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ABSORPTION-RESISTING: Incapable of taking up water (or any other liquid deleterious to the material under consideration,
to which such material is liable to be exposed) sufficiently to affect electrical or mechanical properties to an appreciable
extent under conditions of use.
ACCESSIBLE: (As applied to wiring methods) Not permanently closed in by the structure or finish of the bldg; capable of being
removed without disturbing the building of finish.
(As applied to equipment) Admitting close approach because not guarded by locked doors, elevators or other effective
ACCESSORIA TYPE BLDG: A building that has partitions from the first floor up to the last floor with each bay or section
intended for different and independent occupants.
APPLIANCE: Appliances are current consuming equipment, fixed or portable;
AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER: An air circuit breaker is one in which the interruption occurs in air.
AIR TERMINAL: (For lightning protection) An air terminal is the combination of elevation rod and brace, or footing placed on
upper portions of structures, together with tip or point if used.
AIR SWITCH: An air switch is one with contacts the separate in air.
ALIVE: means electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrical charged so as to have a potential different
from that of the earth.
APPROVED: Acceptable to the authority enforcing this Code. When used with reference to any particular electrical equipment
means that such equipment has been submitted for examination and test to the Govt agency concerned and that formal
approval has been given to the effect that it conforms to the Standards established under the provisions of this Code.
APPROVED FIREDOOR: a fire door and hardware of a type approved for the class of service to which it is applied and labeled
or certified by competent and recognized authority.

ARC WELDING: arc welding is a group of welding processes wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an electric arc
or arcs, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal.
* ARC VOLTAGE: arc voltage is the voltage across the welding arc.
ARMOUR: a wrapping of galvanized interlocking steel strip forming an integral part of the assembly of certain insulated cables,
wires or cords, which are capable of withstanding certain mechanical tests.
* ARMORED CABLE: (In interior wiring) An armored cable is a fabricated assembly of insulated conductors and a flexible
metallic covering.
ARMORED CABLE: (in interior wiring) Is a provided cable with a wrapping of metal, usually steel wires or tapes, primarily for
the purpose of mechanical protection.
ASKAREL: A synthetic nonflammable insulating liquid which, when decomposed parts included in an electric arc, evolves only
non-explosive gases.
ASSEMBLY: is a combination of all or of a portion of component parts included in an electric apparatus, mounted on a
supporting frame or panel, and properly interwired.
ATTACHMENT PLAG: (Plug Cap) An attachment plug is a device which by insertion in a receptacle, established connection
between the conductors or attached flexible cord and the conductors connected permanently to the receptacle.
AUTHORIZED PERSON: A qualified person who by the nature of his duties or occupation is obliged to approach or handle
electrical equipment; or a person who having been warned on the hazards involved, has been instructed or authorized to
do so by someone in authority.
AUTOMATIC CONTROLLER: an electric controller in which the influence directing the performance of its basic functions is
AUTOMATIC WELDING: is welding with equipment, which performs the entire welding operation without constant observation
and adjustment or is controls by a person. The equipment may or may not perform the loading and unloading of the work.

Auxiliary gutter: A sheet-metal enclosure for conductors, cables and bus bars at switchboards, meter centers, distribution
centers and similar points.
B & S GAUGE: the Brown and Shaped (or American) wire Gauge as applied to non ferrous conductors and non-ferrous sheet
* BASE LOAD: Is the minimum load over a given period of time.
* BRACH CIRCUIT: A branch circuit is that portion of a wiring system extending beyond the final over current device protecting
the circuit. A device not approved from branch circuit protection such as thermal cutout or motor overload protective
device, is not considered as the overcurrent device protecting the circuit.
BRANCH CIRCUIT-APPLIANCE: is a circuit supplying energy to one or more outlets to which appliances are to be connected;
such circuits to have no permanently connected lighting fixtures not a part of an appliance.
BRANCH-CIRCUIT DISTRIBUTION CENTER: is a distribution center at which branch circuits are supplied.
BRANCH-CIRCUIT GENERAL PURPOSE: a branch circuit that supplies a number of outlets for lighting and appliances.
BRANCH-CIRCUIT INDIVIDUAL: A branch circuit that supplies only one utilization equipment.
BREAKDOWN: (Puncture) A Breakdown is a disruptive discharge through insulation.
BUILDING: a structure which stands alone or which is cut off from adjoining structures by fire walls with all opening therein
protected by approved fire doors.
BUS: Is a conductor, or group of conductors, in switchgear assemblies, which serves as a common connection for two or more
BUSWAY: An approved, completely assembled metal roughing and fittings therefore containing bare conductors intended for
use as feeders, the conductors being suitably supported on insulators.

