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Textile industry

The textile industry or apparel industry is primarily concerned with the design and
production of yarn, cloth, clothing, and their distribution. The raw material may be
natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry.
The industrial processes
Cotton manufacturing
Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year 2007, the global yield was
25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. There are
five stages
Cultivating and Harvesting, Preparatory Processes, Spinning- giving yarn, Weavinggiving fabrics [a], Finishing- giving textiles, Synthetic fibres
Artificial fibres can be made by extruding a polymer, through a spinneret into a medium
where it hardens. Wet spinning (rayon) uses a coagulating medium. In dry spinning
(acetate and triacetate), the polymer is contained in a solvent that evaporates in the heated
exit chamber. In melt spinning (nylons and polyesters) the extruded polymer is cooled in
gas or air and then sets. All these fibres will be of great length, often kilometers long.
Artificial fibres can be processed as long fibres or batched and cut so they can be
processed like a natural fibre.
Natural fibres: Natural fibres are either from animals (sheep, goat, rabbit, silk-worm)
mineral (asbestos) or from plants (cotton, flax, sisal). These vegetable fibres can come
from the seed (cotton), the stem (known as bast fibres: flax, Hemp, Jute) or the leaf
(sisal). Without exception, many processes are needed before a clean even staple is
obtained- each with a specific name. With the exception of silk, each of these fibres is

short being only centimeters in length, and each has a rough surface that enables it to
bond with similar staples.
Cottage stage: There are some indications that weaving was already known in the
Palaeolithic. An indistinct textile impression has been found at Pavlov[disambiguation
needed], Moravia. Neolithic textiles are well known from finds in pile dwellings in
Switzerland. One extant fragment from the Neolithic was found in Fayum at a site which
dates to about 5000 BC.
The key British industry at the beginning of the 18th century was the production of
textiles made with wool from the large sheep-farming areas in the Midlands and across
the country (created as a result of land-clearance and enclosure).This was a laborintensive activity providing employment throughout Britain, with major centres being the
West Country; Norwich and environs; and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The export trade
in woolen goods accounted for more than a quarter of British exports during most of the
18th century, doubling between 1701 and 1770. Exports of the cotton industry centered
in Lancashire had grown tenfold during this time, but still accounted for only a tenth of
the value of the woolen trade. Before the 17th century, the manufacture of goods was
performed on a limited scale by individual workers. This was usually on their own
premises (such as weavers' cottages) and goods were transported around the country.
clothiers visited the village with their trains of pack-horses. Some of the cloth was made
into clothes for people living in the same area, and a large amount of cloth was exported.
Rivers navigations were constructed, and some contour-following canals. In the early
18th century, artisans were inventing ways to become more productive. Silk, wool,

fustian, and linen were being eclipsed by cotton, which was becoming the most important
textile. This set the foundations for the changes.
In Roman times, wool, linen and leather clothed the European population, and silk,
imported along the Silk Road from China, was an extravagant luxury. The use of flax
fibre in the manufacturing of cloth in Northern Europe dates back to Neolithic times.
During the late medieval period, cotton began to be imported into northern Europe.
Without any knowledge of what it came from, other than that it was a plant, noting its
similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be
produced by plant-borne sheep. John Mandeville, writing in 1350, stated as fact the nowpreposterous belief: "There grew in India a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the
endes of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the
lambs to feed when they are hungry." This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in
many European languages, such as German Baumwolle, which translates as "tree wool".
By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions of
Asia and the Americas.
The main steps in the production of cloth are producing the fibre, preparing it, converting
it to yarn, converting yarn to cloth, and then finishing the cloth. The cloth is then taken to
the manufacturer of garments. The preparation of the fibres differs the most, depending
on the fibre used. Flax requires retting and dressing, while wool requires carding and
washing. The spinning and weaving processes are very similar between fibres, however.
Spinning evolved from twisting the fibres by hand, to using a drop spindle, to using a
spinning wheel. Spindles or parts of them have been found in archaeological sites and

