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1.Introduction to sociology,
2. Research methods
3. Social change theories
4. Social classes
5. Social control and deviance - done
6.Family done
7. Social Self
8. Education
9. Importance of Media
10. Mc Donaldization
11. Gender, sex and industrial
12. Religion
13. Capitalism

1) question about the scope, understanding and depth of sociology

to apply the social science aspects youve learnt
what happens in culture and history and how it becomes an individual thing
any book with the intro to sociology will be useful
o first two chapters of book Sociological Imagination C.Wright Mills
2) How do you study science
methodologies and research concepts used in sociology
how to define theory (hypothesis experiment so on)
no need for statistical answers
use bell curve and quantitive theory
3) Social Change
what makes it happen
o theories define social change
driving factors in social change, like technology, circumstances

4) Social Class conflicts

definitions, temporal definitions and how they changed throughout the years
are classes still relevant today
Then find a contemporary theorist to contrast concepts with the classic theorists Karl
Marx and Max Weber
o Not history and so on just contrast the concepts they spoke about
social classes how theyre defined today
o origin vs status and so on

5) How we behave as social actors

how we learn who we are
the concept of the self
in which way
learning social roles
o it would help to look up things happening in the news right now
6) Media
importance of media
o how it is distributed
o how it shapes
o minority to majority
7) Standardization (McDonaldisation)
George Ritzer
How something becomes a norm

change and trends in the concept of families
illustrate examples
deviation and change
o impacts
o functions
o changes

why study family: for public policy, politics and professional

hunter gatherer societies kept smaller families because they
moved about a lot, once agriculture developed larger families,
industrialisation means smaller ones again.
As the basic unit for raising children, anthropologists most
generally classify family organization as matrifocal (a mother
and her children); conjugal (a husband, his wife, and children;
also called nuclear family); avuncular (for example a brother,
his sister, and her children); or extended family in which
parents and children co-reside with other members of one
parent's family
Different pattern:

patriarchy, patrilocal, patrilineal

matriarchy, matrilocal, matrilineal,

equalitarian, neolocal, bilateral

socioemotional : where one can be accepted and supported,
orderly means of reproduction,
regulate sexual activity
transmit social status,

economic center (a unit of consumption)

types of marriage:
monogamy: marriage of one man to one woman
polygamy: marriage of a male or female to more than one
person at a time.
Polygyny: 1 man many wives
polyandry: 1 woman many husbands
can be mixed marriages or group-endogamy
arranged marriage
exogamy: marrying outward
serial monogamy: succession of marriages because of divorce
neolocal residence: establishing a home of their own away from
both families of orientation
patrilocal residence: requires the bride to live with husband in
home of his family orientation
marriage was once an economic union, spouse was chosen for
child through an arrangement with another family.
family of orientation: family in which they grew up
family of procreation: one in which they had children
in studying different families across different cultures:
they pay attention to:

family composition

norm of mate selection

rules of residence and descent

rules of authority
the family can promote inequality in areas such as :
due to property inheritance class inequalities are promoted
due to family generally being patriarchal gender inequalities
are promoted
endogamous marriages promote race inequalities
cereal packet family: family as portrayed through the media.
Divorce and Remarriage
Once taboo, divorce is now common in the United States. Many

factors have contributed to the tenfold increase in the U.S.

divorce rate over the past century. Women have become less
economically dependent on men, which means they are now
able to leave unhappy marriages and support themselves.
Legal standards have also relaxed, making divorce easier to
obtain. Because the divorce rate is so high, so is the rate of
remarriage. U.S. society is still coming to terms with the
ramifications of blended families, those composed of children
and parents from both present and past marriages.
Social Darwinists
Early scholars of family history applied Darwin's
biological theory of evolution in their theory of evolution of
family systems.[20] American anthropologist Lewis H.
Morgan publishedAncient Society in 1877 based on his theory
of the three stages of human progress
from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization.[21] Morgan's
book was the "inspiration forFriedrich Engels' book" The Origin
of the Family, Private Property and the State published in 1884.
Engels expanded Morgan's hypothesis that economical factors
caused the transformation of primitive community into a classdivided society.[23] Engels' theory of resourcecontrol, and later
that of Karl Marx, was used to explain the cause and effect of
change in family structure and function. The popularity of this
theory was largely unmatched until the 1980s, when other
sociological theories, most notably structural functionalism,
gained acceptance.
the functionalist perspective
functionalists see society based on a value consensus: shared
set of norms and values/culture, they see society as a
biological organism. They take a positive view of the family.
They see it as performing beneficial functions both for wider
society and its individual members. They assume it is
harmonious and ignore conflict and exploitation.
Murdock: 1949, functions of the family
he argues that the nuclear family performs 4 essential

functions for society and its members.

stable satisfaction of the sex drive

reproduction of next generation

socialisation of the young which enables new members to

integrate into society.

Satisfaction of members' economic needs. In pre-industrial

societies the family is a unit of production whereas in modern
ones it is a unit of consumption.
For murdock the sheer practicality of the nuclear family as a
way of maintaining social order explains why it is a universal
concept found in all human societies.
Functionalists ignore family diversity
Parson's assumes that the kind and range of functions that the
family performs depends on the type of society in which they
are found and this will determine the structure:

extended family (3 generations) found in pre-industrial

consanguine family

nuclear (2-generational) in industrial society also called

The Extended Family
was multi functional, a unit both of production and
there are higher rates of mobility nowadays
the nuclear family is left with 2 irreducible functions:

primary socialisation

stabilisation of adult personalities enabling adults to

relax and release tension so they can return to their workplace
and perform their roles efficiently.
Parsons distinguishes between the two gender roles in the

the male instrumental (breadwinning role)

female expressive role (nurturing)

he sees the gender division of labour in the family as
biologically based,
The New right Perspective:

