
with airplane
airplane type)
type)

All
All engines
engines
Go
Go Distance
Distance (115%
(115% actual)
actual)

1.15
1.15 times
times the
the actual
actual distance
distance
35
35 feet
feet
One
One engine
engine inoperative
inoperative
Accelerate-Go
Accelerate-Go Distance
Distance

V
V22

V
V11
V
VEF
EF

V
VRR

V
VLOF
LOF

11 sec
sec
One
V
One engine
engine inoperative/
inoperative/ all
all engine
engine
V11
Accelerate-Stop
Distance
Accelerate-Stop Distance
V
VEF
EF

11 sec
sec

RTO
RTO transition
transition
complete
complete

Stop
Stop
Transition
Transition
V1 Go/No Go . 28

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Transition to Stopping Configuration

Decision

V11

Distance
Allowance

Brakes
Applied

Speedbrakes
Raised
Thrust
Levers To
Idle
V1 Go/No Go . 29

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Rejected Takeoff Sequence


Brakes on, throttles closed
Spoilers deployed

Full braking configuration

Certification

Time from engine failure to full braking configuration:


Flight test demonstrated 1 to 1.4 seconds
Approximately 4 seconds for AFM expansion
AFM

Full braking configuration


Recognition

Brakes on
V1

Engine
failure

Throttles
closed

Spoilers
deployed

Time
V1 Go/No Go . 30

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Model Specific Transition Times

V1 Go/No Go . 31

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Accelerate-Stop Transition Segments


Pre
Pre 1981
1981

707,
707, 727,
727, 737-100/200
737-100/200
747-100/200/SP/300
747-100/200/SP/300
VEF
DC-8,
DC-8, DC-9,
DC-9, DC-10
DC-10
MD-80
MD-80

1
sec

Post
Post 1981
1981

757,
757, 767,
767, 747-400
747-400
737-300/400/500
737-300/400/500

VEF

VEVENT

Amendment
Amendment 25-92
25-92
737
737 NG,
NG, 757-300
757-300
767-400
767-400 (1998),
(1998), 717
717

Acceleration
Acceleration

V1

Typically
130 - 400

Brakes

Amendment
Amendment 25-42
25-42
777-200/300
777-200/300 (1995)
(1995)
MD-11,
MD-11, MD-90
MD-90

3 sec
(typical)

VEVENT

Flt test
transition

Throttle
2 sec
at VB

Speed
brakes

2 sec
continued
Flt test
acceleration transition
2 sec
at V1

Flt test
transition

Transition
Transition

Typically
60 - 100

Typically
100 -150

Base

Stopping
Stopping
V1 Go/No Go . 32

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoff Safety Training Aid Video

V1 Go/No Go . 33

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoff Performance Requirements


Five Subject Areas
Field Length
Climb
Obstacle Clearance
Tire Speed
Brake Energy

V1 Go/No Go . 34

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Maximum Allowable Takeoff Weight


Lower of Performance vs Structural Limit Weight
Performance (Varies from day-to-day)
Runway
Field Length
Tire Speed [hard limit for a given model]
Brake Energy [hard limit for a given model]
Obstacle
Climb
Structural (AFM Restriction - Maximum Certified)
V1 Go/No Go . 35

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Effect of V1 Speed on Takeoff Weight

Airplane
Airplane
weight
weight

Continued
Continued
takeoff
takeoff
Field
Field limit
limit weight
weight
Balanced field
field
Balanced
Limit V
V11 speed
speed
Limit

Increasing
Increasing

(for a fixed runway length)

V
speed
V11 speed

Rejected
Rejected
takeoff
takeoff
Increasing
Increasing

V1 Go/No Go . 36

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Balanced Field Length


Engine Out-Go Distance
= Engine Out-Stop Distance
However, the actual runway available is
usually longer than the minimum Balanced
Field Length Required

V1 Go/No Go . 37

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Details of the Go versus Stop Decision


35
35 feet
feet
One
One engine
engine inoperative
inoperative
Accelerate-Go
Accelerate-Go Distance
Distance