may represent one of the first pieces of technology available. They were invented in India
between 500 and 1000 AD.
Textile industry in India
The Textile industry in India traditionally, after agriculture,is the only industry that has
generated huge employment for both skilled and unskilled labor in textiles. The textile
industry continues to be the second largest employment generating sector in India. It
offers direct employment to over 35 million in the country. The share of textiles in total
exports was 11.04% during AprilJuly 2010, as per the Ministry of Textiles. During
2009-2010, Indian textiles industry was pegged at US$55 billion, 64% of which services
domestic demand. In 2010, there were 2,500 textile weaving factories and 4,135 textile
finishing factories in all of India. According to AT Kearneys Retail Apparel Index,
India is ranked as the fourth most promising market for apparel retailers in 2009.
India is first in global jute production and shares 63% of global textile and garment
market. India is 2nd in global textile manufacturing and also 2nd in silk and cotton
production. 100% FDI is allowed via automatic route in textile sector. Rieter, Trutzschler,
Soktas, Zambiati, Bilsar, Monti, CMT, E-land, Nissinbo, Marks & Spencer, Zara,
Promod, Benetton, Levis are the some of foreign textile companies invested or working
in India.
History: The archaeological surveys and studies have found that the people of Harrapan
civilization knew weaving and the spinning of cotton four thousand years ago. Reference
to weaving and spinning materials is found in the Vedic Literature. There was textile
trade in India during the early centuries. A block printed and resist-dyed fabrics, whose
origin is from Gujarat is found in tombs of Fostat, Egypt. This proves that Indian export

of cotton textiles to the Egypt or the Nile Civilization in medieval times were to a large
extent. Large quantity of north Indian silk were traded through the silk route in China to
the western countries. The Indian silk were often exchanged with the western countries
for their spices in the barter system. During the late 17th and 18th century there were
large export of the Indian cotton to the western countries to meet the need of the
European industries during industrial revolution. Consequently there was development of
nationalist movement like the famous Swadeshi movement which was headed by the
Aurobindo Ghosh.
Production: India is the second largest producer of fibre in the world and the major fibre
produced is cotton. Other fibres produced in India include silk, jute, wool, and man-made
fibers. 60% of the Indian textile Industry is cotton based. The strong domestic demand
and the revival of the Economic markets by 2009 has led to huge growth of the Indian
textile industry. In December 2010, the domestic cotton price was up by 50% as
compared to the December 2009 prices. The causes behind high cotton price are due to
the floods in Pakistan and China.India projected a high production of textile (325 lakh
bales for 2010 -11). There has been increase in India's share of global textile trading to
seven percent in five years. The rising prices are the major concern of the domestic
producers of the country.
Man Made Fibers: These includes manufacturing of clothes using fiber or filament
synthetic yarns. It is produced in the large power loom factories. They account for the
largest sector of the textile production in India.This sector has a share of 62% of the
India's total production and provides employment to about 4.8 million people.

The Cotton Sector: It is the second most developed sector in the Indian Textile
industries. It provides employment to huge amount of people but its productions and
employment is seasonal depending upon the seasonal nature of the production.
The Handloom Sector: It is well developed and is mainly dependent on the SHGs for
their funds. Its market share is 13%. of the total cloth produced in India.
The Woolen Sector: India is the 7th largest producer. of the wool in the world. India also
produces 1.8% of the world's total wool.
The Jute Sector: The jute or the golden fiber in India is mainly produced in the Eastern
states of India like Assam and West Bengal. India is the largest producer of jute in the
The Sericulture and Silk Sector: India is the 2nd largest producer of silk in the world.
India produces 18% of the world's total silk. Mulberry, Eri, Tasar, and Muga are the main
types of silk produced in the country. It is a labor-intensive sector.
Ministry of textiles and organizations
Government of India passed the National Textile Policy in 2000. The major functions of
the ministry of textiles are formulating policy and coordination of man-made fiber,
cotton, jute, silk, wool industries, decentralization of power loom sector, promotion of
exports, planning & economic analysis, finance and promoting use of information
technology. The advisory boards for the ministry include All India Handlooms Board, All
India Handicrafts Board, All India Power looms Board, Advisory Committee under
Handlooms Reservation of Articles for Production and Co-ordination Council of Textiles
Research Association. There are several public sector units and textile research
associations across the country.