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7912 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No.

31 / Wednesday, February 16, 2005 / Proposed Rules

approval of a modified method using dangers regarding the use of diethyl DATES: Comments, identified by docket
the alternative kit. ether; minor changes to the equations identification (ID) number OPP–2004–
for activity, detection limit, and 0413, must be received on or before
B. Revised Methods
uncertainty made as a result of public April 18, 2005.
In the April 6, 2004, proposal, EPA comment; minor changes to the QC ADDRESSES: Submit your comments,
proposed changes to approved section of the method; the addition of a identified by docket ID number OPP–
analytical methods for use in Clean description of ‘‘mixed wastes’’ (i.e., 2004–0413, by one of the following
Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act waste that contains both hazardous methods:
programs. The proposed changes waste and radioactive waste); and the • Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://
included methods that employ new addition of a reference to ASTM added www.regulations.gov/. Follow the on-
technologies and updated versions of to describe Type 2 Reagent Water. line instructions for submitting
previously approved methods. Among In the April 6, 2004 proposal, EPA comments.
these changes, EPA proposed to approve concluded that the proposed rule would • Agency Website: http://
a number of ASTM International not have a significant economic impact www.epa.gov/edocket/. EDOCKET,
methods, including ASTM Method on a substantial number of small entities EPA’s electronic public docket and
D6888–03 for determining available (69 FR 18188). Adoption of the comment system, is EPA’s preferred
cyanide in wastewater and drinking refinement to the three methods for method for receiving comments. Follow
water, ASTM Method D5673–02 for which EPA is requesting comment today the on-line instructions for submitting
determining various metals in would not change the Agency’s decision
wastewater, and ASTM Method D4658– comments.
to certify the proposal under the • E-mail: Comments may be sent by
92 for determining sulfide in Regulatory Flexibility Act. In addition,
wastewater. Since publication of the e-mail to opp-docket@epa.gov,
as explained above, Methods D6888–04, Attention: Docket ID Number OPP–
proposal, EPA has received revised D5673–03 and D4658–03, like the
versions of these three methods and has 2004–0413.
earlier proposed versions of these • Mail: Public Information and
added them to the docket for public methods, represent methods from
comment: (1) D6888–04 Standard Test Records Integrity Branch (PIRIB)
voluntary consensus standards bodies. (7502C), Office of Pesticide Programs
Method for Available Cyanide with Section 12(d) of the National
Ligand Displacement and Flow Injection (OPP), Environmental Protection
Technology Transfer and Advancement Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW.,
Analysis (FIA) Utilizing Gas Diffusion Act of 1995 directs EPA to use voluntary
Separation and Amperometric Detection Washington, DC 20460–0001, Attention:
standards in its regulatory activities as Docket ID Number OPP–2004–0413.
(an update of proposed version: D6888–
discussed in more detail in the proposal • Hand delivery: Public Information
03); (2) D5673–03 Standard Test Method
at 69 FR 18189–18190. and Records Integrity Branch (PIRIB),
for Elements in Water by Inductively
Coupled Plasma—Mass Spectrometry Dated: February 9, 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP),
(an update of proposed version: D5673– Benjamin H. Grumbles, Environmental Protection Agency, Rm.
02); and (3) D4658–03 Standard Test Assistant Administrator, Office of Water. 119, Crystal Mall #2, 1801 S. Bell St.,
Method for Sulfide Ion in Water (and [FR Doc. 05–2988 Filed 2–15–05; 8:45 am]
Arlington, VA, Attention: Docket ID
update of proposed version: D4658– Number OPP–2004–0413. Such
BILLING CODE 6560–50–P
92(1996)). Method D6888–04 contains a deliveries are only accepted during the
new on-line sulfide removal procedure, Docket’s normal hours of operation, and
and Methods D5673–03 and D4658–03 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION special arrangements should be made
have added standardized quality control AGENCY for deliveries of boxed information.
requirements and criteria. The methods Instructions: Direct your comments to
added to the Docket represent 40 CFR Part 180 docket ID number OPP–2004–0413.
refinements to the proposed versions, EPA’s policy is that all comments
[OPP–2004–0413; FRL–7691–9] received will be included in the public
and are not significant variations of
those versions. EPA may promulgate docket without change and may be
Lignosulfonates; Exemptions from the
some or all of these revised versions in made available online at http://
Requirement of a Tolerance
a final rule, and requests comment on www.epa.gov/edocket/, including any
each. These methods are included in the AGENCY: Environmental Protection personal information provided, unless
docket at OW–2003–0070–0348, 0349, Agency (EPA). the comment includes information
0350), respectively, and may be ordered ACTION: Proposed rule. claimed to be Confidential Business
from ASTM International, 100 Barr Information (CBI) or other information
Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West SUMMARY: The Agency is proposing to whose disclosure is restricted by statute.
Conshohocken, PA 19428–2959, United establish 44 exemptions from the Do not submit information that you
States, or at http://www.astm.org. requirement of a tolerance for residues consider to be CBI or otherwise
In the April 6, 2004 proposal, EPA of various lignosulfonate chemicals in protected through EDOCKET,
proposed a method for the measurement or on raw agricultural commodities regulations.gov, or e-mail. The EPA
of Radium-226 and Radium-228 by when used as inert ingredients in EDOCKET and the regulations.gov
Gamma Spectroscopy in drinking water. pesticide formulations applied to websites are ‘‘anonymous access’’
This method has been modified in growing crops or to raw agricultural systems, which means EPA will not
several ways and EPA seeks comment commodities after harvest, or to animals know your identity or contact
on these modifications. The changes to under the Federal Food, Drug, and information unless you provide it in the
the method include the following: Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended by body of your comment. If you send an
correction of minor typographical the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 e-mail comment directly to EPA without
errors, minor editorial changes such as (FQPA). This regulation eliminates the going through EDOCKET or
the addition of chemical abstract need to establish a maximum regulations.gov, your e-mail address
numbers for Radium-226 and Radium- permissible level for residues of these will be automatically captured and
228; the addition of a description of the lignosulfonate chemicals. included as part of the comment that is