V
V11
V
VEF
EF

V
V22
V
VRR

V
VLOF
LOF

11 second
second minimum
minimum

One
One engine
engine inoperative
inoperative
Accelerate-Stop
Accelerate-Stop Distance
Distance

V
V11
V
VEF
EF

11 second
second minimum
minimum
Runway
Runway used
used to
to accelerate
accelerate
to
(typically 60%)
60%)
to V
V11 (typically

RTO
RTO transition
transition
complete
complete (AFM)
(AFM)

Stop
Stop
Transition
Transition
Runway
Runway available
available
to
Go/No
to Go/No Go
Go
(typically
(typically 40%)
40%)
V1 Go/No Go . 38

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Climb Gradients
Minimum
Minimum gradient
gradient
required
required
3%
44 engine
engine
33 engine
engine
22 engine
engine

Typical
Typical rate
rate of
of climb
climb

520
520 FPM
FPM at
at V
V22~170
~170 knots
knots

2.7%
2.4%

440
~160 knots
knots
440 FPM
FPM at
at V
V22~160
360
360 FPM
FPM at
at V
V22~150
~150 knots
knots

15
15 degree
degree bank
bank turn
turn will
will reduce
reduce these
these
climb
climb rates
rates by
by approximately
approximately 100
100 FPM
FPM

V1 Go/No Go . 39

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Atmospheric Conditions
Verify Takeoff Weight Adjustments

V1 Go/No Go . 40

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Runway Surface Condition


Wet or Contaminated

Affects friction between runway and tires

V1 Go/No Go . 41

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Dynamic Hydroplaning
Tire Braking Virtually Eliminated
Highly Sensitive to Speed

Flooded
Flooded
runway
runway

Must Apply Steady Brake Pressure!

V1 Go/No Go . 42

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Maximum Stopping Performance


Max brakes
Thrust idle
Speedbrakes
Reverse thrust

V1 Go/No Go . 43

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Tires and Brakes


Heat Buildup

Long
Long taxi
taxi

Excessive
Excessive braking
braking

Foreign
Foreign objects
objects

Visual Inspection
Wheel
Wheel cracks
cracks
V1 Go/No Go . 44

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Residual Brake Energy


Observe Brake
Temperature Limitations
and/or Minimum Cooling
Times

Follow Maximum Quick


Turnaround Weight
(MQTW) Chart
V1 Go/No Go . 45

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Effects of Maximum Stop


Shaded area indicates
degraded stopping
performance
Contaminated runway
Pilot technique
System failures
Speed
Speed off
off end
end of
of
runway,
runway, knots
knots

120
120

80
80

40
40

00
00

m
u
im
ax

44

eff

sto
t
or

88

12
12

Abort
Abort initiation
initiation speed
speed above
above
scheduled
knots
scheduled V
V11,, knots

V1 Go/No Go . 46

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Speedbrakes
Stopping
Stopping with
with airplane
airplane
brakes
brakes but
but no
no
speedbrakes
speedbrakes
60-70
60-70 kts
kts

400400- to
to 600-feet
600-feet
overrun
overrun

V1 Go/No Go . 47

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Speedbrake Effects
Weight
on tire

Forward
motion
Total stopping force capability

Rolling

Brake
torque

Speedbrakes down

34%
increase
Braking
Braking force
force

Drag

(Braking force =
braking friction x load on tire)*

Brakes

* Brake torque not limiting

Drag
Lift
Net load on wheels
Maximum braking force
Maximum stopping force
(brakes and drag)

Speedbrakes up

Lift
Drag

Brakes
Load on
wheels

Speedbrake position
Down

Up

Difference
speedbrake up

8,500 lbs
52,000 lbs
141,600
75,500

14,700 lbs
-1,200
194,800
98,000

+73%
-102%
+38%
+29%

84,400

112,700

+34%

V1 Go/No Go . 48

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Speedbrakes Versus Reverse Thrust


Field length limit dry runway
One
One engine-out
engine-out RTO
RTO
Brakes
Brakes ++ speedbrakes
speedbrakes ++ reverse
reverse thrust
thrust

One
One engine-out
engine-out RTO
RTO
Brakes
Brakes ++ reverse
reverse thrust
thrust