is a political perspective more than a sociological one, it says

that labour should be divided on a biological basis, and that
families should be self reliant.
These roles arent biological, they are social constructs.
Families should be self reliant as reliance on state welfare leads
to a dependency culture which undermines traditional family
roles and produces family breakdown and lone parent families.
The lack of a male role model results in delinquency.
Marxist perspective conflict
conflict view of society, seeing modern capitalist society as
being of two classes:
capitalist class: bourgeoisie, who owns means of production
and the working class, proletarian, who owns only their labour
which they are forced to sell.
He sees the family as an institution that contributes to the
exploitation between the classes.
Engel view:
argues that as private property became more important it was
also important for fathers to be able to pass it on to their sons.
So this led to monogomous marriage. This also meant the
woman becoming private property of the husband.
Zaresky: ideological functions
agues that there is a cult of private life: we can only gain
fulfillment from family life. And this distracts attention from
Feminism is a conflict view that sees the family as oppressing
different types:

liberal: argue that gender inequality is gradually being

overcome through legal reforms and policy changes, it is
challenging stereotypes,

marxist feminists: argue that capitalism is the main cause

of women's oppression in the family. Their functions are

reproducing labour force, absorbing men's anger and they are a

reserve army of cheap labour. They think family should be
abolished as well as capitalism.

Radical feminists: argue that patriarchy is the main cause

of women 's oppression, family and marriage being key
patriarchial institutions, men benefit from women's unpaid
labour and sexual services. Some believe in political

Difference feminism: not all women share the same

experience of oppression, women of different ethnicities may
have different experiences of the family.
Marxism and functionalism are modernism theories,
have 3 features in common, they are structural theories, they
see one family type that is nuclear,
disagree with marxism and functionalism, late 20 th century
2 key features; individuals now have more choice and are freer
to construct their identities, society is now more a collection of
different subcultures,
rapid change has made life predictable and ordelry, new tech
and media break down existing barriers of space and times,
family has become less stable, there is now more choice about
intimate relationships and domestic arrangements
Industrial society needs:

a mobile workforce


a belief in some kind of higher supernatural power

expression of this belief in collective worship

set of moral values which guide action

force which brings people together and unifies society

Christianity:The most widespread world religion, Christianity
derived from Judaism. It is based on the belief that Jesus Christ
was the son of God and the redeemer of mankind. There are
many different Christian denominations.
Islam:Followers of Islam are called Muslims. Muslims
believe that the true word of God was revealed to the
prophet Muhammad around 570 A.D. God in Islam is the
same god as the Christian and Judaic deity.
Judaism:Judaism is a monotheistic religion that predates
Christianity, built on the belief that they are the chosen
people of God.
Hinduism: Hinduism is the oldest major world religion,
dominant in India. Hindus do not worship a single person or
deity but rather are guided by a set of ancient cultural
beliefs. They believe in the principle of karma, which is the
wisdom or health of ones eternal soul. Karma can be
strengthened with good acts and harmed by bad acts.
Hindus believe that karma plays a role in reincarnation, a
cycle of continuous rebirth through which, ideally, the soul
can achieve spiritual perfection. The state of a persons
karma determines in what form he or she will be reborn.
Buddhism: Buddhists, most of whom live in Japan,
Thailand, Cambodia, and Burma, follow the teachings of
Siddhartha Gautama, a spiritual teacher of the sixth
century B.C.E. Buddhism, like Hinduism, does not feature
any single all-powerful deity but teaches that by eschewing
materialism, one can transcend the illusion of life and
achieve enlightenment.

three ways in which sociologists define religion

substantive: focuses on what a religion is, Max Weber

defines religion as a belief in superior or supernatural power
that is above nature so cannot be explained scientifically. Has a
western bias as it excludes buddhism which does not involve
worship of a God.

Functional: how religion contributes to society in terms of

social and psychological function. According to Durkheim
religions main function is to strengthen social solidarity and
integration. Yinger: helps individuals answer questions about
the meaning of life and what happens when they die. This is
more inclusive as there doesnt have to be a belief in God.

Victor turner says that religion provides a meaning for life,

authority figures and reinforces the morals held
collectivistically by a society

social constructionist : take an interpretative approach,

they are interested in how definitions are constructed,
challenged and fought over.
Marxist view:
Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the
expression of real suffering and a protest against real
suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the
heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions.
It is the opium of the people.
Whichever class controls the economic production it also
controls the production and distribution of ideas through
church, education, media
Religion as an ideology:

leads people in a false direction, offers hopes and illusions,

hopes to keep working class in a state of false consciousness,
religion has been used to validate power, for example king is
gods representative
religion and compensation: emphasises the idea that life can

be full of suffering.
How religion dulls the pain:
life after death
compensation for poverty by promising reward
supernatural intervention to solve problems
justifying social order:

in modern multi faith societies, bonding or social solidarity is
through civil religion a functional alternative equivalent to
religion. For example Americanism in the USA, which uses
religious phrases/imagery, promotes national identity, includes
all religions,

ritual (prayer, communion)

sense of the sacred.

System of beliefs

organisation (public component)

feminist view of religion: as a patriarchal system proven by:

the organisations: orthodox jews and catholic forbid

women becoming priests.

Places of worship: often segregates the sexes and

marginalises women. In islam women who are menstruating
not allowed to touch Quran.

Sacred texts: representation of Eve and Mary Magdalene

religious laws and customs; CATHOLIC CHURCH BANNING

Karen Armstrong says that it wasnt always male dominated:
earth mother goddess, greek goddesses
how religion was used by colonialists as it targets the soul.
belief in spiritual beings, soul and body. Mana: melanesians
belief that mana is a sacred force existing in the universe.