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Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 31 / Wednesday, February 16, 2005 / Proposed Rules 7913

placed in the public docket and made affected by this action. Other types of your estimate in sufficient detail to
available on the Internet. If you submit entities not listed in this unit could also allow for it to be reproduced.
an electronic comment, EPA be affected. The North American vi. Provide specific examples to
recommends that you include your Industrial Classification System illustrate your concerns, and suggest
name and other contact information in (NAICS) codes have been provided to alternatives.
the body of your comment and with any assist you and others in determining vii. Explain your views as clearly as
disk or CD ROM you submit. If EPA whether this action might apply to possible, avoiding the use of profanity
cannot read your comment due to certain entities. If you have any or personal threats.
technical difficulties and cannot contact questions regarding the applicability of viii. Make sure to submit your
you for clarification, EPA may not be this action to a particular entity, consult comments by the comment period
able to consider your comment. the person listed under FOR FURTHER deadline identified.
Electronic files should avoid the use of INFORMATION CONTACT.
II. Background
special characters, any form of
B. How Can I Access Electronic Copies A. What Action is the Agency Taking?
encryption, and be free of any defects or
of this Document and Other Related
viruses. For additional information The Agency is proposing to establish
Information?
about EPA’s public docket visit 44 tolerance exemptions for various
EDOCKET on-line or see the Federal In addition to using EDOCKET lignosulfonate chemicals. Currently,
Register of May 31, 2002 (67 FR 38102) (http://www.epa.gov/edocket/), you may there are seven tolerance exemptions for
(FRL–7181–7). access this Federal Register document lignosulfonate chemicals. In 40 CFR
Docket: All documents in the docket electronically through the EPA Internet 180.910 and 180.930, the exemption
are listed in the EDOCKET index at under the ‘‘Federal Register’’ listings at reads: Lignosulfonate, ammonium,
http://www.epa.gov/edocket/. Although http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/. A calcium, magnesium, potassium,
listed in the index, some information is frequently updated electronic version of sodium, and zinc salts. The Agency
not publicly available, i.e., CBI or other 40 CFR part 180 is available on E-CFR intends to remove this single
information whose disclosure is Beta Site Two at http:// exemption, and split the exemption into
restricted by statute. Certain other www.gpoaccess.gov/ecfr/. separate chemical entries. There are also
material, such as copyrighted material, C. What Should I Consider as I Prepare in 40 CFR 180.910 and 930, exemptions
is not placed on the Internet and will be My Comments for EPA? for oxidized pine lignin, sodium salt
publicly available only in hard copy with a limitation of 2% in the
form. Publicly available docket 1. Submitting CBI. Do not submit this
information to EPA through EDOCKET, formulation. As part of the proposed
materials are available either actions, the limitation will be removed.
electronically in EDOCKET or in hard regulations.gov, or e-mail. Clearly mark
the part or all of the information that The exemptions for pine lignin in 40
copy at the Public Information and CFR 180.910 and 180.930 will be
Records Integrity Branch (PIRIB), Rm. you claim to be CBI. For CBI
information in a disk or CD ROM that revised to include the Chemical
119, Crystal Mall #2, 1801 S. Bell St., Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS
Arlington, VA. This Docket Facility is you mail to EPA, mark the outside of the
disk or CD ROM as CBI and then No.) and a different naming convention.
open from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday In 40 CFR 180.910 the exemption for
through Friday, excluding legal identify electronically within the disk or
CD ROM the specific information that is ethoxylated lignosulfonic acid, sodium
holidays. The Docket telephone number salt will be revised in a similar manner.
is (703) 305–5805. claimed as CBI. In addition to one
complete version of the comment that In part, this action is based on two
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: pesticide petitions (PP 6E4673 and
Princess Campbell, Registration includes information claimed as CBI, a
copy of the comment that does not 6E4674) from LignoTech USA Inc., 100
Division (7505C), Office of Pesticide Hwy. 51 South, Rothschild, WI 54474.
Programs, Environmental Protection contain the information claimed as CBI
must be submitted for inclusion in the LignoTech requested exemptions from
Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., the requirement of a tolerance for sulfite
Washington, DC 20460–0001; telephone public docket. Information so marked
will not be disclosed except in liquors and cooking liquors, spent,
number: (703) 308–8033; e-mail address: oxidized; and lignosulfonic acid,
campbell.princess@epa.gov. accordance with procedures set forth in
40 CFR part 2. sodium salt, oxidized, when used as
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 2. Tips for preparing your comments. inert ingredients in pesticide
When submitting comments, remember formulations. The petitioner requested
I. General Information
to: that 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (e) (newly
A. Does this Action Apply to Me? i. Identify the rulemaking by docket redesignated as 180.910 and 180.930) be
You may be potentially affected by ID number and other identifying amended by establishing these
this action if you are an agricultural information (subject heading, Federal exemptions from the requirement of a
producer, food manufacturer, or Register date, and page number). tolerance.
pesticide manufacturer. Potentially ii. Follow directions. The agency may EPA on its own initiative, under
affected entities may include, but are ask you to respond to specific questions section 408(e) of FFDCA, 21 U.S.C.
not limited to: or organize comments by referencing a 346a(e), is proposing to amend several
• Crop production (NAICS code 111), Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part existing tolerance exemptions and to
• Animal production (NAICS code or section number. establish several new tolerance
112) iii. Explain why you agree or disagree; exemptions for various lignosulfonate
• Food manufacturing (NAICS code suggest alternatives and substitute chemicals on raw agricultural
311) language for your requested changes. commodities when used in pesticide
• Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS iv. Describe any assumptions and formulations as inert ingredients
code 32532). provide any technical information and/ (surfactants or related adjuvants to
This listing is not intended to be or data that you used. surfactants) applied to growing crops, or
exhaustive, but rather provides a guide v. If you estimate potential costs or to raw agricultural commodities after
for readers regarding entities likely to be burdens, explain how you arrived at harvest and when applied to animals.

