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Repblica bolivariana de Venezuela

Ministerio del poder popular para minera petrleo


Misios Sucre Aldea Felipe Esteves
2do semestre informtica

Conjuction
Preposition
Adverb

Prof
Pereira Lesbia

Bachiller
Antonio Adrian

Conjunction
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated CONJ or CNJ) is a part of speech that
connects words, sentences, phrases, or clauses. A discourse connective is a
conjunction joining sentences.[citation needed] This definition may overlap with that of
other parts of speech, so what constitutes a "conjunction" must be defined for
each language. In general, a conjunction is an invariable grammatical particle,
and it may or may not stand between the items in a conjunction
The may also be extended to idiomatic phrases that behave as a unit with the
same function, e.g. "as well as", "provided that".
A simple literary example of a conjunction: "the truth of nature, and the power of
giving interest" (Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Biographia Literaria)[1]
Conjunctions may be placed at the beginning of sentences. [2] But some
superstition about the practice persists.[3]

Preposition
Prepositions are short words (on, in, to) that usually stand in front of nouns
(sometimes also in fro

not of gerund verbs).

English
on

Usage
days of the

Example
on Monday

week
in

months /
seasons
time of day
year

in August / in winter
in the morning
in 2006

English

Usage
after a certain

Example
in an hour

period of
time(when?)
at

for night

at night

for weekend

at the weekend

a certain point

at half past nine

of time (when?)
since

from a certain

since 1980

point of time
(past till now)
for

over a certain

for 2 years

period of time
(past till now)
ago

a certain time in

2 years ago

the past
before

earlier than a

before 2004

certain point of
time
to

telling the time

ten to six (5:50)

past

telling the time

ten past six (6:10)

English
to /

Usage
marking the

till /

beginning and

until

end of a period

Example
from Monday to/till Friday

of time
till /

in the sense

until

He is on holiday until Friday.

of how long
something is
going to last

by

in the sense
of at the latest

I will be back by 6 oclock.

By 11 o'clock, I had read five page

up to a certain
time
Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult, as a 1:1 translation
is usually not possible. One preposition in your native language might have
several translations depending on the situation.
There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The only way to
learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary, reading a lot in English
(literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips).
The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used
prepositions in English:

Prepositions Time
Prepositions Place (Position and Direction)

English
in

Usage
room, building, street,
town, country

Example
in the kitchen, in London
in the book

book, paper etc.

in the car, in a taxi

car, taxi

in the picture, in the world

picture, worldh
at

meaning next to, by


an object

at the door, at the station


at the table

for table

at a concert, at the party

for events

at the cinema, at school, at work

place where you are


to do something
typical (watch a film,
study, work)
on

attached

the picture on the wall

for a place with a

London lies on the Thames.

river

on the table

being on a surface

on the left

for a certain side (left,

on the first floor

right)
for a floor in a house
for public transport

on the bus, on a plane


on TV, on the radio

English

Usage

Example

for television, radio


by, next

left or right of

to,

somebody or

beside

something

under

on the ground, lower

Jane is standing by
/ next to / beside the car.

the bag is under the table

than (or covered by)


something else
below

lower than something

the fish are below the surface

else but above


ground
over

covered by
something else

put a jacket over your shirt


over 16 years of age

meaning more than

walk over the bridge

getting to the other

climb over the wall

side (alsoacross)
overcoming an
obstacle
above

higher than

a path above the lake

something else, but


not directly over it
across

getting to the other

walk across the bridge

English

Usage

Example

side (alsoover)
getting to the other

swim across the lake

side
through

something with limits

drive through the tunnel

on top, bottom and


the sides
to

movement to person
or building
movement to a place

go to the cinema
go to London / Ireland
go to bed

or country
for bed
into

enter a room / a

go into the kitchen / the house

building
towards

movement in the

go 5 steps towards the house

direction of
something (but not
directly to it)
onto

movement to the top

jump onto the table

of something
from

in the sense of where

a flower from the garden

English

Usage

Example

from
Other important Prepositions
English

Usage

Example

from

who gave it

a present from Jane

of

who/what does it

a page of the book

belong to

the picture of a palace

what does it show


by

who made it

a book by Mark Twain

on

walking or riding on

on foot, on horseback

horseback

get on the bus

entering a public
transport vehicle
in

entering a car / Taxi

get in the car

off

leaving a public

get off the train

transport vehicle
out of

leaving a car / Taxi

get out of the taxi

English

Usage

by

rise or fall of
something
travelling (other than

Example
prices have risen by
10percent
11 by car, by bus

walking or
horseriding)
at

for age

she learned Russian at 45

about

for topics,

we were talking about you

meaning what about

Adverb
Definition

Adverbs are words that modify

a verb (He drove slowly. How did he drive?)

an adjective (He drove a very fast car. How fast was his car?)

another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. How slowly
did she move?)

As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions
something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many
words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely,
motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives:

That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.

If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying


the verb of a sentence), it is called an Adverb Clause:

When this class is over, we're going to the movies.

When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it
is called an adverbial phrase. Prepositional phrasesfrequently have adverbial
functions (telling place and time, modifying the verb):

He went to the movies.

She works on holidays.

They lived in Canada during the war.

And Infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why):

She hurried to the mainland to see her brother.

The senator ran to catch the bus.

But there are other kinds of adverbial phrases:

He calls his mother as often as possible.

Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot


modify an adverb. Thus we would say that "the students
showed a really wonderful attitude" and that "the students
showed a wonderfully casual attitude" and that "my professor
is really tall, but not "He ran real fast."

Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show
degree.

Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.

The student who reads fastest will finish first.

We often use more and most, less and least to show degree with adverbs:

With sneakers on, she could move more quickly among the patients.

The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen.

She worked less confidently after her accident.

That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years.

The as as construction can be used to create adverbs that express


sameness or equality: "He can't runas fast as his sister."
A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't.
In certain cases, the two forms have different meanings:

He arrived late.

Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything.

In most cases, however, the form without the -ly ending should be reserved for
casual situations:

She certainly drives slow in that old Buick of hers.

He did wrong by her.

He spoke sharp, quick, and to the point.

Adverbs often function as intensifiers, conveying a greater or lesser emphasis


to something. Intensifiers are said to have three different functions: they can
emphasize, amplify, or downtone. Here are some examples:

Emphasizers:
o I really don't believe him.
o He literally wrecked his mother's car.
o She simply ignored me.
o They're going to be late, for sure.

Amplifiers:
o The teacher completely rejected her proposal.
o I absolutely refuse to attend any more faculty meetings.
o They heartily endorsed the new restaurant.
o I so wanted to go with them.
o We know this city well.

Downtoners:
o I kind of like this college.
o Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister.
o His mother mildly disapproved his actions.
o We can improve on this to some extent.
o The boss almost quit after that.
o The school was all but ruined by the storm.

Adverbs (as well as adjectives) in their various degrees can be accompanied by


premodifiers:

She runs very fast.

We're going to run out of material all the faster

This issue is addressed in the section on degrees in adjectives.