CABINET: an enclosure designed either for surface or flush mounting and provided with a frame, mat or trim in which swinging
doors are hung.
CABLE: is either a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings, or a combination of conductors insulated
from one another.
CAGE: Is a system of conductors forming an essentially continuous conducting network over the object protected and including
any conductors necessary for interconnection of the object protected and an adequate ground.
CAPACITY FACTOR: The capacity factor is the ratio of the full load rating to the average load on a machine or equipment for
the period or time considered.
CIRCUIT BREAKER: A device designed to open under abnormal conditions a current carrying without injury to itself. The term
applies only to the automatic type designed to trip on a determined overload of current.
CLEARANCE (Transmission & Distribution): clearance is the minimum separation between two conductors, between
conductors, and supports, or other objects between conductors and ground.
CLEAT: is an assembly of two pieces of insulating material provided with groovers for holding one or more conductors at a
definite spacing from the surface wired over and from each other, and with holes for fastening in position.
CLIMBING SPACE: is the vertical space reserved along the side of a pole or tower to give linemen ready access to equipment
and conductors installed thereon.
COMBINED MECH & ELEC STRENGTH OF AN INSULATOR: the combined mechanical and electrical strength of an
insulator is the loading in pounds at which the insulator fails to perform its function either electrically or mechanically,
voltage and mechanical stress being applied simultaneously.
COMMUNICATION CIRCUIT: A circuit which is a part of a so called central station system. Includes telephone , telegraph, fire
and burglar alarms, watchmen, and sprinkler supervisory circuits.
CONCEALED: Rendered inaccessibility by the structure circuits or finish of the bldg. Wires in concealed raceways are
considered concealed, even though they may become accessible by withdrawing them.

* CONDUCTOR: A conductor is a wire or combination of wires not insulated from one another, suitable for carrying electric
BARE: a bare conductor is one having no covering or insulation.
COVERED: a covered conductor is one having one or more layers of non-conducting materials that are not recognized as
CONDUIT FITTING: A conduit fitting is necessary which serves to complete a conduit syStem, such as bushings and access
CONE OF PROTECTION: Is the space enclosed by a cone formed with its apex at the highest point of a lightning rod or
protecting tower, the diameter of the base of the cone having a definite relation to the height of the rod or tower.
CONNECTED LOAD: The connected load is the sum of the continuous ratings of the load consuming apparatus connected to
the system or any part thereof.
CONNECTOR: (Splicing sleeve) is a metal sleeve, usually copper that is slipped over and secured to the butted ends of the
conductors in making up a joint.
CONNECTOR, PRESSURE: (Splicing sleeve) a pressure wire connector is a device which establishes the connection between
two or more conductors and a terminal by means of mechanical pressure and without the use of soder.
CONTACT SURFACE: Contact surfaces are the surfaces which meet and through which the current is transferred when the
contacts are closed.
CONTINUOUS CURRENT RATING: The continuous current which may be carried for an unlimited period without causing any
of the established limitations to be exceeded.
CONTROL: is broadly the methods and means of governing in some predetermined manner, the electric apparatus to which it
is connected.

COOKING UNITS, COUNTER MOUNTED: an assembly of one or more domestic surface heating elements for cooking
purposes designed for flush mounting in or supported by a counter and which assembly is complete with inherent or
separately mountable controls and internal wiring.
* CORONA: is luminous discharge due to ionization of the air surrounding a conductor caused by a voltage gradient exceeding a
certain critical value.
CURRENT-PERMIT: written permission from the corresponding Govt. electrical or inspection department to the electric power
supply company to the effect that electric energy may be supplied to a particular installation.
CUTOUT BOX: An enclosure designed for surface or flush mounting and having swinging doors or covers secured directly to
the walls of the box proper.
DUMP PLACE: any place in which moisture is present , either permanently or impertinently, to such an extent that it would be
likely to impair the effectiveness of an installation conforming to the minimum requirements for ordinary conditions.
DEAD: means free from any electric connections to a source of potential difference from that of the earth. The term is used
only with reference to current-carrying parts which are sometimes alive.
DEAD-FRONT MOUNTING: is the method of mounting a circuit breaker or switch with all exposed operating parts adequately
insulated, so that a protective grounded and/or insulated barrier is interposed between all parts carrying electric current
and the operator.
DEMAND FACTOR: demand factor of any system, or part of a system, is the ratio of the maximum demand of the system, or
parts of a system, to the total connected load of the system, or of the part of the system under consideration.
DEVICE: A unit of an electrical system, which is intended to carry but not utilize electric energy.
DISCONNECTING MEANS: a device, or grp of devices, or other means whereby the conductors of a circuit can be
disconnected from their source of supply.