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7914 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 31 / Wednesday, February 16, 2005 / Proposed Rules

The 22 lignosulfonate chemicals, (a total requirement of a tolerance are listed in


of 44 exemptions), that the Agency is the Table 1 of this unit.
proposing to exempt from the

TABLE 1.—LIGNIN AND LIGNOSULFONATE CHEMICALS PROPOSED FOR TOLERANCE EXEMPTION


Chemical Chemical formula CAS No.

Lignosulfonic acid C213H246O88S64 8062–15–5

Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium salt C213H258N4O88S4 8061–53–8

Lignosulfonic acid, calcium salt C213H242Ca2O88S4 8061–52–7

Lignosulfonic acid, magnesium salt C213H242Mg2O88S4 8061–54–9

Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt C213H242Na4O88S4 8061–51–6

Lignosulfonic acid, potassium salt C213H242K4O88S4 37314–65–1

Lignosulfonic acid, zinc salt C213H242O88S4Zn2 57866–49–6

Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium sodium salt 166798–73–8

Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium magnesium salt 123175–37–1

Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium calcium salt 12710–04–2

Lignosulfonic acid, calcium magnesium salt 55598–86–2

Lignosulfonic acid, calcium sodium salt 37325–33–0

Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt sulfomethylated C214H242Na6O94S6 68512–34–5

Lignin alkali reaction products with disodium sulfite and formaldehyde C213H248Na2O83S2 105859–97–0

Lignin alkali reaction products with formaldehyde and sodium bisulfite C213H248Na2O83S2 68512–35–6

Ethoxylated lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt C217H250Na4O90S4 68611–14–3

Lignin, alkali, oxidized, sodium salt C213H237Na5O81 68201–23–0

Lignin 9005–53–2

Lignin, alkali C213H245Na6O76 8068–05–1

Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt, polymer with HCHO and phenol C229H256Na3O90S4 37207–89–9

Sulfite liquors and cooking liquid, spent, oxidized C225H253CaNaO113S7 68514–09–0

Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt oxidized C212H230Na4O88S4 68855–41–4

B. What is the Agency’s Authority for relationship of this information to supplies the strength and rigidity to the
Taking this Action? human risk. EPA has also considered cell wall of plants. Lignin is the glue-
available information concerning the like substance that binds the cellulose
This proposed rule is issued under variability of the sensitivities of major fibers together. The lignin group of
section 408 of FFDCA, 21 U.S.C. 346a, identifiable subgroups of consumers, compounds makes up the second most
as amended by FQPA (Public Law 104– including infants and children. The abundant class of chemicals found in
170). Section 408(e) of FFDCA nature of the toxic effects caused by plants. Cellulose is the most abundant.
authorizes EPA to establish, modify, or lignosulfonate chemicals are discussed
revoke tolerances, or exemptions from According to information available on
in this unit. the internet (http://www.chem.vt.edu/
the requirement of a tolerance for
residues of pesticide chemicals in or on A. Description of Lignosulfonate chem-dept/helm/3434WOOD/notes1/
raw agricultural commodities and Materials lignin.html), the ratio of the alcohols
processed foods. determines the rigidity or flexibility of
Lignin is an extremely complex
the plant’s cell wall. ‘‘p-Coumaryl
III. Human Health Assessment naturally occurring phenolic polymer
that is primarily made of three phenolic alcohol is a minor component of grass
Consistent with section 408(b)(2)(D) alcohols: Coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and and forage type lignins. Coniferyl
of FFDCA, EPA has reviewed the synapyl alcohols. These alcohols are alcohol is the predominant lignin
available scientific data and other cross-linked to each other via a variety monomer found in softwoods.....Both
relevant information in support of this of different chemical bonds. The coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols are the
action and considered its validity, structure of lignin is somewhat building blocks of hardwood lignin.’’
completeness and reliability, and the undefined. However, it is lignin that The lignin content of softwoods are on

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Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 31 / Wednesday, February 16, 2005 / Proposed Rules 7915

the order of 26–32% and of hardwoods rule to establish tolerance exemptions Energy’s Oakridge National Laboratory
20–28%. for oxidized pine lignin, sodium salt conducted an extensive literature
To make pulp and paper, various (CAS No. 68201–23–0). In that proposed search. Over 20 publicly available
processes are used to release the rule the Agency described its review websites, such as International
cellulose, by removing the lignin from and evaluation of various toxicity data Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS),
plant cells, by destroying the chemical as follows: ‘‘The toxicological data show National Toxicological Program (NTP),
bonds within the lignin. These that pine lignin, sulfonated pine lignin National Library of Medicine’s
processes produce by-products which as well as oxidized pine lignin or TOXNET, Agency for Toxic Substances
are different in composition from the lignosulfonates are of very low acute and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and
original lignin polymer. In one such toxicity (LD50 > 2 to > 5 g/kg in Organization for Economic Co-operation
process lignin reacts with sulfur dioxide rats......Pine lignin is classified as
to form lignosulfonic acid. and Development (OECD), were
toxicity category IV in a skin irritation searched using both names and CAS
Lignosulfonates can also be produced as and eye irritation studies.’’ The final
the sodium, potassium, calcium, Nos. as search terms. It should be noted
rule establishing the tolerance that these are reliable compilations of
magnesium, zinc, or ammonium salts. exemption for oxidized pine lignin
Using other chemical processes toxicity data. The search revealed little
published in the Federal Register of information for these compounds in the
lignosulfonate chemicals that have been
June 19, 1996 (61 FR 31037) (FRL– public literature. Table 2 of this unit
oxidized or ethoxylated can be
3575–9). summarizes the information that was
manufactured.
C. Internet Search for Publicly Available retrieved. All of the following studies
B. Previous Agency Action
Information were conducted using lignosulfonic
On March 27, 1996, EPA’s OPP acid, sodium salt.
published in the Federal Register (61 The Agency through its Interagency
FR 13476) (FRL–5355–6) a proposed Agreement with the Department of

