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Foreword

The purpose of this volume is to summarize the grammar presented in Korean in


Context in an indexed reference format. The grammar presentations from the
textbook are reproduced here, with accompanying examples, and indexed in English
and Korean. The appendixes are key grammar elements displayed in chart form.

Items in the Korean index are arranged by category, and within each category,
alphabetically. The first category is verb endings, the second is noun endings,
postpositions and markers, and the third is function words.

"-" indicates a verb stem preceding the ending, and "~" indicates a noun.

Finding the right item among the verb endings sometimes requires the application of
spelling rules. When the verb stem ends in a vowel, drop the initial 어 and 으 in the
ending. When the verb stem contains either¤¿ or ㅗ , change the initial 어 in the
ending to 아.
Table of Contents

Foreword ........................................................................................................................
..............

Unit 1: Chapter 1.......................... 1 Unit 8: Chapter 30 ........................ 91


Chapter 2.......................... 3 Chapter 31 .......................... 93
Chapter 3........................... 5 Chapter 32 .......................... 95
Chapter 4........................... 10 Chapter 33 ..........................
98
Unit 2: Chapter 5 .......................... 17
Chapter 6 .......................... 19 Unit 9: Chapter 34..........................101
Chapter 7 .......................... 22 Chapter 35 ........................ 104
Chapter 8 .......................... 25 Chapter 36 ........................ 106
Chapter 37 ....................... 108
Unit 3: Chapter 9.........................28
Chapter 10 ...................... 31 Unit 10: Chapter
Chapter 11 ..................... 33 38 ....................... 111
Chapter 12 ..................... 35 Chapter 39 ....................... 114
Chapter 40 ....................... 117
Unit 4: Chapter 13 ...................... 38 Chapter 41 .......................
Chapter 14...................... 40 120
Chapter 15 ..................... 46
Chapter 16 ..................... 50 Unit 11: Chapter
42 .....................124
Unit 5: Chapter 17 ..................... 53 Chapter 43................... 125
Chapter 18..................... 55 Chapter 44 ................... 126
Chapter 19 ................... 60
Chapter 20 ................... 63 Unit 12: Chapter 45 ....................
130
Unit 6: Chapter 21 ................... 65 Chapter 46.................... 132
Chapter 22................... 68 Chapter 47 .................... 133
Chapter 23 ................... 72 Chapter 48 .................... 136
Chapter 24 ................... 75
Unit 13: Chapter
Unit 7: Chapter 25 ................... 79 49....................140
Chapter 26 ................... 81 Chapter 50 .................. 143
Chapter 27 ................... 84 Chapter 51 .................. 146
Chapter 28................... 85 Chapter 52 .................. 147
Chapter 29 ................... 88
Unit 14: Chapter 53 ....................
149
Chapter 54 .................... 152
Chapter 55......................154
Chapter 56 ...................... 156
Appendixes: Korean Vowel Contraction Rule..................................... 160
Formastion of Korean Verbs .........................................
Korean Verb Conjugation Chart .....................................
Korean Irregular Verbs ....................................................

Indexes: Index by Korean Alphabet..................................................


Index by English Alphabet .................................................
Chapter 1
Forming Questions and Answers

One of the basic features of Korean grammar is that the verb comes at the end of the
sentence.

Mr. Kim is making introductions.

--김선생님, 안녕하십니까? --How are you, Mr. Kim?


verb

--정선» Ô, 이분 아십니까? --Do you know this gentleman,


verb Mr. Chung?

--아니오, 모릅니다. --No, I don't know him.


verb

--처음 뵙겠습니다. --Glad to meet you. (Literally:


verb I meet you for the first time.)

As is clear, the verb endings are different:

statement ending ㅂ니다.

question ending ㅂ니까?

Chapter 1
About Korean Verbs

The verb is arguably the single most important word in any given Korean sentence.
Here are some verbs presented in this chapter.

• 감사합니다. Thank you.


• 고맙습니다. Thank you. (I'm grateful.)
• 좋습니다. (It's, I'm, etc.) good, fine, okay, all right.
• 괜찮습니다. (It's, I'm, etc.) good, fine, okay, all right.

If you want to look up these words in the dictionary, you will not find them as they
appear above. This is because all Korean language dictionaries list verbs in their
most rudimentary or basic form, and it would be difficult to locate an unknown verb
without knowing this form. This "dictionary form", parenthetically, is somewhat similar
to, but not the same as, the infinitive form in English. Below are the basic forms of the
verbs above.
dictionary

감사하다 thank, thankful 감사합니다. Thank you.


고맙다 thankful, grateful 고맙습니다. Thank you.
좋다 good 좋습니다. It's good.
괜찮다 fine, satisfactory 괜찮습니다. It's fine, satisfactory.

When you look at this rudimentary form of verbs, you find some uniformity, i.e., the
last syllable is always -다. The remainder, except for -다, is often referred to as the
verb stem. In other words, Korean verbs consist of at least two parts, a stem and a
verb ending.

감사하다 thanks, thankful 좋다 good


stem stem

고맙다 thankful 괜찮다 fine, satisfactory


stem stem

In order to convert these basic forms into complete and usable verbs in sentences,
you replace the -다 ending with another ending.
• The stem of the verb 좋다 i.e., 좋, ends in a consonant, in this case, ㅎ.
• The stem of the verb 감사하다 i.e., 감사하, ends in a vowel, in this case,ㅏ.
Therefore:
• Simply add 습니다 to the stem of any verb ending in a consonant to get the
statement form of the verb, e.g., 좋습니다. (It's good.)
• Similarly, add ㅂ니다 to the stem of any verb ending in a vowel for the same
result, e.g., 감사합니다. (Thank you.)

stem ending in a consonant 좋 + 습니다  좋습니다

stem ending in a vowel 감사하 + ㅂ니다  감사합니다

Chapter 2

Telling "What" is "Where"


Different languages employ different conventions to indicate how a word is used in a
sentence. If you have studied other languages you are already aware of this fact. In
English, for example, suffixes are used to show plural (horse-->horses, ox-->oxen)
and to distinguish number in verb conjugations (athletes run, she runs). Word order is
another way of showing function in a sentence. For example, the subject may be
placed at the beginning of a sentence, followed by the verb, then the object, as in "The
girl threw the ball." Nouns will also follow prepositions to indicate notions such as
location, direction, time, etc., as in "The girl threw the ball to her brother."

Korean has a system of suffixes that are added to different parts of speech to indicate
their function in a sentence. They are variously referred to as (a) "markers," which are
used to show the subject and object, (b) "postpositions," which are similar to
prepositions in English, and (c) "endings," which indicate specific uses of the verb.

Notice the underlined elements in the nouns.

강이 없습니다.

나무가 많습니다.

우리 고향에 사람이 적습니다.

Chapter 2

A. The markers 이 and 가

The markers 이 and 가 indicate the subject of a sentence.

• 아파트 가 큽니다 The apartment is large/spacious.


• 나무가 작습니다 The tree is small.
• 김일병이 있습니다 A1C Kim is here.
• 산이 없습니다 There are no mountains.
Note that in the first pair of sentences, the nouns 아파트 and 나무 end in a vowel and,
consequently, take the marker 가. In the second pair, 일병 and 산 end in consonants
and take the marker 이.

N + 이 /가

nouns ending in vowels +가 나무가 ...

nouns ending in consonants +이 강이 ...

Chapter 2
B. The postposition 에

The postposition 에 roughly conveys the meaning of the English prepositions at, in,
on, or to, and is attached to the noun it marks. This chapter will treat the marker 에
only as it pertains to the meaning at, in, or on. The fourth equivalent definition, to, will
be covered in a later chapter.
One of these speakers is looking for a person on campus.

--미스박이 교실에 있습니까? --Is Miss Park in the classroom?


--아니오, 식당에 있습니다. --No, she's at the dining hall.

--식당이 이 빌딩에 있습니까? --Is the dining hall located in this building?
--아니오, 산 위에 있습니다. --No, it's on the hill.

N+에

nouns (location) ending +에 나무/강+에


in vowel or consonant

Chapter 2
C. A note on word order

In the following two sentences, note that the subject comes first in one sentence, while
that is not the case in the other sentence.

• 산에 학교가 있습니다 There's a school on the hill.


• 학교가 산에 있습니다 The school's on the hill.

Because nouns are marked for their function in a Korean sentence, a degree of
flexibility is allowed in placing the subject within that sentence. Shifting the word
order, however, changes the emphasis. The first sentence answers the question,
"What's on the mountain?" The second answers the question, "Where is the school?"

Chapter 3
Expressing Possession

The verbs 있다 /없다 used with the postposition 에 mean existence or location of the
subject (something or someone).

• 서울이 한국에 있습니다. Seoul is in Korea.


• 권소희씨가 학교에 있습니다. Ms. Kwon Sohee is at school

As you see in these examples, in order to express the existence or location of a


subject (something, 서울이, and someone, 권소희¾쒼¡ ), you need to state where the
subject is, using the postposition -에, i.e., 한국에 and 학교에.

In addition to this function, 있다 can be used to express the possession of something


by the subject.

If you want to express in Korean that someone has something, the thing possessed is
the subject. The possessor, however, looks like another subject in the same
sentence. Examine the following diagram examples.

박 하사가 딸이 있습니다.
possessor possessed

--김선생님, 컴퓨터가 있습니까? --Mr. Kim, do you have a computer?


--네, (제가 컴퓨터가 ) 있습니다. --Yes, I have (a computer).
--박하사가 아이들이 있습니까? --Does SGT Park have children?
--네, 박하사가 딸이 하나 --Yes, SGT Park has a daughter. He
있습니다. 아들이 없습니다. doesn't have a son.

Chapter 3
Expressing Respect

Korean is a typical honorific language where people are socially obliged to show their
respect to the person they are talking to or about. Koreans can hardly utter a
sentence without considering their social relationships with the hearer or the person
talked about, in terms of relative age, social status, kinship, and rank in the military or
the work place.

Honorifics are expressed in different ways, e.g., using a set of specific words
depending on the relationships, adding certain grammatical elements to some words,
using different sentence endings, etc. Although it is the speaker's choice whether to
use honorifics, i.e., there is the subjective choice of how much respect to show to
whom, there are social norms that most people tend to follow.

There are two ways of expressing honorifics. The first is by using a set of vocabulary
items and the second is by adding an ending to the verb stem.

Chapter 3
A. Forming honorifics using specific words

For Koreans, it is not appropriate to express existence or location of a person older


than or superior to you with 있다 . Because the expression of both possession and
location is literally interpreted as "someone higher exists in you/somewhere," Koreans
are socially obliged to show respect to their superior's existence by using an honorific
verb for exist. Thus, instead of using 있습니다/없습니다, 계십니다 /안 계십니다 are
often used to elevate the status of the person to whom you are referring or someone
who is located somewhere.

--김일병, 부모님이 모두 계십니까? --PFC Kim, are both of your parents living?
--아니오, 아버지가 안 계십니다. --No, my father died.

--그럼 어머니가 어디에 계십니까? --Well, then, where is your mother?


--한±뮈¡ 계십니다. --She's in Korea.

In the previous conversation, Mr. Hong and PFC Kim are talking about PFC Kim's
parents. Because of Mr. Hong's social status, he does not need to express respect to
PFC Kim. However, he is obliged to express respect for his parents. Thus, 계십니다
is used instead of 있습니다.
Chapter 3
B. Forming honorifics with an honorific infix

Another way of expressing respect is to insert an honorific infix, -(으)시, between the
verb stem and the verb ending to convey respect for the hearer and/or the person
talked about.

안녕하십니까?  안녕하 + 시 + ㅂ니까. (안녕하다)


안녕히 가십시오.  가 + 시 + ㅂ시오 (가다)

In the phrases above, the underlined parts of the left column include the honorific
infix, -시. The forms to the right show how the infix is inserted between the verb stem
and the ending. The dictionary form for each verb is given in parentheses.

There are two variations of the honorific infix in the following examples, i.e., -시, and -
으시. When the verb stem ends in a consonant, an extra vowel, 으, is inserted in front
of 시. Otherwise, only 시 is added.

우리 아버지가 키가 크십니다.  크 + 시 + ㅂ니다 (크다)


My father is tall.

장선생님이 돈이 많으십니다.  많 + 으시 + ㅂ니다 (많다)


Mr. Chang has a lot of money.

김일병 부모님이 아주  좋 + 으시 + ㅂ니다 (좋다)


좋으십니다.
PFC Kim's parents are very nice.

verb stem + (으)시 + verb ending

When the verb stem 많 + 으시 + ㅂ니다


ends in a consonant, insert 으시.  많습니다
When the verb stem 크 + 시 + ㅂ니다
ends in a vowel, insert 시.  크십니다

In addition to the above, there are some irregular verbs that undergo a change. The
ㄹ in the verbs 알다 and 살다 is dropped when the honorific infix -(으)시 is added, as
in the following instances. Note that in the first example, respect is shown to the
listener. In the second example, respect is shown to the subject.

--이분 아십니까?  알 + 시 + ㅂ니까 (알다)


Do you know this person?
--네, 압니다. 우리 동생 입니다.  알 + ㅂ니다
Yes, I know him. He's my brother.

--그분이 어디 사십니까?  살 + 시 + ㅂ니까 (살다)


Where does he live?

--캐나다에 삽니다.  살 + ㅂ니다


He lives in Canada.

Chapter 3
Expressing Identity

있다 is the equivalent of the English is in cases where the existence or presence of a


person or thing is expressed. Another verb--이다--is used to link nouns. It has a basic
form and adds endings as do other verbs. It differs, however, in that it attaches itself
in spelling to the noun it links. See the following examples.

• 제가 장홍수입니다. I am Chang Hongsu.


• 이분이 한기수씨입니다. This gentleman is Mr. Han Kisu.

The ending in both sentences is -입니다. -입니다 never stands alone and always
affixes itself to another word, mostly nouns, at the end of a sentence. This verb is
used to link together two nouns which refer to the same person or entity. For
example,

Susan   My sister
is is
my sister.   Susan.

Susan is my sister. My sister is Susan.

수잔   제여동생
입니다 입니다
제여동생   수잔

수잔이 제여동생입니다. 제여동생이 수잔입니다.

Additional, similar examples are:


• 이분이 우리 아버지입니다. This gentleman is my father.
• 장홍수씨, 의사입니까? Mr. Chang, are you a doctor?
• 이름이 정승호입니다. My name is Chung Seungho.

You can also add -(으)시 to 이다 when you want to show respect for the subject.
However, you never add this infix when the subject is yourself.

• 이분이 한기수씨이십니다. This person is Mr. Han Kisu.


• 이분이 우리 아버지이십니다. This person is my father.
• 장홍수씨, 공무원이십니까?. Mr. Chang, are you a government
employee?

With -입니다, you can ask and answer questions about age. To tell your age, the
literal expression in Korean is "My age is twenty."

--김일병, 몇 살입니까? --PFC Kim, how old are you?


--스무 살입니다. --I'm twenty years old.

Chapter 3
Informal Questions and Answers

Formal questions and statements end in ㅂ니 까 ? and ㅂ니다, respectively. Another


ending for both questions and statements is used as an informal, polite expression.
Informal expressions are used when you talk informally to people to whom you feel
close and whose social status is higher than yours, e.g., parents, elder brothers and
sisters, and superiors.

The ending used to express this level of informality is -요. This form is
interchangeable with the formal form without changing the latter's meaning. More
often than not, women prefer using the informal ending while men prefer using the
more formal one.

In the following examples, the sentences on the right are interchangeable with, but
less formal than, those on the left.

• 이분 아십니까? 이분 아세요? Do you know this lady?


• 아니오, 모릅니다. 아니오, 몰라요. No, I don't know him.
• 이분이 한기숙 씨입니다 . 이분이 한기숙씨 에요. This is Ms. Han kisook.
Following is a comparison of these two forms.

statement question

formal 있습니다. 있습니까?

informal 있어요. 있어요?

Due to the fact that the -요 remains constant whether used as a question or
statement, voice inflection (intonation) will be critical in distinguishing between
questions and statements. As with many English sentences, statements have a
falling intonation whereas questions have a rising intonation.

Chapter 4
Pointing Out Objects and Persons

The English words this, that, these, and those are used in two ways: first, as pronouns
replacing nouns; alternatively, they are used as adjectives modifying nouns:

pronouns: This is my house. (Instead of, "This house is my house.")


Those are my friends.

adjectives: This book is mine.


Those books are yours.

As parts of speech, they are known respectively as demonstrative pronouns and


demonstrative adjectives. A third type of demonstrative is an adverb indicating place
(here, there), as in:

There are my books.


Your books are here on my desk.

Korean demonstratives are built on three elements--이, 그, and 저, which are


combined with nouns to indicate three locations: near the speaker, near the listener,
and remote from both.

이 / 그 / 저 + noun
• 이 + noun  an object or person close to the speaker
• 그 + noun  an object or person close to the hearer
• 저 + noun  an object or person away from both speaker and hearer
Note: 그+ noun is also used to indicate objects or persons previously mentioned.

Summary

away from both


near the near the the speaker and
speaker hearer the hearer
location 여기 거기 저기

이분 그분 저분
person
이 사람 그 사람 저 사람

이것 ( 이거 ) 그것 (그거 ) 저것 (저거 )
object 이집 그집 저집
이방 그방 저방

Linguistic Note:

Note the distinctions made between persons, places, and objects in terms of
words in these sentences used to represent this.

• 이분이 우리 누나입니다. This is my (older) sister.


• 여기가 몬트레이입니다. This is Monterey.
• 이것이 우리 집입니다. This is my house.

Chapter 4
Expressing To... and From...

The postpositions 에 and 에서 carry meanings similar to the English words to and
from, respectively. Each is added to a location or place name preceding verbs of
locomotion such as 가다 and 오다.

--어디에 가세요? --(To) where are you going?


--한국에 갑니다. --I'm going to Korea.
--´ ʼn ¡ 파티에 옵니까 ? --Who's coming to the party?
--조선생님이 오십니다. --Mr. Cho is coming.

--그런데, 박하사, 학교에서 오세요? --By the way, Sergeant Park, are you
coming from school?
--아니오, 식당에서 옵니다. -- No, I'm coming back from the
restaurant.

Chapter 4
Expressing Action(s) at a Location

The postposition 에 has a meaning similar to the English words in, at, on, and (most
recently) to, and that the marker 에서 has a meaning similar to the English word from.

에서 is used to identify the location at which an action takes place. When the phrase
expresses existence, 에 is attached to the location. However, when the phrase
expresses the location of an event or action (as opposed to existence), the location
takes 에서, as shown in the examples below.

--그 식당이 어디에 있습니까? --Where is the restaurant?


--명동에 있습니다. --It's in Myungdong.

--박선생님, 고향에 산이 많아요? --Mr. Park, are there many mountains


in your hometown?
--아니오, 없어요. --No, there aren't any.

--김선생님 누나가 어디에서 일하세요? --Where does your sister work, Mr.
Kim?
--호텔에서 일합니다. --She works at a hotel.

--왜 여기서 공부해요? --Why are you studying here?


--동생이 제 방에서 텔레비전 --My brother's watching TV in my
봅니다. room.

location + 에 + verb of existence (있다, 없다) at, in


location + 에 + 가다, 오다 to

location + 에서 + 가다, 오다 from


location + 에서 + all action verbs at, in

Chapter 4
Describing Things and People: I
English uses adjectives to describe qualities or attributes, and adjectives are used in
sentences in two different ways: as predicate adjectives and as attributive adjectives.
A predicate adjective is used with a linking verb, e.g., is.

Mr. Hwang's house is blue.


Mr. Hwang's house is small.

Attributive adjectives are used in all other situations and precede the noun they
modify.

Mr. Hwang has a blue house.


Mr. Hwang has a small house.

In contrast to English, Korean uses verbs, or more precisely stative verbs, to express
the state of being or qualities of a person or thing. In meaning, a stative verb can be
loosely rendered as (to) be _______. For example: 크다 be big and 좋다 be
good/nice. While English adjectives do not change form, whether they are used as
predicate adjectives or attributive adjectives, in Korean different endings are added to
stative verbs according to how they are used in a sentence. When they come at the
end of the sentence, which is roughly equivalent to the predicate use in English, they
conjugate as verbs.

• 박선생님 차가 큽니다. Mr. Park's car is big.

• 박선생님 차가 좋습니´ Ù. Mr. Park's car is nice.

• 박선생님 차가 빨갛습니다. Mr. Park's car is red.

When a stative verb precedes a noun, an attributive form is derived from the verb
stem. This is done by adding (으)ㄴ to the verb stem.

• 박선생님은 큰 차가 있습니다. Mr. Park has a big car.


• 그분은 좋은 차가 있습니다. He has a nice car.

• 그분은 빨간 차가 있습니다. He has a red car.

stative verb stem + (으) ㄴ+ noun

When the verb stem ends 크다 (big)


in a vowel, add ㄴ. 크+ㄴ 큰
When the verb stem ends 좋다 (good/nice)
in a consonant, add 은. 좋 + 은  좋은
Notes:

1. Stative verbs for colors drop ㅎand add L to the stem in the attributive form.

Example: 빨갛다 (red)

빨갛 빨가 + ㄴ 빨간
drop "ㅎ" add "ㄴ" as if the stem
ends with a vowel
2. In the same fashion,

dictionary form attributive form

노랗다 (yellow)  노란
파랗다 (blue)  파란
하얗다 (white)  하얀
까맣다 (black)  까만

Chapter 4
More About Informal Questions and Answers
Read about PFC Thomas's daily routine:

제 이름이 제인 토마스에요.
8 시 (o'clock) 에 학교에 가요.
학교에서 공부해요.
우리 학교가 아주 커요.
학교에 학생이 적어요.
우리 선생님이 좋아요.
3 시에 집에 와요.
A quick glance at these verbs reveals that they all contain the informal ending, 요.
However, if you think about the dictionary forms of these verbs, their changes are
slightly different from each other. The most distinguishing rule of all these changes is
that 아요 is added to a verb stem whose last vowel is ㅗ or ㅏ.

verb stem + 아/어요

When the last syllable of the 좋다 (good/nice)


verb stem contains the vowel add 아요. 좋 + 아요 좋아요
ㅗor ㅏ,
When the last syllable of the 적다 (few)
verb stem contains a vowel add 어요. 적 + 어요  적어요
other than ㅗor ㅏ,

Notes:

In addition to this rule, however, more phonetic changes occur when the verb stem
ends in a vowel. Look at these examples one-by-one.

1. 가다 (go)
가 + 아요 가요 When the stem ends with the same vowel as
the following vowel, one is dropped.
2. 오다 (come)
오 + 아요 와요 When the vowels can be contracted, they
become one syllable.
3. 크다 (big)
크 + 어요  커요 When the stem ends with the vowel ㅡ ,
ㅡ is dropped.
4. 하다 (do)
하 + 아요  해요 하다 is the only verb among the verbs
whose stems end with the vowelㅏ that
behaves in this fashion. All -하다 verbs
take the same changes, e.g.,

공부하다 (study)
공부하 + 아요  공부해요.
5. 이다 (be)
이 + 어요  (이)에요 이다 is the only verb that behaves this
way. When the preceding noun ends
with a vowel, 이 is dropped.

E.g., 바다 + 이에요  바다에요


6. When you add the honorific infix -(으)시-, the endings are all the same.
좋 + 으시 + 어요  좋으¼탓ä/좋으세요
적 + 으시 + 어요  적으셔요/적으세요
가 + 시 + 어요  가셔요/가세요
오 + 시 + 어요  오셔요/오세요
크 + 시 + 어요  크셔요/크세요
하 + 시 + 어요  하셔요/하세요
공부하 + 시 + 어요  공부하셔요/공부하세요
이 + 시 + 어요  (이)셔요/(이)세요

Chapter 5
Expressing Negation

Mr. Lim is not quite sure of the names of several people around him. He asks Jane about
some of them.

--제인씨, 저분이 홍선생님입니까? --Jane, is that Mr. Hong?


--아뇨, 홍선생님이 아닙니다. --No, that's not Mr. Hong. That's Mr.
우선생님입니다. Woo.

--저 미국사람은 톰슨씨입니까? --Is that American Mr. Thompson?


--아뇨, 톰슨씨가 아닙니다. --No, that's not Mr. Thompson.
클라크씨입니다. That's Mr. Clark.

People or objects are identified by using -이다. In the conversation above, -이/가
아니다 is used for negating sentences with -이다. Note that a noun ending in a
consonant takes the marker 이, whereas a noun that ends in a vowel takes 가.

noun + 이/가 아니다

When a noun add 이 아니다. 홍선생 님 + 이 아니다


ends in a  홍선생님이 아닙니다 (formal)
consonant,  홍선생님이 아니에요 (informal)
When a noun add 가 아니다. 톰슨씨 + 가 아니다
ends in a vowel,  톰슨씨가 아닙니다 (formal)
 톰슨씨가 아니에요 (informal)

Chapter 5
Expressing the Object of a Verb

Various activities are going on in the student lounge:

수잔은 책을 읽습니다. Susan is reading a book.


제인은 편지를 씁니다. Jane is writing a letter.
빌은 신문을 봅니다. Bill is reading the newspaper.
팀은 텔레비전À» 봅니다. Tim's watching TV.

을/를 is added to a noun that functions as the object of a verb. Note that nouns
ending in consonants take the object marker 을, whereas those ending in vowels take
를.

noun + 을/를

When a noun add 을. 책+을 책을 봅니다.


ends in a 신문 (newspaper) + 을 신문을 봅니다.
consonant,
When a noun add 를. 편지 (letter) + 를 편지를 씁니다.
ends in a vowel,

Note: 을/를 is often omitted in speaking when the context is clear.

Chapter 5
Making Requests

At various times, Mr. Kang requests that PFC James do some of the following tasks in
the classroom:

• 제임스 일병, 의자에 앉으십시오. Private James, please sit in your


chair.

• 읽으십시오. Please read (your book).

• 저를 보십시오. Please look at me.

• 칠판에 이 단어를 쓰십시오. Please write this vocabulary (item)


on the board.

You can make a polite request by adding -(으)십시오 to a verb stem. Requests which
employ -(으)십시오 are more formal than those with the verb ending -(으)세요.
The following constructions are used to express a speaker's request:

verb stem + (으)십시오


(으)세요

formal: 앉 + 으십시오  앉으십시오


When a verb add 으십시오. 읽 + 으십시오  읽으십시오
stem ends in informal: 앉 + 으세요  앉으세요
a consonant, add 으세요. 읽 + 으세요  읽으세요
formal: 보 + 십시오  보십시오
When a verb add 십시오. 쓰 + 십시오  쓰십시오
stem ends in informal: 보 + 세요  보세요
a vowel, add 세요. 쓰 + 세요  쓰세요

Chapter 6
Expressing Time

The postposition 에 is used to mark location, as in English at, in, or on as well as to, in
the sense of destination.

에 (location: in, at, on) and 에 (destination: to)

Chapter 6
A. Identifying a specific point in time (postposition 에)

Another function of 에 indicates the time at which something takes place. When
added to a noun or a noun phrase, 에 may also denote a point or period of time at
which an action takes place, and may be translated as in, at, or on. You can draw a
comparison to the English use of at when talking about hours of the day (at three
o'clock), on with days of the week (on Monday), and in when referring to parts of a
day, a month, or a year (in the morning; in March; in 1947).
Miss Lee's new aerobics instructor helps her establish a daily training regimen.

--미스리, 보통 몇시에 저녁을 --At what time do you usually


잡수십니까? eat dinner, Miss Lee?
--6시에 먹습니다. --I eat at 6:00.
--그럼 숙제는 언제합니까? --So, when do you study?
--저녁에 합니다. --In the evening.

--운동은 언제 합니까? --When do you work out?


--주로 주말에 합니다. --Normally on weekends.

The chart below summarizes the functions of 에.

교실에 책이 많습니다.
에 (location: in, at, on):
에서 (location: in, at, on): 교실에서 공부해요.

인천에 갑니다.
에 (destination: to):
지금 학교에 갑니다.

서울에서 왔습니다.
에서 (origin or source: from):
시카고에서 왔어요.

저는 매일 오전 6시에 일어납니다.
에 (time: in, at, on):
저는 보통 저녁에 숙제합니다.

Chapter 6
B. Expressing a range of time or space (from . . . to)

In Korean, the postpositions 부터 and 에서 are used to denote the starting point
(from) in time or location, whereas 까지 conveys the meaning of to, until, by, or all the
way to. 부터 and 에서 may also used interchangeably in many situations. For
example,

8시부터 /에서 10시까지 매일 I do my homework from 8:00 to 10:00


숙제합니다. p.m. every night.

산호제부터/에서 여기까지 It takes one hour (to get) from


한 시간 걸립니다. San Jose to here.

(time reference) 부터/에서 (time reference) 까지


(location) 에서/부터 (location) 까지

The following passage summarizes Mr. Lee's normal weekend schedule:


미스트 리는 주말에 보통 8시까지 Mr. Lee usually sleeps until 8:00 on 잡니다.
10시부터(에서) 11시까지 weekends. He watches TV from
텔레비전을 봅니다. 그다음에는 10:00 to 11:00 and then eats lunch.
점심À» 먹습니다. 그리고 체육관(gym) Then, he goes to the gymnasium.
에 갑니다. 집에서 거기까지 꽤 It is a considerable distance from his
멀어요. home to (the gym).
Chapter 6
Expressing Negation
In Korean, there are several ways to express negation.

affirmative negative

identification 미스박은 간호사입니다. 미스양은 간호사가 아닙니다.

existence 지금 미스박이 여기에 지금 미스박이 여기에 없습니다.


있습니다.

Another way to negate verbs is by preceding them with 안. Using this negative form
is similar to adding the word not in front of an English verb. 안 is most often used with
action verbs and the verb of existence in its honorific form, 계시다.

Note:The usage of 예 and 아니오 in response to negative questions is an


interesting phenomenon. When asking a negative question such as 안 갑니까?
("Aren't you going?"), the answer will be 예 ("Yes.") to express, "No, I'm not."
and 아니오 ("No.") to express, "On the contrary, I am going."

SGT Han and a friend discuss their individual study habits.

--저는 집에서 공부 안 해요. --I don't study at home. How about


한병장은 어때요? you, Sergeant Han?
--저도 집에서 공부 안 해요. --I don't study at home, either.

--그럼, 도서관에는 자주 갑니까? --Well, do you go to the library often?


--아니오, 잘 안 갑니다. --No, I don't.

안 is placed before most verbs, as shown in the previous examples. This is not so,
however, with "하다" verbs. In this case, 안 is placed in front of 하다, as in the
examples; however, the stem portion preceding 하다 is written separately, and may
function as an object.

--식당에서 자주 식사하십니까? --Do you often eat at the restaurant?


--아니오, 자주 안 합니다. --No, not often.
Note: "하다" verbs are made by combining nouns and the verb stem, 하다. This is a
useful process to keep in mind because many nouns, especially those of Chinese
origin, may be verbalized simply by adding 하다. Likewise, a noun can often be
derived by removing 하다. For example, 공부하다 - (to) study, 공부 - study

Chapter 6
Korean Verbs: An Update
Below are some examples of the different forms of conjugation.

verb meaning formal register informal register


자다/주무시다 sleep 주무십니다 잡니다 주무세요 자요

읽다 read 읽À맒苛求Ù 읽습니다 읽으세요 읽어요

있다/계시다 be; exist 계십니다 있습니다 계세요 있어요

Chapter 7
Expressing And and Together (With)
A. Linking nouns to express and

In English, the word and is used to connect two or more nouns in a series, e.g.,
"I like chicken and turkey." In Korean, the markers 하고, 과/와, and (이)랑 function
similarly to and. 하고, 과/와, and (이)랑 are attached to all but the final noun in the
series. All are used interchangeably without any difference in meaning.

Note: 하고 and (이)랑 are widely used in speech; 과/와 and (이)랑 are the
most colloquial forms, while 과 or 와 are more commonly used in composition.
If the preceding syllable ends in a consonant, use 과. If the syllable ends in a
vowel, use 와.

In this description of PFC Adams's dorm room, notice that the markers are somewhat
interchangeable, all accommodating the same basic function, and.

아담스 방에는 텔레비전하고 컴퓨터가 There's a TV and a computer in


있습니다. 그 옆에는 시계와 사전이 Adams's room. Next to them are a
있습니다. 책상위에는 연필이랑, clock and a dictionary. On the desk,
지도랑,책이 있습니다. there are pencils and a map, and also
a book.
/ 하고 \
noun A + 과/와 + noun B + marker (object/subject)
\ (이)랑/

When a noun
ends in a add 과. 남동생과 여동생이 백화점에 가요.
과/와 consonant,
When a noun
ends in a add 와. 언니와 오빠가 백화점에 가요.
vowel,

When a noun
랑/ ends in a add 남동생이랑 여동생이 백화점에 가요.
(이)랑 consonant, 이¶û.
When a noun
ends in a add 랑. 언니랑 오빠가 백화점에 가요.
vowel,

Note: 하고, 과/와, and (이)랑 are used only to connect two or more nouns. They
are not used to connect phrases, clauses or complete sentences. To connect
two sentences, start the second with the conjunction 그리고, which implies and,
then, or also.

Chapter 7
B. Doing things together (with)

Expressing the English terms along with or together is straightforward in Korean.


Either 같이 or 함께 is placed after either 하고, 과/와, or (이)랑. The two nouns linked
by 하고, 과/와, and (이)랑 are understood to perform the same action together. 같이
is used more often in speech, while 함께 is used more often in writing.

하고 하고
noun + 과/와 + 같이 = noun + 과/와 + 함께
(이)랑 (이)랑

Because 같이 and 함께 are interchangeable, the two formulas above have the same
meaning. 같이 or 함께 may sometimes be dropped, just as together is dropped in
English without a change in meaning. The following examples illustrate this point.
Mr. Hwang asks Ms. Oh about her weekend.

--미스오, 주말에 뭐 합니까? --Ms. Oh, what are you going to do


over the weekend?
--우리 가족이랑 같이 등산갑니다. --I'm going hiking (together) with my
황선생님도 우리와 함께 family. Would you like to go with us,
가시겠습니까? Mr. Hwang?

--¹ 潔훌爛求Ù. 안 되겠어요. --Sorry, I can't.