Moral codes: are repeated constantly in religious sermons, so

they become psychologically internalised. They guide
behaviour and produce guilt, regret and shame
Sociologists group religious organizations into three categories:
church, sect, and cult.
A church is a religious group integrated with society.
Example: The Roman Catholic Church is well
integrated in the society in Spain.
A sect is a religious group that sets itself apart from
society as a whole.
Example: The Amish of Pennsylvania are a classic
sect. Though Christian, they choose to set
themselves apart from the rest of society by their
lifestyle, which eschews many aspects of
A cult is a religious group that is outside standard cultural
norms, typically centered around a charismatic leader.
Example: The Peoples Temple, a cult that
emerged in the late 1970s, was led by a man
named Jim Jones. Jones started his cult in San
Francisco, then convinced several hundred
followers to move with him to Jonestown, Guyana.
He claimed to be a god and insisted on strict
loyalty. In 1978, he and 913 of his followers
committed mass suicide.
however, in the words of mile Durkheim, religion differs from
private belief in that it is "something eminently social"
The ideas of three early sociological theorists continue to
strongly influence the sociology of religion: Durkheim, Weber,
and Marx.
Even though none of these three men was particularly
religious, the power that religion holds over people and
societies interested them all. They believed that religion is
essentially an illusion; because culture and location influence

religion to such a degree, the idea that religion presents a

fundamental truth of existence seemed rather improbable to
them. They also speculated that, in time, the appeal and
influence of religion on the modern mind would lessen.
Durkheim and functionalism
Emile Durkheim, the founder of functionalism, spent much of
his academic career studying religions, especially those of
small societies. The totetism, or primitive kinship system of
Australian aborigines as an elementary form of religion,
primarily interested him.
Durkheim's theory of religion exemplifies how functionalists
examine sociological phenomena. According to Durkheim,
people see religion as contributing to the health and
continuation of society in general. Thus, religion functions to
bind society's members by prompting them to affirm their
common values and beliefs on a regular basis.
Durkheim predicted that religion's influence would decrease as
society modernizes. He believed that scientific thinking would
likely replace religious thinking, with people giving only
minimal attention to rituals and ceremonies. He also
considered the concept of God to be on the verge of
extinction. Instead, he envisioned society as promoting civil
religion, in which, for example, civic celebrations, parades, and
patriotism take the place of church services. If traditional
religion were to continue, however, he believed it would do so
only as a means to preserve social cohesion and order.
Weber and social change
Durkheim claimed that his theory applied to religion in general,
yet he based his conclusions on a limited set of examples. Max
Weber, on the other hand, initiated a largescale study of
religions around the globe. His principal interest was in large,
global religions with millions of believers. He conducted in
depth studies of Ancient Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism,
Buddhism, and Taoism.
The fundamental purpose of Weber's research was to discover
religion's impact on social change. For example, in
Protestantism, especially the Protestant Work Ethic, Weber

saw the roots of capitalism. In the Eastern religions, Weber saw

barriers to capitalism. For example, Hinduism stresses attaining
higher levels of spirituality by escaping from the toils of the
mundane physical world. Such a perspective does not easily
lend itself to making and spending money.
To Weber, Christianity was a salvation religion that claims
people can be saved when they convert to certain beliefs and
moral codes. In Christianity, the idea of sin and its atonement
by God's grace plays a fundamental role. Unlike the Eastern
religions' passive approach, salvation religions like Christianity
are active, demanding continuous struggles against sin and the
negative aspects of society.
Marx: Conflict theory
Despite his influence on the topic, Karl Marx was not religious
and never made a detailed study of religion. Marx's views on
the sociology of religion came from 19th century philosophical
and theological authors such as Ludwig Feuerbach, who
wroteThe Essence of Christianity (1841). Feuerbach maintained
that people do not understand society, so they project their
own culturally based norms and values onto separate entities
such as gods, spirits, angels, and demons. According to
Feuerbach, after humans realize that they have projected their
own values onto religion, they can achieve these values in this
world rather than in an afterlife.
Marx once declared that religion is the opium of the people.
He viewed religion as teaching people to accept their current
lot in life, no matter how bad, while postponing rewards and
happiness to some afterlife. Religion, then, prohibits social
change by teaching nonresistance to oppression, diverting
people's attention away from worldly injustices, justifying
inequalities of power and wealth for the privileged, and
emphasizing rewards yet to come.
Although people commonly assume that Marx saw no place for
religion, this assumption is not entirely true. Marx held that
religion served as a sanctuary from the harshness of everyday
life and oppression by the powerful. Still, he predicted that
traditional religion would one day pass away.

Sociology of education
Functionalist view
education has both manifest (open) and latent (hidden)
The most basic manifest function of education is the
transmission of knowledge.
Latent functions include transmitting culture, promoting social
and political integration, maintaining social control and serving
as agents of change.
Transmitting Culture
education performs a rather conservative function it transmits
a dominant culture.
It exposes each generation of young people to the existing
beliefs, norms and values of their culture.
We learn respect for social control and reverence for the
established institutions religion, family etc
schools socialise students into a set of core values.
Promoting social and political integration
norms values and beliefs of the dominant culture.
Maintaining social control
prepare young people to lead productive and orderly lives as
adults by introducing them to norms, values and sanctions of
the larger society, essential for the future labour force. Learn
things like punctuality, discipline, scheduling and responsible
work habits as well as how to negotiate their way through the
complexities of bureaucratic organisation.
Education reflects the interests of the family and in turn
prepares young people for their participation in yet another
social institution the economy.
They serve as a transitional agents of social control between
parents and employers in the life cycle of most individuals.

Not all students live up to their labals

Margaret Fuller (1984) showed that negative labels can have a
variety of effects.
Banding and streaming
ways of grouping people to their predicted ability
banding is where whole classes of pupils are put into different
groups or bands of particular subjects
streaming involves grouping people for all subjects
Ball (1981)
put in one of 3 bands according to info supplied by primary
first band was sposed to contain the most able pupils and the
third the least
however ball found that factors other than acedemic criteria
were influent (he will send notes)

Paul Willis - Learning to Labour

willis focuses on the way schools prepare pupils for their future
work but he does not find a direct relationship between the
economy and the way the education system operates.
He remains within a Marxist position but takes into
consideration power and choice to pupils, creating a far more
dynamic model.