100100- to
to 300-ft
300-ft
margin
margin

300300- to
to 600-ft
600-ft
overrun
overrun
V1 Go/No Go . 49

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Flap Selection

Typical Large Two-engine Airplane Takeoff Performance

8,700ft.
8,700ft. runway
runway
sea
sea level
level 37
37 C
C

Flap
Flap setting
setting
11

55

15
15

20
20

Runway
Runway limit
limit
weight,
weight, lb.
lb. (kg)
(kg)

358,300
358,300
(162,494)
(162,494)

374,200
374,200
(169,705)
(169,705)

389,000
389,000
(176,417)
(176,417)

393,600
393,600
(178,503)
(178,503)

Climb/obstacle
Climb/obstacle
limit
limit weight,
weight, lb.
lb. (kg)
(kg)

414,100
414,100
(187,800)
(187,800)

407,300
407,300
(184,717)
(184,717)

393,600
393,600
(178,503)
(178,503)

383,000
383,000
(173,696)
(173,696)

V1 Go/No Go . 50

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Engine Bleed Air


Bleed Air Reduces Thrust
Air conditioning
Anti-ice
Increase Takeoff EPR or
N1
Consult Operations
Manual

V1 Go/No Go . 51

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Minimum Equipment List (MEL) and


Configuration Deviation List (CDL)
May affect
acceleration or
deceleration
capability

** Check Revised Procedures **


V1 Go/No Go . 52

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Better Simulator Fidelity


Validates Desired
Performance

V1 Go/No Go . 53

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Go and Stop Margins with a Tire Failure


Takeoff flaps
Certified performance
Dry runway
Field length limit weight

Engine
falls
VEF
EF

Same initial conditions

50 ft

Landing flaps
Certified performance less
blown tire effects
Takeoff weight minus
burnoff and fuel dump (opt)
40 to 60%

Tire
fails

VRR

Go

35 ft

Transition
V11
complete
Full stopping
no reverse
Reject

Go

Approx
150 ft

VRR

V11 Transition
complete
Reduced braking
capability plus all
Reject
engine reverse

Stop
Zone

Available Runway

40 to
60 kts
300 to 500 ft
overrun

Margin 60 to 40 %
V1 Go/No Go . 54

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

FMS Speeds and Weights


TAKEOFF REF
OAT

NO Safety
Margin Data
Available

23 C

SEL TEMP
- - - C
SEL TEMP

92 . 5 / 9 2 . 5 %

f/f
V1

130 K T

VR

131 K T

V2

139 K T

- - - - - - - PRE-FLT COMPLETE - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

>INDEX

V1 Go/No Go . 55

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

The Crew

Preflight Briefing
Cockpit Callouts
Positive Action If Malfunction Occurs
V1 Go/No Go . 56

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

The Briefing

Clear

Concise

Agreement of Responsibilities
( MEL, Weather, Noise Abatement, etc. )
V1 Go/No Go . 57

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Items to Reject For


Low Speed:
System Failures
Unusual Noise or Vibration
Tire Failures
Abnormal Acceleration
Configuration
Engine Failure/Fire
Unsafe/Unable to Fly
High Speed:
Engine Failure/Fire
Unsafe/Unable to Fly
V1 Go/No Go . 58

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Communication

Precise

Clear

Use Standard Callouts


( Normal, Malfunctions, V11 )
V1 Go/No Go . 59

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Timely V1 Callout

0
60
400
350
300

MACH

80
100
120

140
KNOTS 7
250
1 2 6 160
240
5
220 200 180

Finish the callout


as the airplane
reaches V11
Ensures a No Go
decision will not be
made after V11

V1 Go/No Go . 60

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Takeoff Sample Go Margins


All
All engines
engines

(150)
(150)

Height
Height at
at end
end
of
of runway
runway (feet)
(feet)