Linguistic Note: As a general rule, a final consonant in a Korean syllable


transfers to the next syllable of a word when the second syllable begins with a
vowel. For example:

같은 is pronounced 가튼
같을 is pronounced 가틀

There are some exceptions to this rule, however. When ㅌis followed by 이, the
resulting sound is 치.

같이 is pronounced 가치

Chapter 7
Choosing Between Two Options
In English, the word or is often used to give an option between two things or activities,
e.g., "Do you want to go to the beach or to the movies?" In Korean, two such
questions are asked in succession without any connecting word.

Two colleagues discuss family matters.

--이번 주말에 캠핑갑시다. --Let's go camping this weekend.


--좋아요. 그런데, --All right. By the way, would you like
산이 좋아요, 바다가 좋아요? to go to the mountains or the beach?

--¹ ¡ 갑시다. --Let's go to the beach.

question 1, question 2?
Usage Note: Intonation is an important factor when posing two questions in this
manner. The tone of voice rises sharply at the end of the first question and is
followed immediately by a falling intonation in the second question.

산이 좋아요,  바다가 좋아요? 

갑니까,  안 갑니까? 

Chapter 7

Korean Verbs: Update on Verb Stems Ending in ㄹ


Some verbs whose stems end in ㄹ drop the ㄹ when the following consonant is ㄴ,
ㅂ, or ㅅ. When one of the remaining consonants or a vowel (아/어) follows, the ㄹ
remains. The following table summarizes this conjugation pattern.

ㄹis dropped when followed by ㄴ, ㅂ, 알 + ㅂ니다  압니다


ㅅ.

ㄹis retained when followed by 아/어 or 알 + 아요  알아요


consonants other than ㄴ,ㅂ,ㅅ.

Chapter 8
Expressing Your Intentions

Mrs. Park and SGT Choi are discussing which restaurant to go to.

--뭐 잡수시겠어요? --What are you going to eat?


--한식을 먹겠어요. --I'd like to have Korean food.

--어느 식당에 가시겠습니까? --Which restaurant are you going to?


--코리아 부페에 가겠습니다. --I'm going to the Korea Buffet.

The infix -겠- is inserted between the verb stem (or the stem plus the honorific infix)
and the verb ending when the speaker states his/her intention or asks the intention of
the listener. The English equivalents are: "I'd like to...," "I'm going to...," "I'll...," etc.

verb stem + ((으)시) + 겠 + 습니다/습니까/어요


Sometimes -겠- is used to denote future tense. For example, when a weather
forecaster says, 내일 날씨가 좋° 윱求Ù, it has nothing to do with one's intention but
merely means "Tomorrow's weather will be good."

Note: When Koreans say 좋겠습니다 as in 내일 날씨가 좋겠습니다,


the ㅎ in 좋 influences the following consonant, ㄱ, in 겠 and,
consequently, ㄱ sounds like ㅋ. The ㄴin 니 influences the preceding
consonant, ㅂ, as in 습, and, therefore, ㅂ sounds like ㅁ. Thus, the
final pronunciation of 좋겠습니다 sounds like 조케씀니다.

Chapter 8
How to Express Contrast
Devices that change the subject, express a contrast, or add special emphasis vary
from language to language. English uses certain words and phrases such as "so," or
"and now," as well as shifts in intonation, or word stress.

• So, Mr. Park, what are you doing this weekend?


(As distinct from the previous person who spoke.)

• Tomorrow the weather will be good.


(In contrast to today, when it rained.)

• In Los Angeles, the morning traffic is very heavy.


In contrast to Monterey, which is a small city.)

• And now for something completely different. (Monty Python)

Korean uses the suffix 은/는 for these same purposes. In the examples in this
chapter, it is added to nouns and time expressions. It may, however, be added to
many parts of speech.
Mrs. Park and SGT Choi are asking each other about their weekend plans:

--박선생님은 이번 주말에 --Mrs. Park, what are you going to


뭐 하십니까? do this weekend?
--부산에 가요. --I'm going to Pusan. What are you
최중사는 뭐 하세요? going to do, SGT Choi?

--토요일에는 하이킹가요. --I'm going hiking on Saturday.


일요일에는 집에서 쉬겠어요. On Sunday, I'll stay home.

word/phrase + 은/는

When a word/phrase
ends in a consonant, add 은. 박선생님 + 은  박선생님은

When a word/phrase
ends in a vowel, add 는. 최중사 + 는  최중사는

Chapter 9
Talking About Past Events
Co-workers Mr. Yun and Mr. Choi study foreign languages at night.

--윤선생님 어제 저녁에 뭐 --Mr. Yun, what did you do last night?


하셨습니까?
--집에서 일본어 책 읽었습니다. --I read a Japanese book at home.

--쉬웠습니까, 어려웠습니까? --Was it easy or difficult?


--쉬웠습니다. 최선생님은요? --It was easy. How about you, Mr. Choi?

--저는 놀았습니다. --I relaxed and watched TV.


텔레비전을 봤습니다.

The past tense in Korean is expressed by inserting the infix - 았 /었 - between the
verb stem and the verb ending. If the preceding syllable contains the vowelㅏ or ㅗ,
-았- is inserted; otherwise, -었- is inserted.

verb stem + (시) + 았/었+ 습니다/어요/습니까?


When the last syllable of 놀다 (play/relax)
a verb stem contains ㅗ insert 았. 놀 + 았 + 습니다
or ㅏ,  놀았습니다
읽다 (read)
Otherwise, insert 었. 읽 + 었 + 습니다
 읽었습니다

In addition to this rule, however, more phonetic changes occur when the verb stem
ends in a vowel. Look at the following examples, one by one.

1. 가다 (go)
가 + 았 + 습니다 When the stem ends in the same vowel as
 갔습니다 the following vowel, one is dropped.

2. 보다 (see/watch)
보 + 았 + 습니다 When the vowels can be contracted, they
 봤습니다 become one syllable.

3. 크다 (big)
크 + 었 + 습니다 When the stem ends in ㅡ,
 컸습니다 ㅡ is dropped.

4. 하다 (do) is an irregular verb:


하 + 았 + 습니다 하다 is the only verb among the verbs
 했습니다 whose stems end in ㅏ that behaves in this
fashion. All -하다 verbs take the same
changes, e.g.,
운동하다 (exercise)
운동하 + 았 + 습니다  운동했습니다

When you add the honorific marker -(으)시-, the endings are all the same.

좋 + 으시 + 었 + 습니다  좋으셨습니다
읽 + 으시 + 었 + 습니다  읽으셨습니다
가 + 시 + 었 + 습니다  가셨습니다
보 + 시 + 었 + 습니다  보셨습니다
운동하 + 시 + 었 + 습니다  운동하셨습니다

Chapter 9

Korean Verbs: An Update on Verb Stems Ending in -ㅂ


Minsoo, who has never studied a foreign language, is asking Insook about language learning.

--영어가 어렵습니까? --Is English difficult?


--네, 어려워요. --Yes, it's difficult.

--일본말도 어려워요? --Is Japanese difficult, too?


--아뇨, 일본말은 쉬워요. --No, Japanese is easy.

Most verbs whose stems end in -ㅂbehave in the same way. The following is a list of
such verbs.

쉽다 easy 어렵다 difficult


춥다 cold 덥다 hot
가깝다 near, close 반갑다 glad

ㅂchanges to 우 우+어 워

쉽 + 어요  쉬우어요  쉬워요
어렵 + 어요  어려우어요  어려워요
춥 + 어요  추우어요  추워요
덥 + 어요  더우어요  더워요
가깝 + 어요  가까우어요  가까워요
반갑 + 어요  반가우어요  반가워요

The stem keeps ㅂwhen


a consonant follows. 쉽 + 습니다  쉽습니다
ㅂchanges to 우 when
a vowel follows. 쉽 + 어요  쉬우어요  쉬워요

Chapter 9

"Also" and "Too"


In English, "also" is an adverb. In Korean, one of "also's" equivalents is the marker, 도,
which is attached to a noun or a noun phrase. When attached, any subject or object
marker must be dropped.

Two friends discuss travel.


--최선생´ Ô스위스에 --Mr. Choi, you've been to Switzerland,
갔다왔지요? haven't you?
--네. --Yes.

--스위스에서는 독어를 써요? --Do they speak German in Switzerland?


--네, 독어도 쓰고, 영어도 써요. --Yes, they speak German, and also English.

--또 어느 나라 다녀 오셨어요? --Which countries have you been to besides


--독일에도 갔다왔어요. 거기 Switzerland?

제 여동생이 있어요. --I've also been to Germany. My sister lives


there.
Generally, the rule for adding 도 is as follows:

When a noun (phrase) has drop the 영어를 + 도 + 써요


a subject/object marker, subject/object ------- drop 를 
marker. 영어도 써요
When a noun (phrase) has 독일에 + 도 + 갔어요
a marker other than a retain the ------- retain 에 
subject/object marker, marker. 독일에도 갔어요

Chapter 10
Possessive Marker 의
The marker 의 expresses a relationship between two nouns, where the first noun
possesses the second noun. The English equivalent for this form is 's or ...of....

noun 의 noun

Mr. Lee asks Miss Oh about two cars parked in front of the office.

--미스오, 저 빨간 차가 --Miss Oh, is the red car


박선생님의 차에요? Mr. Park's?
--아니오, 장선생님(의) 차에요. --No, that's Mr. Chang's car.

--그럼 저 하얀 차는 누구 차입니까? --And whose car is the white one?


--바로 제 차입니다. --That's my car.

Note: 의 is attached not only to a personal noun or pronoun, but also to many other
nouns, as in the following passage about Korea's geography and climate.

한국은 반도국가입니다. Korea is a peninsula. To Korea's


한국의 서쪽에는 중국이 있습니다. west is China. And Japan is to 그리고 한국의
동쪽에는 일본이 Korea's east. Korea has four
있습니다. 한국은 4계절이 seasons. Korea's climate is like that
있습니다. 한국의 기후는 of New York.
뉴욕의 날씨와 같습니다.

Chapter 10
Describing Things and People: II
Korean stative verbs behave differently from English adjectives in that the Korean has
two forms: predicate and attributive. The attributive form of a stative verb is used to
describe people and things by modifying the noun it precedes. Recall that attributive
forms are derived from stative verbs by adding (으)ㄴ to the verb stem.
박선생님 차가 큽니다. (predicate adjective)
저 큰 차는 박선생님 차입니다. (attributive adjective or noun modifier)

There are several classifications of stative verbs that require additional steps to make
attributive forms.

1. To make the attributive form from a verb ending in ㄹ, simply drop ㄹand add ㄴ.

2. To make the attributive form from a verb ending in ㅂ, change ㅂ into 우 and
add ㄴ.

When the stem drop ㄹ 길다  길+ㄴ  긴


ends in ㄹ, and add ㄴ. 멀다  멀+ㄴ  먼
춥다  추 + 우 + ㄴ  추운
When the stem change ㅂ into ㅜ 쉽다  쉬 + 우 + ㄴ  쉬운
ends in ㅂ, and add ㄴ. 덥다  더 + 우 + ㄴ  더운
가깝다  가까 + 우 + ㄴ  가까운

James plans to stay in Korea for a year and asks his Korean friend about the weather.

--한국의 날씨가 보통 어때요? --Overall, how is Korea's weather?


--겨울에는 아주 추워요. --It's very cold in winter. In some cold
추운 지방은 영하 20도까지 regions, the temperature goes down
내려가요. 그런데 여름은 아주 to -20°C. But it's very hot in summer.
덥습니다.

--저는 추운 날씨도 더운 날씨도 다 --I like both cold and hot weather. By
좋아요. 그런데 겨울에 눈이 많이 the way, does it snow a lot in winter?
옵니까?
--그럼요. 긴 코트를꼭 가지고 가세요. --Of course. Make sure you take a
long coat.

The underlined parts in the examples above are all attributive forms of verbs ending in
ㄹor ㅂ.

Chapter 11
Expressing Direction and Destination
The marker (으)로 is used to express direction or destination. When (으)로 is
attached to a noun indicating direction, it is equivalent to the English word towards or
the phrase in the direction of. In such case, it goes together with verbs denoting
movement, such as 가다, 오다, and their compound verbs.

noun + ( 으)로

A tourist asks for directions to the Korean Embassy.

--한국 대사관 어떻게 갑니까? --How can I get to the Korean


. Embassy?
--바로 이쪽으로 곧장 가세요 --Just go straight in this direction.

--그럼, 한인 회관은 어디 있어요? --Then, where is the Korean Community Center?


--한국 대사관 근처에 있어요 --It's near the Korean Embassy. Turn to the
한국 대사관에서 오른쪽으로 right at the Embassy.
가세요.

한국말은 (Linguistic Note): 쪽, which is a noun meaning side or direction, is


normally combined with (으)로 indicating in the direction of. 쪽 is also used with
the demonstrative words 이, 그, 저. When used in conjunction with 가다 and
오다, 쪽 is generally combined with (으)로.

When a noun ends in a


consonant other than ㄹ, add 으로. 동쪽 + 으로  동쪽으로

When a noun ends in a 경찰서 + 로  경찰서로


vowel or the consonant ㄹ, add 로.
서울 + 로  서울로

Chapter 11
Stating One's Role or Status
The expression of a person's role or status is indicated by the marker (으)로(서).
When (으)로(서) is attached directly to a noun, it is equivalent to the English as, in the
capacity of.

noun + (으)로(서)

Two people are getting acquainted at a Korean Community Center.

--미스민, 미국에 어떻게 오셨어요? --Miss Min, what brings you to the
United States?
--저는 유학생으로 왔어요. --I'm here as a student. How about
박선생님은 어떻게 오셨어요? yourself, Mr. Park?

--나는 대우지사 주재원으로 왔어요. --I'm here as an employee at the Dae


Woo plant.

When a noun ends in a add 으로 유학생 + 으로(서)  유학생으로(서 )


consonant other than ㄹ, (서).

When a noun ends in a add 로 아버지 + 로(서)  아버지로서


vowel and the consonant ㄹ, (서).
딸 + 로(서)  딸로(서)

Chapter 11
Expressing "Wanting" or "Wishing"

To express wishes or desires, -고 싶다 is used with action verbs. This form is the
equivalent of the English I want to..., I'd like to....

Two acquaintances discuss the upcoming weekend.

--미스터박, 이번 주말에 뭐 --Mr. Park, what would you


하고 싶으세요? like to do this weekend?
--저 영화 보고 싶습니다. 미스신은 뭐 --I'd like to go to the movies.
하고 싶어요? What do you want to do, Ms. Shin?

--저는 볼링하고 싶습니다. --I want to go bowling.

-고 싶다 is regularly used in the first and second persons, as in the examples above.
It is not used in the third person, however; another form, -고 싶어하다, is used when
talking about someone else's wishes or desires.

The following passage is Mr. Yoo's weekend plan.

--미스터 유, 이번 주말에는 등산 --Mr. Yoo, aren't you going


안 갑니까? hiking this weekend?
--못 갑니다. 이번에는 바닷가에 가요. --I can't. I'm going to go to the
우리 아이들이 바다에서 수영을 beach. My kids want to swim
하고 싶어 해요. in the ocean.

1st, 2nd person (subject) action verb stem + 고 싶다


3rd person (subject) action verb stem + 고 싶어하다

Chapter 12
Identifying Givers and Receivers of Actions

Mrs. Han is talking to Mr. Park:

--어제 뉴욕에서 전화가 왔어요. --Yesterday, I got a call from New York.
--누구에게서요? --From whom?

--제 남동생 영수한테서요. --From my younger brother, Youngsoo.


다음 주 토요일이 우리 영수 Next Saturday is his birthday, so I
생일이에요. 그래서 (so) sent him a gift and a card this morning.
오늘 아침에 카드하고 생일
선물을 영수한테 보냈어요.
--선물로 뭐를 동생에게 --What did you send (to) him?
보냈어요?

--스웨터요. --A sweater.

To and from a location is expressed by 에 and 에서. The markers expressing to and
from (a person) are as follows:

colloquial formal
to (a person) 한테 에게
from (a person) 한테서 에게서
Sometimes a Korean verb and its English counterpart do not have the same
grammatical requirements, as in the case of this feature. For example, in English, an
indirect object is the person who is indirectly affected by the action indicated by the
verb, and usually answers the question to whom? or for whom?

A B

• Michelle asked the teacher (her) a • Michelle asked a question to the


question. teacher (to her).

• Alex gave Stacey and Natalie (them) a • Alex gave a tennis lesson to Stacey
tennis lesson. and Natalie (to them).

In both columns A and B, the underlined nouns and pronouns function as indirect
objects of the verbs. The difference between the two sets is only on the surface, and
is a question of English word order, i.e., the placement of the direct object within the
sentence. This concept in English is helpful in acquiring an accurate application of
this grammar feature in Korean, because the Korean equivalents--한테 and 에게--
always appear in a sentence.

Chapter 12

Expressing a Series of Actions or Qualities


Mr. Han asks Mr. Park about his store.

--박선생님, 가게를 언제 열고 --Mr. Park, when do you open and close


닫습니까? the store?
--보통 아침 9시에 열고 밤 --I usually open at 9:00 in the morning and
10시에 닫아요. 그런데 오늘은 close at 10:00 at night. However, today, I
11시에 열고 8시에 닫아요. opened at 11:00 and will close at 8:00.

--그런데, 가게가 크고 밝고 --By the way, the store is big, bright, and
좋습니다. nice.
--뭘요. --Thank you.

In English, when you want to connect two clauses or words in a series, connecting
words such as "and" are used. Since Korean sentences and clauses end with a
verb, the verb of the first clause takes a connective ending, -고, before the second
clause begins. This ending is generally translatable into English as ...and, as in
enumerating a series of actions, conditions, qualities, etc.

한국말은 (Linguistic Note): There are two important points to remember when
using -고.
1. When two clauses are connected, tense is nomally expressed in the final
verb of a sentence. For example, 어제는 10시에 열고, 6시에 닫았습니다,
Yesterday, they opened at 10:00 and closed at 6:00.
2. -고 normally is not used when the verb of the first clause expresses a
movement or posture, e.g., 가다, 오다, 앉다, etc. Instead, -서 is used for
sequential actions. For example, 집에 가서 저녁 먹었습니다, I went home and
ate dinner.

Chapter 12
How to Offer and Request Assistance and Services
Miss Choi asks an unwilling Mr. Hwang to help her with the windows.

--황선생님, 저 좀 도와 --Mr. Hwang, would you help me?


주시겠어요?
--네, 뭐에요? --Yes. What is it?

--이 창문 좀 닫아 주세요. --Please close this window.


--네, 닫아 드리겠습니다. --Okay, I'll do it.

--저 창문 두개는 열어 주세요. --And please open those two.


--네, ¿? î 드리겠습니다. --Yes, I will.

--감사합니´ Ù. --Thank you.

When you ask someone to do something or when you offer your help, 주다/드리다,
give, is added after the main verb with the -어/아 ending, denoting the action itself.

verb stem + 아/어 주다/드리다

When the last syllable of a


verb stem contains the add 아 닫 + 아 주다  닫아 주다
vowels ㅗ or ㅏ , 주다/드리다. + 아 드리다  닫아 드리다
When the last syllable of a
verb stem contains a add 어 열 + 어 주다  열어 주다
vowel other than ㅗ or ㅏ . 주다/드리다. + 어 드리다  열어 드리다

The difference between 주다 and 드리다, give, is that the latter is an honorific verb.
Chapter 13
Making Suggestions
Insook and Junho are making plans for the weekend:
--인숙씨 이번 주말에 산호세에 --Insook, let's go to San Jose this
같이 갑시다. 한국 식당에도 weekend. Let's go to a Korean
가고, 한국서점에도 갑시다. restaurant, and a Korean
어때요? bookstore. What do you think?
--아주 좋아요. --Great.

--그럼 10시에 학교에서 --Then let's meet at school at


만나십시다. ten o'clock.
--네. --OK.

Making suggestions, as in the English "Let's...," is accomplished in Korean by adding


(으)ㅂ시다 to the verb stem. The honorific infix can be inserted to make it polite, as in
만나십시다, "Let's meet."

verb stem + ((으) 시) + ㅂ시다

When a verb stem ends in add 가다


a vowel, ㅂ시다. 가 + ㅂ시다  갑시다
When a verb stem ends in add 읽다
a consonant, 읍시다. 읽 + 읍시다  읽읍시다

For negation -지 맙시다 is used.

• 일본 식당에 가지 맙시다. Let's not go to the Japanese


restaurant.

There is another meaning of this grammar structure, as in the English "Let me...."
The difference between these two usages is clear from the situation.

A customer points to a book in a bookstore:

• 그책 좀 봅시다. Let me look at that book.

한국말은: Although this grammar feature is acceptable when addressing friends,


siblings, and subordinates, its use is considered improper when speaking to an
elder or a superior. In the latter cases, acceptable protocol may include stating
your intent (e.g., 저, 식당에 가요. 같이 가시겠습니까?), which could be
interpreted more as an invitation.
Chapter 13

Expressing the Means of Doing Things


Mr. Yoon talks to Jane about his brother's visit.

--오늘 공항에 가요. --I'm going to the airport today.


--누가 와요? --Is someone coming?

--형님이 워싱톤에서 비행기로 --My brother's coming from


와요. Washington by plane.
--공항까지 뭐로 가요? --How are you going to get to the
지하철로 가요? airport? By subway?

--아뇨, 제 트럭으로 가겠어요. --No, I'll go in my truck.

The postposition -(으)로 means to or toward. The same element attached to a noun
expresses a means by which something is done. It can roughly be rendered in
English as by, with, or in. For example:

• 비행기로 가요. I'm going by plane.


• 연필로 써요. I'm writing with a pencil.
• 한국어를 한국말로 가르쳐요. I'm teaching Korean in Korean.

noun + (으)로

When a noun ends in 비행기 (plane) + 로  비행기로


a vowel or in ㄹ, add 로. 지하철 (subway) + 로  지하철로
When a noun ends in
other consonants, add 으로. 트럭 (truck) + 으로  트럭으로

Chapter 13
Expressing Your Future Intentions
Jane invites both Mr. Yoon and his brother to dinner.

--오늘 저녁에 형님하고 저희 집에 --Please come to my house this


오세요. 제가 저녁을 준비하지요. evening. I'II make dinner. Come
6시까지 오세요. by six o'clock.
--아! 고맙습니다. 6시까지 가지요. --Oh, thank you! We'll be there by
six o'clock.

--그 시간에는 교통이 복잡해요. --The traffic at that hour is terrible.


조금 일찍 출발하세요. Please start a little bit early.
--네, 그러지요. --OK, we will.

Stating one's intentions is accomplished using -겠-. Another verb form frequently
used to express the speaker's intention is -지요, which is added to the verb stem.

verb stem + 지요

Chapter 14
Eliciting Recommendations: “Shall We...?”
One of the basic characteristics of the Korean language is the use of varied verb
endings to convey meaning. These indicate, among other things, the intent of the
speaker or writer, whether it be to make a statement, a question, a request, or a
suggestion.

statement 한국식당에 갑니다/가요.


question 한국식당에 갑니까?/가요?
request 한국식당에 가(십)시오/가(세)요.
suggestion 한국식당에 갑시다/가요.

Another way of making recommendations is to add -(으)ㄹ까요? to a verb stem. -


(으)ㄹ까요? is equivalent to Shall we...? or Shall I...? in English. It is somewhat less
direct or assertive than "verb stem + (으)ㅂ시다."

-(으)ㄹ까요? basically functions as a question, as the question mark indicates. This


form, however, indicates various meanings, as in the following examples:

Miss Oh invites Mr. Nam to lunch.

--남선생님, 우리 점심 식사 같이 --Mr. Nam, shall we have lunch together?


할까요?
--좋습니다. --Good idea.

--그럼, 우리 중국식당 갈까요? --Well, shall we go to a Chinese restaurant?


--중국식당이요? 거기는 너무 --Chinese restaurant? It's too far from here.
멀어요. ° ” î 한국식당에 갑시다. Let's go to the Korean restaurant near here.
When a sentence subject is "we," -(으)ㄹ까요? is used to imply the speaker's
suggestion of doing something together, as seen above.

Mr. Yang asks Ms. Park about her dining preferences.

--미스 박, 우리 뭐 먹을까요? --Ms. Park, what shall we have?


--생선찌개 어때요? --How about fish stew?

--좋습니다. 그럼, 음료수는 --Well, what shall we drink?


뭘로 마실까요?
--맥주가 좋겠어요. --Beer would be fine.

The example above illustrates a different function of -(으)ㄹ까요?: simple inquiry.


When question words such as 무엇, 언제, 어디, or ´ ㈀¸ are involved, -(으)ㄹ까요?
functions as a simple question.

Mr. Kang asks Mr. Choi for permission.

--제가 음식을 시킬까요? --Shall I order the food?


--네, 그러세요. --Please, do so.

--맥주도 좀 시킬까요? --Shall I also order beer?


--아닙니다. 저는 술은 안 합니다. --No, I don't drink.

When a sentence subject is "I," -(으)ㄹ까요? has another function: asking permission
or making a confirmation of a listener's wish.

Note: If the subject is "we," as in the examples below, 시 may be added to show
respect for the listener.

• 하 + 시 + ㄹ 까요? ------->하실까요? (Shall we have...?)


• 가 + 시 + ㄹ까요? ------->가실까요? (Shall we go?)

verb stem + (으)ㄹ까요?

When a verb stem ends add 먹 + 을까요  먹을까요?


in a consonant,
을까요?
When a verb stem ends add 마시 + ㄹ 까요 마실까요?
in a vowel,
ㄹ까요?
Chapter 14
Expressing “Only”

도 is equivalent to the adverb also in English. 만 is equivalent to only or just. Like 도,


it is normally placed after nouns or noun phrases.

Two friends discuss ordering in a restaurant.

--박하사, 우리 맥주 시킬까요? --Shall we order some beer, Mr. Park?


--아닙니다. 저는 집에서만 --No, I only drink at home.
술을 마십니다.

--그럼, 음식만 시키세요. --Well, just order some food for yourself.
--네, 그러죠. --OK, I think I will.

noun (phrase) + 만

When a noun (phrase) drop the subject/ 음식을 + 만 + 시키다


has a subject/object marker, object marker and .........drop 을..........
add 만. 음식만 시키세요
When a noun (phrase) has either drop or retain 집에서+ 만 + 마시다
a marker other than a the marker and add .........retain 에서
subject/object marker, 만. 집에서만 마십니다.

Chapter 14
Making "Nouns" from Verbs (Gerunds)

The following passage is Mr. Adams's account of his experience learning Korean:

저는 요즈음 한국말을 배웁니다. These days, I'm learning Korean.


한국말은 아주 재미À 윱求Ù. Korean is very interesting. By the
그런데, 말하기는 쉽고, 듣기는 좀 way, speaking is easy and listening is
어렵습니다. a little difficult.

In the examples above, notice the underlined "-ing" words. In English, words ending in
-ing can function both as verbs and nouns.
As a verb, an "-ing" word is called a present participle and is mostly used with the
verb be: "I am learning Korean."

When used as a noun (e.g., a subject, an object), the "-ing" word is called a gerund:
"Speaking is easy and listening is a little difficult." In this example, the two gerunds
are functioning as the subjects of the sentence.
In Korean, gerunds are formed by attaching 기 to a verb stem. Since the Korean
language recognizes both action and stative verbs, gerunds may both indicate activity
(action verbs) or a state of being (stative verbs). This chapter will focus mainly on
gerunds formed from action verbs.

verb stem + 기

Chapter 14
Pronunciation vs. Written Hangul

Hangul spelling does not always correspond to the way words and phrases are
pronounced. This is nothing unique to Korean, however. Korean actually has a higher
ratio of "what you see is what you get" pronunciation than does English. In this
section, you will learn some important features of Korean pronunciation. You need
only learn the spelling while remembering the keys to proper pronunciation. The
following examples in context focus on this phenomenon. Read them aloud as you go
along.

Chapter 14
A. Consonant shifting

Normally, when pronouncing the combination of two syllables--a syllable ending in a


consonant followed by a syllable beginning in a vowel--the result sounds as if the
consonant at the end of the first syllable were shifted to the beginning of the second.
For example:
--어디 가십니까? --Where are you going?
--음식점에 갑니다. --I'm off to the restaurant.

You will notice that the underlined phrase above is pronounced as if it were written
음식저메.

Here is another example of the same phenomenon.


--이쪽으로 앉으세요. --Please sit over here.
--감사합니다. --Thank you.

This underlined phrase is pronounced as if it were written 안즈세요.


Chapter 14

B. The consonant ㅎ

Normally, ㅎis not pronounced when placed between two vowels.


--오늘 어때요? --How are you today?
--아주 좋아요. --I'm feeling great.

Notice that the underlined portion is pronounced as if spelled 조아요.

When ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ are preceded or followed by ㅎ, they become strongly


aspirated, as are the consonants ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, and ㅊ.
--백화점에 어떻게 갑니까? --How do I get to the department store?
--이리 곧장 가세요. --Go straight down this way.

Notice that 백화점 is pronounced as if spelled 배콰점, 어떻게 as if spelled 어떠케.

A similar phenomenon occurs when ㅎis preceded by ㅅ. The resulting combination


is pronounced as ㅌ.
--이번주말에 시내구경할까요? --Shall we see the sights downtown
this weekend?
--아니오. 나는 못 합니다. --No, I can't (can't go).

The underlined portion of the response sounds as if written 모 탑니다.

Chapter 14

C. The pronunciation of 같이

ㅌbefore 이 is pronounced like ㅊ. The resulting pronunciation is 치.


--같이 갈까요? --Shall we go together?
--네, 그러지요. --Yes, let's do that.

The first speaker's question sounds like 가치 갈까요?

Chapter 14

D. The peculiar case of ㄹ


At the end of a syllable, ㄹ is pronounced like the English "l," as in "nail."
--내일 뭐 합니까? --What are you doing tomorrow?
--매일 공부합니다. --I study every day.

ㄹ is pronounced like "r" when followed by a vowel (and is shifted to the next syllable).
--서울은 어때요? --How about Seoul?
--아주 좋아요. --It's great.

The underlined portion is pronounced as if it were written 서우른.

ㄹ is pronounced like ㄴ when preceded by another consonant (other than another


ㄹor ㄴ).
--뭐 마시겠습니까? --What will you have to drink, sir?
--음료수를 마시겠습니다. --I'd like a soda.

In the response, 음료수 is pronounced as if it were spelled 음뇨수.

ㄹ and ㄴ in combination (ㄹ+ ㄴ or ㄴ+ ㄹ) are pronounced much the same as the


English "ll" combination in words such as "willing."
--내일 저한테 연락하세요. --Please contact me tomorrow.
--그러지요. --But of course.

Thus, 연락 is pronounced 열락.

Chapter 15
Expanded Use of Attributive Verb Forms
Stative verbs are not limited to the predicate of a given sentence and that their
attributive forms perform a function similar to that of English adjectives. The following
sentences illustrate this concept.

저 가게는 물건이 아주 쌉니다. The items are very inexpensive in that store.
predicate predicate

거기는 싼 물건이 많습니다. There are many inexpensive items in that store.
attributive attributive

When a stative or an action verb takes one of its attributive forms, it is very often part
of a clause--a group of words containing a subject and a verb. A clause may be of
two general types: 1) an independent or main clause, which can stand alone as a
sentence, and 2) a dependent clause, which cannot stand alone. Korean verbs in
their attributive forms are often part of dependent clauses that serve much the same
function as the English relative clause.

Chapter 15
Anticipated Actions
The attributive ending, -(으)ㄹimplies an expected or anticipated action.

Look at the following examples of its use.

--오상병, 내일 동양 박물관에 갑시다. --Corporal Oh, let's go to the Asian


museum tomorrow.
--내일은 안돼요. 할 일이 많아요. --I can't go tomorrow. I have a lot
그리고 우리 집에 누가 오십니다. of things to do. Also, I have
someone coming over.

--내일 오실 분이 누구십니까? --Who's the person coming


우리 모두 같이 갑시다. tomorrow? Let's all go together.
--아, 좋습니다. 거기는 볼 것이 많아요. --Good idea. There's a lot to see.

Note: In the sentences above, the underlined portions could easily be reworded to
create a "visible" clause in English. For example, "Who is the person coming
tomorrow?" could be made to read "Who is the person who is coming tomorrow?"
English equivalents of "verb stem + (으)ㄹ" is often given as to do, to go, to eat, etc.;
however, while Korean sentences have the same consistent pattern, as in the
following example, English translations may vary.
• 할 것 and 할 일 = Something...
...to do
...to be done
...that one must do
...expected to be done

한국말은: An attributive form in Korean must always precede the noun


modified.
• 학교에서 배울 것이 많아요. There are many things to learn in school.
attributive + noun noun + attributive
• 갈 사람이 많이 있어요? Are there many people who are going?
attributive + noun noun + attributive
action verb stem + (으)ㄹ

When a verb stem add 을. 사진 찍 + 을  사진 찍을


ends in a consonant,
When a verb stem add ㄹ. 보+ㄹ볼
ends in a vowel,

Chapter 15
Expressing a Sequence of Actions
고 is used to join clauses, as in the following.

--형님은 지금 뭐 하세요? --What does your brother do now?


--대학을 졸업하고 지금 --My brother graduated from college
회사에서 일합니다. and now works for a firm

(아/어)서 (and; and then) is used to link two clauses that share the same subject and
are sequential, e.g., a movement or motion expressed in the first clause occurs before
the action expressed in the second.
The following is a description of E-4 Parker's morning routine.

파커상병은 매일 아침 5시에 일어나서 Every morning at 5:00 a.m.


커피를 마시고 5시 30분에 체육관에 E-4 Parker gets up and has some
갑니다. 6시 반 쯤에는 기숙사에 coffee. At 5:30 he goes to the
돌아와서 샤워를 합니다. 그 다음에 gymnasium. At about 6:30, he
식당에 가서 아침 식사를 합니다. comes back to the barracks and
showers. After that, he goes to the
dining facility and has breakfast.

Movement, motion, and posture are expressed in a clause with verbs such as 가다,
go, 오다, come, 일어나다, rise, or 돌다, turn, which occur prior to the action expressed
in the subsequent clause.

Note: 고 (and not 어서) is used to connect clauses that contain different subjects
when a sequence of actions is not implied.