The Liberal View Of Education

John Dewey
Ivan Illich
proposes: that education should encourage individuals to
develop their full potentials
focuses on education in relation to the individual rather than
society, the well-being of the individual.
John Dewey american educationalist and philosopher, most
influential proponents of the liberal view,
it is the job of education to encourage individuals to develop
their full potential,
was critical of rote learning, he argued for progressive teaching
methods, that people should learn by experience.
For dewey a progressive education system is a vital part of
education system he proposed would promote flexiblity and
tolerance and individuals would be able to copperate together
as equals and thus reduce inequality
Ivan Illich: radical liberal. Argues that formal schooling is both
unneccessary and harmful to society because it is irrelevant it
indoctrinates people to be passive consumers.
Illlich argues that school should 2 things tht they dotn do at
they should teach specific skills that reflect peopls
surroundings and needs.
Education should be liberating experience wherby individuals
can use and develop their own intiatitve. Instead they stifle
creativity and imagination.
School makes students conform.
Accumulation of education is mistaken for educations.
Imposese values on students
proposes: abolition of present education system
instead he proposes skills exchange (taught from experts)and
learning webs (group work)

"The ideal is nothing else than the material world

reflected by the human mind, and translated into forms
of thought." Karl Marx, Das Kapital,
educational achievement and inequality:
curriculum subjects made to be studied in a country you can
add but must have the minimum
english, math, social studies, religion / ethics, pe. - foundation
skills: reading writing and arithmetic
education enhances an individuals job oppurtunities. Illiteracy
has fallen from 11.3% to 7.2% in the past 10 years.
The functionalist theory
focuses on the ways that universal education serves the needs
of society. Functionalists first see education in its manifest role:
conveying basic knowledge and skills to the next generation.
Durkheim identified the latent role of education as one of
socializing people into society's mainstream. This moral
education, as he called it, helped form a morecohesive social
structure by bringing together people from diverse
Functionalists point to other latent roles of education such as
transmission of core values and social control. Children receive
rewards for following schedules, following directions, meeting
deadlines, and obeying authority.
The most important value permeating the American classroom
is individualismthe ideology that advocates the liberty rights,
or independent action, of the individual. American students
learn early, unlike their Japanese or Chinese counterparts, that
society seeks out and reveres the best individual, whether that
person achieves the best score on a test or the most points on
the basketball court. Even collaborative activities focus on the
leader, and team sports single out the one most valuable
player of the year. The carefully constructed curriculum helps
students develop their identities and selfesteem. Conversely,
Japanese students, in a culture that values community in place
of individuality, learn to be ashamed if someone singles them

out, and learn social esteemhow to bring honor to the group,

rather than to themselves.
Likewise, schools overtly teach patriotism, a preserver of
political structure. Students must learn the Pledge of Allegiance
and the stories of the nation's heroes and exploits.
Another benefit that functionalists see in education is sorting
separating students on the basis of merit. Society's needs
demand that the most capable people get channeled into the
most important occupations. Schools identify the most capable
students early. Those who score highest on classroom and
standardized tests enter accelerated programs and college
preparation courses. Sociologists Talcott Parsons, Kingsley
Davis, and Wilbert Moore referred to this as social placement.
They saw this process as a beneficial function in society.
After sorting has taken place, the next function of
education, networking (making interpersonal connections), is
inevitable. People in high school and college network with
those in similar classes and majors. This networking may
become professional or remain personal. The most significant
role of education in this regard is matchmaking. Sociologists
primarily interest themselves in how sorting and networking
lead couples together of similar backgrounds, interests,
education, and income potential. People place so much
importance on this function of education that some parents
limit their children's options for college to insure that they
attend schools where they can meet the right person to
Functionalists point to the ironic dual role of education in both
preserving and changing culture. Studies show that, as
students progress through college and beyond, they usually
become increasingly liberal as they encounter a variety of
perspectives. Thus, more educated individuals are generally
more liberal, while less educated people tend toward
conservatism. Moreover, the heavy emphasis on research at
most institutions of higher education puts them on the cutting
edge of changes in knowledge, and, in many cases, changes in
values as well. Therefore, while the primary role of education is
to preserve and pass on knowledge and skills, education is also
in the business of transforming them.
A final and controversial function assumed by education in the
latter half of the twentieth century is replacement of the family.

Many issues of career development, discipline, and human

sexualityonce the domain of the familynow play a routine
part in school curriculum. Parents who reject this function of
education often choose to homeschool their children or place
them in private schools that support their values.
The conflict theory
Conflict theory sees the purpose of education as maintaining
social inequality and preserving the power of those who
dominate society. Conflict theorists see the educational system
as perpetuating the status quo by dulling the lower classes into
being obedient workers.
Both functionalists and conflict theorists agree that the
educational system practices sorting, but they disagree about
how it enacts that sorting. Functionalists claim that schools sort
based upon merit; conflict theorists argue that schools sort
along distinct class and ethnic lines. According to conflict
theorists, schools train those in the working classes to accept
their position as a lowerclass member of society. Conflict
theorists call this role of education the hidden curriculum.
Conflict theorists point to several key factors in defending their
position. First, property taxes fund most schools; therefore,
schools in affluent districts have more money. Such areas are
predominantly white. They can afford to pay higher salaries,
attract better teachers, and purchase newer texts and more
technology. Students who attend these schools gain substantial
advantages in getting into the best colleges and being tracked
into higherpaying professions. Students in less affluent
neighborhoods that do not enjoy these advantages are less
likely to go to college and are more likely to be tracked into
vocational or technical training. They also represent far higher
numbers of minority students.
Conflict theorists contend that not only do the economics favor
the white affluent, but so does school testingparticularly IQ
testing, which schools can use to sort students. They argue
that the tests, which claim to test intelligence, actually test
cultural knowledge and therefore exhibit a cultural bias.
Testing experts claim they have rid modern exams of such
culturally biased questioning, but conflict theorists respond that
cultural neutrality is impossible. All tests contain a knowledge
base, and that knowledge base is always culturally sensitive.
Conflict theorists see education not as a social benefit or