DISCONNECTING SWITCH: a disconnecting switch is the one used for closing, opening or changing the connections in a
circuit or system, or for isolating purposes, and is intended to be operated only after the circuit has been opened by some
other means.
DISRUPTIVE DISCHARGE: is the sudden and large increase in current through an insulating medium due to the complete
failure of the medium under electrostatic stress.
DISTRIBUTION CENTER: is a point at which energy is divided among feeders or branch circuits or combinations of both, and
where over current devices are usually located.
DISTRIBUTOR DUCT: is a duct installed for occupancy of distribution mains.
DIVERSITY FACTOR: is the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the various subdivisions of a system to the
maximum demand of the whole system.
DRIP-PROOF: means so constructed or protected that successful operation is not interfered with when falling drops of liquid or
solid particles strike the enclosure at any angle from 0 to 15 degrees from the downward vertical unless otherwise
DRIPTIGHT: means so constructed or protected that drops of liquid or solid particles striking the enclosure at any angle from 0
to 15 degrees from the downward vertical unless otherwise specified, cannot enter the enclosure either directly or by
striking and running along a horizontal or inwardly inclined surface.
* DUCT: is a single enclosed runway for conductors and cables.
DUMBWAITER: a hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car, which moves in guides in a substantially vertical
direction, the floor area of which does not exceed 9sq ft, whose compartment height does not exceed 3ft 6in, the capacity
of which does not exceed 500lbs, and which is used exclusively for carrying freight.
DUST IGNITION PROOF MACHINES: is a totally enclosed machine whose enclosure is designed and constructed in manner
which will exclude ignitable amounts of dusts or amounts of dust which might affect performance with the Philippine
Electrical Code.
DUSTPROOF: so constructed or protected that dust will not interfere with successful operation.

DUST-TIGHT: so constructed or protected that dust will not enter the enclosing case.
DUTY: Duty is the requirement of service which defines the degree of regularity of the load.
CONTINUOUS: is a requirement of service that demands operation for alternate intervals of (1) load and no load, or (2)
load and rest; or (3) load, no load and rest.
INTERMITTENT: is a requirement of service that demands operation at a substantially constant load for an indefinitely
long time.
PERIODIC: is a type of intermittent duty in which the load conditions are regularly recurrent.
SHORT TIME: short time duty is a requirement of service that demands operation at a substantially constant load for a
short and definitely specified time.
VARYING: is a requirement of service that demands operations at loads and for intervals of time both of which may be
subject to wide variations.
ELECTRICAL METALLIC TUBING: metal pipe into which electric wires may be drawn and which has a wall thinner than that
of rigid conduit with an outside diameter sufficiently different from that of rigid conduit to render it impracticable for anyone
to thread it standard pipe thread.
ELECTRIC CONTROLLER: is a device or a group of devices, which serves to govern, in some predetermined manner, the
electric power delivered to the apparatus to which it is connected.
ELECTRIC ELEVATOR: one which the motion of the car is obtained through an electric motor directly applied to the elevator
* ELECTRIC MOTOR: is a machine which transforms electric power into mechanical power.
ELECTRIC SIGN: a fixed or portable, self-contained electrically illuminated appliance with words or symbols designed to
convey information or attract attention.
ELEVATOR: a hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car or platform which moves in guides in a substantially
vertical direction.