나는 박물관에 가고, I went to the museum and


그분은 화랑에 갔습니다. he went to the gallery.

action verb stem + (아/어)서

When the last syllable of a verb


stem contains the vowels 오 or 아, add 아서. 앉 + 아서  앉아서
When a verb stem ends in any
other vowel, add 어서. 서 + 어서  서서

Chapter 15
Counting Objects Using "Counters"
Note the following counters:

한 명/분 one person


한잔 a cup of
한병 a bottle of
한살 one year old

For counting some objects, Korean speakers often use counters after the number. In
this chapter you will see three commonly used counter words: 개, 대, and 장.
Changes occur in the pronunciation of some numbers when counters are used.

The first four numbers, 하나, 둘, 셋, and 넷, lose their final sounds when placed
before a counter. 하나, 둘,셋, and 넷 are pronounced 한, 두, 세, and 네.
number in isolation number + counter

하나  차한+대 (1 car)
둘  차두+대 (2 cars)
셋  차세+대 (3 cars)
넷  차네+대 (4 cars)

A customer and a proprietor talk in a fruit market.

--이 사과 얼마입니까? --How much are these apples?


--한 개 1000원입니다. --They are 1000 won each.

--그럼 이거 열 개만 주세요. --Give me 10.


--네, 여기 있습니다. --Here you are.

When you use a number-counter phrase with a noun, the proper sequence is:

noun + number + counter

Another counter, 대, is used when counting modes of transportation (cars, trucks,


planes) and many different electronic items (TVs, cameras, telephones, computers,
etc.). 장 is used in counting tickets and (sheets of) papers.

Kisoo talks about preparations for her class outing.

어제 우리반 학생 열 명이 Yesterday ten of our classmates went


샌프란시스코에 갔습니다. to San Francisco. We went there in
자동차 두 대로 갔습니다. two cars. I bought two post cards
저는 거기서 그림엽서 there. I sent one to my boyfriend
두 장을 샀습니다. 한 장은 and the other one to my mother.
제 남자 친구한테 보내고
또 한 장은 우리 어머니한테
보냈습니다.

Chapter 16
Expressing Negation: An Expansion
Junho and Mina are talking about last weekend.

--미나씨, 지난 주말에 집에 --Mina, did you go home last


갔습니까? weekend?
--아뇨, 집에 가지 않았어요. --No, I didn't. I studied in the dorm.
기숙사에서 공부했어요. Did you go home?
준호씨는 집에 가셨어요?

--아뇨, 저도 가지 않았습니다. --No, I didn't either. I went downtown


시내에 나가서 놀았습니다. and had some fun.
--뭐 하셨어요? 영화 구경하셨어요? --What did you do? Did you see a movie?

--아뇨, 영화 구경하지 ¾刻努윱


刻努윱求Ù. --No, I didn't. I went shopping at a
백화점에서 쇼핑했습니다. department store.

Action and stative verbs may be negated using 안, e.g., 안갑니다, "I'm not going,"
안바빠요, "I'm not busy." Another form of negation is: "verb stem + 지 않다."

verb stem + 지 않다

The infix -았/었-, which usually denotes the past, and the infix -겠-, which typically
expresses the speaker's intention, come after -지 않-. -(으)시-, however, may be
attached either after the main verb stem or after the negative verb stem 않-, or at the
same time.

• 가지 않았습니다. I didn't go.


• 가지 않겠습니다. I won't go.

• 가지 않으십니다.
• 가시지 않습니다. He's not going.
• 가시지 않으십니다.

Chapter 16
Expressing Experimentation and Experience

Junho and Mina are talking about going to San Francisco.


--준호씨, 샌프란시스코에 --Junho, have you been to San
가 보셨어요? Francisco?
--아뇨, 아직 안 가 봤습니다. --No, I haven't.

--그럼, 한 번 가 보세요. --Then, you should go there. I was


저는 지난 달에 가 봤어요. there last month. There are lots of
구경할 데가 아주 많아요. places to see. Someday, I want to
언제 다시 한 번 가고 싶어요. go back again.
--그래요? 그럼 한 번 같이 갈까요? --Really? Then, shall we go together?

--네, 그러죠. --OK, let's do that.

In Korean, adding 아/어 보다 to an action verb stem serves to express two different
concepts, depending on the context. One is that of trying something (to see how it
turns out or to see if it can be done). The other is that of having experienced a
particular activity in the past. 아/어 보다 is frequently used as a function of etiquette in
imperative sentences because it implies that the listener has the option to refuse the
speaker's suggestion. All verb infixes you have learned to this point may be used with
this structure (e.g., 겠, 시, 았/었), both in statements and in questions.

action verb stem + 아/어 보다

The same rules that apply to linking the informal verb ending 아요/어요 to verb stems
also determine the selection of -아 or -어 in this construction, e.g., 아 when the final
verb vowel is 아 or 오, and 어 for all other vowels as well as irregular changes, e.g.,
하다  해 보다.

Chapter 16
Expressing Movements with Destinations

Junho is asking Insook about a recent trip.

--인숙씨, 어서 들어 오세요. --Insook, please come in.


어디 갔다 오셨습니까? Where have you been?
--저요? 저는 뉴욕에 갔다 왔어요. --Me? I've been to New York. I came
어제 돌아 왔어요. back yesterday.

--그래요? 재미있었습니까? --Oh, really? Was it fun?


--네, 여기 저기 많이 --Yes, I visited so many places.
돌아 다녔어요.

In English, verb phrases such as "come in," "go out," and "walk around" express
movement with a destination or direction, and in, out, and around indicate the
direction of the movement. In Korean, verbs such as 오다, 가다, or 다니다 are added
to other verbs to indicate the direction of movement. As you saw in Chapter 11 with
이민오다, immigrate and 이민가다, emigrate, 오다 and 가다 indicate direction in
relation to the speaker's location: When the action or movement is toward the
speaker, 오다 is used; when the action or movement is away from the speaker, 가다
is used. Note these examples.

first verb 가다 오다 다니다


돌다 돌¾튼〈Ù 돌아오다 돌아 다니다
turn return; go back return; come back go (wander) around
들다 들어 가다 들어 오다
enter go in come in
찾다 찾아 가다 찾아 오다 찾아 다니다
find/seek (go to) visit (come to) visit look around (for)

action verb stem + 아/어 가다/오다/다니다

Verbs which can be used as the first verb in this construction are limited. Choosing
-아 or -어 in this construction is governed by the same rules used in the previous
construction, "verb stem + 아/어 보다."

Chapter 17
Extended Use of Attributive Verb Forms: II
The attributive ending (으)ㄹindicates an expected or pending action.

• 오늘 할 일은 이겁니다. These are the things to do for today.

Another attributive ending, (으)ㄴ, implies a completed action.


Minsoo and Jinhwa are talking about a Korean restaurant.

--지난 토요일에 간 한국 음식점 --How was the Korean restaurant you


어때요? went to last Saturday?
--괜찮았어요. --It was OK.

--거기 뭐가 맛있어요? --What do they have that's good?


--제가 먹은 것은 불고기였어요. --What I ate was barbequed beef.
저하고 같이 간 친구는 돼지 갈비 A friend who went with me ordered
시켰는데요. 그것도 맛있었어요. pork ribs. That was good, too.

action verb stem + (으) ㄴ¤

When a verb stem ends in add 은. 먹다


a consonant, 먹 + 은  먹은
When a verb stem ends in add ㄴ. 가다
a vowel, 가+ㄴ  간

The Korean attributive behaves much like a relative clause in English.

지난 토요일에 간 음식점 the restaurant that you went to last Saturday

제가 먹은 것 the thing that I ate

저하고 같이 간 친구 the friend who went there with me

Chapter 17
Expressing Possibility
Minsoo and Jinhwa discuss a trip to Los Angeles.

--진화 씨, 로스앤젤레스에 같이 --Jinhwa, can you go to LA with me?


갈 수 있어요?
--네, 갈 수 있어요. --Yes, I can.

--비행기로 갈까요? --Shall we go by plane?


--저 비행기 타기 싫어요. --I hate to fly. Let's go by car.
차로 갑시다.

--거기까지 운전할 수 있어요? --Can you drive all the way there?
--그럼요. --Sure.

In Korean, adding (으)ㄹ수 있다 to a verb stem expresses possibility or capability.

verb stem + (으)ㄹ+ 수 있다


When a verb stem add 먹다
ends in a consonant, 을 수 있다. 먹 + 을 + 수 있다  먹을 수 있다
When a verb stem add 가다
ends in a vowel, ㄹ 수 있다. 가 + ㄹ+ 수 있다  갈 수 있다

This feature is negated by replacing 있다 with 없다. Literally, the two verb phrases
mean There's a possiblility of.../There's no possibility of.... The most common
English equivalents, however, are can (do) or cannot do....

Chapter 17
Asking and Stating the Names of Objects
James asks Minsoo about Korean kinship terms:

--"Uncle"을 한국말로 뭐라고 해요? --How do you say "uncle" in Korean?


--한국말로 큰아버지 또는 작은 --We call "uncle" 큰아버지 or 작은
아버지라고 해요. 또 삼촌, 아버지. We also say 삼촌 or
외삼촌이라고도 해요. 외삼촌.

--누굴 큰아버지라고 해요? --Whom do you call 큰아버지?

--아버지의 형님을 큰아버지라고 --We call our father's older brother


해요. 큰아버지.

Asking or stating the name of an object or person is accomplished by using the


following construction:

object + 을/를 + name + (이)라고 하다

When a noun (name) add 외삼촌


ends in a consonant, 이라고 하다. 외삼촌 + 이라고 하다
When a noun (name) add 큰아버지
ends in a vowel, 라고 하다. 큰아버지 + 라고하다

Chapter 18
Expressing Comparison
In English, there are several ways to make comparative adjectives: by adding -er to
an adjective, as in tall-taller; by placing more before an adjective as in more beautiful;
or by using a different word, as in good-better, bad-worse.

In Korean, these comparative expressions are uniformly made by placing 더, more,


before an adjective or adverb.

--불고기 좀 더 갖다드릴까요? --Shall I bring some more bulgoki?

--네, 더 갖다주세요. --Yes, please bring some more.

When comparing two or more things or people, the item used as the basis of the
contrast takes -보다, which functions similarly to the English word than.

Two people discuss their color preferences.

--이 곤색 양복 색깔이 어때요? --How does this navy blue suit strike you?
--괜찮아요. 그런데, 박 선생님 --It's fine, but gray is more becoming
한테는 회색이 곤색보다 더 잘 on you than navy blue.
맞아요.

--그래요? 저는 어두운 색깔을 --Really? I like the dark colors more


밝은 색깔보다 더 좋아해요. than the bright ones.

Note that -보다 is attached to the person or object compared; thus, the order of the
two nouns compared has no effect on meaning. The word order of the two compared
nouns is reversed in the following sentences and conveys the same meaning as the
example above.
• 박선생한테는 곤색보다 회색이 Gray is more becoming on you than
더 잘 맞아요. navy blue.

• 밝은 색깔보다 어두운 색깔을 I like dark colors more than bright


더 좋아해요. ones.

Note:

1. When compared objects are understood in the context, the compared nouns and
-보다 are frequently omitted.
--어느 치마가 더 예쁩니까? --Which skirt is prettier?
--저는 이 회색 치마가 더 예뻐요. --I believe this gray skirt is prettier.

2. 더 is often omitted in colloquial speeches.


• 우리 언니가 저보다 (더) 날씬해요. My sister is thinner than I.
• 미시시피강이 한강보다 (더) 깁니다. The Mississippi River is longer than
the Han River.

한국말은: 보다 may also serve as an equivalent to terms such as rather than or


instead of in English, especially when one action is chosen or preferred over
another.

• 내일은 잠바보다 양복을 입읍시다. Let's wear suits rather than


windbreakers tomorrow.
• 구두보다 운동화를 신읍시다. Let's wear sneakers instead of
street shoes.

Chapter 18
Expressing Superlatives
제일 means first, number one, or most.

--이 소령님, 무슨 색깔을 제일 --Major Lee, what color do you like


좋아하십니까? most?

--저는 주황색을 제일 좋아해요. --I like orange best.

As the example above shows, 제일 is used to express superlatives. When three or


more items are compared, the superlative expresses the "the greatest degree." Note
the following examples of the superlative in English:

tall taller (the) tallest


beautiful more beautiful (the) most beautiful
good better (the) best
The following passage about different types of cars illustrates the superlative as well
as comparative expressions in Korean.
벤츠가 토요다보다 더 비싸요. Benzes are more expensive than
그리고 토요다보다 렉서스가 더 비싸요. Toyotas. And Toyotas are more
그중에서 벤츠가 제일 비싸요. expensive than Lexuses. Among these,
Benzes are (the) most expensive.

Note:

중에서, among, is often used in conjunction with 제일/가장. When the compared
items are understood from context, 중에서, along with the items, can be omitted, as
in the following example. Naturally, a superlative accompanies -에서 to illustrate
where an item is the greatest.

The following passage describes a shoe store.


아담스씨는 양화점 주인입니다. Mr. Adams owns a shoe store. His
아담스씨의 양화점은 이 동네에서 shoe store is the largest in this town. 제일
큽니다. 그리고 구두도 제일 잘 And theirs are the best-made shoes.
만듭니다.

Chapter 18
Expressing an Action in Progress
Expressing an ongoing action, or one which otherwise is in progress, is accomplished
in English through the use of the present progressive, the construction of which may
be expressed as "is + verb + ing" (e.g., Chester is eating his lunch. I am washing my
car. Myrtle and Reba are playing with their sister, Lulu.). The equivalent meaning in
Korean is achieved by adding 고 있다 to an action verb stem.

action verb stem + 고 있다

Two people are talking on the phone.

--미스장, 지금 뭐하고 있어요? --Miss Chang, what are you doing?


--저 빵 만들고 있어요. 우리집에 --I'm baking bread. Come on over.
놀러오세요.

--좋아요. 그런데 Á Ý 제가 전화 --Good idea. By the way, I'm waiting


기다리고 있어요. 전화받고 곧 for a call. I'll go over as soon as I'm
가겠어요. done on the phone.

To express a past action in progress, 았/었 is added to 있다. This is illustrated in the
following example, where Miss Ko is entertaining several house guests.

--미스고, 왜 빨리 안 오세요? --Miss Ko, what's keeping you?


모두 기다리고 있어요. We're all waiting for you in here.
--미안합니다. 부엌에서 디저트 --Sorry, I was preparing dessert in the
좀 준비하고 있었어요. kitchen.

한국말은: When speaking to or referring to one's superior, 계시다 may be used


in place of 있다.

• 오늘은 이 소장이 집에서 쉬고 있어요. \ MG Lee is resting at


• 오늘은 이 소장님이 댁에서 쉬고 계십니다. / home today.

Chapter 18
Seeking Agreement

the ending -지요 is used to show intention.

--이 일을 누가 하시겠습니까? --Who's going to do this?


--제가 하지요. --I'll do it.

Another function of -지요 is to solicit the listener's agreement, similar to the way
English speakers use "tag questions," such as "Don't you?" "Isn't he?" etc. ("You're
going to class, aren't you?"). In Korean simply add -지요 to the stem of the main
(final) verb. A rising tone of voice (-지요  ) at the end of the sentence provides a
clue to the listener that the speaker expects a response.

Ms. Shin and Mr. Han have a conversation in their office.

--한선생님은 어두운 --Mr. Han, you like dark colors


색깔을 좋아하시지요? don't you?
--아니오, 저는 밝은 색을 좋아해요. --No, I like bright colors. You often
미스신도 밝은 색을 자주 입지요? wear bright-colored clothes, don't
you?
--네, 밝은 색 중에서도 주황색을 --Yes, and among bright colors, I like
제일 좋아합니다. orange the most.

한국말은: -지요 has another function: it is also used to express suggestions.

--회의 시간이 됐어요. 빨리 가시지요 --It's time for the meeting.


We'd better get going.
--벌써 그렇게 됐어요? --Is it that time already?

--참, 노트하고 연필도 가지고 --Say, let's take some pads


가시지요. and pencils, too.

Chapter 19
Extended Use of Attributive Verb Forms: III

The attributive ending -(으)ㄹimplies an expected or pending action and/or


condition.

• 이 부근에는 별로 갈 데가 없어요. There's no place to go around here.

The attributive ending -(으)ㄴ indicates a completed action or condition.

• 지난 주말에 간 식당은 너무 멀어요. The restaurant that I went to last


weekend is too far away.

The attributive ending -는 implies an ongoing or habitual action.

action verb stem + 는

Yoon-hi and Kisu are talking at the post office.


--윤희 씨, 이리 오세요. 우리도 --Yoon-hi, come here. Let's stand
줄을 섭시다. in line.
--네. 그런데, 오늘 기다리는 --OK. You know, there certainly is a
사람이 많군요! crowd of people waiting today.

--다음 일요일이 어버이날입니다. --Next Sunday's Parents' Day. So,


그래서 한국에 소포를 부치는 there are a lot of people mailing
사람들도 많고, 편지를 보내는 parcels and sending letters to Korea.
사람들도 많아요.
--아! 그렇군요. 그런데 기수씨, --Oh, that's right. By the way, did you
어머니한테 카드 보냈어요? send a card to your mother?

--네, 어제 보냈어요. --Yes, I sent one yesterday.

As illustrated in the English version of the conversation, the phrases "people waiting"
and "people mailing parcels and sending letters" are used in place of the relative
clauses "People who are waiting." "People who are mailing parcels." and "People who
are sending letters." And as you have learned in previous chapters, the Korean
attributive serves much the same function as the English relative clause.

Note:

있다/없다 may also take this attributive form to identify the location/absence of a
noun.

A customer and a clerk discuss items in a store.

--저기 하얀 블라우스 옆에 있는 것 --What's that next to the white


뭐에요? 색깔이 아주 예쁜데요! blouse? The color is really pretty!
--저거요? 스카프에요. --What, that? It's a scarf.

--그럼, 양말도 있어요? 그리고 --Fine. Do you carry socks? And


여자 핸드백도 있습니까? do you carry handbags?
--네, 이쪽으로 오세요. 여기 --Yes, come this way. We have
다 있어요. 우리 가게에는 everything. There's nothing our
없는 것이 없어요. store doesn't have.

한국말은: The following is a summary of the past, present, and future


attributive forms.

요즈음 파마하는 사람이 Nowdays, there aren't many people


별로 없어요. getting perms.
저기가 지난 번에 제가 파마한 That's the beauty parlor where I
미장원이에요. got my perm the other day.

요즈음은 파마할 돈도 없어요. These days, I don't even have the


money to get a perm.

Chapter 19
Expressing Obligation

There are several ways to express obligation or necessity in Korean. One of the most
common ways is the use of 아/어야 하다 or 아/어야 되다. These may be combined
with any verb to indicate that one "must" or "has to" do something.
Mr. Kang and Ms. Oh discuss going to the bank.

--강선생님, 지금 돈 있으면 좀 빌려 --Mr. Kang, could you lend me some


주세요. money, if you have any?
--아뇨, 없어요. 지금 저 은행에 --No, I don't. I have to go to the bank
가야 돼요. now.

--지금 8시 30분이에요. 아직 은행문 안 --It's 8:30 now. Banks are not open
열었어요. 조금 더 기다려야 해요. yet. You'll have to wait a bit longer.
--그래요? 그럼 30분만 여기서 --Really? Well, I'll just wait here
기다리겠어요. another 30 minutes.

Note:

In conversation, another variant form for obligation is frequently used: 아/어야겠다.


This form indicates "will (probably) have to..."

--지금 우체국에 가야겠어요. --Guess I'll have to go to the post


office now.
--지금 가지 마세요. 우리 --Don't go right now. We really
일을 빨리 끝내야겠어요. should resolve this matter quickly.

--좋습니다. --Very well.

verb stem + 아/어야 되다/하다

When the final syllable of a 앉다


verb stem contains the add 아. 앉+ 아야 됩니다  앉아야 됩니다
vowels 아 or 오 , 앉 +아야 합니다  앉아야 합니다
When the final syllable of a À畇Ù
verb stem contains a vowel add 어. 읽+ 어야 됩니다  읽어야 됩니다
other than 오 or 아, 읽 +어야 합니다  읽어야 합니다

Chapter 20
Stating Conditional Actions
Two friends are talking about over-the-counter medicines.

--재우씨, 머리 아프면 보통 --Jaewoo, when you have a headache,


무슨 약 먹어요? what kind of medicine do you take?
--저요? 저는요, 아스피린을 --Me? I take an aspirin.
먹어요.

--그 약을 먹으면 금방 나아요? --If you take it, do you feel better
immediately?
--그럼요. 먹고 10분만 있으면 --Sure. When I take it, I'm as good as new
다 낫습니다. within ten minutes. (Lit. When I take it
and wait for ten minutes,)

A conditional statement is one where a specific action is dependent upon another. To


express this, one generally begins a dependent clause with "if" or "when," followed by
a main clause which implies the result of the condition, as in the examples above. In
Korean, "verb stem + (으)면" in a dependent clause, followed by a main clause, is
used for this expression.

verb stem + (으)면

아프다
When a verb stem ends in 아프 + 면  아프면
a vowel or ㄹ, add 면. 알다
알+면  알면
먹다
When a verb stem ends in add 으면. 먹 + 으면  먹으면
a consonant other than ㄹ,

Chapter 20
Expressing the Purpose of "Coming" and "Going"
An office receptionist is talking to a visitor.

--어떻게 오셨습니까? --What can I do for you?


--황선생님을 만나러 왔습니다. --I came to see Mr. Hwang.

--황선생님 지금 자리에 안 계십니다. --He's not here now. He went to the


회의하러 회의실에 가셨습니다. conference room to hold a meeting.
--언제쯤 돌아 오시겠습니까? --When will he be back?

--11시에 회의가 끝나요. 지금 9시인데, --It'll end at 11:00. It's 9:00 now. Can
두 시간을 기다리시겠어요? you wait for two hours?
--아뇨, 11시에 다시 오죠. --No, I'll come back at 11:00.

Although the most common English counterpart for expressing the purpose of an
action is the form "to (do...)," the Korean equivalent that expresses the purpose for
coming and going is restricted to cases where the sentence-final verb is 가다, 오다,
다니다, or any other verb expressing a similar movement.

verb stem + (으)러 + 가다/오다/다니다

만나다
When a verb stem ends in 만나 + 러  만나러
a vowel or ㄹ, add 러. 살다
살+러  살러
When a verb stem ends in 찾다
a consonant other than ㄹ, add 으러. 찾 + 으러  찾으러

한국말은: In the above exchange, the receptionist asks, 두시간을


기다리시겠어요? This is another usage of -을/를, which is normally used to
mark the object of a verb. 을/를 can also be used to express emphasis, usually
regarding duration of time. You do not have to use 을/를 in this manner when
speaking, but it is important to be able to recognize it when others use it.

Chapter 21

Expressing "None" or "Nothing"

A Korean customs official asks about luggage contents:


--비싼 약이나 화장품 같은 거 --Do you have any expensive medicine
있습니까? or make-up?
--아뇨, 아무 것도 없습니다. --No, I don't have anything.

(The customs official looks through


the suitcase.)

--이건 뭡니까? --What is this?


--그거요? 아무 것도 아니에요. --You mean that? It's nothing. It's
제 감기약입니다. my cold medicine.

--외화는 없습니까? --Don't you have any foreign


currency?
--네, 하나도 없습니다. --No, I don't have any.

--됐습니다. 안녕히 가십시오. --OK. Good-bye.

To express I don't have any/There isn't any, "아무 + noun + 도 + 없다" or "noun +
하나/한 (counter) + 도 + 없다" can be used, as illustrated above. There is a slight
difference in meaning, however, between these two patterns.

• 마실 것 있습니까? 1--Do you have something to drink?


• 아뇨, 아무 것도 없습니다. 2--No, I don't have anything.
• 아뇨, 하나도 없습니다. 2--No, I don't have any.

• 콜라가 있습니까? 1--Do you have a cola?


• X 아뇨, 콜라 아무 것도 없습니다. 2--X
• 아뇨, 콜라 한 병도 없습니다. 2--No, I don't have a single one. (Lit.,
I don't have even one bottle of cola.)

"아무 + (noun) + 도 + negative verb" is generally equivalent to not...any....

아무 + (noun) + 도 + negative verb

--뭐 하십니까? --What are you doing?


--아무 일도 안합니다. --I'm not doing anything.

Also note that no noun is used when indicating this kind of negation about people. In
other words, 아무도 followed by a negative means no one or not anybody.
--누가 그 분 알아요? --Who knows him?
--아무도 몰라요. --No one knows him.

--그때 누가 있었습니까? --Was somebody there at that time?


--아뇨, 아무도 없었습니다. --No, no one was there.
Chapter 21
Choosing Among Options
Minsoo and Inkyung are talking about a plan for the weekend.

--우리 어머니께서 오셨어요. --My mother came.


--그래요? 좋으시겠어요. --Is that so? You must be happy.

--네, 그런데 이번 주말에 --Yes. By the way, where can I go


어디를 가면 좋겠어요? this weekend?
--산이나 바다에 가시면 어때요? --How about going to the mountains or
to the beach?

--좋은 생각이에요. 바다가 --Good idea. Which one is better, the


좋을까요? 산이 좋을까요? beach or the mountains?
--여기 바다나 산이나 다 좋아요. --Here, both places are good. (Lit.,
민수씨 어머니께서 좋아하시는 Either the ocean or the mountains is
곳으로 가시지요. good.) Go to the place that your
mother likes.

The suffix -(이)나 is added to nouns and noun phrases which denote selection or
option. It means or or either...or.... 이 is added when nouns or noun phrases end in a
consonant.

noun (phrase) + (이)나 + noun (phrase)

한국 사람은: The subject marker -께서 shows respect. -께서 can be followed by
the topic marker, 는, but not the subject maker, 이/가. The counterpart of 에게,
to, in this form is 께.
--이 선생님께서는 차나 커피 --Do you want tea or coffee?
드시겠습니까?
--차 주세¿ä. 황선생님께는 --Tea, please. Give coffee to Mr.
커피 드리세요. Hwang.

Chapter 21

Summary of 되다
An immigration officer checks passports and visas.

--알란 토마스 씨입니까? --Are you Mr. Alan Thomas?


--네. --Yes.
--주소가 어떻게 되십니까? --What's your address, sir?
--미국 오레곤 주 포트랜드 시 --154, Hoffman St., Portland, Oregon.
호프만 가 154번지입니다.

--군인이시군요. 대위이십니까? --You're a soldier. Are you a Captain?


--아뇨, 소령입니다. 지난 달에 --No, a Major. I became a Major last
소령이 되었습니다. month.

--관광으로 오셨습니까? --Did you come here for a tour?


--네. --Yes.

--그 카메라 좋군요. 값이 얼마나 --That camera looks nice. How much
됩니까? is it worth?
--이거요? 한 40만원 됩니다. --This? It's about 400,000 won.

--됐습니다. 여행 잘 하십시오. --OK. Have a nice trip.


--감사합니다. 안녕히 계십시오. --Thank you. Good-bye.

되다 is used to express several different notions.

1. Asking for personal data (Chapter 1). One can identify personal data such as
name, address, status, relationship, etc., with this verb.
• 성함이 어떻게 되십니까? What is your name, sir?
• 주소가 어떻게 되십니까? What is your address, sir?

2. Expressing a change in status (Chapter 10). The English rendering would be


become.
• 그분은 의사가 되었습니다. He became a doctor.
• 지난 달에 소령이 되었습니다. Last month, I became a Major.

3. Expressing a quantity or price (Chapter 10).


• 인구가 팔백만이 됩니다. The population is 8,000,000.
• 값이 얼마나 됩니까? What is the price?

4. Expressing adequacy (Chapter 21).


• 됐습니다. It's OK.
• 그건 안됩니다. It's not OK.

Chapter 22

Expressing Reasons for... I

A. -아/어서
"Verb stem + -아/어서" is used to connect two clauses having a sequential
relationship. The verb in the first clause will express an action or motion, and the final
verb (in the second clause) indicates the subsequent action.

• 영희는 아침에 일찍 일어나서, Young-hee gets up early and walks


학교까지 걸어갑니다. to school.

-아/어서 has another function: to express cause or reason for what is expressed in a
following clause. English equivalents include so, since, and because. Just as the
term "cause" or "reason" implies, the second action takes place because of the first.
It is important to remember that when expressing a cause-efffect relationship in
Korean, the cause precedes the effect.

자동차가 너무 비싸서, 못 샀습니다. I couldn't buy that car because it was


too expensive.
cause effect effect cause

An employee explains his tardiness to his employer.

--아니 왜 이렇게 늦었어요? --Why are you so late?


--길이 막혀서, 좀 늦었어요. --I'm late because the road was
blocked.

--왜 길이 막혔지요? --Why was the road blocked?


--큰 교통사고가 나서 길이 완전히 --The road was completely blocked
막혔어요. because there was a big traffic
accident.

verb stem + 아/어서


Note:

-아/어서 does not take -았/었-, even though the past is implied.
• 작년까지는 시내에서 김포공항 It was very inconvenient until last
까지 가는 지하철이 없어서 아주 year, because there was no subway
불편했습니다. between downtown and Kimpo Airport.

Chapter 22

B. -기 때문에

Another form, -기 때문에, has a similar function as -아/어서. English equivalents of


this form also include so, since, and because.

The following passage is about Seoul streets.


서울 시내에는 사람과 자동차가 Seoul is very crowded because
많기 때문에 아주 복잡합니다. there are so many people and cars.
그리고 골목길이 많기 때문에 집 And it is very hard to find someone's
찾기가 아주 어렵습니다. house because there are so many
alleys.

The underlined parts in the example above can be replaced by a clause with
-아/어서.

verb stem + 기 때문에

Note:

1. -기 is added to a verb stem to make a gerund. 때문에, by itself meaning because,


can be added to nouns or pronouns to express reason. The English equivalent
includes because of, on account of, or due to.
• 어젯밤에는 옆집 테레비 소리 때문에 I couldn't sleep well last night,
잠을 잘 못 잤어요. because of the sound of the TV from
the next door neighbors.

2. A clause with -아/어서 or -기 때문에 implying cause or reason is never followed by


the imperative or a form expressing persuasion. Therefore, expressions such as
"Since it's raining, let's stay home." or "Since he's late, wait here for him." will use
-니까, rather than these two forms (Chapter 26).

Chapter 22
Expressing Speculation
-겠- expresses a speaker's intention.

--여기서 내리시겠어요? --Do you want to get off here?


--조금 더 가세요. 저 백화점 앞에서 --A bit further, please. I'd like to
내리겠어요. get off in front of the depart-
ment store.
Another function of -겠- is to express speculation or conjecture of other people's
actions or states. Here the subject is the 2nd person or 3rd person (including
inanimate objects).

--지금쯤 시내가 굉장히 복잡하겠어요. --Downtown must be pretty jammed


택시 잡기가 어렵겠어요. now, and it'll be hard to catch a taxi.
--어떻게 하지요? 약속시간에 --What shall we do? We're late for
늦었어요. the appointment.

--글쎄, 모두들 기다리겠어요. --Well, everybody is probably waiting


for us.
--그럼 지하철을 타고 가서, 버스를 타고 --Then, let's take a subway and then a
가지요. 그게 빠르겠습니다. bus. That will be fast.

verb + ((으)시) + 겠 + 습니다/습니까/어요

Note:

1. The past tense can be combined with -겠- to express conjecture or speculation,
relative to a past event or condition.
--정수씨, 미안해요. 많이 기다렸겠어요. --Chungsu, I'm sorry. You must' ve
waited a long time.
--괜찮습니다. --It's all right.

2. There are instances where the third person subject, combined with -겠-, means a
simple factual announcement rather than an speculation or conjecture. Such forms
are often used in weather forecasts, announcements, etc.
• 서울지방은 내일 하루 종일 비가 It will rain all day long tomorrow in
오겠습니다. the Seoul area.
• 다음에는 영희가 노래를 부르겠습니다. Younghee will sing next.

Chapter 22
Expressing Uncertainty

-(으)ㄹ까요? is used to express a suggestion or simple inquiry. English equivalents


include Shall we...? and Shall I...? Its use in this context is restricted to the first and
second person (the speaker and the listener).

--우리 택시 탈까요? --Shall we take a taxi?


--네, 좋아요. --Sure.

Another function of -(으)ㄹ까요? indicates I wonder..., or Do you think...?

Two people are talking about an airplane taking off at an airport.

--안개가 많이 끼었는데, 비행기가 --It's quite foggy; I wonder if the


이륙할 수 있을까요? airplane can take off.
--글쎄요, 어렵겠어요. --Well, that will be hard.

--그럼 비행기표를 환불해 줄까요? --Then, do you think they'll refund


the airplane ticket?
--잘 모르겠어요. --I really don't know.

verb stem + (으)ㄹ까요?

Note:

The past tense can be combined with -(으)ㄹ까요? to express wondering about past
actions or states.

--김선생님이 어제 미국에서 --I wonder if Mr. Kim returned from


돌아오셨을까요? the US yesterday.

--오셨겠지요. --I think he did.

Chapter 23
Giving and Asking for Permission
In English, phrases such as May I...? or Is it all right, if...? are used when asking for
permission. Permission is granted using the same structures: You may... or It's all
right, if.... When asking a question using this form, the English equivalent is Is it all
right if...?, Do you mind if...?, May I...? -아/어도 되다/괜찮다/ 좋다 may be used for
the same function in Korean.

verb stem + 아/어도 되다/괜찮다/좋다

Two passengers converse in the airport.

--저 실례합니다만 이 잡지 --Excuse me. Do you mind if I take a


좀 봐도 괜찮습니까? look at this magazine?
--네, 괜찮아요. --Sure, go ahead.

--그런데, 여기 앉아도 됩니까? --Is it all right to sit here?


--아니오, 안 됩니다. 제 친구 자립니다. --No, you can't. It is my friend's seat.

Note:
1. -아/어도 되다 and -아/어도 괜찮다 seem to be more widely used than -아/어도 좋다
in casual speech. The latter is often used for granting permission rather than asking
for it.
2. The questions with this form will be answered by "yes" or "no," followed by various
responses, as seen above. More possible answers are:
--네, 괜찮아요/보세요/그러세요.
--이 잡지 좀 봐도 돼요/괜찮아요? 
--아니오, 안 됩니다.