TABLE 2.—TOXICITY DATA FOR LIGNOSULFONIC ACID, SODIUM SALT (CAS NO. 8061–51–6)
Species Study type Results

Rat/Wistar 16-Week oral toxicity NOAEL = 2.83 male (M) 2.42 female (F) gram/kilogram/day (g/kg/day)
LOAEL = 10.02 (M) 9.99 (F) g/kg/day based on statistically significant
decreases in body weight, RBC (erythrocytes), Hb (hemoglobin), and
hematocrit; significantly significant increases in total leucocyte count;
absolute and relative liver, spleen, and kidney weights in males

Rat/Wistar Acute oral toxicity in male and female rats LD50 > 40 g/kg

Rabbit 21/28-Day dermal toxicity non irritating to skin in rabbits

Guinea pig (albino) Repeated dose toxicity (1–5 weeks) NOAEL was not determined
LOAEL = 1.740 g/kg/day based on ulceration of the colon in 50% of test
animals

Salmonella Gene mutation Non-mutagenic—Ames with and without activation


typhimurium
strains TA98,
TA100, TA1535,
TA1537

D. Information from the Petitioner TABLE 3.—TOXICITY INFORMATION— The petitioner supplied only the
Continued information in this unit, not the studies
The information submitted in the two or source from which the information
petitions (6E4673 and 6E4674) by Chemical description Study was extracted. Therefore, the Agency
LignoTech consisted of the following: cannot review and evaluate any of this
Carboxylated Acute oral rat; LD50 information. According to the
lignosulfonate, cal- is greater than 5 petitioner, lignosulfonates are generally
TABLE 3.—TOXICITY INFORMATION cium salt g/kg recognized as having low aquatic, avian,
Chemical description Study and mammalian toxicities. Sulfite
Oxidized Acute oral rat; LD50
lignosulfonate, so- is greater than 5
liquors and cooking liquors are the raw
Pine lignin, sodium Acute oral rat; LD50 dium salt g/kg materials obtained from the sulfite
salt is greater than 2 pulping of wood chips, with the main
g/kg Oxidized Skin irritation; not ir- component of these liquors being
lignosulfonate, so- ritating sodium lignosulfonate, a derivative of
Sulfonated pine Acute oral rat; LD50 dium salt the natural-occurring polymer, lignin.
lignin, sodium salt is greater than 2
g/kg Oxidized Eye irritation; not ir- E. Structure Activity Relationship (SAR)
lignosulfonate, so- ritating Assessment
Oxidized pine lignin, Acute oral rat; LD50 dium salt
sodium salt is greater than 5 The Agency traditionally begins its
g/kg evaluation process for inert ingredients
by searching publicly available

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7916 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 31 / Wednesday, February 16, 2005 / Proposed Rules

databases. However, the Agency substance...’’. However, section 5 of The SAT consists of expert scientists
believes that for certain chemicals it is TSCA does not require any toxicity who evaluate the potential
possible to assess the chemical’s toxicity testing as a prerequisite for submission environmental fate, human health, and
with other evaluation tools which can of PMNs. Thus, toxicological data are environmental hazards of these new
include expert scientific judgement. usually not available for review by the chemicals. The scientific disciplines
Even if literature searches do not yield Agency. In response to the lack of represented on the SAT are: Chemistry,
much toxicity data, given these other toxicity data, and the mandated time environmental fate, ecotoxicity,
tools, the Agency believes that it is still frames, the Agency has relied on expert absorption/metabolism, mutagenicity,
possible to determine a ‘‘reasonable assessments to predict a chemical’s carcinogenicity, developmental/
certainty of no harm.’’ toxicity. reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity,
SAR analysis is a useful tool for acute toxicity, and subchronic/chronic
predicting toxicity and thus identifying For human health, the SAR process
can be used to assess absorption and toxicity.
chemicals which may present specific
metabolism, mutagenicity, Thus, after an in-depth literature
risk concerns and/or for which the value
carcinogenicity, developmental and search revealed that there was not
of generating additional data would be
reproductive effects, neurotoxicity, extensive information available on the
low. This analysis utilizes the
system effects, immunotoxicity, lignosulfonates, OPP decided to utilize
chemical’s structural similarity to other
sensitization, and irritation. This is a the SAT’s expertise to evaluate/identify
chemicals for which data are available.
qualitative assessment using terms such the potential risks to human health
A discussion on the SAT process in the
as good, not likely, poor, moderate, or posed by the lignosulfonates, and the
Office of Pollution Prevention and
high. To judge the validity of these environmental fate, health, and
Toxics (OPPT) follows.
SAR assessments have been assessments, EPA examined the method environmental hazards of the
performed by OPPT for over 25 years. in the Project on the Evaluation of lignosulfonates, while considering the
Under section 5 of the Toxic Substances (Quantitative) Structure Activity information on lignosulfonic acid,
Control Act (TSCA), the Agency must Relationships (EPA 743–R–94–001). sodium salt. The SAT process begins by
make a determination to restrict the Given only chemical structure verifying the chemical identity and
manufacture or importation of the information, the Structure Activity structures of the requested chemicals
chemical within 90 days of the Team (SAT) in OPPT assessed 140 and then estimating (modeling) the
submission of a pre-manufacturing chemicals using their SAR assessment physical/chemical properties of the
notice (PMN). The Agency must make process. The results of their assessments chemicals, if measured data are not
either a ‘‘...may present an unreasonable were then compared to the ‘‘base set’’ available.
risk to human health or the data that the European Union (EU) had Table 4 of this unit contains an
environment...’’ finding or show that the received on each chemical. The results excerpt of the information on the
chemical ‘‘....is or will be produced in indicated that the SAR assessments physical/chemical properties which
substantial quantities, and such were ‘‘on target’’ 90% of the time for were used by the SAT to make the
substance either enters or may aquatic toxicity, and roughly 80% of the determination. (Information on all of the
reasonably be anticipated to enter the time for human health effects. For physical/chemical properties
environment in substantial quantities or human health, the approximately 20% considered by the SAT is contained in
there is or may be significant or that were not ‘‘on target’’ were paper format only in EDOCKET OPP–
substantial human exposure to the overestimates. 2004–0413).