ELEVATOR MACHINE: The machinery and its equipment used in raising and lowering the elevator car or platform.
ELEVATION ROD: (for lightning protection) an elevator is the vertical portion of conductor in an air terminal by means of which
it is elevated above the object to be protected.
EMERGENCY LIGHTS: all lights, in a theatre, or other building used for public assembly, which are kept lighted continuously
while the theatre or building is being used to provide safe exit and entry.
EMERGENCY SERVICE: is an additional service intended only for used under emergency conditions, that is when the normal
source of power fails.
ENCLOSED: surrounded by a case which prevents a person from accidentally contacting live parts.
EQUIPMENT: a general term including material, fitting, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus and the like, used as a part of,
or in connection with, an electrical installation.
EXPLOSION-PROOF: enclosed in a case which is capable of withstanding an explosion of a specified gas or vapor which
occur within it, and of preventing the ignition of a specified gas or vapor surrounding the enclosure by sparks, flashes or
explosion of the gas or vapor within.
EXPOSED: (as applied to wiring method) exposed means that an object or device can be inadvertently touched or approached
nearer than a safe distance by any person. It is applied to objects not suitably guarded or isolated.
EXPULSION TYPE ARRESTER: is an arrester having a characteristic element in which an arc is confined and brought in
contact with gas evolving or other arc extinguishing material in a manner which enables it to interrupt power follow
EXTENSION CORD: is an assembly of a flexible cord with an attachment plug on one end and a connector on the other.
EXTERNALLY OPERABLE: capable of being operated without exposing the operator to contact with live parts.
FEEDERS: is the circuit conductors between the service equipment, or generator switchboard of an isolated plant, and the
branch circuit overcurrent device.

FIREPROOF: as applied to buildings or portions thereof, means that hey are constructed of approved masonry, reinforced
concrete or other non-flammable materials.
FIXTURE: an integral, separate or self-contained unit which may contain one or more bulbs or fluorescent tubes.
FLAME-RETARDANT: means so constructed or treated that it will not readily burn or convey flame.
FLAMMABLE: applied to readily combustible or ignitable materials such as straw, hay, wood shavings, light draperies, celluloid
oils, gasoline, etc.
FLASHOVER: is a disruptive discharge around or over the surface of a solid or liquid insulator.
FLEXIBLE CONDUIT: non-rigid metal conduit into which conductors may be drawn.
FLEXIBLE TUBING: non-metallic and non-rigid tubing commonly known as loom, into which a conductor may be drawn.
FOOTCANDLE, FC: is the unit of illumination when the foot is taken as the unit of length. It is the illumination on a surface one
square foot in area on which there is uniformly distributed flux of one lumen, or the illumination produced at a surface all
point of which are at a distance of one foot from a uniform point source of one candle.
FOOTINGS: are structure set in the ground to support the bases of towers, poles or other overhead structures.
FUSE: is an overcurrent protective device with a circuit-opening fusible member which is heated and severed by the passage
of overcurrent through it.
FUSE CURRENT RATING: the current rating of a fuse is designed RMS alternating, or direct current which will carry
continuously under stated conditions.
FUSE CUTOUT: is a form of use and its holder or enclosure characterized by the ready and safe replace ability of the fuse
FUSE HOLDER: is a device to support a fusible, link and to complete the contact between the fusible link and the fuse clips.

FUSE VOLTAGE RATING: the voltage rating of a fuse is that RMS alternating or direct voltage for which it is designated.
GAS-TIGHT: so constructed that gas cannot enter the enclosing case.
GENERAL-USE SWITCH: a switch intended for use in general distribution and branch-circuits. It is rated in amperes and is
capable of interrupting its rated current at rated voltage.
GROUND: is a conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and earth,
or to some conducting body which serves in place of the earth.
GROUNDED: means connected to earth or to some conducting body which serves in place of the earth.
GROUNDED CIRCUIT: is a circuit in which one conductor or point is intentionally grounded, either solidity or though a
grounding device. Usually the neutral conductor or neutral point of transformer or generator windings.
GROUNDED-ELECTRODE: a buried metallic water-piping system, or metal object or device buried in, or driven into, the
ground to which a grounding-conductor is electrically and mechanically connected.
GROUNDING CONDUCTOR: a conductor used to connect an equipment, device or wiring system with a grounding electrode
or electrodes.
GUARDED: Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings barriers, rails
or screens, mats or platforms, to remove the liability of dangerous contact or approach by persons or objects to a point of
GUY: is a tension member usually galvanized wire, having one and secured fixed object on the ground and the other end
attached to a pole, cross arm or other structural part which it supports.
GUY INSULATOR: is an insulating element, generally of elongated form with traverse holes or slots for the purpose of
insulating two sections of a guy or provide insulation between structure and anchor and also provide protection in case of
broken wires falling on the guy.