opportunity, but as a powerful means of maintaining power

structures and creating a docile work force for capitalism.
Education justifies inequlaity
inequality and legitimacy - the education system is not open. It
reflects the power of the ruling class to ensure that its
members retain the senior positions. The belief in equality of
opportunity masks the unfairness of the system. Schools are
not meritocratic as the functionalists believe. One's class
background influences achievement.
Marx: focus upon the role schools play in preparing pupils for
their future working role
for marxists educatoin is seen as a means of exploitation of the
population by the ruling class
conflict theory
bowles and gintis: schooling in capitalist america
the major role of education in capitalist societies is to produce
a hard working and disciplined workforce
such a workfroce is reproduced in two main ways
1. through the hidden curriculum of schooling and the
correspondence between social relations
schooling and work: preparing children for world of work,
correspondence theory
rather than offering opportunities of self-development it
conditions people for the workplace.
The hidden curriculum works in the following ways:
1. subservience: helps to produce subservient workforce of
uncritical, passive and docile workers
2. acceptance of the hierarchy: schools are based upon the
principles of hierarchy and lines of command. This
prepares students for employment and taking orders.
3. Motivation: students are motivates by external awards
(certificates) rather than fulfilment in learning. This
prepares students for work where the enjoyment comes
from the wage not the job itself
4. fragmentation of knowledge: school subjects are
fragmented with little connection between lessons. This
prepares students for the fragmentation of employment.
5. Appropriate knowledge: most knowledge at school is not

needed for employment. Pupils are over taught so that

there is always a surplus of knowledgeable people for all
posts and therefore competition for them.
The symbolic interactionist theory
Symbolic interactionists limit their analysis of education to
what they directly observe happening in the classroom. They
focus on how teacher expectations influence student
performance, perceptions, and attitudes.
Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson conducted the
landmark study for this approach in 1968. First, they examined
a group of students with standard IQ tests. The researchers
then identified a number of students who they said would likely
show a sharp increase in abilities over the coming year. They
informed the teachers of the results, and asked them to watch
and see if this increase did occur. When the researchers
repeated the IQ tests at the end of the year, the students
identified by the researchers did indeed show higher IQ scores.
The significance of this study lies in the fact that the
researchers had randomly selected a number of average
students. The researchers found that when the teachers
expected a particular performance or growth, it occurred. This
phenomenon, where a false assumption actually occurs
because someone predicted it, is called a selffulfilling
Ray Rist conducted research similar to the RosenthalJacobson
study in 1970. In a kindergarten classroom where both
students and teacher were African American, the teacher
assigned students to tables based on ability; the better
students sat at a table closer to her, the average students sat
at the next table, and the weakest students sat at the
farthest table. Rist discovered that the teacher assigned the
students to a table based on the teacher's perception of the
students' skill levels on the eighth day of class, without any
form of testing to verify the placement. Rist also found that the
students the teacher perceived as better learners came from
higher social classes, while the weak students were from
lower social classes.
Monitoring the students through the year, Rist found that the
students closer to the teacher received the most attention and

performed better. The farther from the teacher a student sat,

the weaker that student performed. Rist continued the study
through the next several years and found that the labels
assigned to the students on the eighth day of kindergarten
followed them throughout their schooling.
While symbolicinteractionist sociologists can document this
process, they have yet to define the exact process of how
teachers form their expectations or how students may
communicate subtle messages to teachers about intelligence,
skill, and so forth.
Symbolic Interactionist Views on Education
Interactionists focus on: process of schooling what actually
happens within schools and classrooms
relationship between teachers and pupils
details of everyday life in schools
depends on what teacher thinks of the student rather than the
capabilities of the student
some studies focus on how students are typed. (labelled) or
classified by teachers Hargreaves and Rist
classification of students takes place in 3 stages
speculation: tentative guesses using criteria such as
appearance conformity to discipline ability enthusiasm for
work, personality
elaboration: typing refined, first impressions are tested,
confirmed or rejected
stabilisation: Teacher feels confident she knows the
students. The students actions will be evaluated in terms
of the label.
Different in secondary schools cause more teachers so divided
time, rather than primary where more of a connection is
Rist (1970)

In a study of an American classroom, Rist found that typing is

not such a slow process. On the 8th day of school, children were
already permanently seated at three separate tables.
Seating arrangements depended on how much the children
fitted the teacher's image of the ideal student.
Teachers evaluated and labelled the child on the basis of their
social class and not the abilities shown in class.
The effects of typing or labelling
many sociologists claim that typing or labelling of students has
important effects upon the progress of pupils.
Cicourel and Kitsuse (1971)
analysed decisions of counsellors in an American high school
regarding students educational careers.
Classification of students was influenced by non-academic
factors such as the students appearance, manner, assessment
of their parents and reports from teachers on their conduct and
Even when students from different social backgrounds had
similar records, counsellors were more likely to perceive those
from middle- and upper class origins as suitable for college and
place them in higher level courses.
The self fulfilling prophecy
predictions made by teacher will make themselves come
Rosenthal and Jacobson
carried Iq tests on children
chose a sample of 20%b of students and told their teachers
that they had potential for academmic success.
A year later these students in the sample improved their Iq
scores. Teachers reports also showed that they had improved
their reading skills.
Teachers expectations affected their pupil's performance
teacher's encouragement and positive feedback
produced a self-fulfilling prophecy.

8) Gender, Sex, industrial society and work opportunities

the glass ceiling effect
9) An analysis of capitalism
how its affecting and using us
is it exploitative and so on

Mills joins Durkheim when he asserts that many great public issues as
well as many
private troubles are described in terms of the psychiatric thus
ignoring and avoiding
the larger problems of modern society. Mills and Durkheim both believed
that society shaped
individuals, but they also believed that individuals contribute to shaping
the society.