TABLE 4.—COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL/PHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR LIGNOSULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT AND SODIUM SALT
OXIDIZED (OBTAINED FROM THE SAT)
Water solubility (g/
Chemical Physical state Boiling point Vapor pressure Molecular weight
Liter (L))

Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt Solid >500 >500 <0.000001 10,000

Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt, Solid >500 >500 <0.000001 10,000


oxidized

The information used by the SAT There is concern for irritation and concern for irritation to skin, eyes, and
indicate that these are high molecular possible corrosion to the GI lungs. There is also concern for lung
weight, polymeric-type materials. After (gastorintestinal) tract based on data toxicity if inhaled based on potential
determining the physical /chemical provided for sodium lignosulfonate lung overload for high molecular weight
properties, the SAT divided the 16 (guinea pig 14–28 day oral drinking polymers. The SAT determined that
chemicals into 3 groups. Group 1 water LOEL = 1.7 g/kg/day with colonic Group 1 lignosulfonates are of low-
consisted of: Lignosulfonic acid, ulceration. No pH values were provided moderate concern for human health
ammonium salt; lignosulfonic acid, for the lignosulfonic acid or its salts; effects.
calcium salt; lignosulfonic acid, therefore, SAT members made the Group 2 consisted of lignosulfonic
magnesium salt; lignosulfonic acid, assumption that the free acid would acid, zinc salt. The SAT’s human health
sodium salt; and lignosulfonic acid, have a very low pH value and that the assessment for lignosulfonic acid, zinc
potassium salt. salts could have high pH values salt are identical to Group 1’s with the
The SAR conclusions for Group 1 are depending on the amount of and the following addition. The inclusion of
as follows: manner in which the counter-ion zinc in the lignosulfonate polymer
Absorption is nil for all routes based reacted or complexed with the acid. results in concerns for developmental
on the physical/chemical properties. Based on this assumption there is a toxicity and immunotoxicity at high

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Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 31 / Wednesday, February 16, 2005 / Proposed Rules 7917

doses, as well as concerns for asthma for sodium lignosulfonate. Repeated numerous enzymes. The daily intake for
and mutagenicity. However, the SAT dose studies retrieved from open an adult ranges from 14 to 20 mg/day.
determined that lignosulfonic acid, zinc literature indicate NOAELs and LOAELs The recommended dietary allowance
salt is also of low-moderate concern for expressed as g/kg/day instead of the (RDA) for adult men and women is 15
human health effects. usual unit in most toxicity studies mg/day; however, the amount of zinc
Group 3 consisted of: Lignin, alkali reviewed by the Agency of milligram needed by the body changes throughout
reaction products with disodium sulfite (mg)/kg/day. There is some very life. The Food and Nutrition Board of
and formaldehyde; lignin, alkali unsubstantiated information that the United States evaluated zinc dietary
reaction products with formaldehyde lignosufonate materials given to rats allowances and recommended zinc as
and sodium bisulfite;ethoxylated before, during, and after mating at doses follows: 2 mg for infants 0.5 years, 5 mg
lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt; lignin, as high as 1,500 mg/kg/day did not for 0.5–1.0 years, 10 mg for children 1–
alkali oxidized, sodium salt; lignin, cause adverse effects on reproduction or 10 years, 15 mg for men and women 11–
alkali; lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt, offspring. But at a dose level of 500 mg/ 51+ years, 20 mg for pregnant women,
polymer with formaldehyde and phenol; kg/day there were histopathological and 25 mg for lactating women.
sulfite liquors and cooking liquors, changes in the lymph nodes of the Deficiencies of zinc can cause illness.
spent, oxidized; lignosulfonic acid, mothers. Given the quality and quantity Given the incorporation of zinc into a
sodium salt, oxidized; andlignosulfonic of information available, OPP needed polymeric-type high molecular weight
acid. The SAT’s human health additional information to complete its chemical, which is then not well-
assessment for this group of assessment of the lignosulfonate absorbed by the human body, it is
lignosulfonate chemicals was identical chemicals. unlikely that the high doses of zinc at
to the SAT determinations for Group 1. As a group, the SAR assessments did which adverse effects are possible
not identify any concerns for would be reached. Without the concerns
F. Data obtained via the High
mutagenicity or carcinogenicity for the for the zinc counter-ion, as a group the
Production Volume (HPV) Challenge
lignosulfonate chemicals. Based on the SAT judged that there were no
Program
physical/chemical properties, and structural similarities of lignosulfonate
The test plan for spent pulping liquor particularly on the large molecular chemicals to any known developmental
(CAS No. 66071–92–9) was submitted to weights of the lignosulfonate chemicals, toxicants.
OPPT on January 29, 2001 by the the SAT believes that when considered
American Forest & Paper Association as a group, the lignosulfonates are not IV. Aggregate Exposures
(AF&PA). (See http://www.epa.gov/ absorbed via any route. This is due to In examining aggregate exposure,
chemrtk/afpa/c12936.pdf/) On February the fact, that generally, polymer-type section 408 of FFDCA directs EPA to
21, 2003, the final data summary was materials such as lignosulfonates of consider available information
submitted. (See http://www.epa.gov/ these higher molecular weights would concerning exposures from the pesticide
chemrtk/afpa/c12936fds.pdf/) While be poorly absorbed through the intact residue in food and all other non-
spent pulping liquor is not proposed for gastrointestinal tract or through intact occupational exposures, including
tolerance exemption in this document, human skin. drinking water from ground water or
it is noted that one of the chemicals As a group, one of the health concerns surface water and exposure through
proposed for tolerance exemption is for lignosulfonate chemicals is for pesticide use in gardens, lawns, or
spent liquors and cooking liquid, spent, inhalation to the deep lung (a lung buildings (residential and other indoor
oxidized. AF&PA noted in their data overload effect), which could occur if uses).
summary, that spent pulping liquor is lignosulfonate chemicals were to be
very alkaline in nature, with a pH used either as a powder or as an aerosol. A. Dietary Exposure
ranging from 11.5 to 13.5. The Other concerns identified by the SAT Several of the lignosulfonates have
composition varies, but includes are for irritation to skin, eyes, and lungs, applications in food and animal feed
pulping chemicals, cellulose, which was based on the assumption that products. Monographs describing purity
hemicellulose, and lignin. Given the some of these chemicals could have a requirements and analytical procedures
high pH, testing could be performed on low pH and therefore display effects for both lignosulfonic acid, calcium salt
only very dilute solutions, so the only consistent with those of an acid. The and lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt are
toxicity testing described in the lung and irritation effects are adequately published in the Fourth Edition of the
submission are two mutagenicity tests. handled through acute end-product Food Chemicals Codex. Various salts of
The results of the bacterial reverse testing to determine any needed lignosulfonic acid have been approved
mutation test indicated that spent personal protective equipment. by FDA as secondary direct food
pulping liquor is non-mutagenic in that The lignosulfonic acid, zinc salt was additives, components of adhesives,
test. In a chromosomal aberration assay judged to be of more concern than any components of paper and paperboard,
with Chinese hamster ovary cells (in of the other lignosulfonate salts. and adjuvants for glue. Lignosulfonate
vitro), spent pulping liquor was According to the SAT, the inclusion of chemicals can also be used as a
clastogenic with and without activation. zinc can result in concerns for pelletizing agent or binder in processed
Concentrations of 2,500 ug/mL with developmental toxicity and animal feed items. Therefore, animals
activation and 5,000 µg/mL without immunotoxicity at high doses, as well as can consume lignosulfonates as part of
activation were judged overtly toxic to concerns for asthma and mutagenicity. their feed mix, and then these animals
the cultures. However, zinc is also a needed nutrient. are consumed by humans. Thus, there is
Counter-ions such as calcium, on-going human dietary exposure.
G. Conclusions potassium, sodium, magnesium, and
The toxicity data available to the zinc are required for proper functioning B. Drinking Water
Agency indicate that the lignosulfonates of human biological systems. Thus, the To assess the presence of the
are of very low toxicity. The oral acute human body does have an effective lignosulfonate chemicals in drinking
LD50s supplied by the petitioner are all means of processing them. Zinc is an water, two reviews are available. A
greater than 2 g/kg. The toxicological essential element in the nutrition of review performed by OPP determined
data located in the public literature is man. It functions as an integral part of that the various salts of lignosulfonic

