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Assessment is an aid in determining students ability levels in various academic areas

and to guide their instruction.
It is an evaluation, and might consist of anything from simple observatrions that a
teacher or aide jots down while a student works on an assignment to complex, muktistage procedures such as a group of teachers assembling a large portfolio of student

A collection of student work gathered to demonstrate student performance on specific
skill and knowledge, generally linked to state content standards. A collection of student
work gathered to demonstrate student performance on specific skills and knowledge,
generally linked to state content standards. Portfolio contents are individualized, and
may include wide ranging samples of student learning, including but not limited to actual
student work, observations recorded by multiple persons on multiple occasions, test
results, record reviews, or even video or audio records of student performance.

1. Working Portfolio. Teacher, student, and parents all contribute to the portfolio. Both
works in progress and final product pieces are included.
2. Showcase Portfolio. The portfolio houses only the student's best work generally does
not include works in progress. The student manages the portfolio and decides what to
place in it.
3. Record Keeping or Teacher Portfolio. The portfolio houses student test papers and work
samples and is maintained by the teacher. It containes work thaty the student did not
select for inclusin in the showcase portfolio. Batzle (1992)


An Anecdote is a narrative told from the point of view of an observer. Anecdotal evidence
is considered unreliable and is seldom acceptable as a means to validate an educational
method or technique. Still, anecdotal evidence can be helpful when assessing a student,
especially a student with behavioral issues. A starting point for a behavioral intervention
is anecdotes, especially anecdotes collected by several different observers.
Sometimes those anecdotes are written in an ABC form, or Antecedent, Behavior,
Consequence, a way in which the function of the behavior can often be identified. By
observing the events or setting of the behavior being observed, by describing the
behavior and figuring out the consequence, or benefit the student receives.


A longitudinal study is observational research performed over a period of years or even

Longitudinal studies allow social scientists and economists to study long-term effects in a
human population.
A cohort study is a subset of the longitudinal study because it observes the effect on a
specific group of people over time. Quite often, a longitudinal study is an extended case
study, observing individuals over long periods, and is a purely qualitative undertaking.
Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SEELS) From 2000 to 2006, SEELS
collected data at three points in time through school staff, direct assessments, and
parent interviews to provide information about the experience of students with
disabilities. SEELS documented the school experiences of a national sample of students
as they moved from elementary to middle school and from middle to high school.


Developmental Assessment (conducted by an Early Education Special Education Teacher)
This test is usually given to children five and under in place of an educational
assessment. It measures basic skills in young children, such as early academic
knowledge, adaptive behavior, communication, and motor skills.
There are numerous developmental assessment scales. Two that are often used are
Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning (3rd ed.)(DIAL-3)(MardellCzudnowski & Goldenberg, 1998) and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II
(Frankenburg et al., 1990).


Challenges the Families face:
1. Acceptance - When a doctor gives the parents the news that their child is mentally retarded and will never
be completely normal, it is too painful for most parents to face. Many parents spend years in denial, trying to find
some solution or cure to this problem.

2. Self-blame - The parents wonder if they did something wrong, during the course of the pregnancy or after
birth, while taking care of the child. They wonder if God is punishing them for their sins.

3. Stigma - Many parents might feel that a mentally retarded child is something to be ashamed of and cannot
be allowed out of the house

4. Helplessness - Many parents dont know how to get help for their child once he/she has been diagnosed
with mental retardation. The sense of helplessness comes both from a lack of understanding about mental
retardation and a lack of information about the resources available for mentally retarded individuals.

5. Behavior Problems - Many parents find it diffi cult to handle behavior problems like screaming, crying,
inability to concentrate, aggressiveness, stubbornness etc that a child with mental retardation might have.

6. Unrealistic expectations - Many times, parents of mentally retarded children are dissatisfied with the
slow progress their child is making in learning new things. When parents have unrealistic expectations of what
their child can achieve, it leads to disappointment not only for them but also in the child who does not understand
what he/she is doing wrong.

7. Worry about the future - One of the main concerns of parents with mentally retarded children is about
how their children will be taken care of when they die.

8. Marital/Family problems - Having a child who is mentally retarded places greater strain on a family than
otherwise. Due to the extra tasks that have to be done to take care of the child, parents feel overworked, stressed
out and unhappy.

Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID, formerly mental retardation) benefit from the same
teaching strategies used to teach people with other learning challenges. This includes learning
disabilities, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism.

1. Break down learning tasks into small steps to avoid overwhelming the student. Once complete
mastery is achieved, the next step is introduced.
2. Modify the teaching approach. Most of the students are kinesthetic learners so its best if you
provide hands-on instructions where information is concrete and observed.
3. They learn best with visual aids. This may include charts, pictures, and graphs. in learning
environments where visual aids are used. This might include charts, pictures, and graphs. These
visual tools are also useful for helping students to understand what behaviors are expected of them.
For instance, using charts to map students' progress is very effective. Charts can also be used as a
means of providing positive reinforcement for appropriate, on-task behavior.
4. Provide direct and immediate feedback. This enables them to make a connection between their
behavior and the teachers response.