Deviance: variations, disregard for, defiance of, non-conformity,
examples: prostitution, polygamy, alcoholism, abortion, drug
addiction, marital maladjustment, homosexuality
Deviant actions can be mala in se (evil in itself) or mala
prohibita (evil because it's prohibited)

Biosocial criminology
Broken windows theory
Criminal triad theory
Differential association
Labeling theory
Rational choice theory
Social control theory
Social disorganization theory
Social learning theory
Strain theory
Subcultural theory
Symbolic interactionism

Different types of norms according to William Sumner

folkways: simple everyday norms based on tradition,


mores: norms based on broad social morals whose

infraction would generate social condemnation

laws: strongest norms solidified by social sanctions

prescriptive: tells us what to do

proscriptive: tell us what not to do

roles: bundle of norms governing a social position

Ascribed deviant status: these are traits that someone is

born with, physical defects, being poor, race, height, weight,

Achieved deviant status: alternative beliefs, violating

normative dress code, joining a gang
Deviance is a behaviour that is recognised as a violation of
expected rules and norms. Sociologists stress social context,
not just individual behaviour. It is looked at instead in terms of
group processes, definitions and judgements and not just as
separate individual acts. It is subjective. Established rules and
norms are socially created, not just morally decided or
individually imposed. Deviance lies not just in the behaviour
itself but also in the social response to this behaviour.
There are 3 broad sociological classes describing deviant

structural functionalism

symbolic interaction

conflict theory
Social integration is the attachment to groups and institutions,
while social regulation is the adherence to the norms and
values of the society. Those who are very integrated fall under
the category of "altruism" and those who are not very
integrated fall under "egotism." Similarly, those who are very
regulated fall under "fatalism" and those who are very
unregulated fall under "anomie". Durkheim's theory attributes

social deviance to extremes of the dimensions of the social

bond. Altruistic suicide (death for the good of the group), egoistic
suicide (death for the removal of the self-due to or justified by
the lack of ties to others), and anomic suicide (death due to the
confounding of self-interest and societal norms) are the three
forms of suicide that can happen due to extremes. Likewise,
individuals may commit crimes for the good of an individual's
group, for the self-due to or justified by lack of ties, or because
the societal norms that place the individual in check no longer
have power due to society's corruption.
Durkheim's concept
Durkheim claimed that deviance was in fact a normal and
necessary part of social organization. When he studied
deviance he stated there are four important functions of
1."Deviance affirms cultural values and norms. Any definition of
virtue rests on an opposing idea of vice: There can be no good
without evil and no justice without crime".
2.Deviance defines moral boundaries, people learn right from
wrong by defining people as deviant.
3.A serious form of deviance forces people to come together
and react in the same way against it.
4.Deviance pushes society's moral boundaries which, in turn
leads to social change. Rosa Parkss act of deviance in
Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955 led to the U.S. Supreme Courts
declaration that segregation on public transportation was
Strain Theory/Anomie Theory:

Robert K. Merton discussed deviance in terms of goals and

means as part of his strain/anomie theory. Where Durkheim
states that anomie is the confounding of social norms, Merton
goes further and states that anomie is the state in which social
goals and the legitimate means to achieve them do not
correspond. He postulated that an individual's response to
societal expectations and the means by which the individual
pursued those goals were useful in understanding deviance
Robert Merton's ways of adapting to strain:

- conformity accept society's goals and the socially
acceptable means of achieving them (e.g.: monetary success is
gained through hard work).

- innovation: Innovators accept society's goals, but reject

socially acceptable means of achieving them. (e.g.: monetary
success is gained through crime). Merton claims that
innovators are mostly those who have been socialised with
similar world views to conformists, but who have been denied
the opportunities they need to be able to legitimately achieve
society's goals

-ritualism: refers to the inability to reach a cultural goal

thus embracing the rules to the point where the people in
question lose sight of their larger goals in order to feel
respectable. Ritualists reject society's goals, but accept
society's institutionalised means. Ritualists are most commonly
found in dead-end, repetitive jobs, where they are unable to
achieve society's goals but still adhere to society's means of
achievement and social norms

retreatism: Retreatists reject the society's goals and the

legitimate means to achieve them. Merton sees them as true
deviants, as they commit acts of deviance to achieve things
that do not always go along with society's values

-rebellion: is somewhat similar to retreatism, because the

people in question also reject both the cultural goals and
means, but they go one step further to a "counterculture" that
supports other social orders that already exist (rule breaking).

Structural Functional Theory

Another sociological framework, the structural functional
theory, focuses on society as a whole rather than the
individuals within society.
Deviance is a normal and necessary part of any society.
mile Durkheim said that deviance fulfills four functions
for society: affirmation of cultural norms and values,
clarification of right and wrong, unification of others in
society, and bringing about social change.
According to Robert Mertons strain theory of deviance,
when people are prevented from achieving culturally
approved goals through institutionalized means, they
experience strain that can lead to deviance.
Denied access to institutionalized means to success,
poor people turn toillegitimate opportunity structures.