Chapter 23
Expressing Intention Informally
Stating a speaker's intention or asking the intention of the listener uses -겠-.

--지금 집에 가시겠습니까? --Would you like to go home


now?
--아니오, 1시간 후에 가겠어요 . --No, I'll go home in an hour.

Aother way of expressing one's intention uses -(으)ㄹ게요.


Two colleagues meet at a subway station.

--순희씨 표를 샀어요? --Sun-hi, did you buy a ticket?


--아뇨, 사람이 너무 많아서 --No, I couldn't buy a ticket because there
표를 아직 못 샀어요. were too many people.

--그· × ä? 그럼 저는 시간이 --Oh, really? Well, I'm going to go (out) 없어서 먼저


나갈게요. ahead because I'm short on time.
--그러세요, 제가 나중에 --You go ahead. I'll call you later.
전화할게요.

action verb stem + (으)ㄹ게요

Note:

1. -(으)ㄹ게요 is more informal than -겠어요.

2. It is used only for the speaker's intention in statements and cannot be used to ask
for a listener's intention.

Chapter 23

Expressing Wishes
The pattern -기 바라다 is used to express desire, expectation, or wanting, and is
attached directly to the verb stem. The English equivalent is I/We hope that.... This
form is most often used to request some kind of compliance in a formal setting, for
example, on signs, information broadcasts, etc.

전동차가 들어올 때는 안전선에서 Please wait at the safety line


기다리시기 바랍니다. when the train arrives.

자동 판매기를 이용하시기 We hope you make use of


바랍니다. the vending machine.

내리고 타실 때는 조심하시기 When you board and debark,


바랍니다. please be careful

verb stem + 기 바라다

Note:

바라다, meaning want, expect, can often be added directly to a noun. As you might
have noticed, -기 is a gerund that makes the desired action a noun form.

--장선생님은 자식들한테 무엇을 --Mrs. Chang, what do you expect


바라십니까? from your children?
--아무것도 바라지 않아요. 그냥 건강 --Nothing. I just want them to live
하게 잘 살기만 바래요. well and in good health.

Chapter 23
Frequencies and Amounts
A. -마다

An expression of rate or frequency in Korean is indicated by adding the suffix -마다 to


a noun. English equivalents of this suffix include each and every.

• 날마다 저는 지하철로 통근합니다 I commute by subway every day.

• 지하철 역마다 승차권발매기가 There are ticket machines in every


있습니다. subway station.

한국말은: Some nouns denoting time use 매-, as well as -마다, to


express each or every: 매일/날마다, every day, 매주/주마다, every
week, 매달/매월/달마다, every month, and 매해/매년/해마다, every
year. These suffixes can be used together: 매주마다, 매달마다, and
매해마다.

B. -씩

-씩 is attached to a number with or without a counter, and indicates distribution.

• 이 우표를 봉투마다 다섯 장씩 Affix five stamps to each envelope.


붙이세요.

• 서울에서 L.A.로 가는 비행기가 하루에 There are two airplanes that go to


두 대씩 있습니다. L.A. from Seoul everyday.

• 사과를 둘씩 이 봉지에 넣으세요. Put two apples in each paper bag.

-마다 and -씩 are often used together in a sentence.

Two friends talk about their work schedules.

--하루에 몇시간 일하세요? --How many hours do you work a day?


--저는 날마다 8시간씩 일합니다. --I work 8 hours (each) every day.

--그럼, 토요일에도 일합니까? --Do you also work on Saturdays?


--네, 일요일까지 8시간씩 일합니다. --I even work 8 hours on Sundays.

Chapter 24

Expressing a Purpose: II
Insoo is calling Mikyung for help:

--여보세요, 미경씨 있습니까? --Hello, Is Mikyung there?


--전데요. --This is she.

--미경씨, 제가 오늘 진주 --Mikyung, I bought a map of Jinjoo


지도를 샀어요. today.
--뭐하려고 샀어요? --What for?

--진주 박물관에 가 보려고요. --To go to the Jinjoo Museum.


그런데 봐도 잘 모르겠어요. Looking at it, I can't figure it out.
저좀 도와 주시겠어요? Would you help me?
--그러죠. --OK.

--고맙습니다. 그냥 그 얘기하려고 --Thanks. I just called to ask you this.


전화했습니다. 그럼 이따 봐요. See you later.
--그래요. 전화 끊을게요. --See you. Bye.

The purpose for coming or going can be stated with "verb stem + (으)러," but the
phrase was limited to movement from one place to another, as described by verbs
such as 가다, 오다, 다니다.

• 이 선생님 약사러 약국에 Mr. Lee went to the drugstore to buy


갔습니다. medicine.
"Verb stem + (으)려고"--can be followed by any verb and is not restricted to verbs
indicating movement.

verb stem + (으)려고

Note:

When you want to state a request, suggestion, or obligation, you have to use a
pattern that is slightly different from the one above:

• 전화하려면 저기로 가야 됩니다. You have to go there (in order) to call.

• 전화하려고 하면 저기로 가십시오. Please go there if you intend to make


a call.
• 장거리 전화를 하려면 먼저 1번을 You have to press "1" if you want
을 눌러야 합니다. to make a long distance call.

Chapter 24

Connecting Two Contradictory Clauses

Kyle and Mikyung are talking about their foreign language learning experiences.

--저는요, 고등학교때 독어를 --I studied German in high school


이 년 동안 공부했어요. 그렇지만 for two years but I forgot it all.
다 잊어 버렸어요. 지금은 한국말을 Now I'm studying Korean.
배우고 있습니다. 한국말은 조금 Korean is a little bit difficult, but
어렵지만 재미있습니다. it's fun.

--저는 중학교때부터 영어를 --I've been studying English since


배웠지만 아직도 잘 못해요. middle school but I still can't speak
카일씨는 한국말을 아주 it well. You speak Korean very well,
잘 하시는데요. Kyle.
When connecting two contradictory ideas, conjunctions such as but, or however are
used in English. In Korean, you can use 그렇지만 or 그러나 between the two
sentences. You may also add -지만 to the verb stem of the first of two contraditory
clauses.

verb stem + 지만

Chapter 24

"Seeing and Being Seen" & "Hearing and Being Heard"

In sentences with the active voice, the verb takes an object.

Active voice:
• 정찰부대가 적의 활동을 봅니다. The reconnaissance unit observes
object verb the enemy's activities.

• 어젯밤¿¡ 총소리를 들었습니다. Last night, I heard the gunfire.


object verb

In the passive voice, the object of an active construction becomes the subject of the
sentence, as in the examples above and below. This is accomplished in Korean
through modifying certain verbs, such as 보이다, 들리다, etc.

Passive voice:
• 여기서 적의 활동이 보입니다. The enemy's activities are seen
subject verb from here.

• 여기서 총소리가 들립니다. The gunfire can be heard here.


subject verb

Although the passive verbs, 보이다 and 들리다 literally mean, be seen and be
heard, respectively, Korean sentences in which they are used are often rendered in
English in the active voice. This is to avoid situations where the passive voice in
English would be awkward.
Minsoo and Mikyung are walking in the woods.

--민수 씨, 여기 참 아름답죠? --Minsoo, this is beautiful, isn't it?


--네, À â 나무 위의 빨간 새가 --Yes. Do you see a red bird on the
보입니까? tree there?

--어디요? 아, 저기요? 보여요. --Where? There? I see it.


--가만히 들어 보세요. 새소리가 --Listen carefully. Do you hear the
들리지요? bird singing?

--네, 들려요. 아주 아름다운데요. --Yes, I hear it. It's very beautiful.

Chapter 25

Expressing Strong Feelings


Mina and her officemates are chatting in the office after a big lunch.

--점심을 너무 많이 먹었나 봐요. --It seems I ate too much for lunch.
배가 불러 죽겠어요. I'm so full.
--저도요. 배가 너무 불러서 --Me, too. I'm so full, it's painful!
힘들어 죽겠어요!

--나는 졸려서 죽겠는데요. --I'm so sleepy.


--저는요. 음식이 좀 짰나 봐요. --The food seemed to be a bit too
목이 말라 죽겠습니다. salty for me. I'm dying of thirst.

As English speakers do, Koreans often use the phrase 죽겠다, I'm dying..., to express
weariness or fatigue. The phrase is also used with a stative verb to intensify the
meaning of that verb. It used to be used to express a strong feeling of distress, but it
can now be combined with any stative verb to express the speaker's subjective
feeling, including happiness.

stative verb stem + 아/어(서) 죽겠다

Note also the use of this phrase with verbs ending in ㅂ, such as 어렵다, 밉다,
즐겁다, etc. When the verb stem is followed by a vowel, ㅂ changes to 우 and is
contracted with the following vowel.

Chapter 25
Expressing Emotion or Wish of a Third Person

Mina is thanking Inkyoo for visiting her at home.


--인규씨 어제 저희 집에 와 주셔서 --Inkyoo, thanks for coming to my
고맙습니다. 또 예쁜 꽃을 가지고 house. My mother was very happy
오셔서 우리 어머니가 굉장히 because you brought flowers.
좋아하셨어요. 할머니께 초콜릿을 My grandmother also thanked you
선물로 주셔서 할머니께서도 for the present of chocolates.
고마워 하셨습니다. 어머니가 My mother wants to invite you once
인규씨를 다시 한번 초대하고 more.
싶어 해요.
--그래요? 감사합니다. 날짜만 알려 --Really? Thank you. Just name the
주시면 언제라도 가지요. the date and I'll come any time.

When stative verbs expressing an emotional state (e.g., 기쁘다, 무섭다, 반갑다,
미안하다) or a wish (e.g., -고 싶다) are used to state a third person's feelings, the
following pattern is used:

stative verb stem + 아/어 하다

Note the following contrasts in usage:


• 미안합니다. I'm sorry.
• 오선생이 미안해 합니다. Mr. Oh feels sorry.

• 아주 반가워요. I'm very glad to see you.


• 제동생이 아주 반가워 했어요. My brother was very glad to see you.

• 한국에 가고 싶어요. I want to go to Korea.


• 할머니가 한국에 가고 싶어 하세요. My grandmother wants to go to Korea.

Chapter 25

Describing a Continuous State or Situation

With certain verbs, you use the past tense to denote actions or states that began in
the past and continue into the present.
describing weather:

날씨가 맑았습니다. It's clear.


안개가 꼈습니다. It's foggy.

marital status:

결혼했습니다. I'm married. (i.e., I got


married and am still married.)

Note that these verbs are usually used in the past tense form, even though they
describe the present state. -았/었- between the verb stem and the ending primarily
indicates past tense, or the completion of an action. However, with certain kinds of
verbs, e.g., many that describe physical appearance, -았/었- also implies a state that
continues into the present.
Insoo and Mina are talking about Mina's blind date.

--그분 늙었어요? --Is he old?


--아뇨, 젊어요. --No, he's young.

--못 생겼어요? --Is he ugly?


--아뇨, 잘 생겼습니다. --No, he's handsome.

--뚱뚱해요? --Is he fat?


--아뇨, 말랐어요. 보기 좋아요! --No, he's skinny. He looks good!

Note that if you want to refer to a status which is no longer true, simply add another
-었 after the infix -았/었.

• 결혼했었습니다. I was married (but not anymore).


• 잘생겼었습니다. He was handsome (but is no longer).
• 말랐었어요. He was thin (but not anymore).

Chapter 26

Expressing the Reason for...: II

-아/어서, and -기 때문에 denote the reason for something. Another similar form is
-(으)니까. The English equivalents include because, since, or so .

Mina and her friend are talking in a restaurant:

--미나씨, 지금 소나기가 오니까 --Mina, it's drizzling now,


조±Ý 이따가 갑시다. so let's go a little later.
--그렇군요. 그럼, 커피 한 잔 더 --So it is. So, shall we have another
마실까요? coffee?

--저는 벌써 커피를 두 잔 마셨으니까,-- I already had two cups, so


오렌지주스를 마시겠어요. I'll have orange juice.
--그럼, 저는 야채주스가 몸에 좋으니까, --Well, I'll drink vegetable juice,
야채주스를 마시겠어요. because it's healthful.
Note that, except for the first example, -(으)니까 can be replaced by 어서
or -기 ¶㏏? ¡ . The primary difference in function between -(으)니까 and 어서 or
-기 때문에 can be seen in the first example. That is, -(으)니까 expresses the reason
for a request, command, or suggestion in the following clause, whereas the other two
cannot.

verb stem + (으)니까

Note: There are other instances where only -(으)니까 is used: in instances when the
speaker has drawn a logical conclusion or must express the past tense.

• 제가 토요일에 편지를 부쳤으니까/ You should receive the letter


화요일에는 받아야 해요. on Tuesday because I mailed it on
Saturday.
• 이게 출구니까, 저게 입구겠지요. This is the exit, so that must be the
entrance.

Chapter 26
Expressing "Plan to" and "About to"

-겠- and -(으)ㄹ게요 are used to express the speaker's intention. -(으)려고 하다
means intend to, plan to, going to, about to, and try to. This form not only expresses
a speaker's intention, but can also be used to express a listener's and a third person's
intentions.

A man is about to leave for work in the morning.

--여보, 늦었는데 아직 안 갔어요? --Dear, it's late and you haven't gone yet?
--지금 가려고 해요. --I'm about to leave now.

--비가 오려고 하니까 우산을 가지고 --Bring your umbrella, because it's
가세요. about to rain.
--비가 오면 우산을 하나 사려고 해요. --I'm going to buy one if it rains.
내 우산이 고장이 났거든요. My umbrella is broken.

When -려고 하다 is used to express weather or a natural phenomenon, it is often


rendered about to rather than plan to or intend to, as in the second occurence of it in
the previous example. Similar examples follow.

• 지금 해가 뜨려고 합니다. The sun is about to rise.


• 밖에 비가 오려고 해요. It's about to rain outside.
• 꽃이 다 시들어서 죽으려고 해요. The flowers are wilted and are about
to die.

verb stem + (으)려고 하다

Chapter 26

Expressing Inability
Sentences are negated with "안 + verb" and with "verb stem + 지 않다." 못
expresses one's inability to do something. The English equivalent is can't. There are
also two forms for this negation, just as there are with 안: add 못 before a verb or
add -지 못하다 after a verb.

A student is making excuses in the classroom.

--어제 단어 공부 많이 했어요? --Did you get in a lot of vocabulary


study yesterday?
--아니오, 다른 숙제가 많아서 --No, I couldn't because I had a lot of
단어 공부는 못 했어요. other homework.

--그럼, 듣기 연습은 많이 했어요? --Then, did you get in a lot of practice


listening?
--테이프를 잊어 버려서, 듣기 연습도 --I couldn't do that either because I
하지 못 했어요. forgot the tape.

못 + verb or
verb stem + 지 못하다

Note: This form can be interchangeable with -(으)ㄹ수 없다 (Chapter 17), as in the
following examples.
• 아니오, 다른 숙제가 많아서 No, I couldn't study vocabulary
단어 공부는 할 수 없었어요. because I had a lot of other homework.

• 테이프를 잊어 버려서, 듣기 연습도 I couldn't practice listening either,


할 수 없었어요. because I forgot the tape.

Chapter 27
Denying Permission; Recommending Against
To express You must not..., You may not..., or You should not, add -(으)면 안 되다 to
the verb stem.

A commanding officer speaks with one of his enlisted subordinates:

--소대장님, 이번 주말에 휴가 가도 --May I take leave this weekend,


됩니까? sir?
--안 돼. 가면 안 된다. 검열이 있다. --No, you may not. We have an
inspection.

--그럼, 검열이 끝난 후에는 가도 됩니까? --Well, is it OK to go after the


inspection is over?
--그래, 좋아. 그런데, 휴가갈 때는 --Sure, that would be fine. By the
사복을 입으면 안 된다. way, you shouldn't wear civilian
clothes when you take leave.

verb stem + (으)면 안 되다

Chapter 27

Expressing Surprise

When expressing surprise, pleasure, wonder, or puzzlement in English, much


depends on the intonation. Such exclamations are expressed in Korean with different
verb endings rather than by intonation. Two of them are -(으)ㄴ/ 는데요! or
-(는)군요!. They are often interchangeable.

Corporal Lee is showing the base to his girlfriend, Nami, during open house.

--이 상병님, 내무반이 아주 --The squad bays are very clean,


깨끗하군요! Corporal Lee!
--감사합니다. 이리로 오세요. 여기가 --Thanks. Come this way. This is
바로 우리 육군식당입니다. the Army mess hall.

--아! 아주 크고 좋은데요! --Wow! It's so large and nice!


몇 명쯤 들어갈 수 있어요? How many people can it hold?
--150명까지 식사할 수 있어요. --Up to 150 can eat here.

--아! 대단한데요! --Oh! That's impressive!

verb stem + (으)ㄴ/는데요!


verb stem + (는)군요!
Note:

1. These two exclamations occasionally have different functions: -(으)ㄴ/는데요!


may be used when the speaker draws the listener's attention; -(는)군요! is used when
the speaker realizes or discovers something that he/she assumes the listener already
knew. The following example illustrates the difference.

Two colleagues are discussing Miss Lee's wedding:

--미스리는 왜 결혼을 안 하지요? --Why doesn't Miss Lee get married?


--아니 모르셨어요? --Didn't you know? She's getting
내일 미스리 결혼하는데요! married tomorrow!

--그래요? 드디어 결혼을 하는군요! --Really? So, she's finally getting


married!

2. Add -(으)ㄴ데요 to stative verbs and -는데요 to action verbs.

3. Add -는군요 to action verbs with the present tense. Otherwise, add -군요.

Chapter 28
Requesting Not to Do Something
1LT Shin is feeling ill.

--신 중위님, 아프신데 훈련장에 가지 --1LT Shin, you're sick; don't


마십시오. 집합도 시키지 말고 go to the training area. Don't even
그냥 천막에 계십시오. hold formation. Just stay in your
염려하지 마십시오. tent. Don't worry, I'll conduct the
제가 대신 훈련시키겠습니다. training myself.
--박하사, 오늘 사격훈련도 하지 말까? --Shall we drop the marksmanship
training, too, SSG Park?

--네, 비가 오니까 사격훈련도 하지 --Yes, it's raining, so let's drop the


맙시다. 그 대신 행군만 시키겠습니다. marksmanship training. I'll just
take them on a road march instead.

An action is requested by using -(으)십시오 or -(으)세요. Requests that an action


cease or that it not be initiated are made by using the action verb stem + 지 + the verb
말다 + -(으)십시오 or -(으)세요. 말다 is the equivalent of don't... or stop... in English.

verb stem + 지 말다

Note:
1. -지 말다 may also take the conjunctive, -고. In such cases, the following clause
normally takes the form of an alternate request. The overall meaning is roughly don't
do that; do (something else) instead. This can be seen in the exchange above.

2. -지 말다 may also be combined with -(으)ㅂ시다. This translates roughly into


English as Let's not (do).... Additionally, the suggestion form, -(으)ㄹ까요?, may also
be combined with -지 말다, and translates roughly into English as Shall we not
(do)...?, thereby making negative suggestions. Note this also in the exchange above.

Chapter 28

Expressing Only One or a Limited Number of Items

PFC Sung is reporting to SGT Lee about his status:

이 중사님, 저는 양말이 두 켤레 밖에 SFC Lee, I only have two pairs of


없습니다. 군화는 한 켤레 밖에 없고, socks. I have only one pair of boots,
깨끗한 군복도 한 벌 밖에 없습니다. and only one clean uniform. And I've 밥은
어제부터 한 끼 밖에 only had one meal since yesterday.
못 먹었습니다.

When you are speaking of just one or of a limited number of items, the following
construction is commonly used:

noun (number, counter) + 밖에 + negative form of a verb

한국 말은: Koreans use the expression "하나도 + negative form of a verb" for
not even one. For example,
• 먹을 것이 하나도 없습니다. I don't have anything to eat. (Lit., I
don't have even one thing to eat.)
• 그 식당에는 한 번도 안 갔습니다. I didn't go to that restaurant even
once.

Chapter 28
Talking in a Familiar Form of Address
The English language does not have familiar and polite forms for addressing people.
The most common way of adapting these speaking styles--based on different
relationships with different people--is by using a first name (familiar) or a last name
(polite) with a title (e.g., Mrs., Dr., Professor). In the latter case, one also tends to
speak less casually or colloquially than in the former.
In Korean, the difference between polite talk (존댓말) and familiar talk (반말) is more
pronounced and consistent. When Koreans talk to children, certain family members,
and close friends, they use the familiar form with appropriate verb endings.
In the Korean military, the distinction between polite and familiar usage is based on
one's role in relation to the role of others, i.e., a superior vs. a subordinate.
PFC Min is talking about his military training with his mother:

--훈련이 힘들어요. --The training is hard.


--그래, 얼마나 힘들어? --Really? How hard is it?

--아주 힘들어요. --Very hard.


--잠은 잘 자? --Do you sleep well?

--잠도 많이 못 자요. --I don't get enough sleep, either.


--식사는 잘 해? --Do you eat well?

--식사하는 시간도 아주 짧아요. --Meal time is really short.


--그래, 알아. 그래도 참아야지. --I know, but you've got to hang in
there.

--알아요, 어머니. --I know, Mother.

As you can see, removing the -요 from all verb forms ending with -요 will generate the
majority of verb forms used in the familiar address. There is, however, one important
exception: -이에요, the familiar form of 이다, becomes -이야.
이에요 vs. 이야
--지금 몇 시에요? --What time is it now?
--지금 몇 시야?

--여덟 시 반이에요
--여덟 시 반(이야).
--It's 8:30.

Note:
1. In addition to the verb forms, there are other differences between the polite and
familiar forms of address, including personal pronouns.

The familiar forms of personal pronouns are displayed in the chart below.

2. Different sets of expressions are also used for "yes" and "no."

pronouns familiar polite


I 나 [내가, 내 것] 저 [제가, 제 것]
we 우리(들) 저희(들)
you 너 [네가, 네 것] Use the name
you (plural) 너희(들) with a title.
"yes" 그래/응 네/예*
"no" 아니(야) 아니오/아뇨
* 예 is a variation of 네.

PFC Park is talking to his friend, PFC Kwon:

--이거 네 배낭이야? --Is this your backpack?


--아니, 내 거 아니야. --No, that's not mine.

--그럼, 이게 네 거야? --Then, is this one yours?


--응, 그게 내 거야. --Yeah, that's mine.

Chapter 29

Expressing Simultaneous Actions


Mr. Lee likes to do two things at the same time.

이 선생은 아침을 먹으면서 신문을 Mr. Lee reads the newspaper while
봅니다. 또 지하철을 타고 가면서 having breakfast and listens to an
영어 회화 테이프를 듣습니다. English conversation tape while riding
그리고 저녁을 먹으면서 텔레비전을 the subway. Then he watches TV
봅니다.또 음악을 들으면서 책을 while having dinner and reads a book
읽습니다. while listening to music.

The conjunctive (으)면서 basically expresses the notion of simultaneity or near


simultaneity, It can be rendered as while..., at the same time as..., or as.... The
subjects of the two sentences are usually the same. The conjunctive clause with
(으)면서 does not take tense markers for this meaning.

• 비행기가 추락하면서 폭발했습니다. The plane exploded as it plummeted


to earth.
• 집에서 나오면서 숙제 생각이 I remembered my homework as I
났습니다. walked out of the house.

verb stem + (으)면서


(으)면서 can also be used in describing persons or things.
• 그 분은 의사이면서 교수입니다. He is a doctor and a professor.

• 이 녹음기는 값이 싸면서 This recorder is cheap and of good


성능도 좋아요. quality.

Note:

When simultaneous actions are performed by two or more different subjects, 는


동안(에) is used.
• 위생병이 부상자를 치료하는 동안에 While the medic was giving the
김 일병이 구급차를 불렀습니다. injured first aid, PFC Kim called an
ambulance.

Chapter 29

Responding to Negative Questions


Mr. Park asks his colleague, Ms. Choi, about Mr. Ahn's motorcycle accident:

--최 선생님, 안 선생 어때요? --Ms. Choi, how is Mr. Ahn? He got hurt,
다치지 않았지요? didn't he?
--아뇨, 다리를 다쳤어요. --Yes, he hurt his leg.

--발목을 삐지 않았어요? --Didn't he sprain his ankle?


--네, 다행히 삐지 않았어요. --No, fortunately, he didn't.

--다른 데는 안 다쳤어요? --Wasn't he hurt anywhere else?


--네, 안 다쳤어요. --No, he wasn't.

--그럼, 중상은 아니잖아요? --Then it's not serious, is it?


--그렇죠, 다행이에요. 그렇지만 --No, fortunately it isn't. But I always
제가 안 선생님한테 늘 told Mr. Ahn, "Motorcycles are
말했잖아요? "오토바이는 dangerous," didn't I?
위험합니다"라고요.
When you ask a "yes/no question" with a negative verb phrase, the usage of
네/아니오 in responding is different from that of English. In Korean, if the question is
in a negative form, then you either agree or disagree with the question itself, as in the
examples above. Although it might seem illogical at first glance, what you are
answering in Korean is, "What you said/assumed is wrong, he did hurt his leg." or
"What you said/assumed is right, he didn't sprain his ankle."

-지 않아요/잖아요? is also commonly used in conversation to emphasize a point or to


remind the listener of a known fact, as in the last exchange above. Though it appears
to be a question in its written form, in this case it is voiced with a slight drop in volume,
much like a statement. It is like a rhetorical question, which conveys the speaker's
call for verification.
Chapter 30
Using Actions and Conditions as Time References

미나와 인경이가 쇼핑에 대해서 얘기합니다.

--너는 옷 살 때 뭘 먼저 보니? --What do you look for first when


--먼저 색깔을 봐. 너는 옷 살 때 you buy clothes?
뭐부터 보니? --I look at color first. What do you
look for first when you buy clothes?

--난 가격부터 봐. --I look at the price first.


--지금 입고 있는 옷 예쁘다. 언제 --The clothes you're wearing now are
샀어? pretty. When did you buy them?

--지난 달 세일할 때 싸게 샀어 --I bought them cheap last month


. when they were on sale.

A clause is used with -(으)ㄹ 때 to express "when..." or "at the time of...."

verb stem + (으)ㄹ 때

Note:
1. -았/었- is used with this form only in a few instances.
2. Because 때 is a noun, it can take any noun marker, such as 이/가, 은/는, 을/를, or
any noun suffix, such as 에, 까지, 부터, when appropriate.
• 가격이 비쌀 때에는 사지 마세요. Don't buy it when it's expensive.
• 가격이 내릴 때까지 기다리세요. Wait until the price goes down.
• 쌀 때에 사세요. Buy it when it's cheap.

Chapter 30

Korean Verbs: An Update on Verb Stems Ending in 르


점원이 현정이한테 물어 봅니다.

--손님, 뭘 찾으세요? --Hello, what are you looking for?


--넥타이요. --A tie.

--넥타이요? 여기 많이 있습니다. --A tie? There are many here.


골라 보세요. Choose one.
--너무 많아서 잘 못 고르겠는데요. --I can't (choose) because there are
so many.
(잠시 후) (Moments later)

--이게 좋군요. 얼마에요? --This one's fine. How much is it?


--저도 새로 와서 가격을 잘 몰라요. --I'm new here, so I don't know the
그 물건에 가격 표가 없어요? prices that well. Isn't there a price
tag?

--아! 여기 있어요. --Ah! Here it is.

Most of the verbs whose stems end in 르, such as 모르다, not know, and 고르다,
choose, are irregular in conjugation. When -르 is followed by 아 or 어, ㄹ moves to
the bottom of the preceding syllable. ㅡ is omitted, and 아 or 어 is changed to 라
or 러, respectively.

모르다
모르 + 아요 몰라요 don't know
모르 + 았어요 몰랐어요 didn't know
모르 + 았습니다 몰랐습니다 didn't know

고르다
고르 + 아요 골라요 is choosing
고르 + 았어요 골랐어요 chose
고르 + 았습니다 골랐습니다 chose

Otherwise, the stem does not change.


• 모릅니다 I don't know.
• 고릅니다 I'm choosing.

The following is a list of familiar verbs which behave in the manner described.

"르" 면칙 동사 -아/어요

다르다 different
달라요
빠르다 fast
빨라요
고르다 choose
골라요
자르다 cut
잘라요
마르다 thin, dry
말라요
모르다 not know
몰라요
부르다 call, sing
불러요

Chapter 30
Making Decisions
The following construction is used to express a decision or agreement in Korean.

verb stem + 기로 하다

올 여름 쇼핑은 그랜드 백화점에서 하기로 했어요.

Sometimes "noun + (으)로 하다 " can be used when making a decision among
choices.

Chapter 31

Expressing Intent or Speculation


The sentence ending -(으)ㄹ것이다 may be used with verbs to express intention and
speculation. English equivalents include such verb phrases as will probably, think,
guess, going to, is/are scheduled to, is/are expected to, might be, or must be. A
contracted form, -(으)ㄹ거다 (겁니다, 거에요, etc.), often appears in casual speech or
writing.

verb stem + - (으)ㄹ것이다

미스터 최가 미스터 백을 집에 초대합니다.

--이번 주말에 뭐 하실 겁니까? --What are you going to do this


weekend?
--이번 주말에요? 집에 있을 거에요. --This weekend? I'll stay home.

--그럼 ¿ ® 집에 와서 저녁 같이 합시다 --Then come to my house to have


부인도 같이 오세요. dinner. Bring your wife, too.
--감사합니다. 그런데 그 사람은 약속이 --Thank you, but she may have a
있을 겁니다. prior engagement.

The first and the second uses of the grammar feature in the exchange above show
intention. The third shows speculation.

Note: Although the intention or speculation is determined mainly by the context, use
of the past tense with -(으)ㄹ 것이다 is always interpreted as speculation.
--미스 김 어디 갔어요? --Where is Ms. Kim?
--아마 화장실에 갔을 겁니다. --She probably went to the restroom.

Chapter 31

Expanded Use of the Attributive Form

One of the most frequent attributive clauses uses 것 preceded by an attributive form.
This clause carries meanings such as a/the thing that..., such things as..., the act of...,
the fact that..., and the idea of....
Inho is shopping for summer T-shirts.

--여름 티셔츠 좀 보여 주세요. --Show me some summer T-shirts.


--여기 많습니다. 마음에 드는 것을 골라 --Here we are. Pick out something
보세요. you like.

--글쎄요. 저분이 고른 것 이 제일 --Well, I like the one that he chose


마음에 드는데요! best.
--걱정마세요. 아직도 보여드릴 것이 --Don't worry. I still have many to
많이 있어요! show you!

verb stem + (으)ㄴ/는 /(으)ㄹ것

Chapter 31

Expressing Similarity, Difference, and Sameness


In English, the prepositions to, from, and as, are used when expressing similarities,
differences, and sameness of any given subjects of comparison. In this context, 하고,
와/과, and (이)랑, equivalents of with, and, together with, or along with, serve the
equal function of these English prepositions.
The following are comparisons of some American and Korean fruits.
미국수박은 한국수박보다 크고 American watermelons are larger than Korean
모양이 좀 길다. 그렇지만 맛은 ones. But their taste is similar to Korean
한국수박하고 비슷하다. ones. The shape of American pears is
미국배는 한국배와 모양도 다르고 different from those from Korea, and they
맛도 다르다. 미국 딸기는 한국 taste different, too. American strawberries
딸기랑 모양도 같고 맛도 같다. are the same as Korean strawberries in
terms of shape and taste.

Chapter 32

Expressing Wishes or Desires


The construction below is used to express the speaker's wish. It can be rendered into
English as It would be nice if..., I wish..., or I hope I can....

verb stem + (으)면 좋겠다

--29일 연극 입장권ÀÌ 있으면 --I hope there's a ticket for the play on the 29th.
좋겠습니다.
--자리가 앞이면 더 좋겠어요. --It would be better if the seat were in the front.

--값도 비싸지 않으면 --And I hope it's not expensive.


좋겠습니다.

한국말은: In English, when someone says "I wish I could go to Korea!" it


typically means he/she cannot go, at least not right now (a contrary-to-fact
statement). In Korean, 한국에 가면 좋겠다 does not always mean that one
cannot go right now. It is a way of stating a wish or hope which may or may not
be contrary-to-fact.

Chapter 32
Expressing Knowledge of How to Do Something
One's ability to do something is expressed in the following manner:

verb stem + (으)ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다

--스케이트 탈 줄 아세요? --Do you know how to skate?


--아뇨, 탈 줄 몰라요. --No, I don't (know how to skate).

--피아노 칠 줄 압니까? --Do you know how to play the piano?


--네, 피아노 칠 줄 알아요. --Yes, I do (know how to play the piano).

There are other forms which are often used to express the same notion:
• 피아노 치세요? Do you play the piano?
• 피아노 칠 수 있어요? Can you play the piano? (Is it possible that...?)

☯ 한국에서는: Koreans often ask whether you know how to drink or how to
smoke, which Americans probably would never ask. When Koreans ask 술 마실
줄 아세요?, it is the equivalent of "Do you drink?" in English. On the other hand,
Koreans feel awkward if someone asks if you know how to climb (a mountain).
They would simply ask, 등산하세요? Here you have an interesting difference in
logic!

Chapter 32

Korean Verbs: An Update on Verb Stems Ending in ㄷ


Insoo asks a policeman how to get to the Arts Arena.

--경찰관 아저씨, 말씀 좀 물어 --Hello, may I ask you something?


보겠습니다.
--네, 뭔데요? --Yes. What is it?

--여기서 예술의 전당까지 걸어 갈 수 --Can I walk to the Arts Arena?


있어요?
--아뇨, 걷기에는 좀 멀어요. 저기 버스 --Well, it's a little too far for walking.
정류장에서 37번 버스 타고 가세요. Take bus 37 at that bus stop.

--고맙습니다. --Thank you.

When a verb stem ends in ㄷ, such as 묻다, ask, 걷다 , walk, and 듣다, listen, the
ㄷchanges to ㄹ if followed by a vowel.

묻다 : 묻 + 었습니다 물었습니다
묻 + 어 봐요 물어 봐요

걷다: 걷 + 었습니다 걸었습니다


걷 + 어 갑니다 걸어 갑니다

The following familiar verbs behave in the manner described above.