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7918 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 31 / Wednesday, February 16, 2005 / Proposed Rules

acid are soluble to very highly water common mechanism of toxicity with pesticide chemicals (both inert and
soluble depending on the cation. Once other substances. For information active ingredients), ‘‘may have an effect
in water dissociation of the cation is regarding EPA’s efforts to determine in humans that is similar to an effect
expected depending on pH. These which chemicals have a common produced by a naturally occurring
lignosulfonates are not expected to be mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate estrogen, or such other endocrine
mobile in terrestrial environments, the cumulative effects of such effect...’’ EPA has been working with
moving equally with the water and chemicals, see the policy statements interested stakeholders to develop a
sediment phase to surface water. released by EPA’s OPP concerning screening and testing program as well as
Ground water migration is not likely. common mechanism determinations a priority setting scheme. As the Agency
Once in water, the dissociated cation and procedures for cumulating effects proceeds with implementation of this
and anion are likely to remain in from substances found to have a program, further testing of products
dissolution. The available information common mechanism on EPA’s website containing lignosulfonate chemicals for
suggest that lignosulfonates may be at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/ endocrine effects may be required.
persistent in aquatic environment of low cumulative/.
microbial activity and much less B. Analytical Method
persistent in environments with ample VI. Determination of Safety An analytical method is not required
microbial activity. The available data from the open for enforcement purposes since the
The SAR assessment performed by literature describes chemicals which Agency is proposing exemptions from
OPPT determined that as a group the exhibit effects at doses that are in the the requirement of a tolerance without
lignosulfonates were of low concern for grams per kilogram per day. any numerical limitation.
exposure via drinking water. Though Additionally, the Agency’s
the time for complete aerobic C. Existing Tolerances
understanding of the polymeric nature
degradation is predicted to be months, of these chemicals indicates nil Currently, there are seven tolerance
the lignosulfonates are strongly absorption, and there is a finding of exemptions for lignosulfonate
adsorbed to soils and sediments due to low-moderate concern for human health chemicals. In 40 CFR 180.910:
their high-molecular weights. This from the SAR assessments. Based on all Ethoxylated lignosulfonic acid, sodium
strong binding minimizes the of the available information, EPA salt; lignosulfonate, ammonium,
availability of these chemicals for concludes that these lignosulfonate calcium, magnesium, potassium,
migration to ground water supplies and chemicals do not pose an appreciable sodium, and zinc salts; oxidized pine
thus reduces the potential for residues risk under reasonably foreseeable lignin, sodium salt; pine lignin . There
of lignosulfonates to be present in circumstances. Accordingly, EPA finds are also in 40 CFR 180.930:
drinking water. that there is a reasonable certainty that Lignosulfonate, ammonium, calcium,
no harm will result to the general magnesium, potassium, sodium, and
C. Other Non-Occupational
population, and to infants and children zinc salts; oxidized pine lignin, sodium
Lignosulfonates have many uses in from aggregate exposure to these salt; and pine lignin. The Agency is
industrial applications. According to the lignosulfonate chemicals. proposing to revise these tolerances.
Lignin Institute website, lignosulfonates Section 408 of FFDCA provides that
can be used as an adhesive (a binder), D. International Tolerances
EPA shall apply an additional tenfold
a dispersant to prevent the clumping margin of safety for infants and children The Agency is not aware of any
and settling of undissolved particles in in the case of threshold effects to country requiring a tolerance for any of
suspensions, an emulsion stabilizer, and account for prenatal and postnatal the lignosulfonate chemicals nor have
as a sequestrant for water treatments for toxicity and the completeness of the any CODEX Maximum Residue Levels
boilers and cooling systems. database unless EPA concluded that a (MRLs) been established for any food
Lignosulfonates are used for dust different margin of safety will be safe for crops at this time.
control and surface stabilization on infants and children. The SAR VIII. Conclusions
roads. assessments did not indicate any
Based on the Agency’s review and
V. Cumulative Effects concerns for developmental toxicity for
evaluation of the available information
the lignosulfonate chemicals, other than
Section 408(b)(2)(D)(v) of FFDCA on the toxicity of lignosulfonate
for the zinc counter-ion. Given the
requires that, when considering whether chemicals and considering the SAR
incorporation of zinc into a polymeric-
to establish, modify, or revoke a assessments, EPA concludes that there
type high molecular weight chemical,
tolerance, the Agency consider is a reasonable certainty of no harm
which is then not well-absorbed by the
‘‘available information’’ concerning the from aggregate exposure to residues of
human body, it is unlikely that the high
cumulative effects of a particular these 22 lignosulfonate chemicals. The
doses of zinc at which adverse effects
pesticide’s residues and ‘‘other Agency finds that exempting these 22
can occur would be reached. Due to the
substances that have a common lignosulfonate chemicals from the
expected low oral toxicity due to the nil
mechanism of toxicity.’’ requirement of a tolerance will be safe.
Unlike other pesticides for which EPA absorption of the lignosulfonates, a
has followed a cumulative risk approach safety factor analysis has not been used IX. Statutory and Executive Order
based on a common mechanism of to assess the risk. For the same reasons, Reviews
toxicity, EPA has not made a common the additional tenfold safety factor for This proposed rule establishes 32
mechanism of toxicity finding for any of the protection of infants and children is exemptions from the requirement for a
the lignosulfonate chemicals. As a unnecessary. tolerance under section 408(d) of
group, the lignosulfonates do not appear VII. Other Considerations FFDCA. The Office of Management and