identified five reactions to goals and

means:conformists, innovators, ritualists, ret
reatists, and rebels.
Symbolic Interaction Theory
refers to the patterns of communication, interpretation and
adjustment between individuals. Both the verbal and nonverbal responses that a listener then delivers are similarly
constructed in expectation of how the original speaker will
Edwin Sutherland's differential association:
Sutherland outlined some very basic points in his theory, such
as the idea that the learning comes from the interactions
between individuals and groups, using communication of
symbols and ideas. When the symbols and ideas about
deviation are much more favorable than unfavorable, the
individual tends to take a favorable view upon deviance and
will resort to more of these behaviors.
Neutralisation Theory:
Gresham Sykes andDavid Matza's neutralization theory
explains how deviants justify their deviant behaviour by

providing alternative definitions of their actions and by

providing explanations, to themselves and others, for the lack
of guilt for actions in particular situations.
There are five major types of neutralization:
Denial of responsibility: the deviant believes s/he was
helplessly propelled into the deviance, and that under the
same circumstances, any other person would resort to similar
Denial of injury: the deviant believes that the action caused no
harm to other individuals or to the society, and thus the
deviance is not morally wrong
Denial of the victim: the deviant believes that individuals on
the receiving end of the deviance were deserving of the results
due to the victim's lack of virtue or morals
Condemnation of the condemners: the deviant believes
enforcement figures or victims have the tendency to be equally
deviant or otherwise corrupt, and as a result, are hypocrites to
stand against
Appeal to higher loyalties: the deviant believes that there are
loyalties and values that go beyond the confines of the law;
morality, friendships, income, or traditions may be more
important to the deviant than legal boundaries
The symbolic interactionist perspective is one of the
main frameworks that sociologists use to analyze society.
Symbolic interactionists view society as a byproduct of
everyday social interaction.
Edwin Sutherlands theory of differential
association asserts that deviance is a learned behavior
that people learn from the different groups with which they
associate. Some people form deviant subcultures based on
a shared deviance.
According to William Recklesss control theory, people
have two control systems to keep them from acting outside
societys norms: inner and outer controls. Inner
controls are internalized thought processes such as
conscience.Outer controls include people who influence
Travis Hirschi elaborated on control theory and identified

four factors that make individuals more or less likely to

commit deviance. These factors
areattachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.
Howard Beckers labeling theory posits that deviant
behavior is that which society labels as deviant.
Edwin Lemert distinguished between primary deviance,
the initial act, andsecondary deviance, the repeated
deviance that occurs in response to peoples reaction to the
primary deviance.
William Chamblisss study of boys he called
the Saints and Roughnecksshowed the power of labeling.

Labelling Theory
Frank Tannenbaum and Howard S. Becker created and
developed the labelling theory, which is a core facet of
symbolic interactionism, and often referred to as Tannenbaum's
"dramatization of evil." Becker believed that "social groups
create deviance by making the rules whose infraction
constitutes deviance."
Labeling is a process of social reaction by the "social
audience,"(stereotyping) the people in society exposed to,
judging and accordingly defining (labeling) someone's behavior
as deviant or otherwise. It has been characterized as the
"invention, selection, manipulation of beliefs which define
conduct in a negative way and the selection of people into
these categories [....]
Labeling theory, consequently, suggests that deviance is
caused by the deviant's being labeled as morally inferior, the
deviant's internalizing the label and finally the deviant's acting
according to that specific label(in other words, you label the
"deviant" and they act accordingly). As time goes by, the
"deviant" takes on traits that constitute deviance by
committing such deviations as conform to the label (so you as
the audience have the power to not label them and you have
the power to stop the deviance before it ever occurs by not
labeling them) . Individual and societal preoccupation with the
label, in other words, leads the deviant individual to follow a
self-fulfilling prophecy of abidance to the ascribed label
This theory, while very much symbolically interactionist, also

has elements of conflict theory, as the dominant group has the

power to decide what is deviant and acceptable, and enjoys the
power behind the labeling process.
In legal terms, people are often wrongly accused, yet many of
them must live with the ensuant stigma like the recent case of
the man who has been released from prison after having been
given a jail sentence for 2 years.
The medicalization of deviance, the transformation of moral
and legal deviance into a medical condition, is an important
shift that has transformed the way society views deviance.The
labelling theory helps to explain this shift, as behaviour that
used to be judged morally are now being transformed into an
objective clinical diagnosis. For example, people with drug
addictions are considered "sick" instead of "bad"
Primary and secondary deviation
Edwin Lemert developed the idea of primary and secondary
deviation as a way to explain the process of labeling. Primary
deviance is any general deviance before the deviant is labeled
as such. Secondary deviance is any action that takes place
after primary deviance as a reaction to the institutional
identification of the person as a deviant
Control Theory
This theory asks why people refrain from deviant or criminal
behaviour, instead of why people commit deviant or criminal
behaviour, according to Travis Hirschi. The control theory
developed when norms emerge to deter deviant behaviour.
Without this "control", deviant behaviour would happen more
often. This leads to conformity and groups. People will conform
to a group when they believe they have more to gain from
conformity than by deviance. If a strong bond is achieved there
will be less chance of deviance than if a weak bond has
occurred. Hirschi argued a person follows the norms because
they have a bond to society. The bond consists of four
positively correlated factors: opportunity, attachment, belief,
and involvement. When any of these bonds are weakened or
broken one is more likely to act in defiance.
Conflict Theory:
The conflict theory is Karl Marxs theoretical paradigm
that views society as struggle between groups over limited

Conflict theory identifies two categories of people in
industrialized societies: the capitalist class and
the working class. Those in positions of wealth and power
make up the capitalist class. The working class sells its labor
to the capitalist class.
The two classes are always in conflict with one another.
Capitalists establish the norms of society; laws support
Members of the capitalist class are less likely to be
considered deviant because they make laws to benefit
Members of the elite are more likely to commit whitecollar crime, nonviolent crime committed in the course of
their occupations.
According to Alexander Liazos, people we commonly
label as deviant are also relatively powerless.
Karl Marx

he gives priority to economic inequalities, due to conflict

between social classes

this conflict can be overt or hidden

it is a struggle for power for limited resources

there are 2 general categories engaging in conflict for

limited resources the capitalist class and the working class

those who control the productive property (land, factories,

equipment) use their economic power to dominate other
spheres like culture, religion, education, politics and justice

capitalist = those in positions of wealth and power, who

own means of production

working-class = powerless individuals who sell their labour

to the capitalist class.

Laws supposedly benefit everyone but mostly the general

interest is a fiction to cover up class interest

the system the capitalists created defines deviance

differently for each group. The elite can afford expensive
lawyers and might know the law-makers on a first name basis.