걷다 walk 걸어요
묻다 ask 물어요
듣다 listen 들어요
싣다 load; carry 실어요

Chapter 32

Extended Use of Attributive Verb Forms: IV


Examples of the future ("verb stem + (으)ㄹ"), present ( "verb stem + 는"), and past
("verb stem + (으)ㄴ") attributives used as noun modifiers are illustrated below.

• 읽을 책이 많습니다. There are a lot of books to read.


• 읽는 책이 많습니다. There are a lot of books that I read.
• 읽은 책이 많습니다. There are a lot of books that I read
(past).

Notes:

1. When an on-going action is used as a noun modifier, "verb stem + 고 있는 " can be
used.

verb stem + 고 있는

• 읽는 책이 재미있어요? Are the books you read interesting?


• 읽고 있는 책이 재미있어요? Are the books you're reading
interesting?

2. When a past habitual action--which is no longer continued--is used as a noun


modifier, "verb stem + (았/었)던" is used.

verb stem + (았/었)던

• 제가 젊었을 때 매일 낚시하던
곳이 여깁니다. This is the place where I used to

• 제가 젊었을 때 매일 낚시했던
} fish every day when I was young.

곳이 여깁니다.

3. 이다 and 아니다 behave like stative verbs.


• 취미가 독서인 사람은 대개 The people whose hobby is reading
조용해요. are generally quiet.

• LA에는 한국사람이 아닌 In L.A., there also live many orientals


동양인도 많이 삽니다. who are not Koreans.
In summary:

tense: action verb 있다/없다 stative verb 이다/아니다


present -는 -는 -(으)ㄴ -ㄴ
-고 있는
past -(으)ㄴ
-(았/었)던 -(았/었)던 -(았/었)던 -(았/었)던
-고 있던
future -(으)ㄹ

Chapter 33
Before (Doing Something)....
The Korean conjuctive 기 전에 is similar to the English expression before something
happens or before one does....

복잡한 식당에서 종업원이 손님한테 물어 봅니다.

--지금 주문하시겠어요? --Would you like to order now?


--그런데, 아가씨, 메뉴가 없어요. --By the way, Miss, there's no
음식을 시키기 전에 메뉴를 봐야지요. menu. I'll need one before I can
order.

--아! 죄송합니다. 곧 갖다드리지요. --I'm sorry. I'll get one. By the way,
참, 저의 식당에¼? Â 음식을 our restaurant's policy requires the
잡수시기 전에 선불해야 합니다. customer to pay in advance, before
eating.
--네, 알았습니다. --Yes, very well.

Tense is normally expressed in the main clause.

--이 만두 어떻게 만들었어요? --How did you make this mandu?

--시작하기 전에, 먼저 요리책을 봤어요. --I referred to a cookbook before


I started.

verb stem + 기 전에

Chapter 33
Making Comparisons of Equality
만큼 is attached to nouns or noun phrases to which a comparison is made regarding
degree, size, and quality, as well as the extent of equality, inferiority, or superiority.
English equivalents of this form include phrases using the adverbs as or so, in
examples such as as (much) as... or as (few) as....

noun
verb stem + 는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ } + 만큼

미스 고와 유 선생이 음식점에서 점심을 시킵니다.

--유 선생님, 전 배가 고파서 --I'm so hungry I can't wait to eat,


빨리 먹어야겠어요. Mr. Yu.
--네, 어서 드세요. 저도 미스 고 만큼 --Go ahead. I'm as hungry as (you)
배가 고파요. 참, 우리 잡채 한 접시 Miss Ko. Hey, let's order another
더 시킵시다. plate of chapche.

--아니! 너무 많지 않아요? 전 배가 --No, that's too much. I'm hungry,


고프지만 그 만큼 못 먹어요. but I can't eat that much.
--그럼 먹을 수 있을 만큼만 시킵시다. --Then, let's order as much as we can
eat.

Expressing a Change of State or Condition


친구 둘이 한국 음식을 준비합니다.

--잡채 맛이 어때요? --How's the chapche?


--조금 더 달면 좋겠어요. ¼냑좇» --I wish it were a little sweeter. Shall
좀 더 넣을까요? I add a little more sugar?

--그러세요. 그럼, 어디 맛 좀 볼까요? --Please do. Let's see how it tastes.


아! 이제 맛이 아주 좋아졌어요. Ah! Now it's tasting better.
--이 만두국 좀 보세요. 국물이 거의 --Look at this mandu soup. The broth
다 없어졌어요. is almost gone.

--그래요? 물을 좀 부어 주실래요? --Really? Would you pour in some


more water?
어/아 지다 is used with stative verbs and 없다 to indicate a change from one state to
another. English equivalents of this pattern include become (more/less)..., turn out...,
and get (more/less)....

stative verb stem + 어/아 지다

Chapter 34
Expressing "After Doing (Something)"
Connecting two events in a sentence with -(으)ㄴ 후에/다음에 results in an
expression similar to the English after (verb) + ing.

아담스 씨는 지난 달에 이 주일 동안 Mr. Adams visited Korea for two


한국에 다녀 왔다. 제일 먼저 서울 weeks last month. After sightseeing
에 있는 덕수궁과 경복궁 등 역사적인 first at historical places such Toksu-
곳을 구경한 후에 경주로 내려가서 kung and Kyungpok-kung, he went to
신라의 유적지를 찾아 보았다. 경주를 Kuyngjoo and visited Silla's relics.
관광한 다음에 부산으로 갔다. 해운대 After touring Kyungjoo, he went to
해수욕장에서 며칠을 쉰 후에 Pusan. After resting at Haeuntae
제주도에 갔다가 미국으로 돌아왔다 . beach for a few days, he went to
Cheju-do and returned to the US.

으)ㄴ
action verb stem + (으 ㄴ 후에

Note:

후에/다음에 may be used after certain nouns, rather than an attributive form of a verb.
--우리 퇴근 후에 한잔 합시다. --Let's have a drink after we get off
work.
--글쎄요. 제가 30분 후에 다시 --I dunno.... Let me contact you again
연락드리겠어요. in 30 minutes.

Chapter 34

Forming Korean Adverbs


Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Korean has a
number of words that serve purely as adverbs (e.g., 훨씬 by far, 역시, indeed);
however, many "adverbs" are derived from stative verbs, with the addition of 게 to the
verb stems.
박 선생님은 한국 여행에서 돌아와서 막 공항에 도착했습니다.

--박 선생님, 정말 반갑습니다. --It's really good to see you, Mr. Park.
비행기 여행은 편하게 하셨어요? Did you have a comfortable plane
trip?
--네, 스튜어디스가 아주 친절하게. --Yes, It was very comfortable because 서비스를
해 주어서 아주 편했어요 the stewardesses so kindly attended
to my needs.

--그런데 예정보다 빨리 도착했군요. --By the way, (the plane) arrived


earlier than expected.
--네, 날씨가 맑게 개어서 별 문제가 --Yes, the weather cleared up nicely,
없었거든요. so the flight went without incident.

stative verb stem + 게

Note: Adding 이, 히, or 리 to the stems of many stative verbs serves the same
function (as adding 게). The use of 빨리 (derived from 빠르다) in the example above
illustrates this fact. The following table contains some of the verbs with which these
endings may be used.

stative verb +게 +이/히/리

편하다 편하게 편히
빠르다 빠르게 빨리
늦다 늦게

편리하다 편리하게

크다 크게
작다 작게

예쁘다 예쁘게

아름답다 아름답게
같다 같게 같이
반갑다 반갑게 반가이

높다 높게 높이
멀다 멀게 멀리

조용하다 조용하게 조용히

급하다 급하게 급히
빨갛게 빨갛게

Chapter 34

Korean Verbs: An Update on Verb Stems Ending inㅎ


Two tourists are impressed by an unusual lake.

--저 파란 호수 좀 보세요. --Look at that blue lake!


--정말 신기하지요? 이런 사막에 --Isn't it incredible? I wonder how
어떻게 저런 호수가 있을까요? such a lake could exist in this desert.

When a verb stem ends in ㅎ, such as 빨갛다, 하얗다, 이렇다, and 어떻다, ㅎis
dropped if followed by a vowel. The basic color terms belong to this category. For
example:

파랗다: 파랗 + 습니다 --------> 파랗습니다


파랗 + 아/어요 --------> 파래요
파랗 + (으)면 --------> 파라면
파랗 + (으)ㄴ --------> 파란
파랗 + 게 --------> 파랗게

이렇다: 이렇 + 습니다 --------> 이렇습니다


이렇 + 아/어요 --------> 이래요
이렇 + (으)면 --------> 이러면
이렇 + (으)ㄴ --------> 이런
이렇 + 게 --------> 이렇게
Notes:

1. When these verbs are followed by -아/어요, ㅎis dropped and the remaining
vowels contract to 애.
저렇 + 아/어요 --------> 저래요
하얗 + 아/어요 --------> 하얘요

2. A few exceptions are verbs such as 좋다 and 많다, where ㅎ is always retained.

좋 + 습니다 --------> 좋습니다


좋 + 아/어요 --------> 좋아요
좋 + (으)면 --------> 좋으면
좋 + (으)ㄴ --------> 좋은
좋 + 게 --------> 좋게

Chapter 35

Extended Use of Conditional Actions

Conditional statements similar to if or when clauses in English are expressed by "verb


stem + -(으)면."

--머리 아프면 보통 무슨 약을 먹어요? --When you have a headache, what


kind of medicine do you take?

--아스피린요. 먹고 10분만 있으면, --Aspirin. (If I wait) 10 minutes after


금방 낫습니다. taking it, I feel better.

Adding the notion of one's intention changes the ending.

성호가 비행기표를 예약하려고 합니다.

--이번 연휴에 부산에 가려면 --I've got to reserve an airline ticket now
지금 비행기표를 예약해야 if I'm going to Pusan over the holiday,
하지요? don't I?
--벌써 기차표와 비행기표가 모두 --All train and airline tickets are sold out.
다 팔렸어요. 연휴에 어디 If you want to go somewhere for the
가시려면 적어도 2주전에는 holidays, you have to reserve the tickets
표를 예매하셔야 해요. at least two weeks in advance.
--큰일났군요. 친구 결혼식이 --This just can't be. My friend is getting
있어서, 꼭 가야하는데. married and I have to be there.
--꼭 가시려면, 자동차로 가세요. --If you must go there, go by car.

As the example illustrates, a clause is used with -(으)려면 to express if (someone)


wants to do... (something) or if (someone) is to do....

려면
verb stem + (으)려면

한국말은: You may frequently hear a variation of -(으)려면: -(으)려거든.


These two forms are often interchangeable and can be rendered in English as "If
you want to (do)...." However, -(으)려거든 is mostly found in colloquial speech
and requires that the following clause be a request or command form.

등산을 가려면, 등산장비를 If you're going mountain climbing,


준비하십시오.
} get your climbing gear ready.

등산을 가려거든, 등산장비를


준비하십시오 .

박물관으로 가려면, 어떻게 If I'm going to the museum, how do I


가요? get there?

박물관으로 가려거든,
어떻게 가요?

Chapter 35

Expressing "Even Though"

Read the following railroad advertisement in which several reasons are given for the
railroad's popularity.

이번 추석에 고향에 갈 때는 기차로 가기로 했습니다.


고속도로가 막혀도, 빠르게 갈 수 있습니다.
바빠서 식사를 못했어도, 기차 안의 식당을 이용할 수 있습니다.
역에 가지 않아도, 전화로 기차표를 살 수 있습니다.

The following construction is used to convey the meaning of the English even if, or no
matter what/how.

verb stem + 아/어도


어도

Chapter 36
Expressing a Procedure or Purpose
Action verbs with the attributive ending 는 are used to modify nouns and to imply an
ongoing or habitual action. In addition, -는 것 with 것 conveys the meaning of the
thing that..., the act of..., the fact that....

verb stem + 는 데에

Another noun, 데, meaning place and situation, and following the same attributive
ending, is often used to mean for doing (something) or in doing (something).

Jennifer is talking with an agent in a car rental office.

--자동차를 빌리는 데에 국제운전 --Do I need an international driver's


면허증이 필요합니까? license for renting a car?
--물론이지요. 그리고 보험도 들어야 --Of course. And you need insurance.
합니다.

--보험은 필요 없어요. --I don't need insurance.


--렌트카를 운전하시는 데에 보험은 꼭 --You must have insurance to drive a
필요합니다. rental car.

Notes:
1. The postposition -에 can be dropped.
--배터리 가는 데(에) 25,000원만 --25,000 won please, for changing the
내세요. battery.
--그런데, 타이어에 바람을 --By the way, do you charge for filling
넣는 데(에)도 돈을 받으십니까? the tires with air?

--그건 무료에요. --That's free.

2. This form is mostly used with action verbs, although it occurs with some stative
verbs.
• 이 약은 배가 아픈 데에 먹는 This medicine is for a stomach ache.
것입니다.

Chapter 36
"Switching Gears"
The following directions are part of an advertisement for a Korean musical
performance. Look at the underlined verbs.

1. 101북쪽에서 남쪽으로 가시다가 85번 남쪽을 타십시오. 남쪽으로


내려가시다가 280번을 지나서 Stevens Creek을 만나면 좌회전 하십시오.
오른쪽에 공연장 (Flint Center)이 있습니다.

2. 280북쪽에서 남쪽으로 가시다가 85번 남쪽이나 'De Anza College'사인을


보시고 내리시면 곧 Stevens Creek을 만납니다. 좌회전 하시다가 바로
오른쪽으로 공연장으로 들어 가시면 됩니다.

As seen in the text, clauses with -다(가) are used to express while doing..., as, then,
or and then.

verb stem + 다(가)

Note: If the past tense marker 았/었 accompanies the form, it expresses completion
of the action and continuation of another. If the form is used without the past tense
marker, it expresses incompletion or interruption of the first action.

• 도서관에 가다가 김선생을 만났어요. On the way to the library, I met Mr. Kim.

• 도서관에 갔다가 김선생을 만났어요. I went to the library and met Mr. Kim.
Chapter 36

Korean Verbs: An Update on Verb Stems Ending in ㅅ

Youngmi and James are traveling to the mountains in spite of James' cold.

--자, 이제 떠납시다. 제가 운전하겠어요. --Let's get going. I'll drive.


--감기가 다 나았어요? 제가 운전해도 --Are you over your cold? I'm
돼요. all right to drive.

--이 정도 감기는 아무 것도 아닙니다. --It's not a serious cold. I can do the


운전은 제가 할 수 있으니까, 영미씨는 driving, so will you do the cooking
산에 가서 밥을 지어 주세요. when we reach the mountains?
--전 밥은 잘 못 짓는데요. --I can't cook very well.

Some verbs such as 낫다, recover; get better (than) and 짓다, build; make, whose
stems end in ㅅ, drop the ㅅ, when followed by a vowel.
The following verbs behave in the same manner.

낫다 recover; better (than) 나아요


짓다 build; make 지어요
붓다 swell; pour 부어요
긋다 draw (a line) 그어요
잇다 connect 이어요

낫다 : 낫 + (으)면 --> 나으면 if/when you recover


낫 + 았습니다 --> 나았습니다 I recovered/got better
낫 +는데 --> 낫는 데 recovering/recovery

짓다: 짓 + 아/어 주다 --> 지어 주세요 build/make it, please


짓 + (으)려면 --> 지으려면 if you intend to build...
짓 + 다가 --> 짓다가 in the course of/while
making

Note: Many verbs whose stems end with ㅅ do not belong to this category: 빗다
(comb), 벗다 (take off), and 씻다 (wash).
Chapter 37
"Anything Or Anyone"
Expressing non-existence or the absence of persons and objects uses "아무 + (noun)
+ 도 + negative verb."

손님이 여관 주인한테 물어 봅니다.

--왜 이 방에 아무것도 없어요? --Why is there nothing in here?


이불하고 요는 어디 있어요? Where are the blankets and quilts?

--염려 마세요. 지금 곧 갖다 --Not to worry. I'll bring them now.


드리겠어요.

A similar phrase, "아무 + (noun) + (이)나/(이)든지, is used to express the same


notion."

손님이 호텔에 묵으려고 합니다:

--빈 방 있습니까? --Have you any vacancies?


--네, 그런데 어떤 방을 원하십니까? --Yes, but what kind of room would
온돌방도 있고 침대방도 있어요. you like? We have both ondol
rooms and rooms with beds.

--아무 방이나 주세요. --Any room is fine with me. I'm


전 깨끗하면 됩니다. satisfied as long as it's clean.
--그렇지만 아무 방이나 드릴 수 없어요. --I cannot give you just any room.
값이 다르기 때문이죠. They're all priced differently.

--아! 그렇군요. 어느 방이 더 쌉니까? --Oh, I see. Which room is cheaper?

When used in an affirmative context, this phrase carries meaning similar to the English
terms anything, anyone, any (noun), or anything/anyone at all. When the phrase
precedes a negative or negated verb, a sense of restriction or bias is suggested, as
implied by the English phrases not just anything, not just anyone, or no ordinary
(person or thing).

아무+ 든지
아무 (noun) + (이)나/(이)든지

(이)든지 can replace (이)나 in the pattern above without changing the meaning.
• 저한테 일자리를 주시면
아무 일이나 하겠어요.

• 저한테 일자리를 주시면


아무 일이든지 하겠어요..
} I will do anything if you give me a job.

• 돈이 다 떨어졌지만

} I'm broke, but I can't take just any job.


아무 일이나 할 수 없어요 .

• 돈이 다 떨어졌지만
아무 일이든지 할 수 없어요.

Use of 아무 + (noun) + (이)나/(이)든지 may also involve persons, places, or objects


other than the subject or direct object, in which cases postpositions such as 한테 or
에서 should be used.
• 이것 아주 중요한 일이니까 This is very important, so don't
아무한테나 말하지 마세요. tell just anyone. (Be careful
whom you mention it to.)
• 지금 시간이 없으니까 Since we don't have much time,
아무 음식점에서든지 let's just eat at any place that serves
먹읍시다. food.

Phrases comprised of (이)나/(이)든지, preceded by an interrogative (e.g., 무엇,


누구, 어디, 언제), are equivalent in meaning to English phrases such as no matter
(how much, what, when, where, which, who...).

interrogative + (이)나/(이)든지

• 그 일은 누구나/누구든지 Anyone can do that work. (No matter


할 수 있어요. who he/she is, he/she can handle that
[task].)

Here 누구나/누구든지 can be replaced with 아무나/아무든지 without changing the


meaning, except with a negative verb. Other interrogatives + (이)나/(이)든지 can also
be replaced with 아무 + noun + (이)나/(이)든지, as follows:

• 무엇이나/무엇이든지 아무 것이나/아무 것이든지


• 어디나/어디든지 아무 데나/아무 데든지
• 언제나/언제든지 아무 때나/아무 때든지

Chapter 37
Summary of Irregular Verbs
types of irregular with with with
verbs consonant ending (으) ending (아/어) ending
1. 하다 verb / -고 ㅂ니다
/ -ㅂ니다 해
하 -지 하 면
-면 했다
(청소하다, \ -게 니까
-니까 해서
세탁하다) 세요
\ -세요 해도
2. ㅂ verb / -고 / -면 추워
춥 -지 추우 -니까 추웠다
(춥다, 더럽다) -게 -ㄴ데 추워서 추워도
\ -습니다 \ -세요
3. ㅎ verb / -고 / -면 빨개
빨갛 -지 빨가 -니까 빨갰다
(빨갛다, 하얗다) -게 \ -세요 빨개서
\ -습니다 빨개도
4. ㄷ verb / -고 / -으면 들어
듣 -지 들 -으니까 들었다
(듣다, 걷다) -게 \ -으세요 들어서
\ -습니다 들어도
5. 르 verb / -고 ㅂ니다
/ -ㅂ니다 몰라
모르 -지 모르 면
-면 몰랐다
(모르다, \ -게 니까
-니까 몰라서
빠르다) 세요
\ -세요 몰라도
6. ㅅverb / -고 / -으면 나아
낫 -지 나 -으니까 나았다
(낫다, 짓다) -게 \ -으세요 나아서
\ -습니다 나아도
7. ㄹ verb / -고 / -면
살 -지 살 \ -려고 살아
(살다, 알다) \ -게 살았다
/ -ㅂ니다 살아서
사 -는데 사 -니까 살아도
\ -세요

The shaded parts show the changes in the stems.

Chapter 38
More on Talking in Familiar Forms of Address
Removing -요 from the informal form will generate the familiar form. In addition to
these endings, there are various forms used in familiar talk, depending on sentence
types: statement, question, request or command, and suggestion.

제임스와 석호가 같이 살 아파트에 대해서 이야기합니다.

--이 아파트는 어떠니? --How do you like this apartment?


--너무 좁지 않냐? 그리고 조금 비싸다. --Isn't it too small? It's a little
expensive.

--나는 괜찮은데. 그럼 조금 더 --I like it. Why don't we give it some


생각해 보자. more thought?
--그래. 난 지금 회사에 간다. --OK. I have to go to the office now.
나중에 회사로 전화해라. Call me there later.

All of the sentence endings above indicate that the conversation is between very
close friends. These various forms are summarized as follows.
statement ㄴ)다
-(ㄴ 다
question -니/(느)냐.
request or command -아/어라
suggestion -자

Notes:

1. When you make a statement with the familiar form in present tense, ㄴis always
added to the stem of action verbs.
• 서울에는 집값이 너무 비싸다. 그렇지만 작년까지는 지금보다 더
비쌌었다. 그래서 올해에는 사람들이 집을 많이 산다.

2. You will hear variations in the familiar form for questions and requests in colloquial
speech. For example,
• 지금 무슨 책을 읽니/읽냐/읽느냐?

• 빨리 준비하고 학교에 가거라/가라.

Chapter 38
Linking Two Independent Clauses
The conjuction 그런데 is used in the sense of but, however, or by the way. The
ending 는데 is used similarly.

"집도 많고 아파트도 많은데 우리집은 없어요."


"돈은 있는데 신용이 없어요."
"돈이 별로 없는데 집을 살 수 있을까요?"
"전세를 들었는데 전세금이 또 올랐습니다."
"요즘 바쁜데 집을 보지 않고 살 수 없을까요?"

이런 분은 한빛 부동산으로結음駕첼À. 오랜 경험을 바탕으로 만족스런 결과를


약속드립니다.

는데
verb stem + (으)ㄴ/는데
To all action verbs, add 먹 + 는데 ------> 먹는데
는데. 가 + 았 + 는데 ------> 갔는데
To all stative verbs that are not add 작 + 았 + 는데 ------> 작았는데
in the present tense, 는데. 예쁘 + 겠 + 는데 -------> 예쁘겠는데
When 이다 and a stative verb
are in the present tense and add 예쁘 + ㄴ데 ------> 예쁜데
the stem ends in a vowel, ㄴ데.
When a stative verb is in the
present tense and its stem add 작 + 은데 -------> 작은데
ends in a consonant, 은데.

The two different functions of -(으)ㄴ/는데 are explained below.

1. When connecting two contradictory clauses, -(으)ㄴ/는데 is used.


--지난 주에 이 아파트 계약하기로 --I was going to lease this
했는데 마음을 바꾸었어요. apartment, but I changed my mind.
-왜요? --Why is that?

--다 괜찮은데, 너무 오래됐어요.± --Everything's alright, but it's too old.


--그런데, 그 값에 이런 아파트 없습니다. --But, there's no apartment like this at
that price.

2. The same ending is used to connect two clauses which are somehow logically
connected. The clause with this ending often functions as a lead-in to the clause that
follows. Hence, -(으)ㄴ/는데 itself is not translated; instead, it is often represented by
a semicolon.

--내일 이사해야 하는데, 좀 도와 --I have to move tomorrow; could you


주겠니? help me?
--도와주고 싶은데, 오후에 약속이 있어. --I'd like to help, but I have an
appointment in the afternoon.

--오전에 다 할 수 있는데, 오전에만 --We can finish by noon; just


와라. come by for the morning.
--그래. 12시까지만 도와 줄게. --Well, then I'll help you until 12
o'clock.

Chapter 38
Expressing Intention
-(으)려고 하다 expresses a speaker's intention.

• 저는 이번 휴가때 책을 많이 I'm going to read a lot of books

• 선생님, 지금 떠나시려고 Are you going to leave now?


하십니까?

You may also use -(으)ㄹ까 하다 for expressing future plans or intentions.
--박선생님, 새 집으로 언제 --Mr. Park, when are you going to
이사하세요? move into your new house?
--이번 주말에 할까 합니다. --I'm considering moving this
weekend.

--새 집을 사서 좋으시지요? --I'll bet you're happy about


your new home, aren't you?
--산 것이 아니고, 전세 들었습니다. --I didn't buy it, I rented it. I'm thinking
집은 2년 후에나 살까 합니다 about buying one in another two
years.

ㄹ까 하다
action verb stem + (으)ㄹ까

Note: Although -(으)ㄹ까 하다 is not used in questions, it is mostly interchangeable


with -(으)려고 하다. However, when -(으)ㄹ까 하다 is used, the speaker seems more
tentative about the intention than with -(으)려고 하다.

Chapter 39

More About Attributive Verb Forms


The attributive endings (으)ㄴ, 는, and (으)ㄹdenote the past, present, and future.

• 어제 온 환자입니다. He's the patient who came yesterday.


• 매일 오는 환자입니다. He's the patient who comes every day.
• 다음 달에 올 환자입니다. He's the patient who will come next month.

These attributive endings + 지 알다/모르다 express know/not know


whether, ...who, ...what, ...when, ...where, ...why, ...how, etc.
For action verbs and 있다/없다:
• 그 분이 어제 왔는지 아세요? Do you know whether he came yesterday?
• 그 분이 매일 오는지 아세요? Do you know whether he comes everyday?
• 그 분이 다음 달에 올지 아세요? Do you know whether he will come next
month?

action verb
있다/없다
있다 없다  stem + 었는/는/(으)ㄹ + 지 알다/모르다

For stative verbs and 이다/아니다:


• 제가 어제 얼마나 바빴는지 You don't know how busy I was 모르시지요?
yesterday, do you?

• 제가 매일 얼마나 바쁜지 You don't know how busy I am 모르시지요?


every day, do you?

• 제가 다음 달에 얼마나 바쁠지 You don't know how busy I will be


모르시지요? next month, do you?

stative verb
이다/아니다
이다 아니다  stem + 었는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ + 지 알다/모르다

송희가 감기가 걸렸습니다.

--송희씨, 감기 걸렸군요. --Songhee, you have a cold.


--네, 죽겠어요. 감기에 어떤 --Yeah, I'm dying. Do you know
약이 좋은지 아세요? what medicine's good for a cold?

--글쎄요. 감기약은 증상만 --Well, cold medicines treat only the


치료할 뿐이지요. 감기는 약을 symptoms. As for a cold, getting a
먹는 것보다푹 쉬어야 낫지요. good rest is better than taking medicine.
--알아요. 그렇지만 제가 얼마나 --I know. But, you know how busy I am,
바쁜지 아시잖아요? don't you?

--그렇군요. 그럼 옆 방 홍 선생님 --That's true. Then let's ask Mr. Hong


한테 감기 걸렸을 때 어떻게 next door what you should do when
해야 되는지 물어 봅시다. you have a cold.
--그래요. 그 분 여러 가지 많이 --Yes, he knows a lot, so he might
아니까 좋은 감기 치료법을 know a good cold remedy.
알지도 모르지요.

As you saw above, 물어 보다, 알아 보다, 말해 보다, and 생각해 보다, think, can be
substituted for 알다/모르다.

• 누가 아픈지 알아 보세요. Find out who is sick.


• 어느 것이 맞는지 말해 보세요 . Tell me which one is right.
• 열쇠를 어디에 두었는지 잘 Try to think of where you left your
생각해 보세요. keys.

Note: 지도 모르다 By adding another syllable 도 to 지 모르다, you can express


possibility or probability. It is often rendered as maybe....

• 날씨가 더 나빠질지도 몰라요. Maybe the weather will get worse.


• 이번에는 제가 가야 될지도 Probably I should go this time.
모르겠습니다.

Chapter 39
Indicating Substitution
English makes use of phrases like instead of..., on behalf of..., or in place of..., to
express the notion of substitution. This is expressed in Korean by "noun (phrase) +
대신에."

오영희 씨가 아픕니다.

어제부터 기침이 나고 열이 있습니다. I have a fever and have been


감기에 걸린 것 같습니다. 그렇지만 coughing since yesterday. But it's
감기니까 병원에 가는 대신에 약방에 가서 only a cold. I'm thinking of going to
the pharmacy and buying some cold
감기약을 살까 합니다.
medicine instead of going to the
hospital.

오영희 씨의 동료 (colleague) 최준헌 씨가 과장님한테 보고합니다 (report).


미스 오가 오늘 감기 때문에 일하러 Miss Oh couldn't come to work due
올 수 없었습니다. 그래서 to her cold. So Miss Park typed this
미스 오 대신에 미스 박이 이 보고서를 report in place of Miss Oh.
타이핑했습니다.

noun (phrase) + 대신에

Chapter 39
Indicating "On the Way to..."

The Korean equivalent of on the way to (a place)/on one's way to (a place) is


expressed by "verb stem + 는 길에." It is typically used with verbs such as
오다/가다/출근하다/퇴근하다.

action verb stem + 는 길에

민수가 아내한테 부탁을 합니다.

--여보, 오후에 시간 있어? --Honey, do you have any time this


afternoon?
--왜요? 치과에 가야 하는데요. --Why? I have to go to the dentist.

--그래? 그럼 치과에 가는 길에 --Really? Will you mail this package


이 소포 좀 부치겠어? on your way to the dentist?
--그러지요. 치과 갔다가 집에 --Sure, I'll mail it for you on the way
오는 길에 부쳐 드리지요. home from the dentist.

--고마워. 내가 퇴근하는 길에 당신 --Thanks. On my way home, I'll buy


이 좋아하는 복숭아 사가지고 올게. some of those peaches you like.
--좋아요. --Great.
Chapter 40

Indicating Past Experience

When expressing one's experience, or lack thereof, as in having (done something)


before, use "verb stem + (으) ㄴ/는 일/적이 있다/없다."

다음은 민 선생님에 대한 글입니다.

민 선생님은 한국에서 영어를 가르친 Mr. Min has experience teaching


적이 있다. 그리고 미국에서는 한국 English in Korea and he has taught
어를 가르친 일이 있다. 지금은 Korean in the US. Now he performs
한국어와 영어를 동시 통역하는 일을 simultaneous interpretation between
하고 있다. Korean and English.

verb stem + (으) ㄴ/는 일/적이


이 있다/없다
있다 없다

This feature combines a verb form with one of two nouns, 일 or 적, and means
matters, occurrence, occasion, experience, or time. The resulting meaning is similar
to that of the present perfect in English (i.e., have been, has departed, have seen,
etc.).

Chapter 40
Expressing "Merely..."

It often becomes necessary to describe people or objects in terms of limited numbers


and/or attributes. In such cases, the purpose may be to contrast one subject or
attribute with another, or to indicate a limited number of items or people. Whereas the
terms merely and only are used to express such limitation in English,
-뿐이다 and -(으)ㄹ 뿐이다, respectively, are combined with nouns and verbs in
Korean to form similar meanings.

제리와 순지가 국사 교수님에 대하여 이야기하고 있다.

--제리 씨는 지난 학기에 무슨 무슨 --Jerry, which courses did you take


과목을 들었어요? last semester?
--제가 들은 과목은 한국어하고 --The only courses I took were Korean
국사 뿐이었어요. and Korean history.

--국사 교수님 까다롭지요? --Isn't the history professor hard to please?


--그렇지 않아요. 그 교수님은 --Not really. He merely looks that way.
까다롭게 보일 뿐 아주 좋은 He's actually a very nice person.
분이에요.
--그래요? 시험 문제를 너무 --Is he? I heard that his exams were
어렵게 내신다고 들었는데. horribly difficult.

--공부를 안 하는 사람들한테만 --They're only difficult for those who


어려울 뿐이에요. don't study.

verb stem -(으) ㄹ


noun
} + 뿐이다
Note:

-뿐만 아니라 is the Korean equivalent of not only.

• 너뿐만 아니라, 나도 할 수 있어. Not only you but I, also, can do it.

• 제 친구 혜수는 얼굴이 예쁠 뿐만 My friend Haesue is not only pretty,


아니라 마음씨도 착합니다. she is also nice.

Chapter 40
Reported Speech: I

There are two ways of reporting the speech of other people: direct quotes and indirect
quotes. Direct quotation involves quoting exactly the speaker's original words,
whereas indirect quotation serves to paraphrase the speaker's utterance without
altering its meaning.

In Korean, indirect quotations are used extensively in reported speech. In English, Mr.
Ahn said he's taking leave this week, is an indirect quote, while Mr. Ahn said, "I'm
taking leave next week," is a direct quote. Notice how the same sentences are
expressed in Korean:

안정훈 씨가 정민수 씨와 사무실에서 이야기합니다.


--정민수 씨, 저 다음 주에 휴가 --Mr. Chung, I'm taking leave next
갑니다. week.
--그러세요? 좋으시겠군요. --You are? Good for you.

정민수 씨가 그 다음 주 월요일에 과장님께 보고합니다 (report).


--안정훈 씨 아직 안 나왔습니까? --Isn't Mr. Ahn here yet?
--안정훈씨 이번 주에 휴가간다고 --Mr. Ahn said he's taking leave this
했습니다. week.

--뭐라고 했다구요? --What exactly did Mr. Ahn say to you?


--안정훈 씨가 "저 다음 주에 --Mr. Ahn said, "I'm taking leave next
휴가갑니다"라고 했습니다. week."

--누구 마음대로요? --He calls all the shots now?


The example shows both a direct and an indirect quote. In a direct quote, the quoted
sentence is the exact words of the original speaker in quotation marks, followed by
라고 합니다/했습니다. In an indirect quote, the subject of the quoted sentence, the
time, and the place references are changed according to the speaker's perspective.
verb stem + (는/ㄴ)다 + 고 하다

When the verb add -는다 "집을 얻습니다."


stem ends in a + 고 하다. 집을 얻는다고
consonant, 합니다.
Action verbs in
present tense:
When the verb add -ㄴ다 "내일 시험을 봅니다."
stem ends in a + 고 하다. 내일 시험본다고
vowel, 합니다.

이다/아니다: Change 다 to 라 + "참 좋은 분이에요."