40
40
(35)
(35)
30
30
20
20
10
10
00
-20
-20

V
10 to
to 25
25 knots
knots
V22 ++ 10

One
One engine
engine inoperative
inoperative
V
V22
ppllaannee
r
i
r
a
i
a
e
in e
nnee
44 eennggin
a
l
a
ee
l
pp
n
r
n
i
r
i
a
a
a
l
ee a
ppl
r
n
r
i
n
i
i
i
g
a
ng
ee a
33 een
n
n
i
ggi
n
n
e
22 e
-16
-16

-12
-12

-8
-8

Typical
Typical
V
V11 range
range
One
One second
second
minimum
minimum

-4
-4

00

+4
+4

+8
+8

Speed
Speed at
at actual
actual engine
engine failure
failure
(knots)
relative
relative to
to V
VEF
EF (knots)
V1 Go/No Go . 61

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

RTO Safety Task Force Recommendations


Regulatory

Advisory

Standardize accelerate-stop
transition
Wet runway accountability

Develop model training


practices
Develop model
operational guidelines
Improve simulator fidelity

Worn brake accountability


Line up distance
accountability

Provide runway condition


reports
Residual brake heat
accountability

V1 Go/No Go . 62

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Operations and Training Recommendations


Pilots need more education and training on:
Operational

Training: Ground

High speed callout


Timely V11 callout

Meaning of V11
Maximum braking
Basic performance techniques
RTO on balanced
Contaminants
field
Reverse thrust
Tire failures
Flap selection
Warnings/cautions
and reduced V11

Correct procedures
Standardize callout
Use of RTO
autobrakes
Pre-takeoff briefing

Training: Simulator

V1 Go/No Go . 63

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Advisory Circular 120-62


FSAT 96-05 - Operator Use of "Takeoff Training Aid"
{New-96-6 Added June 30, 1996}
Flight Standards Information Bulletin (FSIB) for Air Transportation (FSAT)
EFFECTIVE DATE: 05-08-96
TRACKING: NTSB Recommendations A-90-41 through -48
NOTE: THIS BULLETIN REQUIRES PTRS INPUT. SEE ITEM 3.
1. BACKGROUND. National Tran sportation Safety Board (NTSB) Safety
Recommendations A-90-41 through -48 address Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) oversight of airline pilot training in rejected takeoff (RTO) maneuvers.
The FAA published Advisory Circular (AC) 120-62, "Takeoff Training Aid,"
which responds to these recommendations. The Safety Board is concerned that
some operators are not using the material contained in the AC in their training and
procedures. To reassure the NTSB that the AC has been implemented by all Title
14 Code of Federal Regulations part 121 (14 CFR part 121) operators, the FAA is
documenting the material's implementation and use by all operators in pilot training
programs and operations.
2. ACTION. Principal operations inspectors (POI) are requested to document that
all operators are using the information contained in AC 120-62 in both training
and procedures. This documentation is requested within sixty (60) working days
of the effective date of this bulletin.
3. PROGRAM TRACKING AND REPORTING SUBSYSTEM (PTRS). POIs
shall make a PTRS entry to document that each operator is using the information
in AC 120-62 in both training and procedures. POI's shall follow the procedures as
outlined in HBAT 94-08, Program Tracking and Reporting Subsystem (PTRS)
Documentation of Action Required by Flight Standards Bulletins. The PTRS entry
shall be listed as Activity Code Number 1381; the "national use" field entry should
be FSAT9605. POI's should use the comments' section to record comments of
interaction with the operators
4. INQUIRIES. Questions or comments regarding this FSAT should be directed to
AFS-210 at (202) 267-7480.
5. EXPIRATION DATE. This FSAT will expire May 31, 1997.
/s/
David R. Harrington

To reassure the NTSB that the


AC has been implemented by
all Title 14 Code of Federal
Regulations part 121 (14 CFR
part 121) operators,
Principal operations inspectors
(POI) are requested to
document that all operators are
using the information contained
in AC 120-62 in both training
and procedures.
V1 Go/No Go . 64

V1
V1 && Go/No
Go/No Go
Go Decision
Decision

Final Thoughts
80% of events were avoidable
Full thrust available in 75% of cases
Over half of rejects initiated after V11
Most takeoffs performed at less than
limiting weight
More margins exist with Go decision

V1 Go/No Go . 65