to produce any toxic metabolite Budget (OMB) has exempted these types
produced by other substances. For the A. Endocrine Disruptors of actions from review under Executive
purposes of this tolerance action, FQPA requires EPA to develop a Order 12866, entitled Regulatory
therefore, EPA has not assumed that any screening program to determine whether Planning and Review (58 FR 51735,
of the lignosulfonate chemicals have a certain substances, including all October 4, 1993). Because this proposed

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Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 31 / Wednesday, February 16, 2005 / Proposed Rules 7919

rule has been exempted from review consolidating a tolerance exemption, as the relationship between the Federal
under Executive Order 12866 due to its is proposed), is in effect, the removal of Government and the Indian tribes, or on
lack of significance, this proposed rule a regulatory restriction on pesticide the distribution of power and
is not subject to Executive Order 13211, residues in food and thus such an action responsibilities between the Federal
entitled Actions Concerning Regulations will not have any negative economic Government and Indian tribes.’’ This
That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, impact on any entities, including small proposed rule will not have substantial
Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May entities. In addition, the Agency has direct effects on tribal governments, on
22, 2001). This proposed rule does not determined that this action will not the relationship between the Federal
contain any information collections have a substantial direct effect on States, Government and Indian tribes, or on the
subject to OMB approval under the on the relationship between the national distribution of power and
Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA), 44 government and the States, or on the responsibilities between the Federal
U.S.C. 3501 et seq., or impose any distribution of power and Government and Indian tribes, as
enforceable duty or contain any responsibilities among the various specified in Executive Order 13175.
unfunded mandate as described under levels of government, as specified in Thus, Executive Order 13175 does not
Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Executive Order 13132, entitled apply to this proposed rule.
Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) (Public Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10,
Law 104–4). Nor does it require any 1999). Executive Order 13132 requires List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 180
special considerations under Executive EPA to develop an accountable process
Environmental protection,
Order 12898, entitled Federal Actions to to ensure ‘‘meaningful and timely input
Administrative practice and procedure,
Address Environmental Justice in by State and local officials in the
Minority Populations and Low-Income development of regulatory policies that Agricultural commodities, Pesticides
Populations (59 FR 7629, February 16, have federalism implications.’’ ‘‘Policies and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping
1994); or OMB review or any Agency that have federalism implications’’ is requirements.
action under Executive Order 13045, defined in the Executive order to Dated: February 5, 2005.
entitled Protection of Children from include regulations that have Lois Rossi,
Environmental Health Risks and Safety ‘‘substantial direct effects on the States,
Director, Registration Division, Office of
Risks (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997). on the relationship between the national Pesticide Programs.
This action does not involve any government and the States, or on the
technical standards that would require distribution of power and Therefore, it is proposed that 40 CFR
Agency consideration of voluntary responsibilities among the various chapter I be amended as follows:
consensus standards pursuant to section levels of government.’’ This proposed PART 180—[AMENDED]
12(d) of the National Technology rule directly regulates growers, food
Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 processors, food handlers, and food 1. The authority citation for part 180
(NTTAA), Public Law 104–113, section retailers, not States. This action does not would continue to read as follows:
12(d) (15 U.S.C. 272 note). The alter the relationships or distribution of Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346(a) and
Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 power and responsibilities established 371.
U.S.C. 601 et seq.) generally requires an by Congress in the preemption
agency to prepare a regulatory flexibility provisions of section 408(n)(4) of § 180.910 [Amended]
analysis of any rule subject to notice FFDCA. For these same reasons, the 2. Section 180.910 is proposed to be
and comment rulemaking requirements Agency has determined that this amended by removing the following
under the Administrative Procedure Act proposed rule does not have any ‘‘tribal entries from the table: Ethoxylated
or any other statute unless the agency implications’’ as described in Executive lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt;
certifies that the rule will not have a Order 13175, entitled Consultation and lignosulfonate, ammonium, calcium,
significant impact on a substantial Coordination with Indian Tribal magnesium, potassium, sodium, and
number of small entities. Small entities Governments (65 FR 67249, November zinc salts; oxidized pine lignin, sodium
include small businesses, small 6, 2000). Executive Order 13175, salt; and pine lignin.
organizations, and small governmental requires EPA to develop an accountable 3. Section 180.910 is proposed to be
organizations. After considering the process to ensure ‘‘meaningful and amended by adding alphabetically the
economic impacts of this proposed rule timely input by tribal officials in the following entries to the table to read as
on small entities, I certify that this development of regulatory policies that follows:
action will not have a significant have tribal implications.’’ ‘‘Policies that
economic impact on a substantial have tribal implications’’ is defined in § 180.910 Inert ingredients used pre- and
number of small entities. Establishing the Executive order to include post-harvest; exemptions from the
an exemption from the requirement of a regulations that have ‘‘substantial direct requirement of a tolerance.
pesticide tolerance (or, expanding and effects on one or more Indian tribes, on * * * * *