고 하다. 참 좋은 분이라고
합니다

Stative verbs, Add -다 + 고 하다. 얻었다고 합니다


verbs with tense, 시험보겠다고 합니다
and 있다/없다: 돈이 있다고 합니다
예쁘다고 합니다

Chapter 41

Reported Speech: II
When a statement is quoted, it ends with a familiar form, such as 다, 는다, ㄴ다
followed by 고 하다, meaning (someone) says that.... When a statement ends with -
이다, 다 is replaced by 라.

The following are quotations of questions, requests, and suggestions.

석호가 어머니한테 전화로 제임스가 농구 경기에 가느냐고 물어봅니다.

--엄마, 제임스가 전화했어요? --Mom, did James call?


--응, 전화했는데, 오늘 농구경기에 못 --Yes, he called, but he said he can't
간다고 했어. go to the baseball game today.

--어제 농구 같이 하자고 했는데 . --Yesterday, he suggested we play


또 전화하면, 내일 경기에는 오냐고 baseball together. If he calls again,
좀 물어 보세요. 그리고 밤 9시 후에 ask him if he's coming to tomorrow's
전화하라고 하세요. game. And tell him to call me tonight
after 9:00.
--그래. --OK.

As illustrated in the conversation above, different forms of quotations are involved for
statements, questions, requests, and suggestions. Explanations for each form follow.

Chapter 41

A. Quoting questions

When a question is quoted, it ends with the familiar form, (으/느)냐, plus 고 하다,
meaning (someone) asks that....

verb stem + (으/느)냐 + 고 하다

• 제임스가 어머니한테 농구경기가 끝났(느)냐고 물었습니다.

• 어머니가 석호한테 그 사람이 제임스냐고 했습니다.


When the stem of a stative add 좋 + (으)냐 +고 하다
verb ends in a consonant and (으)냐고 하다. ------> 좋(으)냐고 하다
the verb is in the present tense,
When the stem of a stative add 예쁘 + 냐 + 고 하다
verb (including 이다) ends in a 냐고 하다. ------>예쁘냐고 하다
vowel and the verb is in the
present tense,
Otherwise, add 예쁘+었 + (느)냐 + 고 하다
(느)냐고 하다. ------>예뻤(느)냐고 하다
있 + (느)냐 + 고 하다
------> 있(느)냐고 하다

Notes:

1. The forms (으/느) in parentheses are optional, in that you will either hear 좋으냐고
하다 or 좋냐고 하다, and 예뻤느냐고 하다 or 예뻤냐고 하다.

2. A question ending with 이다 takes 냐고 하다 for a quotation, as shown in the


middle row of the previous formula. However, when the word preceding 이다 ends
with a vowel, 이 in 이다 can be deleted.

3. The final verb, 하다 in -(으/느)냐고 하다, can be replaced by 묻다/물어 보다,


meaning ask.

Chapter 41
B. Quoting requests

When a request is quoted, the verb stem is followed by (으)라, and 고 하다 is added,
which means (someone) says/requests/orders, etc. that..., or to....

verb stem + (으)라 + 고 하다

• 선생님이 학생들한테 잘 들으라고 하셨습니다.

• 영애가 선생님께 점심을 잡수시라고 했습니다.

Chapter 41
C. Quoting suggestions

When a suggestion is quoted, it ends with the familiar form, 자 ,followed by 고 하다,
and means (someone) proposes/suggests, etc. that....

verb stem + 자 + 고 하다

• 제임스가 석호한테 내일 농구를 같이 하자고 했습니다.

• 어머니가 영애한테 지금 저녁 먹자고 했습니다.

Chapter 41

Expressing an Action That Immediately Follows Another

축구 경기를 하다가 선수 하나가 다쳤습니다.

--김종오 선수가 다리를 다친 것 같군요. --Kim Chong-o appears to be injured.


--네, 아까 공을 치자마자 넘어졌는데, --Yes, he fell a while ago, as soon as
그 때 다친 것 같아요. he kicked the ball; that's when he got
hurt.

--넘어지자마자 바로 일어나서 괜찮은 것 --He got up right after he fell, so he


같았는데요. seemed alright.
--글쎄요. 경기를 계속할 수 있을지 --Gee, I wonder whether he can
모르겠습니다. continue the game.

As this example shows, -자마자 is used to express as soon as... or no sooner than....
It states that one action in a clause (with -자마자) is immediately followed by another
action in the next clause.

action verb stem + 자마자

Note: In this pattern, the last part, 마자, is occasionally dropped in speaking as well
as in writing.
• 학교에 도착하자(마자) 친구를 만났어요.

• 넘어지자(마자) 바로 일어났어요.

Chapter 41
Finishing Up an Action
Two verbs can be added together to represent new meanings: a verb ending in -아/어
can be followed by either 가다, 오다, or 다니다.

the first verb 가다 오다 다니다


돌다 돌아가다 돌아오다 돌아다니다
turn return come back go around
찾다 찾아가다 찾아오다 찾아다니다
find/seek (go to) visit (come to) visit (go around to) find

버리다, meaning throw away or cast away, can also be added to other verbs.

The following is from an ad, found in a Korean-American newspaper, about a health


center.

생활에서 오는 스트레스와 피로를 해결해 드립니다.


한국식 대중 사우나가 문을 열었습니다.
서울 사우나에서 스트레스를 깨끗이 풀어 버리십시오.
짜증스러운 피로를 훌훌 털어 버리십시오.
운동후의 땀을 말끔히 씻어 버리십시오.

As you might have surmised, action verbs followed by 아/어 버리다 are used to mean
finish doing... or do...completely, depending on the context.

action verb stem + 아/어 버리다

• 어제 약속을 잊어 버렸어요. I completely forgot about yesterday's


appointment.

• 여기 있던 과자를 누가 먹어 버렸어요? Who ate up the cookies here?


Chapter 42
Planned or Scheduled Actions
영애가 민수의 결혼 계획에 대해서 물어 봅니다.

--민수씨, 언제 결혼하실 거에요? --Minsoo, when are you going to get


married?
--이번 가을에 할 예정입니다. --I'm planning to get married this fall.

--신혼여행지는 정하셨어요? --Have you decided where to go on


your honeymoon?
--아직 완전히 결정하지는 않았어요. --Not yet. I'm thinking of either Cheju
제주도나 하와이를 갈 생각입니다. Island or Hawaii.

Planned or scheduled actions are expressed with "verb stem + (으)ㄹ생각/예정이다,"


which can be rendered as I'm planning to..., it is scheduled that..., or I'm thinking of....

verb stem + (으)ㄹ 생각/예정이다

Chapter 42

An Event or Condition That Was the Case in the Past But No


Longer So
현진과 영미가 박 선생님에 관해서 (about) 서로 이야기합니다.

--박 선생님 결혼했어요? --Is Mr. Park married?


--그분 3년 전에 결혼했었어요. --He got married three years ago.
그런데 작년에 이혼했어요. Then, he got divorced last year.

--그래요? 그리고 재혼 안 했어요? --Is that so? He hasn't remarried?


--아직 안 했어요. --Not yet.

"Verb stem + 았/었었" refers to a past event or condition that no longer exists. Here,
결혼했었어요 means that he was married but no longer is.

verb stem + 았/었었다

Chapter 43
Indicating Speculation
The attributive endings 은, 는, 을, and (었)던 can be used to express conjecture,
speculation, or deduction, as in such English phrases as it looks like, it seems
(that/like), it appears (that/as though), I assume (that), or I guess (that)....

윤 선생과 미스 한이 다가오는 (upcoming) 연휴에 대하여 서로 이야기합니다.

--미스 한, 이번 설에 고향에 가요? --Are you going to your hometown for


the New Year, Miss Han?
--아니오, 못 갈 것 같아요. --No, it looks like I can't.

--아니, 왜요? --Why is that?


--아직 고속 버스 표를 못샀어요. --I haven't been able to buy a bus ticket yet.

--기차로 가면 안돼요? --Can't you go by train?


--기차표도 벌써 다 매진된 --It seems all train tickets have already
것 같아요. been sold out.

verb stem + 은/는/을/(었)던 것같다

Chapter 43

Extended Use of Attributive Verb Forms


A previous condition or habitual action can be expressed using "verb stem +
(았/었)던 + noun/pronoun."

• 제가 낚시하던 곳이 여깁니다. This is the place (where) I used to fish.

• 아니, 이차가 어제 고장 났던 Hey, isn't this the car that was broken
차 아닙니까? down yesterday?

A continuous action in the past uses "verb stem + (고 있) 던."

verb stem + (고 있)던

경찰이 전 씨한테 몇 가지 질문을 합니다.


--그 때 이 흰색 대우 차를 운전하 (고 있) --Who was the person driving this
던 사람이 누굽니까? white Daewoo at that time?
--글쎄요, 전 그 때 현대를 운전하고 --I dunno, I was driving a Hyundai
있었습니다. then.

--그럼 이 뒷 좌석에서 자 (고 있) 던 --Well, do you know the person


사람은 누군지 아십니까? who was sleeping in the back seat?
--전 모릅니다. --I don't know.

Chapter 44
Summary of "Anyone" and "No One"
Anyone/anything and no one/nothing are expressed with 아무 .

James and his Korean friend are working in an orchard and getting hungry.

--배 고픈데 아무 거나 좀 먹읍시다. --I'm hungry; anything at all will do.


--먹을 것이 아무 것도 없어요. --There's nothing to eat.

--나무에서 과일 좀 따 먹으면 --Can't we just pick some fruit from


안 돼요? the trees and eat it?
--아무 거나 먹으면 안 돼요. --You can't eat just any of them.
안 익은 것도 많거든요. Many of them aren't ripened yet.

The basic meaning of 아무 is any, and the English equivalents vary according to the
marker and the predicate that follow 아무. In other words, 아무 and 도 are followed
only by a negative predicate, and mean complete negation. Conversely, 아무 and 나
are followed by either a positive or a negative predicate, and mean complete assertion
or restricted negation.

아무 + (noun) + 도 add negative predicate only complete negation


아무 + (noun) + 나 add positive predicate complete assertion
add negative predicate restricted negation

• 어제는 수업이 끝난 후에 아무도 No one was able to go home after


집에 갈 수 없었습니다. 체력단련 school yesterday. We had physical
훈련이 있었습니다. training.
• 이 영화는 연소자입장가이니까 Because this movie is rated PG,
아무나 들어 갈 수 있습니다. anyone can enter.

• 여기는 민간이 출입금지 지역입니다. This is a restricted area to civilians.


아무나 들어 갈 수 없습니다. Not just anyone can enter.

Note: Any noun can be added between 아무 and 나/도. Postpositions such as 에서,
한테, and 에 may be added to those nouns.

• 아무 음식점에서도 먹지 않았습니다. We didn't eat at any restaurant (at all).

• 아무 음식점에서나 먹었습니다. We ate in any restaurant (we could


find).
• 아무 음식점에서나 먹지 않았습니다. We didn't eat at just any restaurant.

• 이 이야기는 아무한테도 말하지 Don't tell this to anyone.


마세요.

• 이 이야기는 아무한테나 말해도 돼요. You may tell this to anyone (you wish).

• 이 이야기는 아무한테나 말하지 Don't tell this to just anyone. Tell it


마세요. 우리 반 학생들한테만 only to the students in our class.
말하세요.

Chapter 44

Overview of Korean Sentence Structures


Basic sentence structures are combinations of a subject and a predicate. The
predicate is the part of a sentence that states something about the subject, composed
of a verb and often including objects, modifiers, or complements of the verb.

This table presents a summary of the basic sentence structures.


문형 (sentence structure) example

I subject + noun + 이다 김영호씨는 의사입니다.


predicate

II subject + stative verb/있다 날씨가 좋습니다.


predicate

III subject + intransitive action verb 새가 날아갑니다.


predicate

IV subject + object + transitive verb 정일병이 책을 읽어요.


predicate

subject + direct object + indirect object


V predicate 정일병이 책을 김영호씨한테
+ transitive verb
주었습니다.

VI (subject) topic + (subject) topic + 미스 양은 얼굴이 예쁩니다.


predicate

Notes:
1. Any word in each of these basic sentence structures may be preceded and
modified by other words, phrases, or clauses: attributive forms of all verbs modify
nouns, whereas adverbs, time references, and locational phrases modify verbs.
The underlined words are the basic elements of these statements. Nearly all of the
remaining words modify them.

• 저기 가는 아이가 김선생님의 딸입니다.


• 저쪽 본관 뒤의 주차장에 제 차가 있습니다.
• 대개 운동을 많이 하는 사람들은 아주 날씬합니다.
• 예쁜 새 한 마리가 눈이 하얗게 온 나무위에 앉아 있습니다.
• 정일병이 김선생님이 빌려준 책을 미스양한테 주었습니다.

2. Two or more clauses or sentences may be connected to form a complex sentence.


In such cases, various connectives serve to link them.
• 봄에 비가 많이 오고, 날씨가 따뜻하면, 농사가 아주 잘 된다고 합니다.
• 어제는 과수원에서 일하면서, 노래도 하고, 이야기도 하고, 점심도
먹었습니다.

3. The last sentence structure (VI) is peculiar to Korean. English and other western
languages do not have it. Similar to this is the expression of possesion with 있다.
• 박하사가 딸이 있습니다. Sgt. Park has a daughter.
• 장성호씨가 큰 농장이 있습니다. Mr. Chang has a big farm.

As the subject markers (이/가) indicate, the sentences have two subjects. However,
the English equivalents have a subject and an object. The first subject is usually
considered as the topic of the sentence and the subject marker can be replaced by
은/는 to show emphasis or contrast. Verbs other than 있다 can be used in the
predicate, as seen below.
• 박 하사는 딸이 있습니다. As for Sgt. Park, he has a daughter.
• 장성호 씨는 큰 농장이 있습니다. As for Mr. Chang, he has a big farm.
• ±× 과수원이/은 사과가 아주 많이 As for the orchard, it produces a lot of
납니다. apples.
• 코끼리가/는 코가 깁니다. As for elephants, their noses are long.

Chapter 45
Expressing the Passage of Time
In English, a typical expression of an event that happens at a specific time after
another event involves use of the present perfect tense, along with words such as
in, for, or since, e.g., "It's been a year since he was last seen." or "I haven't been
there in ten years."
In Korean, the expression is denoted by the attributive ending (으)ㄴ+ 지(가) with a
time word + 되다. In both languages, the focus is on the interval of time that extends
from a specified past action, condition or event, to the present moment.

action verb stem + (으)ㄴ 지(가) + specified length of time + 되다

최 선생님이 새로 온 박 선생님하고 이야기하고 있습니다.

-- 미스터 정 어머님은 누구하고 --Who does your mother live with, Mr.
사십니까? Chung?
--우리형이 어머님을 모시고 계세요. --My elder brother lives with my mother

-- 모시고 계신 지 얼마나 됐어요? --How long has he been living with her?
--가만 있어봐요. 아버님이 돌아가신 --Well, let's see.... It's been five
지가 5년이 되었고, 아버님이 years since my father passed away,
돌아가시고 1년후에 형님이 어머님을 and my mother began living with him
모시기 시작했으니까, 한 4년 one year after, so it's been about four
되었군요. years now.

Note: To emphasize the specific time with the idea of "just" after an event,
-만에 can be added to -(으)ㄴ지 + time word. Similarly, to emphasize an
especially short period of time, -밖에 안 되다 can be added to -(으)ㄴ지 + time
word. Equivalent English expressions include After having done...for only/just (time
period),....
• 정우는 대학교에 들어간 지 3년만에 After having attended the
졸업을 했습니다. University for three years,
Chungwoo graduated.

• 정우는 대학교에 들어간 지 3년밖에 Although it's been only three years
안 되었는데 졸업을 했습니다. since Chungwoo entered the
University, he graduated.

Chapter 45
"According to..."
English makes use of phrases such as according to... or in accordance with..., when
attributing information to or quoting a source. A summary of the information the
source has provided then follows. Korean employs -에 의하면/따르면 after the
source, i.e., the source precedes the Korean equivalents for the phrases according
to... or in accordance with....

noun + 에 의하면/따르면

The following passage focuses on current trends in the Korean family structure.
통계청의 인구조사에 의하면, According to the population census
1990년 평균 가족수는 3.7명 of the Office of Statistics, 1990's
이라고 한다. 이것은 부부와 family size is 3.7 persons. It means
자녀 1-2명으로 구성된 핵가족이 that nuclear families, consisting of
점점 늘어나고 있는 것을 couples and their one or two children,
말한다. 통계청에 따르면 1975년 are gradually increasing in number.
평균 가구당 가족 수는 5.0명이고 According to the Office of Statistics,
1990년에는 3.7명으로 줄었다고 the average family size was 5.0 persons
한다. in 1975, decreasing to 3.7 in 1990.

한국말은: ~에 따라(서) corresponds to English phrases such as depending on/upon... and


according to..., but is not used like ~에 따르면 or ~에의하면 for attributing quotations to a source.

• 날씨에 따라서 기분이 다릅니다. Her mood changes according to the weather.
• 직업에 따라서 수입이 달라요. Income varies depending on the occupation.
~에 달려있다 is used to express the relationship between two or more concepts, actions, or
conditions. Literally translated, it means hangs on, thus indicating the dependence one has on
the other. English equivalents include such phrases as (subject) depends on... and depending
on (someone or something).... This phrase may be attached directly to a noun, a gerund, or an
indirect question.

Attached to a noun:
• 그분의 대답에 달려있다. (It all) depends on his answer.
• 이 작업의 성공은 김부장의 The success of this project rides on the efforts
노력에 달려있다. of director Kim.

Attached to a gerund:
• 그건 생각하기에 달려있다. It all depends on one's perspective.
• 돈은 쓰기에 달려있다. Money can be good or evil (depending on how
it's used).

Attached to an indirect question:


• 그것을 누가 하느냐에 달려 있다. It all depends on who does it.
• 그것은 언제 하느냐에 달려있다. It depends on when you do it.

Chapter 46
Expressing Tendency or Inclination
편, which literally means side or direction, is combined with an attributive phrase or
clause to describe a tendency or inclination. It can be rendered as ...tend(s) to
(be), ...(is/am/are) inclined to, or ...(is/am/are) rather/quite/somewhat....

¹ 決º 김이 부모한테 자기 (self) 남자 친구에 대해서 이야기합니다.

그 사람은 키가 큰 편이에요. 얼굴은 동그랗고, He's rather tall. His face is round and
음식은 아무거나 잘 먹는 편이에요. 말은 적은 he's a pretty good eater. He tends not
편이고, 친구도 별로 없어요. to say much, and he doesn't have
many friends.

verb stem + (으)ㄴ/는/었던 편이다

Chapter 46
Expressing an Underlying Purpose or Justification
Koreans use the verb stem + 기 + (을/를) 위해서/위하여 to express the purpose of an
action. Equivalent English phrases include in order to..., for the sake of..., or in
deference to....
영호와 경서가 저축하는 이유를 서로 이야기합니다.

--영호야, 너는 왜 저축하니? --Youngho, why are you saving money?


--대학에 가기 위해서 저축하지. --To go to college. You need
대학에 가려면 돈이 많이 들거든. a lot of money to go to college.
경서, 너는? How about you, Kyungseo?

--난 차를 사기 위해 저축해. --I'm saving money to buy a car. I


고등학교만 졸업하고 공부 decided to stop studying and get a
그만하고 취직하기로 결정했어. job after high school.
--경서야, 장래를 위해서 대학에 --Kyungseo, I think it would be better
가는 게 좋을텐데.... for your future if you went to
college....

noun
verb stem + 기 } + (을/를) 위해(서)/위하여
Chapter 46
Expressing One's Decisions or Strategies
Making a decision to do something is expressed by "action verb stem + 기로 하다."
This structure may be modified slightly, and other verbs may be substituted for 하다.
Two common choices include 결정하다, decide, choose between alternatives, and
작정하다, plan, decide, scheme. 결심하다/마음 먹다, make up one's own mind, can
also be used instead of 하다.

두 친구가 서로의 미래 (future) 에 대해서 이야기합니다.

--나는 내년에 취직하기로 작정했어. --I decided to get a job next year.
--그래? 어디 취직할 거야? --Is that so? Where are you going to
work?

--삼성에 취직하기로 결정했어. --I decided to work at Samsung.


--그래? 나는 내년에 가게를 열기로 --Is that so? I made up my mind to
마음 먹었어. open a store next year.

--어떤 가게를 열려고 하니? --What kind of store are you going to
open?
--음-, 아직 정하지 않았어. --Well, I haven't decided yet.

--그리고 너 가게 열 돈도 없잖아? --And you don't even have money to


이· ±, 가게 열기가 그렇게 쉬운 줄 open a store, do you? You think
알아? opening a store is that easy?

action verb stem + 기로 +(결정)하다/작정하다/결심하다/마음 먹다


Chapter 47
Acknowledgment of Facts

현수와 영미가 운전에 대해서 이야기합니다.

--영미씨 아직도 운전할 줄 모르세요? --Youngmee, don't you know how to


저는 영미씨 운전 잘 하는 줄로 drive? I thought that you were a
알았는데요. good driver.
--아뇨, 운전할 줄 몰라요. 현수씨는 --No, I don't know how. How about
운전할 줄 아세요? you, Hyunsoo?

--저요? 저 운전 잘 해요. --Me? I drive well.


--그래요? 저는 현수 씨 운전 잘 하는 --Oh, really? I didn't know that you
줄 몰랐었어요. drove well.

Verb stem + (으)ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다 " expresses to know how to.../not to know how to....
A slight variation of this form is: "verb stem + (으)ㄴ/는/(으)ㄹ + 줄 알다 /모르다." It
can be rendered as to know that.../not to know that..., to think that.../not to think that...,
to believe that.../not to believe that.... With this feature, there is often the implication
that what a person thought or believed was really mistaken.

verb stem + (으)ㄴ/는/(으)ㄹ + 줄 알다/모르다

All attributive forms may enter into this construction depending on the time frame:
past, present, or future. 을 can be inserted after 줄, if a true fact is stated. 로 can be
inserted between 줄 and 알다, if there is the implication that what a person thought or
believed was really mistaken.

• 이선생님이 간 줄 알았어요. I knew (the fact) that Mr. Lee was gone.
or I thought Mr. Lee was gone (however,
he's here).

• 이선생님이 간 줄을 알았어요. I knew (the fact) that Mr. Lee was gone.

• 이선생님이 간 줄로 알았어요. I thought Mr. Lee was gone (however,


he wasn't).

Chapter 47
Rephrasing or Clarifying

민수가 컴퓨터 때문에 새로 생긴 말들을 설명합니다.

<넌 8비트야>라고 하면 오래된 Telling someone, "You're 8 bits," refers to


컴퓨터를 얘기하므로, 머리가 a primitive computer, meaning that the
나쁘다라는 말입니다. <안 맞아서 person is half-witted. If you don't know
딜리트 올 했다>고 하면 컴퓨터를 computers well, you won't understand but,
잘모르는 사람은 알아 들을 수 "We're not compatible, so I DELETED
없습니다. 이말은 서로 안 맞아서 ALL," means one didn't get along with the
여자 친구나 남자친구와 깨끗이 girlfriend or boyfriend, so they broke up.
헤어졌다는 말입니다. 복잡한 일로 When someone is feeling distracted due to
머리가 어지러울 때는 <램이 탄다> a complicated problem, he might say,
고 표현합니다. "My ram chips are overloaded."

noun/indirect quoted sentence + ((이)라) 는 말(씀)이다


This form is frequently used in conversations for rephrasing, clarifying, or restating
one's intended meaning. It is an abbreviation of -(이)라고 하는 말이다, which can be
rendered as it means (that).... You may substitute 말, word, with 뜻, meaning, by
saying -(이)라는 뜻이다.

Chapter 47
Illustrating Two or More Options

미나와 수진이 자신들의 종교에 대해서 이야기합니다.

--너는 종교가 뭐니? --What's your faith?


--글쎄, 아직까지는 없어. --Well, I have none so far. But
그렇지만 우리집은 기독교야. my family background is Christianity.
그래서 신교 교회든지, Therefore, I'm thinking of going either
가톨릭 교회든지 한번 나가 to a Protestant or a Catholic church.
보려고 해. 너도 같이 가볼래? Do you want to go with me?

--그래, 둘다 괜찮아. --OK. Both are fine. Let's go to


어느 교회든지 나가 보자. any church.
--그럼 다음 주에는 천주 교회에 --Then let's try a Catholic church
나가 보자. next week.

"Question word + (이)든지" means no matter..., any...at all, regardless of.... "Noun
(phrase) + (이)든지 noun (phrase) + (이)든지" is used state options. It can be
rendered as either...or, whether...or.

noun (phrase) + (이)든지 noun (phrase) + (이)든지

This form can also be used with verbs:


• 옷이 크든지 작든지 상관 없어요. It doesn't matter whether the clothes
are small or big.
• 밥을 먹든지 국수를 먹든지 Let's eat anything quickly, either
아무거나 빨리 먹읍시다. (eating) rice or (eating) noodles.

verb stem + 든지 verb stem + 든지

Chapter 48
Expressing "As" and "According to"
When 대로 is used after the attributive ending of a verb, the subsequent clause
expresses the idea that something exists or occurs in accordance with the clause
containing 대로. The English equivalent is "as..."

미스터 김이 조금 일찍 집에 가겠다고 과장님께 말하고 있½윱求Ù.

--과장님, 제가 내일 약속한 대로 1시간 - --I'll come an hour early tomorrow, as I


일찍 오겠습니다. promised.
--내 생각에는 내일은 한 시간 반쯤 --I think it would be better if you could
일찍 와서 이 서류를 끝내는 것이 좋을 come an hour and a half early and
것 ° 걋볕¥. 하여튼 미스터 장이 finish these documents. Anyway,
하고 싶은 대로 하세요. do as you like, Mr. Chang.

--그렇게 하지요. 과장님이 말씀하시는 --I'll do that. I'll come an hour and a
대로 한 시간 반쯤 일찍 나오겠습니다. half early as you said.

attributive verb form + 대로

Additional examples:

• 내가 하는 대로 따라 하지 말고, Do as I say, not as I do.


내가 말하는 대로 따라 하세요.

• 제가 생각한 대로 몬트레이에는 It's very windy in Monterey, as I


바람이 많이 붑니다. thought.

• 요즘 아이들은 뭐든지 자기가 하고 Kids nowadays do everything their


싶은 대로 하고 말하고 싶은 대로 own way and say whatever they
말합니다. 어른들이 하라는 대로 please. They never do what
절대로 하지 않습니다. grown-ups tell them to do.

Notes:
1. 대로 can be added to some nouns and used as handy "frozen" expressions.
• 정희 씨 마음대로 하세요. Do as you like, Chunghee.
• 모두 사실대로 이야기하겠습니다. I'll tell everything like it is.
• 약속대로 제가 한턱 내겠어요. I'll treat you as I promised.

2. When -(으)ㄴ/는 대로 is added to a stative verb, the phrase means "as is."
• 새 구두가 좀 작은데, 작은 대로 This new shoes are a bit small, but I
그냥 신겠어요. will wear them as is.
• 그 사람은 못 생긴 대로 매력이 있어요. He is as attractive as he is homely.

3. Sometimes, -(으)ㄴ/는 대로 is used to express that one action in a clause is


immediately followed by another action in the next clause, which is similar to -자마자.
It can have the meaning of "as soon as the action of the first clause takes place, the
second also takes place."

• 장 선생님은 출근하는 대로 커피를 Mr. Chang made coffee as soon as he


끓였습니다. arrived at work.
• 송 선생님한테 들어 오시는 대로 As soon as Mr. Song comes in, tell
전화 좀 해 달라고 전해 주세요. him to call me back.

Chapter 48
"It Turns Out...."
되다 has various functions.

1. Asking for personal data. You can identify personal information such as name,
address, status, occupation, rank, relationship, etc., with 되다.
--성함이 어떻게 되십니까? --What's your name?
--장기수입니다. --Chang Kisu.

--직업이 어떻게 되십니까? --What's your occupation?


--군인입니다. --I'm a soldier.

2. Expressing a change in status. The English equivalent is become.


--언제 군인이 되었습니까? --When did you become a soldier?
--2년전에요. 곧 상병이 됩니다. --Two years ago. I'll soon become
(be promoted to) a corporal.

3. Expressing a quantity or price.


--서울에서 부산까지 거리가 어떻게 --What's the distance between Seoul
됩니까? and Pusan?
--한 400킬로쯤 됩니다. --It's about 400 km.

--그럼 기차 요금은 얼마나 됩니까? --So, how much is a train ticket?


--한 10,000원쯤 됩니다. --It's about 10,000 won.

4. As an auxiliary verb.
--오늘 이 일을 끝내야 됩니까? --Do we have to finish this job?
--네, 오늘까지 꼭 끝내야 됩니다. --Yes, we have to finish it today.

5. Expressing adequacy.
--자, 됐습니다. 그만 합시다. --It's OK. Let's call it quits.
--아니요, 그건 안 됩니다. 다시 합시다. --No, we can't. Let's try it again.
In addition to these functions, 되다 is used after an adverbial form of a verb. That is,
when 되다 follows a verb ending in 게, it corresponds to the English it is scheduled to,
it is supposed to, it turns out, it comes to....
미스터 최가 회사 동료와 이야기하고 있습니다.

--저는 다음 달에 미국 지사로 가게 --I'm to go to the US branch office next


µ퓸 윱求Ù. month.
--그럼 미스터 최가 하던 일은 누가 하죠? --Who will take over your position, Mr.
Choi?

--이번에 새로 들어 온 미스터 남이 --Mr. Nam, who was just recently hired,


제가 하던 일을 하게 되었습니다. will be taking over for me.
--새 사람이 오면 내가 바쁘게 되는데. --I get busy when a new employee
comes in.

verb stem + 게 되다

Chapter 48
Connecting Two Contradictory Clauses (II)

지만 connects two contradictory ideas in two clauses.

• 한국말은 조금 어렵지만 재미 Korean is a little bit difficult, but it's


있습니다. fun.

• 요즘 젊은 사람들은 버릇이 없지만 Young people nowadays may be


솔직합니다. rude, but they are forthright.
-(으)나 is interchangeable with -지만, but -(으)나 is used more often in writing than
speaking.
•한국말은 조금 어려우나 재미 Korean is a little bit difficult, but it's
있습니다. fun.

• 요즘 젊은 사람들은 버릇이 없으나 Young people nowadays may be rude,


솔직합니다. but they are forthright.

verb stem + (으)나

Chapter 49
More on Expressing Reason or Cause

-아/어서, -기 때문에, and -(으)니까 are used to express reason or cause.

• 자동차가 너무 비싸서, 자전거를 샀습니다.


• 숙제를 다 했기 때문에, 오후에는 영화관에 갔습니다.
• 오늘은 비가 오니까, 집에서 음악이나 듣고 쉬어야 겠어요.

-느라고 has the same function as these three features, but possesses the following
unique characteristics:

• -느라고 is attached only to action verbs.


• -느라고 is more colloquial than the others.
• As the example below shows, -느라고 is used only when the subject of two
clauses is the same, whereas -아/어서, -기 때문에, and -(으)니까 are less
restricted.
• A negative consequence or a hardship often follows -느라고.

부모님이 우진의 대학입시 합격을 축하해 주십니다.

--우진아, 합격을 축하한다. 선생님께 --Woojin, congratulations. Let's call


고맙다고 전화드리자. 너를 잘 your teacher and thank him. He
가르치느라고 수고하셨는데. worked so hard to teach you.
--아버지, 어머니, 고맙습니다. 제 --Thank you, mom and dad. You lost
뒷바라지 하시느라고 잠도 잘 못 a lot of sleep supporting me.
주무셨잖아요.

--네가 그 동안 공부하느라고 그렇게 --Yours was the most difficult part in


좋아하는 컴퓨터 게임도 못하고 제일 that you had to forsake all of your
힘들었지. favorite computer games to study.

action verb stem + 느라고

Chapter 49
Expressing Emphasis with Double Negation
Negative clauses may be negated a second time to emphasize the meaning, but in
the affirmative. The following examples illustrate this point.
두 대학생이 유명한 교수에 대해서 이야기하고 있습니다.

--송인섭 교수를 알아요? --Do you know professor Song Insup?


--그럼요. 우리 학교에서 그분 모르는 --Sure. There's no one who doesn't
사람이 없지요. know him in my school.

--그렇게 유명한 분입니까? --Is he that famous?


--네, 자기 전공뿐만 아니고, 모르는 --Yes, there's nothing he doesn't
게 없으세요. know, including areas outside his
field.

-지 않을 수 없다 or 안 -(으)ㄹ 수 없다 are often used for double negation and mean


cannot help but..., cannot help...-ing, or have no choice but to....
두 사람이 한국의 교육에 대해 이야기하고 있습니다.

--한국의 고등학교 학생들은 정말 --Korean high school students study


열심히 공부해요. really hard.
--공부를 하지 않을 수가 없지요. 대학에 --They have no choice but to study.
들어 가려면 공부를 해야지요. They have to get into a university.

--그렇긴 해요. 좋은 직장에 들어 가려면 --You're right. I think one can't help
대학에 안 들어갈 수가 없겠어요. but attend a university in Korea to
get a good job.

Chapter 49
Expressing "So That..." or "Until..."
When a verb is followed by -도록, it may have two different equivalents in English,
depending on the context.

Chapter 49
A. In order to..., so that...
The clause with -도록 expresses in order to... or so that....
--선생님, 잘 모르겠어요. 이해할 수 --Sir, I don't get it. Please explain it
있도록 다시 설명해 주세요. again so that we may understand.
--자, 그럼 이번에는 다 알아 듣도록 --Ok, then I'll explain it more easily
더 쉽게 설명하겠어요. this time, so you'll get everything.

Note:

When -도록 is followed by 하다, -도록 하다 expresses the idea of causing or


influencing an action that has taken place, just as a causative verb does. When,
however, the clause with -도록 하다 has only the first and second person as subjects,
the clause can be rendered as try to do....

• 아이들을 조용히 하도록 하세요. Please, make the children be quiet.


• 모두 조용히 하도록 하세요. Please be quiet.
• 제가 김선생님이 이 일들 끝내도록 I'll have Mr. Kim finish this job.
하겠습니다.
• 이 일을 빨리 끝내도록 하세요. Please finish this job quickly.
• 아이들이 아침에 일찍 일어나도록 Have the children get up early in the
하세요. morning.
• 아침에 일찍 일어나도록 하세요. Please try to get up early in the
morning.