Justice and fair play are public relations that protect

private property and treat transgressions against the upper

class more seriously than those against the lower classes.

Elites want to maintain control so they define what is

deviant in order to benefit themselves and deflect attention
from their own behaviour. The greater the power differentials
and inequalities, especially class the greater the conflict.

Group conflict theory: Max Weber: conflict can also be

because of religion, race, ethnicity and more. It is eternal.

Feminist theory: gender was one inequality that didn't

receive much attention.
Anomie: a "condition in which society provides little moral
guidance to individuals". It is the breakdown of social bonds
between an individual and the community e.g. if under unruly
scenarios resulting in fragmentation of social identity and
rejection of self-regulatory values It was popularized by French
sociologist mile Durkheim in his influential
book Suicide (1897). Durkheim never uses the term
normlessness; rather, he describes anomie as "derangement"
it does not come about because of an absence of norms
but because of the existence of many sets of norms which
means that they are not closely binding on the person.

influence of media a
Rational choice theory: the decision to be deviant depends
upon a cost/benefit analysis of sanctions (punishments)
Deviant acts can be assertions of individuality and identity, and
thus as rebellions against group norms of the dominant culture
and in favour of a sub-culture.
Deviance affirms cultural values and norms. It also clarifies
moral boundaries, promotes social unity by creating an
us/them dichotomy, encourages social change, and provides
jobs to control deviance. "Certain factors of personality are
theoretically and empirically related to workplace deviance,
such as work environment, and individual differences.
Taboo is a strong social form of behaviour considered deviant
by a majority. To speak of it publicly is condemned, and

therefore, almost entirely avoided. The term taboo comes

from the Tongan word tapu meaning "under prohibition", "not
allowed", or "forbidden". Some forms of taboo are prohibited
under law and transgressions may lead to severe penalties.
Other forms of taboo result in shame, disrespect and
humiliation. Taboo is not universal but does occur in the
majority of societies. Some of the examples include murder,
rape, incest, or child molestation.
Howard Becker, a labeling theorist, touched basis with different
types of deviant behaviors. There are four different types of
deviant behaviors falling into different categories.

accusing" an individual which falls under others

perceiving you to be obtaining obedient or deviant behaviors.
2."Pure deviance", which falls under perceiving one to
participate in deviant and rule-breaking behavior.
3."Conforming", which falls under not being perceived as
deviant, but merely participating in the social norms that are
distributed within societies, can also be placed into the
category with pure deviance and falsely accused.
4."Secret deviance" which is when the individual is not
perceived as deviant or participating in any rule-breaking
Sigmund Freud posited that incest and patricide were the only
two universal taboos and formed the basis of civilization.
[10] However, although cannibalism, in-group murder,
andincest are taboo in the majority of societies, modern
research has found exceptions for each and no taboo is
presently known to be universal

Ways of measuring crime:

uniform crime reports

self reported surveys

victimisation surveys
World Systems theory:
cause of deviance lies in global economy, inequality between
countries, capitalism has increased ineequality between core
and periphery nations.
Alternatives to prison:
shunning like in Amish culture, meidung,

Criminal Atavism: Cesare Lambroso: suggested that

criminals are distinguished from noncriminals by multiple
physical anomalies.
Goffman's book Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled
Identity examines how, to protect their identities when they
depart from approved standards of behaviour or appearance,
people manage impressions of themselves mainly through
concealment. Stigma pertains to the shame that a person may
feel when he or she fails to meet other people's standards, and

to the fear of being discredited which causes the individual

not to reveal his or her shortcomings. Thus, a person with a
criminal record may simply withhold that information from fear of
being judged by whomever that person happens to encounter
Social stigma is the extreme disapproval of (or discontent
with) a person or group on socially characteristic grounds that
are perceived, and serve to distinguish them, from other
members of a society. Stigma may then be affixed to such a
person, by the greater society, who differs from their cultural
Social stigma can result from the perception (rightly or
wrongly) of mental illness, physical disabilities, diseases such
as leprosy (see leprosy stigma),[1 illegitimacy, sexual orientation,
gender identity, skin tone,education, nationality, ethnicity,
ideology, religion (or lack of religion) or criminality. Attributes
associated with social stigma often vary depending on the
geopolitical and corresponding socio-political contexts
employed by society, in different parts of the world.
According to


there are three forms of social stigma:


or external deformations, such as scars, physical

manifestations of anorexia nervosa, leprosy (leprosy stigma), or
of a physical disability or social disability, such asobesity.
2.Deviations in personal traits, including mental illness, drug
addiction, alcoholism, and criminal background are stigmatized
in this way.
3."Tribal stigmas" are traits, imagined or real, of ethnic
group, nationality, or of religion that is deemed to be a
deviation from the prevailing normative ethnicity, nationality or
Chambliss and the Saints and Roughnecks
In the 1970s, sociologist William Chambliss studied two
groups of high school boys to find out how strongly labels
affected them. The eight boys in the group Chambliss called
the Saints came from middle-class families. Society expected
them to do well in life. The six boys in the other group, the
Roughnecks, came from lower-class families in poorer
neighborhoods. The community generally expected them to
fail. Both groups engaged in deviant behaviorskipping school,

fighting, and vandalizing propertybut suffered different

consequences. The teachers, the police, and the community
excused the Saints behavior because they believed the Saints
were good boys overall. The same people saw the Roughnecks
as bad and prosecuted them for their behavior more often.
Years later, all but one of the Saints had gone to college and
subsequently into professional careers. Two Roughnecks went
to college on athletic scholarships, graduated, and became
coaches. Two never graduated from high school, and the other
two ended up in prison.
Chambliss discovered that the boys social class had much to
do with the publics perception of them and the ways the public
perceived their acts of deviance. He also hypothesized that a
deviant label can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. The
Roughnecks had heard for so long that they were never going
to amount to much that they behaved in accordance with the
negative expectations others had of them.