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Name two main methods which the flaps are used to increase aircraft lift.

A2. By drawing CL vs. AoA curve for different kinds of flap (i.e. plain, split, slotted and
Fowler flap) show clearly their effects on the wings maximum lift coefficient (CL max),
stall angle and lift curve slope.
Explain why a split flap has better performance at a high incidence angle in
comparison to the plain flap.

By drawing CL vs. curves for a wing with

a) only trailing edge flap
b) only leading edge flap; and
c) combination of leading edge and trailing edge flaps

compare their stall angles and CLmax with those of a wing (without any lift augmentation
devices) (Draw all four curves on one graph)

What is the main aim of using leading edge devices on wings?


a) Describe the difference(s) between active and passive lift augmentation devices.

b) How much improvement in wings CLmax can be achieved by each method

A7. Name four different types of flight control static balancing/rebalancing used by
aeroplane manufacturers and explain what might occur if a control surface is
A8. Explain two methods of aerodynamic balancing of the flight controls. (You may use
a sketch drawing if it assists you in describing the methods).
A9. Name 2 secondary control surfaces
A10. Explain how a sweepback angle improves the lateral stability of a fixed wing
A11.Define the terms neutral point and static margin in static longitudinal stability.
A12. By refer to roll damping explain why all conventional aircraft are laterally stable.
(You may use a sketch drawing if it assists you in describing the methods).
A13. Draw a typical Cn Vs. (Yawing moment coefficient Vs. sideslip angle) for a
statically stable, statically unstable and neutrally stable aircraft. You must also show
sign conventions associated with the graph.
A14. Explain how vertical and horizontal CG movement affects the:
a) longitudinal stability of an aircraft
b) Lateral stability of an aircraft

c) Directional stability of an aircraft

A15. Describe why dissymmetry of lift occurs in rotary wings and name the method(s) of
overcoming that condition.
A16. Explain why the design of a rotor blade is more difficult than that of a conventional
rectangular wing.
A17. Explain how it is possible that a few flexible blades can carry the weight of a
helicopter and its payload, which in the case of MIL Mi6 Hook (picture below)
reaches up to 88000 lb.

A18. The traditional top speed of helicopters is around M=0.2 which is much lower than
max speed of even subsonic fixed wing aircraft. Explain what limitations restrict the
increase in maximum forward speed of rotary wings.
A19. Name which control device a helicopter pilot uses to move an aircraft forward and
sideway as well as to descend and climb?
A20. Briefly explain the similarities and differences of boundary layer separation (stall) in
subsonic and supersonic flight.
A21. What aerofoil section characteristics would give a high critical Mach number?
A22. Fully describe how the properties of airflow change when it passes through a
normal shockwave.