Chapter 49
B. Until...
A clause with -도록 expresses until... (an action is completed).

• 제가 아침밥을 다 먹도록 제 동생은 My younger sister didn't get up until


일어나지 않았습니다. I finished eating breakfast.
• 6월이 되도록 꽃이 피지 않았습니다. The flower had not bloomed until
June.
• 어제밤에 늦도록 텔레비전을 보았어요. I watched TV until late last night.
• 밤이 새도록 공부했습니다. I studied until dawn.
• 저는 죽도록 그여자를 사랑했어요. I loved the woman to death.
verb stem + 도록

Chapter 50
Expansion of Indirect Quotations

Paraphrasing what others have stated uses the following forms:

• 죤은 다음 주에 휴가간다고 합니다. John says that he's taking leave


next week.
• 윤건일 씨가 언제 서울 중학교를 The company president asks when
졸업했느냐고 사장님이 물어 봅니다. Mr. Yoon graduated from Seoul
Middle School.

The same information can be expressed by using the following contractions: ~다고
합니다 can be contracted to ~답니다; ~라고 합니다
to 랍니다; ~자고 합니다 to ~잡니다; and ~냐고 합니다 to ~ 니다, each of which
expresses intention, identification, command, suggestion, and question.

~다고 합니다 ~답니다


~라고 합니다 ~랍니다
~자고 합니다 ~잡니다
~냐고 합니다 ~ 니다

유 과장 친구 황 부장이 유과장과 이야기합니다.

--유 과장, 회사를 그만둔다지요? --Mr. Yoo, I hear you are resigning.
--네, 다음 주에 그만둡니다. --Yes, I'm leaving next week.

--앞으로의 계획은 있어요? --Do you have future plans?


--친구가 사업을 같이 하잡니다. --A friend of mine is asking me to work
as his partner.
--잘 됐군요. --That's great!
Chapter 50
Taking Advantage of a Situation
It is normal in English to begin a sentence with a phrase such as Since (I/you, etc.) are
(going/doing)...already... or As long as...anyway..., to imply that the conditions are
right for you or the listener to do something that might otherwise have been put off. In
Korean, "action verb stem + (으)ㄴ/ 는 김에" is the equivalent of the English examples
above.

action verb stem + (으)ㄴ / 는 김에

유과장이 부인한테 자기가 사표를 낸 이야기를 합니다.

--나 오늘 회사 사표 냈어. --I tendered my resignation today.


--아니 왜 갑자기요? --Why so suddenly?

--나 회사 관두고 싶어 한 것 당신도 --You knew I wanted to quit my job.


알잖아? 그런데 어제 술먹은 김에 Yesterday, after a few drinks, I gave
민 부장한테 할 말 다했지. Mr. Min a piece of my mind.
--그래서 민 부장하고 싸웠어요? --So you had a fight with Mr. Min?

--그래, 민 부장하고 싸운 김에 회사 --Yeah, since I had the fight with


그만두려고 해. Mr. Min (anyway), I felt like quitting.
--잘 했어요. 이 김에 정은이 아빠하고 --You made the right choice. This is a
같이 사업하면 더 좋을 것 같아요. good opportunity for you to go into
business with Jungeun's dad.
.

Chapter 50
Saying How Things Turned Out
"Verb stem + ~더니" is used to connect to a consequence or result how one recalls
one's own observation of an event, condition, or state. The result can be positive or
negative, expected or unexpected. Frequently, a contrast is implied. For example,
"He studied hard, and passed the examination." "It used to be this way, and now it's
that way." "Your car was red, but now it's black."
최정수 씨가 이경진 씨에게 친구 민윤도 씨에 관해 물어 봅니다.

--민윤도 요새 뭐 해? --What's Min Yoon-do doing these days?


--두 달 전에 사업을 시작하더니 다 --He started a business two months ago.
그만두고 조그만 회사에 Then he quit everything and got a job in
취직했어. a small company.
--그래? 그럼 그 친구 신입사원 --Is that so? How is his life as a new
생활이 어떻대? employee?
--처음엔 재미있다고 하더니 요새는 --He said he enjoyed it at first, but now
직장에 대해서 불만이 많아. he has a lot of complaints about the
workplace.
-더니 is sometimes preceded by 었, when the speaker is the subject of the first
clause, and the verb is an action verb.

µÎ 친구가 각자의 문제를 서로 이야기합니다.

--내가 퇴직을 했더니 우리 --I retired, and since then, my wife has
집사람이 불만이 많아요. been really unhappy.
--아, 그래요? 나도 좀 문제가 --Oh, is that right? I've got a little problem
있어요. 지난 주에 내가 미스터 myself. I fired Mr. Myong last week,
명을 해고했더니 미스 탁이 and then suddenly Miss Tahk submitted
갑자기 사표를 냈군요. a letter of resignation.

verb stem + (었)더니

이경진 씨가 부장에게 회사 정책 (policy) 에 대하여 물어 봅니다.

--부장님, 작년엔 남자사원만 --Sir, you hired only men last year; how
뽑더니 금년엔 왜 여자사원만 come you are hiring only women this year?
뽑습니까? --I hired only men, but the president got
--남자사원만 뽑았더니 사장님이 mad, saying I was discriminating
남녀를 차별한다고 화내셨어. against women.

--작년엔 경력과 학력만 보고 --Last year, he said to hire based only


뽑으라고 하시더니 이젠 안 on experience and education; now is
그런가요? that no longer true?
--나도 그렇게 말했더니 ¾藍막灌Â --I said the same thing, but he said that
특기가 있거나 유능한 젊은이면 from now on I can hire any young
누구나 좋다고 하셨어. people who have a special skill or who
are competent.

최정수 씨가 이경진 씨한테 사표 낸 이야기를 합니다.

--내가 사표를 냈더니 사장님이 --I turned in my resignation, but then


화를 내시면서 그냥 있으라는군. the president got mad and told me to stay.
--아니, 네가 능력이 없다고 화를 --What? He got mad because of your
내시더니 이젠 나가지도 못하게 lack of ability, and now he won't let
해? you leave?

--나도 그렇게 말했더니 노력하면 --I said that too, but he said nothing is
불가능한 것이 없다고 하시더군. impossible if one tries hard.
--나한테는 실력이 없으면 아무리 --He told me that no matter how hard one
노력해도 성공 못한다고 하시더니 tries, one can't succeed if one is
너한테는 다르구나. incompetent; now he tells you something
different.
Chapter 51
Expressing "Have Someone Do Something"

회사에서 파티를 합니다.

--미스터 한, 누가 음료수를 준비해요? --Mr. Han, who'll prepare the drinks?


--미스 정한테 준비하게 하세요. --Let Miss Chung prepare them.

--그럼 음악은요? --Then, how about music?


--음악은 안 선생한테 부탁합시다. --Let's ask Mr. Ahn.

--초대 카드는요? --What about the invitations?


--카드는 미스 리한테 만들게 해요. --We'll have Miss Lee make them.
그럼 다 됐어요. 그렇죠? 피자는 Then everything's settled, isn't it? I'll
제가 사가지고 오면 되니까요. bring pizza.

The sentence pattern ...게 하다 is the equivalent of the English causing someone to
do something, having someone do something, or letting someone do something. The
subject can be a thing as well as a person.

verb stem + 게 하다

Chapter 51
Stating "As Long As..."

한 경제 전문가 (expert) 가 텔레비전에 나와서 한국 경제에 대해서 이야기합니다.

우리 무역이 적자를 기록하는 한 As long as we have a trade deficit,


경제가 좋아질 수 없습니다. our economy cannot improve. As
우리나라 공업 제품의 품질이 long as the qualiity of our
좋아지지 않는 한 무역이 흑자가 manufactured goods doesn't improve,
될 수 없습니다. we cannot have a trade surplus.

"Verb stem + 는 한," mostly used with action verbs, indicates or limits the time during
which an action continues or a condition exists. It can be rendered in English as as
long as..., or as far as....

verb stem + 는 한

Chapter 51
Stating "In Spite Of..."
다음은 신문에 나온 기사입니다.

경기가 계속해서 나빠짐에도 In spite of the economy's continued


불구하고 우리 나라의 수입 decline, our rate of increase in imports
증가율이 미국 등 선진국은 물론 is by far greater than (that of) advanced
대만 싱가포르 태국 등우리의 nations such as the US; greater also
수출 경쟁국보다 훨씬 높은 것으로 than our export competitors, including
나타났다. Taiwan, Singapore, and Thailand.

-에도/(으)ㄴ데도/는데도 불구하고 implies overcoming a limitation or difficulty, and can


be rendered as in spite of..., or despite.... This structure is often found in a written text
or a prepared speech.

noun 에도
verb stem (으)ㄴ/는데도 }불구 하고

• 날씨가 이렇게 나쁜데도 불구하고 Thank you all for coming in spite of
모두 왕림해 주셔서 감사합니다. such a bad weather

Chapter 52
Expressing "Worth" or "Capability"

-(으)ㄹ만하다 is used with any verb to indicate value or worth, as well as the capability
of doing something. The English equivalent is to be well worth (doing) or to be
capable of (doing). The subject or topic of the sentence in this pattern usually takes
the contrast marker, 는/은.

verb stem + (으)ㄹ 만하다

두 사람이 이번에 새로 임영된 외무부 장관에 대해서 이야기합니다.

--이번에 ¿ ズÎ 장관이 된 --What kind of person is Ko Su-yong, the


고수영 씨는 어떤 분입니까? newly appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs?
--그 분 아주 능력이 있는 분이에요. --He's a man of ability. He also
영어도 잘하시지요. 그 분은 정말 speaks English very well. He's really
장관이 될 만한 분이에요. someone capable of being a Minister.
--그런데, 요즈음은 국제적으로 --But, nowadays that's a difficult position,
어려운 문제가 많아서 힘들 because there are so many international
겁니다. problems.
--힘들지만 능력이 있는 사람으로서 --But it's a job worth doing for someone who
한 번 해 볼 만한 일이지요. is capable.

Chapter 52
Expressing Condition Using 거든
The conditional pattern -거든 is similar in meaning to -(으)면. -거든, however, is
mainly used when the subsequent clause is an imperative or propositional clause,
whereas -(으)면 is not limited as such.

대통령 후보자와 지지자가 (supporter) 이야기하고 있습니다.

--대통령선거가 며칠 안 남았군요! --The presidential election is just around


이번에는 꼭 되실 거에요. the corner! This time I'm sure you'll win.
--그저 여러분들만 믿겠습니다. --I'm just counting on all of you.

--대통령이 되시거든 깨끗한 --If you become President, please practice


정치를 해주세요. 그리고 clean politics. And if you move into the
청와대에 들어 가시거든 Blue House, please keep your promises
국민들과의 약속을 지키세요. to the people.

verb stem + 거든

Note:
-거든(요) is also used in casual conversation to provide information that the hearer
lacks, on the basis of which additional remarks are to be made. A sentence with this
ending typically explains something within the context. It is similar to short English
phrases attached to the end of a sentence, such as you know or you see.
• 제가 그 후보자를 좋아하거든요. I like the candidate, so I'm going to vote
그래서 그 후보를 찍을 거에요. for him.
• 내일 아침에 조금 늦게 출근 I'll be late getting into the office tomorrow
하겠어요.투표를 해야 되거든요. morning. I've got to vote, you know.
Chapter 53
Contracted Quotations

There is a contracted form of quoting another person used with great frequency by
native speakers in casual speech. The boxes below provide a side-by-side
comparison of the standard quotational form and the contracted form.

standard quotations contracted quotations


다다 대
verb stem + 라다 해해  verb stem + 래 (해)
자다 재
냐다

• 지지지지 피해피 많다다 해해 많대해.


They say the earthquake caused a lot of damage.

• 김 중중피 저저저 홍홍피 난 곳곳 피가라다 해해 피가래해.


Sgt. Kim told me to go to the flooded area.

• 재해대재재재재재 우우저저 같같 재재 피해피 조중조자다 해해


조중조재해.
The Emergency Management Agency suggested that we examine
property damage with them.

• 제 미미미 친친친같 저미재한 지지같 나나냐다 해해. 나나 해.


My American friends are asking whether Korea has earthquakes.

두 같이 (neighbor) 중사같 홍홍 주주가재 대해재 같이이이이다.

--소소친소소해? 중재지중재 --Heard the latest? They say a flood


큰 홍홍피 났대해. has occurred in the central region
--저한 텔텔텔텔재재 봤소해. 오오 --I saw it on TV, too. A flood warning's
재서재한 홍홍 주주가피 내내소해. been issued today in Seoul, too. So
그래재 저한 재부재 중사 중사친사 they're advising people living near
홍홍재 대텔조래해. the Han river to be prepared.

--소어어 대텔피 조하? --How should we do that?


--우우 아아아재재사 아래아재 중사 --The people in our apartments
중사친주 짐곳 위아재 중사 중사친 suggested moving our things from
아아아지 옮옮 놓재해. the lower apts to those on the higher
floors.

Chapter 53
"Even"
"Verb stem + (아/소)한" means even though. A similar form used with a noun is "noun
+ ( 같)라한." The English equivalent in this case would be even, even though, or at
least and may be used to denote compromise, regarding a choice between options the
speaker ordinarily would not make. For example, "I'm so hungry that I could even eat
your cooking."

noun + (같)라한

두 재재피 홍홍지 피해피 입사 집재 지지 막 돌아돌돌이다.

--소어나! 집집같 엉엉같 됐됐해. --O, my goodness! The house is


같이 소어어 조하 좋지해? a total mess. What are we going
--우우 배피 다고이 라하같라한 to do with this?
빨우 끓끓 먹먹먹다. --First of all, I'm so hungry; let's eat
a quick meal, even some ramen.
--그그 내피 재부재 피재 깨지 --Well, then I'll go into the kitchen
남텔라한 조나 찾아 가하. and try to find even a broken pot.
--난 헌 옷같라한 젖지 않사 옷같 --I'll try to find some dry clothes, even
있나 좀 찾아 가지. some old ones.

The following are more examples of this form.


• 지지 배피 너너 다아재 네피 만만 I'm so hungry that I'll even eat your
음소같라한 먹먹다. cooking.

• 자자자피 다고났지하 자텔자라한 If your car is down, ride a bike over


타다 와해. here (if you have to)

• 네피 오지 못조하 자동같라한 가내. At least send your brother if you


cannot come.

Note:

1. Postpositions such as -재, -재재, -(지)지, -재부, -까지, and others may be inserted
between the noun and -(같)라한.
• 낮재 먹시같 없지먹하 저저재라한 Please set aside some time (meet me)--
먹시 좀 내 주주해. even in the evening--if you don't have
time during the day.
• 저미 음소곳 젓피젓지지 먹이피 If eating Korean food with chopsticks
소어우하 손피젓지지라한 먹먹소해. is difficult, I will eat it even with my
fingers.
• 같이 주주까지 이번같 끝나지 않지하 If you cannot finish the translation this
다음 주주까지라한 끝내 주주해. weekend, please finish it at least by
next weekend.

2. When -(같)라한 is added to a question word or an indefinite noun such as 누친,


언제, 소어, 너무, and 아너, it emphasizes their meaning.
• 심심해 죽먹사죽 재같 있지하 I am bored to death, so please
아너자라한 좀 주주해. give me any book.
• 집재 있지이까 답답해해. 소어라한 It feels so stuffy at home. Let's go
좀 갑먹다. somewhere--anywhere.

• 영영 씨피 재부조사 것같라하 I will do anything for you, Youngae, if


너무같라한 친소 드우먹소해. you ask me a favor.

Chapter 53
Expanding Conjectural Statements
-먹돌이다, -(지)ㄹ 것같다 , and -(지)ㄹ 것 같다 each indicate some degree of
conjecture, speculation, or uncertainty. In addition to these forms, Korean speakers
will commonly use "verb stem + (지)ㄹㄹ죽(해)" in more colloquial speech. The
English equivalents would be most likely or probably.

ㄹㄹ죽(해)
verb stem + (지)ㄹ

홍해피 당저 두 중사같 자고동재 (village supervisor) 대해재 같이이조다 있돌이다.

--같이재 우우 자고동같 홍해 복친 --The village supervisor really worked


조나라다 정주 홍다조수소해. hard this time in the flood recovery
--네, 저주 집재한 와재 집곳 청소조다 efforts.
피친친곳 닦사 이 한와 주수소해. --Yeah, he helped us clean our house
and furniture.
--자고동한 같이 홍홍지 피해피 입소곳 --He probably had losses himself,
ㄹ죽 다다 중사친곳 돕나라다 며며자집 but caught up in helping others, he
집재한 못 피수대해. couldn't go to his own house for
--저저, 재미같 혼자 집곳 청소조다 several days.
있소곳 ㄹ죽해. --My, his wife must have been
cleaning the house by herself!

Chapter 54
Near Misses and Close Calls
In English, adverbs--including nearly, almost, and narrowly--are used in descriptions of
accidents or blunders that one is fortunate enough to avoid at the last moment. In
Korean, a structural pattern, "verb stem + (지)ㄹ 뻔 조다," is used.

과고같 아아재 일소난 일재 대조끓 같이이이이다.

--오오 아아재 중다피 날 뻔 했소. --I nearly had an accident this morning.
--과고동같해? --Who? You, sir?

--그래, 주자고재재 자 주서 자우피 --Yeah, I was driving slowly in the parking


찾지어다, 천천천 피다 있소사죽 lot, trying to find a parking space when
갑자이 소어 바가 같사 끓자피 자 suddenly this idiot of a woman ran out in
앞지지 뛰소 나와재, 그 끓자피 front of my car and I almost hit her. Had I
며 뻔 했소. 천천천 피지 않않지하, not been driving slowly, I could have had
중다피 냈곳 자이. 조끓하 주자주 an accident. If I had been even a little bit
자우피 조나 밖재 없소재 조지만 late, I would have been unable to park,
늦소소한, 주자피 못주 뻔 했지. since there were no more open parking
--큰일 날 뻔 했됐해. spaces.
--You nearly got into big trouble.

(action) verb stem + (지)ㄹ 뻔 조다

Chapter 54
Expanding Cause and Effect Expressions
-이 때때재, -아/소재, and -(지)이까 express cause and effect. "Verb stem + 사 바사재"
or "noun + 바사재" also can be used to express a cause and effect. It is rendered as
because (of), under the influence of, as a result of, on account of, or due to. One can
use this pattern in assigning blame.

중다 낸 운텔자피 경경저저 중사 경위피(situation) 설설이이다.

--중다피 소어어 났돌이까? --How did the accident happen?


--앞 자피 갑자이 재사 바사재 --It occurred because the car in front
났돌이다. of me stopped suddenly.

--왜 자피 갑자이 섰돌이까? --Why did he stop?


--옆 자피 자우곳 넘소 친소 오사 --I think he stopped because the car
바사재 그 자피 우 것 같영해. next to him crossed over the lane.

--아, 옆 자 바사재 앞 자피 --Ah, he stopped suddenly due to


급정자했됐해. the car next to him.
--네, 제피 옆 자피 가다피 앞 자피 --I crashed into him because I was
급정자조사 것곳 못 가사 바사재 watching the car to his side and
그 자와 충돌했돌이다. didn't see him suddenly stop.

verb stem + 사
noun
} 바사재

저미주사: You may have noticed 바사 within this pattern. It is the


Korean equivalent of wind. As a variation, you may read or hear 그
바사재, the English equivalents of which include because of (that) and
due to (that). 바사 suggests that something has occurred due to the
influence or strength of another fact, event, or action.

Chapter 54
Emphasizing Extremes
In English conversations, when stressing the extraordinary qualities or attributes of a
person, an object, a task, or a concept, adverbs such as so, very, extremely,
incredibly, and unbelievably are commonly used. In Korean, this is achieved through
"끓시 + verb stem + 지 않다," which also indicates an extraordinary state or condition.
Even though the form appears to be negative, the meaning is not. Negating the verb
that follows it does indeed emphasize it, since the term 끓시 means average, normal,
or regular.
자자자 중다지 다친 환자저저 그 환자피 찾사 중때방같 묻돌이다.

--좀 소어어이까? 다다다 죽사? --How is your recovery coming along?


--많같 나않소해. 그그지만 병병재 --I'm a lot better. But lying here in this
같그어 누누 있지이까 끓시 답답조지 hospital bed is so stifling.
않아해.

--그그먹먹소해. 그저죽, 중다사 --I can understand. By the way, what


소어어 났소해? caused the accident?
--퇴부 길같소소해. 그날 눈같 끓시 --I was on the way home from work.
많같 오지 않않소해. 그래재 천천천 There was an incredibly heavy
운텔곳 했소해. 그래한 길같 끓시 snowfall, so, I drove slowly. The road
미미미지 않않소해. 교자지재재 was very slippery, nonetheless. I was
좌좌텔조다피 미미그미재 중다피 making a left turn into the turn lane
났소해. when the accident occurred.

끓시 + verb stem + 지 않다

Chapter 55
"Catch" Versus "Be Caught"
다음사 다때재 난 이중입이다.

재서 자재경경재사 같사 집재 The Eastern District Police in Seoul reported


주만 주재피 상대지 지금곳 빼빼다 that Mr. Ji Sookeun (21, occupation: none,
흉이지 찔그 숨지어 저 지홍부 씨 Junggok 4-dong, Kwangjin-gu) was caught
(21. 너무. 광지친 중중4자)피 6일 on the 6th. He killed a housewife who was
부근 슈슈 마마재재 잡잡다다 renting in the same house while he robbed
밝잡다. valuables from her.

In English, you are most familiar with sentences in the active voice, in which the
subject performs the action indicated by the verb and the object is the recipient of the
action. In the passive voice, the object of the verb in an active sentence becomes the
subject of the passive sentence, while the subject of the active sentence becomes the
agent or the doer of the passive sentence.

active voice passive voice


The citizens elected the mayor. The mayor was elected by the citizens.
subject (direct) object subject agent
There are also passive constructions used in a very general sense in which a definite
agent is not mentioned or necessarily known: "Computers are used everyday."
"Coffee is grown in Brazil."

In Korean, the passive voice is not as commonly used as in English, although some
Korean verbs have similar functions as does the passive voice in English. Korean
passive verbs have the infix, -같/천/우/이-, between the verb stem and the ending.
Two frequently used passive verbs are related to the senses, i.e., 가같다, be seen, or
be visible, whose counterpart verb is 가다 , and 친우다, be heard, be audible, the
counterpart of which is 듣다. However, not all active verbs have passive
counterparts.

verb stem + 같/천


천/우
우/이
이 + verb ending

• 경경자피 길곳 막않돌이다. A police car has blocked the road.


(경경자 때때재) 길같 막잡돌이다. The road is blocked (by a police car).

• 경경같 범미곳 잡않돌이다. The policeman caught the suspect.


범미같 (경경저저) 잡잡돌이다. The suspect was caught (by the
policeman).

Some common passive verbs derived from active verbs you have learned are listed
below.

active verbs passive verbs

같 가다 see 가같다 seen/visible


쓰다 use 쓰같다 used
천 잡다 catch 잡천다 caught
막다 block 막천다 blocked
닫다 close 닫천다 closed
우 팔다 sell 팔우다 sold
열다 open 열우다 open
듣다 hear/listen 친우다 heard/audible
흔친다 shake 흔친우다 shaken
이 끊다 cut off 끊이다 cut off

Chapter 55
Expressing Unexpected Outcomes
"Verb stem + (지)이까" expresses the reason for actions and conditions. Another
function of this pattern can be rendered in English as when..., (I found that...).
경희피 저홍저저 소어어재 있소있 일재 대해재 같이이이이다.

--제피 소제 집재 피 가이까 집재 --When I went home last night, I found that


있있 물사친같 다 없소없소해. everything in the house was gone.
--뭐라친해? 물사같 다 --What was that? All your things were
없소없다친해? gone?

--네, 텔텔텔텔, 소아 등 자거재 --Yes, the TV, sofa, and the things in the
있있 물사같 다 가같지 않않소해. living room had disappeared.
--그래재 소어어 했소해? --So, what did you do?

--엄마저저 물소 가이까 엄마피 --When I asked my mom, she told me that


대청소조나라다 자다지 다 옮옮 she moved them into the garage for a
놨다다 그그그아해? 잠먹자집 major cleaning. I was stunned for a while.
아주 놀놀소해. 한도같 친사 줄 thought we'd been robbed.
알다해.
--경희 씨, 저한 잠먹 자집 아주 --I was stunned for a while myself.
놀놀소해.

verb stem + (지)이까

Chapter 56
Citing a Speaker's Request
-아/소 주다/드우다, give, is added after the main verb, when you ask someone to do
something or when you offer your help.

노조주 대대피 좌중주 대대조다 교교곳 이이다.

--해친중요같 너무입이까? --What are your demands?


--먼저 임지곳 15% 미상해 주어먹오. --Please raise wages by 15%.

--좌중 입고한 좀 동생조생이지해. 7% --You have to consider the company's


미상해 주먹돌이다. position. We can raise them by 7%.
--그사 곤곤이이다. --That will be hard to accept.

The following radio news brief about the negotiations above includes various
quotations.

저다한상주 노조노과 좌중노주 Negotiations between Hansin Corporation


교교같 중중중소돌이다. 노조노사 and their union have come to a halt.
15% 임지곳 미상해 달라다 해친 The union had requested a 15% wage hike,
했지만 좌중노사 7%만 미상해 but Hansin offered only a 7% wage increase.
주먹다다 했돌이다. 저다한상 The spokesman for Hansin said that the
좌중노 대대미같 주조이피 좌중피 company has been operating at a deficit
3년년 적자피 내다있다다 했돌이다. for the past three years.

The first underlined part is the union's original request, whereas the second underlined
part is what the company said they would do. Note that 주다 changes to 달라다 in
the first part, where the speaker (union) is making a request for itself. On the other
hand, in the second part, where the speaker is offering a service to someone else,
주다 does not change. Consequently, the polite form, 드우다, which is used when the
speaker politely offers a service to someone else, will not undergo the change.

(verb stem + 아/소


소) 주다 + 다 조다 (verb stem + 아/소) 달라다 조다

The following comparison of direct quotations vs. indirect quotations summarizes the
differences.

direct quotations indirect quotations

"그 재 좀 주주해" 라다 했다. 그 재 좀 달라다 했다.

제피 "조지만 이다어 주어먹오"라다 했돌이다. 제피 조지만 이다어 달라다 했돌이다.

김우동동같 "조지만 이다어 주어먹오"라다 김우동동같 조지만 이다어 달라다 했돌이다.


했돌이다.
김우동동같 미미고저저 그 재 좀
김우동동같 "미미 고, 그 재 좀 저저저 갖다 (자이저저 )갖다 달라다 했돌이다.
주주해"라다 했돌이다.
영미피 철같저저 자이 자동저저 같 재곳 좀 갖다
영미피 철같저저 "제 자동저저 같 재곳 좀 갖다 주라다 했돌이다.
주주해" 라다 했돌이다.
제 친친피 집재 죽어다 주먹다다 했돌이다.
제 친친피 "집재 죽어다 줄어"라다 했돌이다.
김우동동같 미미 고저저 집재 죽어다 드우먹다다
김우동동같 "미미 고, 집재 죽어다 드드어해"라다 했돌이다.
했돌이다.

Chapter 56
나"
An Additional Function of “Noun + (같)나
"Noun + (같)나 " is used for choosing among options.

--같이 주주재 재같나 바다재 --Let's go to the mountains or to


갑먹다. the beach this weekend.
--좋사 동생같재해. --Good idea.
저사 재같나 바다나 다 좋아해. I like both places.

When 아너 (+ noun) and 나 are followed by either a positive or negative predicate,


the clause will mean complete assertion or restricted negation, respectively.

아너 + (noun) + 나 add positive predicate complete assertion


add negative predicate restricted negation

• 같 영영사 연소자입고피같이까 Because this movie is rated PG,


아너나 친소 갈 홍 있돌이다. anyone can enter.

• 끓이사 민시미 출입지지 지번입이다. This is a restricted area to civilians.


아너나 친소 갈 홍 없돌이다. Not just anyone can enter.

noun + (같)나

There are two additional functions of this form.

Chapter 56
A. “...or so”

When a quantity or amount is combined with -(같)나, the form often expresses a
quantity exceeding the speaker's expectations and implies some surprise or
emphasis. English equivalents of this form are ...or so and ...or more.
--오오 먹위재 만 설같나 --They said that 10,000 or so people
참피했대해. participated in the demonstration.
--그저죽, 경경같 천 설같나 --But, would you believe there were
있소대해. 1,000 or more policemen?
More examples are:
• 저사 소제 열 먹시같나 잤소해. Man, I slept over ten hours or so
yesterday.
• 돈곳 백만 병같나 빌어 You are asking me to loan you 1,000,000
달라친해? won?!

When used as part of a question, noun + (같)나 still expresses an emphasis.


--지조철 아파저 지 며며같나 --About how long has it been since the
중소소해? subway strike started?
--벌벌 중사같나 중소소해. --It's already been three days or so.
언제나 아파같 끝날까해? (About) When is it going to end?

--글글해, 누피 알먹소해? --I dunno, who can say?

More examples are:


• 손동같 몇 설같나 오사지 I don't know about how many guests
모모먹소해. are coming.
• 김우동동 딸사 몇 살같나 중소소해? About how old is Mr. Kim's daughter?
• 돈같 얼마나 있소해? (About) How much money do you
have?

Chapter 56
B. "Do you want to go camping or something?"
Sometimes "noun + (같)나" means a selection from among other things, when the
noun does not mean quantity or amount. The English equivalent for this use is ...or
something (like that).
--배피 다고죽 밥같나 먹먹먹다. --I'm hungry. Let's just eat some rice
--밥같 없소해. 오오사 빵같나 or something.
먹먹먹다. --We don't have rice. Today let's eat
bread or something (like that).

More examples are:


• 주주재 등재같나 갈까해? Shall we go mountain climbing or
something this weekend?
• 놀지 주다 재같나 좀 읽소해. Don't play around--read a book or
something like that.

Formation of Verbs

The Korean verb consists of two to four elements. Basically, the stem indicates the meaning, the
honorific infix the register, the tense infix time, and the ending the function of the verb in a sentence.

KoreanVerb = Stem + (Honorific Infix) + (Tense Infix) + Ending


______________________________________________|

Ending = Sentence-Final, Connective, Attributive, or Nominal Ending

Examples with 웃다:

1. Verb Stem + Sentence-Final Ending: 웃 + 습니다 → 웃습니다


웃 + 습니까 → 웃습니까

2. Verb Stem + Connective Ending: 웃 + 으면 → 웃으면


웃 + 어서 → 웃어서

3. Verb Stem + Attributive Ending: 웃 + 는 → 웃는


웃 + 을 → 웃을

4. Verb Stem + Nominal Ending: 웃 + 기 → 웃기


웃 + 음 → 웃음

5. Verb Stem + Honorific Infix + Sentence-Final Ending: 웃 + 으시 + 는군요 → 웃으시는군요


웃 + 으시 + 는데요 → 웃으시는데요

6. Verb Stem + Honorific Infix + Connective Ending: 웃 + 으시 + 는데 → 웃으시는데


웃 + 으시 + 지만 → 웃으시지만

7. Verb Stem + Honorific Infix + Attributive Ending: 웃 + 으시 + 는 → 웃으시는


웃 + 으시 + 은 → 웃으신

8. Verb Stem + Honorific Infix + Nominal Ending: 웃 + 으시 + 기 → 웃으시기


웃 + 으시 + 음 → 웃으심

9. Verb Stem + Tense Infix + Sentence-Final Ending: 웃 + 었 + 어요 → 웃었어요


웃 + 겠 + 어요 → 웃겠어요

10. Verb Stem + Tense Infix + Connective Ending: 웃 + 었 + 으나 → 웃었으나


웃 + 겠 + 지만 → 웃겠지만

11. Verb Stem + Tense Infix + Attributive Ending: 웃 + 었 + 던 → 웃었던

12. VS + Honorific + Tense + Sentence-Final Ending: 웃 + 으시 + 었 + 지요 → 웃으셨지요


웃 + 으시 + 겠 + 지요 → 웃으시겠지요

13. VS + Honorific + Tense + Connective Ending: 웃 + 으시 + 었 + 으니 → 웃으셨 으니


웃 + 으시 + 겠 + 지만 → 웃으시겠 지만

14. VS + Honorific + Tense + Attributive Ending: 웃 + 으시 + 었 + 던 → 웃으셨 던


Vowel Contraction Rule

Rule 1. When the 이다 verb s preceded by a noun/pronoun which ends in a vowel, drop 이.

모자이다 -→ 모자다


저입니다 → 저 ㅂ니다 → 접니다
어디인가 → 어디 ㄴ가 → 어딘가

Rule 2. When an 으-ending is preceded by a verb stem which ends in a vowel, drop 으.

보으면 → 보면
오으니까 → 오니까
주으세요 → 주세요
가은 → 간
하을 → 할

Rule 3. When an 어-ending is preceded by a verb stem which ends in a vowel other than ㅏ or ㅗ,
follow the following rules:

ㅓ+어 → ㅓ (서어요 → 서요; 어 is dropped.)


ㅜ+어 → ㅝ (주어요 → 줘요; ㅜ and 어 are contracted to ㅝ.)*
ㅡ+어 → ㅡ (크어요 → 커요; ㅡ is dropped.)
ㅣ+어 → ㅕ (키어요 → 켜요; ㅣ and 어 are contracted to ㅕ.)*
ㅐ+어 → ㅐ (내어요 → 내요; 어 is dropped.)
ㅔ+어 → ㅔ (세어요 → 세요; 어 is dropped.)*

Rule 4. When an 어-ending is preceded by a verb stem which contains eitherㅏ or ㅗ:

a. Change 어 to 아 when the stem ends in a consonant.

살어요 → 살아요


좋어서 → 좋아서
찾어도 → 찾아도

b. When the stem ends in a vowel, follow the following rules:

ㅏ + 어 → ㅏ (What actually happens is: 가어요 → 가아요 → 가요)


ㅗ + 어 → ㅘ (What actually happens is: 보어요 → 보아요 → 봐요*)

Note: 1. This is a simplified outline of basic rules governing the contraction/combination of vowels. Therefore, there are
some exceptions to the rules given above. Specifically, most irregular verbs and a few regular ones do not follow the above
rules. Thus: 이어요 doesn't contract to 여요 but changes 어 to 에, resulting in 이에요, 살으면 loses 으 and results in 살면
although the stem ends in a consonant, and 되어요/시어요 frequently contracts to 돼요/세요.