Inert ingredients Limits Uses

* * * * * * *
Lignin (CAS No.9005–53–2) ..................................................... ...................... surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignin, alkali (CAS No. 8068–05–1) .......................................... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignin, alkali, oxidized, sodium salt (CAS No. 68201–23–0) .... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignin alkali, reaction products with disodium sulfite and form- ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
aldehyde (CAS No. 105859–97–0).
Lignin alkali, reaction products with formaldehyde and sodium ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
bisulfite (CAS No. 68512–35–6).
Lignosulfonic acid (CAS . No. 8062–15–5) ............................... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium calcium salt (CAS No. 12710– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
04–2).

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7920 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 31 / Wednesday, February 16, 2005 / Proposed Rules

Inert ingredients Limits Uses

Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium magnesium salt (CAS No. ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
123175–37–1).
Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium salt (CAS No. 8061–53–8) ...... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium sodium salt (CAS No. 166798– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
73–8).
Lignosulfonic acid, calcium magnesium salt (CAS No. 55598– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
86–2).
Lignosulfonic acid, calcium salt (CAS No. 8061–52–7) ............ ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, calcium sodium salt (CAS No. 37325–33– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
0).
Lignosulfonic acid, ethoxylated, sodium salt (CAS No. 68611– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
14–3).
Lignosulfonic acid, magnesium salt (CAS No. 8061–54–9) ..... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, potassium salt (CAS No. 37314–65–1) ...... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt (CAS No. 8061–51–6) ............ ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt, oxidized (CAS No. 68855– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
41–4).
Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt, polymer with HCHO and phe- ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
nol (CAS No. 37207–89–9).
Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt, sulfomethylated (CAS No. ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
68512–34–5).
Lignosulfonic acid, zinc salt (CAS No. 57866–49–6) ................ ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
* * * * * * *
Sulfite liquors and cooking liquid, spent, oxidized (CAS No. ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
68514–09–0).
* * * * * * *

* * * * * potassium, sodium, and zinc salts; following entries to the table to read as
oxidized pine lignin, sodium salt; and follows:
§ 180.930 [Amended]
pine lignin.
4. Section 180.930 is proposed to be § 180.930 Inert ingredients applied to
amended by removing the following 5. Section 180.930 is proposed to be animals; exemptions from the requirement
entries from the table: Lignosulfonate, amended by adding alphabetically the of a tolerance.
ammonium, calcium, magnesium, * * * * *

Inert ingredients Limits Uses

* * * * * * *
Lignin (CAS No. 9005–53–2) .................................................... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignin, alkali (CAS No. 8068–05–1) .......................................... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignin, alkali, oxidized, sodium salt (CAS No. 68201–23–0) .... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignin alkali, reaction products with disodium sulfite and form- ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
aldehyde (CAS No. 105859–97–0).
Lignin alkali, reaction products with formaldehyde and sodium ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
bisulfite (CAS No. 68512–35–6).
Lignosulfonic acid (CAS No. 8062–15–5) ................................. ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium calcium salt (CAS No. 12710– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
04–2).
Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium magnesium salt (CAS No. ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
123175–37–1).
Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium salt (CAS No. 8061–53–8) ...... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, ammonium sodium salt (CAS No. 166798– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
73–8).
Lignosulfonic acid, calcium magnesium salt (CAS No. 55598– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
86–2).
Lignosulfonic acid, calcium salt (CAS No. 8061–52–7) ............ ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, calcium sodium salt (CAS No. 37325–33– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
0).
Lignosulfonic acid, ethoxylated, sodium salt (CAS No. 68611– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
14–3).
Lignosulfonic acid, magnesium salt (CAS No. 8061–54–9) ..... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, potassium salt (CAS No. 37314–65–1) ...... ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt (CAS No. 8061–51–6) ............ ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt, oxidized (CAS No. 68855– ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
41–4).
Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt, polymer with HCHO and phe- ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
nol (CAS No. 37207–89–9).
Lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt, sulfomethylated (CAS No. ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
68512–34–5).
Lignosulfonic acid, zinc salt (CAS No. 57866–49–6) ................ ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants

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Inert ingredients Limits Uses

* * * * * * *
Sulfite liquors and cooking liquid, spent, oxidized (CAS No. ...................... Surfactant, related adjuvants of surfactants
68514–09–0).
* * * * * * *

* * * * *
[FR Doc. 05–2986 Filed 2–15–05; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560–50–S

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