2. An 어-ending is any ending beginning with 어, but an infix 었 also behaves like an 어-ending when it comes after a
vowel. An 으-ending is any ending beginning with 으, including 은, 을, and 음.

3. * indicates that the contraction is optional for some verbs such as 주다 and 보다.
16 Korean STOP Sounds

Place of Articulation → Front to Back

Manner of Articulation ↓ Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar

ㅍ ㅌ ㅊ ㅋ
Aspirated

English: English: English: English:


P except P in Sp T except T in St Ch as in China K except K in Sk
words words words

ㅂ ㄷ ㅈ ㄱ
Voiceles
s
When it comes at When it comes at When it comes at When it comes at
the beginning of a the beginning of a the beginning of a the beginning of
Unaspirate word word word a word
d
English: English: English: English:
Between P and B Between T and D Between Ch and J Between K and G

(No exact English (No exact English (No exact English (No exact English
Sto counterpart) counterpart) countepart) counterpart)
p

ㅂ ㄷ ㅈ ㄱ
When it comes When it comes When it comes When it comes
after a voiced after a voiced after a voiced after a voiced
sound sound sound sound
Voiced (nasal/vowel) (nasal/vowel) (nasal/vowel) (nasal/vowel)

English: English: English: English:


B as in Boy D as in Day J as in Joy G as in Good

ㅃ ㄸ ㅉ ㄲ
Tense
Voiceless English: English: English: English:
Unaspirated P as in Speak T as in Stink Voiceless J K as in Skunk

(No exact English


counterpart)

Note: This is a simplified presentation of the basic features of the Korean Stop sounds which most students often
experience difficulty with.
Conjugation of Verbs
“-” indicates a verb stem.
Polite Form Familiar Form
Func- Formal Informal Neutral Formal Informal Neutral
tion
↓ Plain Honor Plain Honorific Plain Honor- Plain Honor- Plain Honor- Plain Honor-
-iific ific ific ific ific

State- -습니다 -으십 -어요 -으세요 -으오 -으시 -는다 -으신다 -어 -으셔 -네 -으시
ment
-읍니다 니다 -으셔요 -소 오 -은다 네
-지요 -으시지요 -지 -으시지
-다 -으시다 -을세
-데요 -으시데요 -읍디 -으십 -데 -으시데
-던데요 -으시던 다 디다 -더라 -으시 -던데 -으시
데요 더라 던데

Ques- -습니까 -으십 -어요 -으세요 -으오 -으시 -는가 -으시 -어 -으셔 -나 -으시
tion
-읍니까 니까 -으셔요 -소 오 는가 나
-나요 -으시나요 -은가 -으신가 -니 -으시니 -으나

-는가요 -으시는 -느냐 -으시 -으니


가요 -냐 느냐
-은가요 -으신가요
-으냐 -으시냐 -지 -으시지
-지요 -으시지요
-더냐 -으시 -던가 -으시
-던가요 -읍디 -으십 던가
-으시던 더냐
까 디까
가요

Request -으십 -어요 -으세요 -으오 -으시 -어라 -어 -으셔 -게 -으시


시오 -으셔요 -소 오 -으라 -지 -으시지 게
-지요 -으시지요 -으시

Propo- -읍시다 -으십 -지요 -으시지요 -자 -지 -으시지 -세


sal
시다
Sugges-
tion or -을까요 -으실까요 -을까 -으실까
Wonder

Excla- -는군요 -으시는 -는군 -으시


mation
군요 는군
-군요 -으시군요 -군 -으시군

Surprise -는데요 -으시는 -는데 -으시


데요 는데
-은데요 -으신데요 -은데 -으신데

Atten- -네요 -으시네요 -네 -으시네


tion

-으네요 -으네

Empha- -거든요 -으시거 -거든 -으시


tic
든요 거든

Note: 1. This table only shows sentence-final verb endings for regular verbs in present tense, assuming the verb stem ends
in a consonant (except -읍니다, -읍니까, and -은다) and does not containㅏ or ㅗ. When the verb stem ends in a vowel
and/or containsㅏor ㅗ, the initial 어 and 으 in the endings may undergo a change following the vowel contraction rule.
2. Choosing the right verb ending from among the many options listed in a given category above depends largely upon
the type of verb such as action, stative, equation, and existence; degree of intimacy between speakers; personal
preference of styles; and intended meaning.
3. This table is for reference purposes only and covers only basic high-frequency sentence-final verb endings.

Paradigm of 웃다
Proper usage of the table Conjugation of Verbs on the facing page is shown below, employing the 웃다 verb as an example.
Polite Form Familiar Form
Func- Formal Informal Neutral Formal Informal Neutral
tion
↓ Plain Honor- Plain Honorific Plain Honor Plain Honor- Plain Honor- Plain Honor-
ific - ific ific ific
ific

State- 웃습니 웃으십 웃어요 웃으세요 웃소 웃으 웃는 웃으신 웃어 웃으셔 웃네 웃으


ment
다 니다 시오 다 다 시네
웃으셔요

웃지요 웃으시지 웃지 웃으시


요 지

웃데요 웃으시데 웃읍 웃으 웃더 웃으시 웃데 웃으시


요 디다 십디 라 더라 데

웃던데 웃으시던 웃던 웃으시
요 데요 데 던데

Ques- 웃습니 웃으십 웃어요 웃으세요 웃소 웃으 웃는 웃으시 웃어 웃으셔 웃나 웃으


tion
까 니까 시오 가 는가 시나
웃으셔요 웃니 웃으시
웃느 웃으시 니
웃나요 웃으시나 냐 느냐 웃으
요 니
웃냐 웃으시
웃는가 웃으시는 냐
요 가요

웃지요 웃으시지 웃지 웃으시


요 지
웃읍 웃으
웃던가 웃으시던 웃더 웃으시 웃던 웃으시
디까 십디
요 가요 냐 더냐 가 던가

Request 웃으십 웃어요 웃으세요 웃소 웃으 웃어 웃어 웃으셔 웃게 웃으


시오 시오 라 시게
웃으셔요
웃으 웃으
웃지요 웃으시지 시소 라 웃지 웃으시
요 지

Propo- 웃읍시 웃으십 웃지요 웃으시지 웃자 웃지 웃으시 웃세


sal
다 시다 요 지

Sugges- 웃을까 웃으실까 웃을 웃으실


tion or
Wonder 요 요 까 까

Excla- 웃는군 웃으시는 웃는 웃으시


mation
요 군요 군 는군

Surp- 웃는데 웃으시는 웃는 웃으시


rise
요 데요 데 는데

Atten-
tion 웃네요 웃으시네 웃네 웃으시
요 네

Empha- 웃거든 웃으시거 웃거 웃으시


tic
요 든요 든 거든

Irregular Verbs

With With With


Type 어-Ending 으-Ending Consonant-Ending Example Exception

1. 하다 Verb 하+어요 → 해요 Same as Same as All the None


•해서 regular verbs regular verbs 하다 Verbs
e.g., 공부하다 •해도
•했다

2. H Verb 빨갛+어요 → 빨개요 빨갛+으면 → 빨가면 Same as 까맣다, 빨갛다 낳다, 넣다


(ㅎ verb) •빨개서 •빨가나 regular verbs 파랗다, 하얗다 놓다, 닿다
•빨개야 •빨가니까 이렇다, 그렇다 쌓다, 좋다
e.g., 빨갛다 •빨갰습니다 •빨간 저렇다, 어떻다

살+으 면 → 살면 Same as regular verbs 갈다


•살면서 except for 느- and 걸다
스-Endings: 놀다
3. L Verb 살+으려고 → 살려고 말다
(ㄹverb) Same as 살+느냐 → 사느냐 None
•살려면 살다
regular verbs
•사느라고 알다
e.g., 살다 All other 으 -Endings: •사는데 울다
살+으니 → 사니 •사는가 팔다
•사세요
•사니까 살+습니다 → 삽니다
•산 •삽니까

게으르다 1. 푸르다 and


기르다 이르다 (to
4. LL Verb 모르+어요 → 몰라요 나르다
(르verb) •몰라서 Same as Same as reach) :
마르다
•몰라도 regular verbs regular verbs •이르러
모르다
e.g., 모르다 •몰랐어 •으르렀다
빠르다
부르다 •푸르러
오르다 •푸르렀다
자르다 2. 따르다:
이르다 (to be •따라(서)
early) •따랐다

5. P/W Verb 춥+어요 → 추워요 춥+으면 → 추우면 굽다 (to bake) 굽다 (to bend)
(ㅂverb) •추워서 •추우니까 가깝다, 가볍다 입다
•추워도 •추우세요 더럽다, 무겁다 잡다
e.g., 춥다 Same as
•추웠다 •추운데 무덥다, 무섭다 좁다
regular verbs
반갑다, 어렵다
아름답다, 춥다
까다롭다, 덥다
쉽다

6. S Verb 낫+어요 → 나아요 낫+으면 → 나으면 Same as 낫다 벗다


(ㅅverb) •나아서 •나으니까 regular verbs 짓다 씻다
•나아도 •나으세요 웃다
e.g., 낫다 •나았다 •나으나
7. T/L Verb 듣+어요 → 들어요 듣+으면 → 들으면 묻다 (to ask) 묻다 (to bury)
(ㄷverb) •들어서 •들으니 Same as 걷다 닫다
•들어도 •들으세요 regular verbs 듣다 믿다
e.g., 듣다 •들었는데 •들은 싣다 받다
알아듣다

Note: This chart provides an overview of the Irregular verb conjugation system, showing representative verbs.

Verb Endings
“-” indicates a verb stem.
Functional Sentence-Final Connective Attributiv Nominal
→ e
Morphological ↓ Polite Familiar Compound Basic Compound
-으네요 -으나 -으려고 하다 -으나 -은 김에 -은 -음
-으십시오 -으냐 -으련다 -으니 -은 다음에 -을 -은것
-으오 -으네 -으면 되다 -으니까 -은 대로
-은가요 -으니 -으면 안되다 -으러 -은 동안
-은데요 -으라 -으면 좋겠다 -으려고 -은 만큼
-을까요 -은가 -은 일이 있다 -으려면 -은 지(가)
-을게요 -은다 -은 적이 있다 -으면 -은 후에
-을테다 -은데 -을 것 같다 -으면서 -을 때(에)
-을텐데요 -을까 -을 것이다 -은데 -을 때 까지
으-Endings -읍니까 -을세 -을 듯 하다 -을수록 -을 동안
-읍니다 -을텐데 -을 만 하다 -을텐데 -을 만큼
-읍디까 -을 모양이다 -을 뿐만
-읍디다 -을 뻔 하다 아니라
-읍시다 -을 뿐이다
-을 생각이다
-을 수 있다
-을 예정이다
-을 줄 모르다
-을 줄 알다
-을 지 모르다
-을 지 알다
-을지도 모르다
-을 터이다
-어요 -어 -어 가다 -어 -었던
-어져요 -어라 -어 달라 -어도 -었었던
-어지다 -어 두다 -어서
-어 드리다 -어야
-어 버리다 -었더라면
-어 보다
어-Endings -어 보이다
-어 있다
-어 주다
-어 하다
-어도 괜찮다
-어도 되다
-어도 좋다
-어야 되다
-어야 하다
-거든요 -거든 -게 되다 -거나 -기 때문에 -는 -기
-군요 -게 -게 하다 -거든 -기 위하여 -던 -는 것
-나요 -군 -고 말다 -게 -기 위해(서)
-네요 -나 -고 싶다 -고 -기 전에
-는데요 -냐 -고 있다 -느라고 -는 길에
-는가요 -네 -기 바라다 -는데 -는 김에
-는군요 -느냐 -기가 쉽다 -다 -는 데(에)
Consonant- -던가요 -는가 -기가 좋다 -다가 -는 대로
Endings -던데요 -는군 -기로 하다 -더니 -는 동안
-데요 -는다 -는 편이다 -더라도 -는 만큼
-소 -는데 -도록 하다 -던지 -는 바람에
-습니까 -니 -지 마라 -도록 -는 한
-습니다 -다 -지 마십시다 -든지
-습디까 -더냐 -지 못하다 -자
-습디다 -더라 -지 않다 -자마자
-지요 -던가 -지만
-던데
-데
-세
-자
-지

Note: 1. This table covers only the high-frequency verb endings.


2. All the endings given here are for the stems that end in a consonant without eitherㅏ or ㅗ.
3. Most of the endings can be preceded by one or more infixes: 으시, 었, and 겠.
4. Some verb stems take 게 or 이 endings to form an adverb with or without a slight modification of the stem.

English Index

page chapter
About to ......................................................................................82 26
According to .....................................................................131, 136 45, 48
Acknowledgment of Facts .........................................................133 47
Action at a Location ....................................................................12 4
Action in Progress .......................................................................58 18
Action That Immediately Follows Another, Expressing an ........122 41
Actions as Time References, Using ............................................91 30
Adverbs, Forming .................................................................... 101 34
After (Doing Something) ...........................................................101 9
Also..............................................................................................30 9
Amounts ......................................................................................74 23
And .............................................................................................22 7
Anticipated Actions .....................................................................46 15
Anyone .............................................................................108, 126 37, 44
Anything ....................................................................................108 37
As .............................................................................................136 48
As Long As ...............................................................................146 51
Asking the Names of Objects .....................................................54 17
Attributive Verb Forms ........................46, 53, 60, 94, 97, 114, 125 15, 17, 19, 31,
32, 39, 43
Before (Doing Something) ..........................................................98 33

Capability, Expressing ..............................................................147 52


Catch Versus Be Caught ..........................................................154 55
Cause and Effect Expressions ..................................................153 54
Cause, Expressing ............................................................140, 153 49, 54
Change of Condition, Expressing a ............................................99 33
page chapter
Change of State, Expressing a ...................................................99 33
Choosing Among Options ...........................................................66 21
Choosing Between Two Options .................................................24 7
Citing a Speaker's Request ......................................................156 56
Clarifying ...................................................................................134 47
Comparisons ........................................................................55, 99 18, 33
Condition That Was the Case in the Past But No Longer So.....124 7
Condition Using 거든, Expressing .............................................148 52
Conditional Actions .............................................................63, 104 20, 35
Conditions as Time References, Using........................................91 30
Conjectural Statements ............................................................151 53
Connecting Two Contradictory Clauses...............................76, 138 24, 48
Consonant ㅎ...............................................................................44 14
Consonant Shifting .....................................................................43 14
Continuous Situation, Describing a..............................................80 25
Continuous State, Describing a ...................................................80 5
Contracted Quotations ..............................................................149 53
Contrast ......................................................................................26 8
Counting Objects Using "Counters" ......................................48, 49 25
Decisions, Expressing One's Decisions.....................................133 46
Denying Permission ....................................................................84 27
Describing People .................................................................13, 31 4, 10
Describing Things ................................................................ 13, 31 4, 10
Desires, Expressing ....................................................................95 32
Destination ..................................................................................33 11
Difference, Expressing ............................................................... 94 31
Direction ..................................................................................... 33 11
Do you want to go camping or something?................................159 56
Doing Things Together (with) .................................................... 23 7

Eliciting Recommendations: "Shall We...?".................................40 14


Emotion of a Third Person, Expressing ...................................... 79 25
Emphasis with Double Negation ...............................................141 49
Emphasizing Extremes ..............................................................153 54
Even ......................................................................................... 150 53
Even Though ............................................................................105 35
Event That Was the Case in the Past But No Longer So...........124 42
Experience, Expressing ..............................................................51 16
Experimentation, Expressing ......................................................51 16

Familiar Forms of Address ..................................................87, 111 28, 38


Finishing Up an Action...............................................................123 41
Frequencies ................................................................................74 23
From ...........................................................................................11 4

Gerunds, Forming ...................................................................... 43 14


Givers of Actions, Identifying .......................................................35 12
page chapter

Have Someone Do Something .................................................146 51


Hearing and Being Heard ...........................................................77 24
Forming Honorifics Using Specific Words .....................................6 3
Forming Honorifics with an Honorific Infix .....................................7 3

Identity ..........................................................................................8 3
Imperative Forms ..........................................................................3 2
In Order to .................................................................................141 49
In Spite Of .................................................................................147 51
Inability, Expressing.....................................................................83 26
Inclination, Expressing ..............................................................132 46
Indirect Quotations............................................................ 135, 143 47, 50
Intentions ......................................................... 25, 40, 72, 93, 113 8, 13, 23,
31, 38
It Turns Out............................................................................... 137 48

Knowledge of How to Do Something, Expressing ..................... 95 32


Limited Number of Items, Expressing a ..................................... 86 28
Linking Nouns to Express and ................................................... 22 6
Linking Two Independent Clauses ............................................112 38
Making Decisions ....................................................................... 93 30
Markers 이 and 가 .........................................................................4 2
Means of Doing Things ...............................................................39 13
Merely ...................................................................................... 117 40
Movements with Destinations .................................................... 51 16

Near Misses and Close Calls.................................................... 152 54


Negation ........................................................................ 17, 21, 50 5, 6, 16
No One .................................................................................... 126 44
None, Expressing ...................................................................... 65 21
Nothing, Expressing .................................................................. 65 21

Object of a Verb ......................................................................... 17 5


Obligation, Expressing ............................................................... 61 19
Offering Assistance..................................................................... 37 12
Offering Services ....................................................................... 37 12
On the Way to .......................................................................... 116 39
Only .......................................................................................... 42 14
Only One, Expressing ................................................................ 86 28
or so ..........................................................................................158 56
Passage of Time, Expressing the ............................................ 130 45
Past Experience, Indicating ..................................................... 117 40
Peculiar Case of ㄹ ..................................................................... 45 14
Plan to ....................................................................................... 82 26
Planned Actions ....................................................................... 124 42
Pointing Out Objects and Persons ............................................. 10 4
page chapter
Possession .................................................................................. 5 3
Possessive Marker 의 ................................................................ 31 10
Possibility, Expressing .............................................................. 54 17
Postposition 에 ............................................................................ 4 2
Procedure, Expressing a ........................................................ 106 36
Pronunciation of 같이 ................................................................. 45 14
Pronunciation vs. Written Hangul .............................................. 43 14
Purpose of Coming and Going, Expressing the ......................... 64 20
Purpose, Expressing ......................................................... 75, 106 23, 36

Question 1, Question 2? ............................................................ 24 7


Questions and Answers, Forming ...................................... 1, 9, 14 1, 3, 4
Quoting Questions ................................................................... 120 41
Quoting Requests ................................................................... 121 41
Quoting Suggestions ............................................................... 122 41

Range of Space, Expressing a ................................................. 20 6


Range of time, Expressing a ..................................................... 20 6
Reasons for, Expressing ............................................. 68, 81, 140 22, 26,
49
Receivers of Actions, Identifying ................................................ 35 12
Recommending Against ............................................................ 84 27
Rephrasing .............................................................................. 134 47
Reported Speech ............................................................ 118, 120 40, 41
Requesting Assistance ............................................................. 37 12
Requesting Not to Do Something ............................................. 85 28
Requesting Services ................................................................. 37 12
Requests, Making ...................................................................... 18 5
Respect, Expressing .................................................................... 6 3
Responding to Negative Questions ........................................... 89 29
Role, Stating One's .................................................................... 34 11

Sameness, Expressing ............................................................. 94 31


Saying How Things Turned Out ............................................... 144 50
Scheduled Actions ................................................................... 124 42
Seeing and Being Seen ............................................................ 77 24
Seeking Agreement .................................................................. 59 18
Sentence Structures, Overview of ........................................... 127 44
Sequence of Actions, Expressing a .......................................... 47 25
Series of Actions or Qualities, Expressing a ............................. 36 12
Similarity, Expressing ............................................................... 94 31
Simultaneous Actions, Expressing ............................................ 88 29
So That .................................................................................... 141 49
Specific Point in Time, Identifying a ........................................... 19 6
Speculation .................................................................. 70, 93, 125 22, 31,
43
Stating the Names of Objects .................................................... 94 31
page chapter
Status, Stating One's ................................................................. 34 11
Strategies, Expressing One's .................................................. 133 46
Strong Feelings, Expressing ...................................................... 79 25
Substitution, Indicating ............................................................ 115 39
Suggestions, Making ................................................................. 38 13
Superlatives ............................................................................... 57 18
Surprise, Expressing .................................................................. 84 27
Switching Gears ...................................................................... 107 36

Taking Advantage of a Situation .............................................. 143 50


Talking About Past Events ......................................................... 28 9
Telling "What" is "Where" ............................................................ 3 2
Tendency, Expressing ............................................................ 132 46
Time, Expressing ................................................................ 19, 20 6
To .............................................................................................. 11 4
Together (with) ......................................................................... 22 7
Too ........................................................................................... 30 9
Two or More Options, Illustrating ............................................ 135 47

Uncertainty, Expressing ............................................................. 71 22


Underlying Justification, Expressing an ................................... 132 46
Underlying Purpose, Expressing an ....................................... 132 46
Unexpected Outcomes, Expressing ......................................... 156 55
Until ................................................................................. 141, 142 49

Verb Stems Ending in ㄷ ..................................................................... 96 32


Verb Stems Ending in ㄹ ........................................................... 25 7
Verb Stems Ending in ㅂ ...................................................................... 29 9
Verb Stems Ending in ㅅ ................................................................................. 107 36
Verb Stems Ending in ㅎ ......................................................... 103 34
Verb Stems Ending in 르 .................................................................... 91 30
Verbs ......................................................................................1, 22 1, 6
IVerbs, Irregular, Summary of................................................... 110 37

Wanting, Expressing ..................................................................34 11


Wish of a Third Person, Expressing ........................................... 79 25
Wishing, Expressing .....................................................34, 73, 95 11, 23,
32
Word Order, A Note on ............................................................... 5 2
Worth, Expressing ................................................................... 147 52

Korean Index
1. “-” indicates a verb stem.

2. “~” indicates a noun.

3. When a verb stem ends in a vowel, drop the initial 어 and 으 in


the ending.

4. When a verb stem contains ㅏ or ㅗ, change the initial 어 in the


ending to 아.

page chapter
- 거든 .....................................................................................148 52
- 고 ...................................................................................... 37 12
- 고 있는 .............................................................................. 97 32
- 고 있다 .............................................................................. 58 18
- 고 있던 ..............................................................................125 43
- 게 .......................................................................................102 34
- 게 되다 ...............................................................................138 48
- 게 하다 ...............................................................................146 51
- 겠습니까 ........................................................................ 26, 70 8, 22
- 겠습니다 ........................................................................ 26, 70 8, 22
- 겠어요 .......................................................................... 26, 70 8, 22
- 군요 ..................................................................................... 85 28
- 기 ........................................................................................ 43 14
- 기 때문에 ............................................................................. 69 22
- 기 바라다 ............................................................................ 73 23
- 기 위하여 ........................................................................... 132 46
- 기 위해 .............................................................................. 132 46
- 기 위해서 ........................................................................... 132 46
- 기 전에 ............................................................................... 99 33
- 기다 ................................................................................... 155 55
- 기로 결심하다 .................................................................... 133 46
- 기로 결정하다 .................................................................... 133 46
- 기로 마음 먹다 ................................................................... 133 46
- 기로 작정하다 .................................................................... 133 46
- 기로 하다 ..................................................................... 93, 133 30, 46

- 냐고 하다 ........................................................................... 120 41
- 냐는 말(씀)이다 ................................................................. 135 47
- 느냐고 하다 ....................................................................... 120 41
- 느냐는 말(씀)이다 ............................................................... 135 47
- 느라고 ............................................................................... 140 49
- 는 ........................................................................................ 60 19
page chapter
- 는 것 .................................................................................... 94 31
- 는 것 같다 .......................................................................... 125 43
- 는 길에 .............................................................................. 116 39
- 는 김에 .............................................................................. 144 50
- 는 대로 .............................................................................. 136 48
- 는 데에 .............................................................................. 106 36
- 는 만큼 ................................................................................ 99 33
- 는 바람에 ........................................................................... 153 54
- 는 일이 없다 ...................................................................... 117 40
- 는 일이 있다 ...................................................................... 117 40
- 는 줄 모르다 ....................................................................... 134 47
- 는 줄 알다 .......................................................................... 134 47
- 는 지 모르다 ...................................................................... 114 39
- 는 지 알다 .......................................................................... 114 39
- 는 편이다 ........................................................................... 132 46
- 는 한 ...................................................................................146 51
- 는군요 ................................................................................. 85 28
- 는다고 하다 ....................................................................... 119 40
- 는다는 말(씀)이다 .............................................................. 135 47
- 는데 ................................................................................... 112 38
- 는데도 불구하고 ................................................................ 147 51
- 는데요 .................................................................................. 85 28

- 다 ...................................................................................... 107 36
- 다가 .................................................................................. 107 36
- 다고 하다 ........................................................................... 119 40
- 다는 말(씀)이다 ................................................................. 135 47
- 더니 ................................................................................... 145 50
- 던 ................................................................................ 97, 125 32, 43
- 던 것 같다 .......................................................................... 125 43
- 도록 ................................................................................. 142 49
- 든지 ................................................................................... 135 4

- 라는 말(씀)이다 ................................................................. 135 47


- 리다 .................................................................................... 155 55

- 어 가다 ................................................................................ 52 148
- 어 다니다 ............................................................................. 52 148
- 어 달라고 하다 ................................................................... 157 56
- 어 드리다 ............................................................................. 37 12
- 어 버리다 ........................................................................... 123 41
- 어 보다 .............................................................................. 51 16
- 어 오다 .............................................................................. 52 16
- 어 주다 ........................................................................ 37, 157 12, 56
- 어 주라고 하다.................................................................... 157 56
- 어 죽겠다 ............................................................................. 79 25
- 어도 ................................................................................... 105 35
page chapter
- 어도 괜찮다 ......................................................................... 72 23
- 어도 되다 ............................................................................. 72 23
- 어도 좋다 ............................................................................. 72 23
- 어서 ................................................................... 37, 48, 68, 69 12, 25, 22
- 어서 죽겠다 ......................................................................... 79 25
- 어야 되다 ............................................................................. 62 19
- 어야 하다 ............................................................................. 62 19
- 어요 ..................................................................................... 15 4
- 어지다 ............................................................................... 100 33
- 어하다 ................................................................................. 80 25
- 었는지 모르다 .............................................................114, 115 39
- 었는지 알다 ................................................................ 114, 115 39
- 었더니 ................................................................................ 145 50
- 었던 ..................................................................................... 97 32
- 었던 것 같다 ...................................................................... 125 43
- 었던 편이다 ....................................................................... 132 46
- 었습니까 .............................................................................. 28 9
- 었습니다 .............................................................................. 28 9
- 었어요 ................................................................................. 28 9
- 었었다 ............................................................................... 124 7
- 으나 ................................................................................... 139 48
- 으냐고 하다 ....................................................................... 120 41
- 으냐는 말(씀)이다 .............................................................. 135 47
- 으니까 ......................................................................... 82, 156 26, 55
- 으라고 하다 ....................................................................... 121 41
- 으라는 말(씀)이다 .............................................................. 135 47
- 으러 가다 ............................................................................. 64 20
- 으러 다니다 ......................................................................... 64 20
- 으러 오다 .............................................................................. 64 20
- 으려고 ................................................................................. 76 24
- 으려고 하다 ......................................................................... 83 26
- 으려면 ............................................................................... 104 35
- 으면 ..................................................................................... 63 20
- 으면 안 되다 ........................................................................ 84 27
- 으면 좋겠다 ......................................................................... 95 32
- 으면서 ................................................................................. 89 29
- 으세요 ................................................................................. 18 5
- 으시 ....................................................................................... 7 3
- 으십시다 .............................................................................. 38 13
- 으십시오 ............................................................................. 18 5
- 은 .................................................................................. 13, 53 4, 17
- 은 것 .................................................................................... 94 31
- 은 것 같다 .......................................................................... 125 43
- 은 김에 .............................................................................. 144 50
- 은 대로 .............................................................................. 136 48
- 은 만큼 ................................................................................ 99 33
- 은 일이 없다 ...................................................................... 117 40
page chapter
- 은 일이 있다 ...................................................................... 117 40
- 은 적이 없다 ...................................................................... 117 40
- 은 적이 있다 ...................................................................... 117 40
- 은 줄 모르다 ...................................................................... 134 47
- 은 줄 알다 ........................................................................... 134 47
- 은 지 .................................................................................. 130 45
- 은 지가 .............................................................................. 130 45
- 은 편이다 ........................................................................... 132 46
- 은 후에 .............................................................................. 101 34
- 은다고 하다 ....................................................................... 119 40
- 은다는 말(씀)이다 .............................................................. 135 47
- 은데 ................................................................................... 112 38
- 은데도 불구하고 ................................................................ 147 51
- 은데요 ................................................................................. 85 28
- 은지 모르다 ....................................................................... 115 39
- 은지 알다 ........................................................................... 115 39
- 을 ........................................................................................ 47 25
- 을 것 .................................................................................... 94 31
- 을 것 같다 .......................................................................... 125 43
- 을 것이다 ............................................................................. 93 31
- 을 대로 .............................................................................. 136 48
- 을 때 .................................................................................... 91 30
- 을 만큼 ................................................................................ 99 33
- 을 만하다 ........................................................................... 147 52
- 을 뻔 하다 .......................................................................... 152 54
- 을 ~ 뿐이다 ........................................................................ 118 40
- 을 뿐이다 ........................................................................... 118 40
- 을 생각이다 ....................................................................... 124 42
- 을 수 있다 ............................................................................ 54 17
- 을 예정이다 ....................................................................... 124 42
- 을 줄 모르다 ................................................................ 95, 134 32, 47
- 을 줄 알다 .................................................................... 95, 134 32, 47
- 을 지 모르다 .............................................................. 114, 115 39
- 을 지 알다 .................................................................. 114, 115 39
- 을까요 ........................................................................... 42, 71 14, 22
- 을까하다 ............................................................................ 113 38
- 을게요 ................................................................................. 73 23
- 을텐데 ............................................................................... 151 53
- 읍시다 ................................................................................. 38 13
- 이다 .................................................................................... 155 55
- 자고 하다 ........................................................................... 122 41
- 자는 말(씀)이다 ................................................................. 135 47
- 자마자 ............................................................................... 122 41
- 지 말다 ................................................................................ 86 28
- 지 못하다 ............................................................................. 83 26
- 지 않다 ................................................................................ 50 16
- 지만 ..................................................................................... 77 24
page chapter
- 지요 ..................................................................................... 40 13

- 히다 ................................................................................... 155 55

*****

~가 ........................................................................................... 4 2
~가 아니다 ............................................................................. 17 5
~까지 ..................................................................................... 20 6
~과 ......................................................................................... 23 7

~나 ................................................................................. 66, 158 21, 56


~는 ......................................................................................... 27 8

~대신에 ............................................................................... 116 39


~든지 ................................................................................... 135 47

~라는 말(씀)이다 ................................................................. 135 47


~랑 ........................................................................................ 23 7
~로 ............................................................................. 33, 34, 39 11, 13
~로서 ..................................................................................... 34 11
~를 ......................................................................................... 18 5
~를 ~라고 하다 ...................................................................... 55 18
~를 ~이라고 하다 ................................................................... 55 18
~를 위하여 ........................................................................... 132 46
~를 위해 .............................................................................. 132 46
~를 위해서 ........................................................................... 132 46

~마다 ..................................................................................... 74 23
~만 ......................................................................................... 42 14
~만큼 ..................................................................................... 99 33

~바람에 ............................................................................... 153 54


~밖에 ..................................................................................... 86 28
~부터 ..................................................................................... 20 6

~씩 ......................................................................................... 74 23

~에 ............................................................................... 4, 12, 19 2, 4, 6
~에 가다 ................................................................................ 12 4
~에 따르면 ........................................................................... 131 45
~에 없다 ................................................................................ 12 4
~에 오다 ............................................................................... 12 4
~에 의하면 ........................................................................... 151 53
~에 있다 ................................................................................ 12 4
~에도 불구하고 .................................................................... 147 147
~에서 .............................................................................. 12, 20 4, 6
page chapter
~에서 가다 ............................................................................. 12 4
~에서 오다 ............................................................................. 12 4
~와 ......................................................................................... 23 7
~으로 ......................................................................... 33, 34, 39 11, 13
~으로서 ................................................................................ 34 11
~은 ......................................................................................... 27 8
~을 ......................................................................................... 18 5
~을 ~라고 하다 ...................................................................... 55 18
~을 ~이라고 하다 ................................................................... 55 18
~을 위하여 ........................................................................... 132 46
~을 위해 .............................................................................. 132 46
~을 위해서 ........................................................................... 132 46
~의 ......................................................................................... 31 10
~이 ........................................................................................... 4 2
~이 아니다 ............................................................................. 17 5
~이나 ............................................................................. 66, 158 21, 56
~이든지 ............................................................................... 135 47
~이라는 말(씀)이다 .............................................................. 135 47
~이라도 ............................................................................... 150 53
~이랑 ..................................................................................... 23 7

~하고 ..................................................................................... 23 7

*****

같이 ....................................................................................... 23 7
그 ~ ....................................................................................... 10 4
누구나 ................................................................................. 110 37
누구든지 .............................................................................. 110 3
되다 ....................................................................................... 67 21
못 - ....................................................................................... 83 26
무엇이나 .............................................................................. 110 37
무엇이든지 .......................................................................... 110 37
아무 ~나 .............................................................................. 109 37
아무 ~도 ................................................................................ 65 21
아무 ~든지 ........................................................................... 109 37
아무 ~이나 ........................................................................... 109 37
아무 ~이든지 ....................................................................... 109 37
아무나 ................................................................................. 109 37
아무도 .................................................................................... 65 21
아무든지 .............................................................................. 109 37
어디나 ................................................................................. 110 37
어디든지 .............................................................................. 110 37
언제나 ................................................................................. 110 37
언제든지 .............................................................................. 110 37
여간 -지 않다 ....................................................................... 154 55
이 ~ ....................................................................................... 10 4
page chapter
저 ~ ....................................................................................... 10 4
하나도 ................................................................................... 86 28
함께 ....................................................................................... 23 7