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THE

COUNCILS OF THE CHUKCH


C0I..C01.L.

FROM TUE

COUNCIL OF JERUSALeIm LdIjIIV^VIv^

N.YORK. y
COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE

A.D. 381,

CHIEFLY AS TO

THEIR

CONSTITUTION,
BUT ALSO AS TO

THEIR

OBJECTS

AND HISTORY

BY THE

REV.

E. B.

PUSEY,

Rr.GIUS PROFESSOR OF HF.BREW,

D.D.

AND CANON OF CHRIST CHURCH.

The things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also.
2 Tim.

SOLD BY

JOHN HENRY PARKER, OXFORD,


AXD
AND

J.

F.

377, STRAND,

LONDOX

RIVINGTON, WATERLOO PLACE.


MDCCCLVII.

ii.

2.

A^^^"

^^n

BRISTOL
nUNTED AT THE

S.

MICIIAEL's HILL PRINTING TRESS.

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER

I.

Needs of the Church must be remedied by the Church

Various meanings of the "lay element"

Statement by Scotch Bishops, vague

Real question

The

10

at issue

Bishops, elected by the

of the laity

laity, the

lawful representatives

owned

Appeals," (22 Henry

8. c.

ib.

Sufficiency of English Bishops


straint of

the

in

Act "for

re

12

12.)

Bishops of English Church chosen by the

laity

13

Civil legislation on temporal matters of the Church, no part

of the Bishop's

....
office

Decisions on doctrine, part of the office of the Clergy


Scriptural proof

15

17
ib.

Office of Bishop in teaching not arbitrary, but to bear wit

20

ness to what he had received

The

office

of teaching through Synods far more weighty than

22

preaching in Churches

Bad precedent in America, set in bad


The inspired Apostles, the Authority
salem

all

Voice of

25

times

.....
in the

Council of Jeru-

besides. Clergy and people, obeyed them as the

God

21

.ij

--^

'-*'

28

CONTENTS.

Presbyters have the same inherent authority of teaching as

35

Bishops, subject to their control

CHAPTER

II.

Proof that Synods consisted of Bishops only, must be incidental

34

various sorts of proof

Emperors disclaimed
Synods of Bishops,

all authority as to the faith.

36

system of the Church.

37

earliest

Antiquity of Apostolic Canon, enjoining annual Councils o

Bishops on

faith

38

and discipline

Election of Bishops

made by

Bishops, in presence, and with.

40

the testimony and goodwill, of the People

Frequency of Elections, and

Canons

to

to

of Synods

47
.

48

Synods through persecutions.

49

prevent Bishops abusing their power

Hindrances

Not

so,

to large

50

hold Synods of Bishops, against law of Church

Extraordinary Synods
as to

in

second Century

51

the time of the celebration of Easter by Synods

Palestine,

in

Rome, Pontus, Gaul, Osrhoene

Ep. of Bishop of Corinth on

ib.

subject

san^.e

ib.

52

Synod of Bishops of Asia

....

Bishops of Palestine

ib.

Subscription of Bishops to the condemnation of the


nists

Synods mentioned by the Synodicon

Author had access

to writers

Synod

Pergamus, against Colorbasus

55

the Sicilian Bishops, against Heracleon

in to refute heresy,

Arabia

Second Coimcil

in

ib.

ib.

of Eastern Bishops against Cerdon

Origen complains of neglect even of Presbyters

in

54

no longer extant

all

Council

53

Synod of
at

Monta

ib.

was

caller

not as part of the Synod

5G

back Beryllus

ib.

to bring

Arabia

Council of Alexandria on Origen

57
ib.

CONTENTS.

Second Council on Origen


Council of

Roman Synod.
back Ammonius
brought
Alexandria

Origen condemned

in a

Synod of Achaia condemns Valesians

Council of Africa under Agrippinus

Councils at Iconium and Synnada and

many

other places

Council of Bishops forbidding Clerks to be Guardians


Councils decree that "causes should be heard where th
offence had been committed"

Summary

of this period

CONTENTS.

VI

Unauthoritative influence of Christian laymen

88

Summary

89

of S. Cyprian's times

CHAPTER
From

IV.

martyrdom A. D. 258,

S. Cyprian's

Nice, A. D. 325.

Council at Rome.

Council of

to the

91-114

.91
92
.95

Three Councils of Antioch against Paul of Samosata


Council of Eliberis about A. D. 305
Donatist Synod at Cirta

ib.

Second Council of Donatist Bishops, A. D. 311

ib.

Council of Aries from the whole West

97

Councils of Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea, Laodicea.

99

Council of Alexandria against Meletius

Arius

Appeal of Eusebius
where
Arian Synod

in

Synod of Bithynia,

in Palestine

.100
.101

to

Bishops every

ib.

ib.

Council at Nice from Europe, Africa, Asia

Subsequent influence of Council of Nice

Fourfold subjects, on which

it

decided.

General subjects of Canons of Nice

.102
.

Synod of Bishops made Court of Appeal every where

CHAPTER

109

.111
.112
.

113

V.

Councils between 1st General Council at Nice and the 2nd

General Council

at Constantinople

Character of heretical Councils of


their failure

A. D. 381

this period,

.115

and causes of
.

ib.

Heretical Emperors attacked the Church through Bishops

118

List of Bishops, the chief patrons and protectors of Arius

121

125

Synod of Alexandria

to consecrate S. Athanasius

of Arians at Nicomedia to depose orthodox Eustathius

Synod of Tyre

ib.

.128

CONTENTS.

Vll

Arian Council of Constantinople A. D. 340


Council of Alexandria in behalf of S. Athanasius A. D. 341
Council of Antioch to frame Creed of Dedication

Council to frame fourth Eusebian Creed

Arian Council to frame Macrostich Creed

Roman Synod

to acquit S. Athanasius.

Council of Milan
Council at Cologne
Council of Sardica

summoned by Emperors

Ai-ian Council of Philippopolis

Council of Jerusalem to receive S. Athanasius

by Arian Bishops of the Eparchy

S, Cyril consecrated

Catholic Council at Milan

Eusebian Council

at

Sirmium

at

Simnium

Councils of Cordova and Jerusalem to receive judgments of

Council of Sardica

Arian Council against S. Athanasius

Arian Council of Aries A. D. 353


Council of Antioch against S. Athanasius A. D. 354.
Council at Milan A. D. 355

....

Council of Beziers A. D. 356


Council of Sirmium, and

Homoean

Creeds, Semi-Arian, Arian and

its

Spanish Council condemns Hosius, Galilean acquits him


Resistance of Liberius

He

offers that

Synod should be
fall to

Anomcean Council

Antioch

at

costless to the state

his fall

Bishops of Campania

Liberius intimates his

Re-action at Semi-Arian Synod of Ancyra, aided by letters


of French and perhaps English Bishops

Object of Constantius

in gathering

Arians obtain division of Synod

new Synods
at Ariminum
.

numbers

Arian or eminent Bishops


Council of Seleucia

fe

CONTENTS.

VIH

Appeal of

S. Cyril to larger

193

Synod

Arian Council of Constantinople re-alters Creed

204

206

Council of Antioch to elect S. Meletius

Arian Council of Antioch


Julian's policy in restoring

207

211

Orthodox Bishops

218

Council of Ariminum rescinded by Councils

Council of Alexandria received

It

all

but authors of heresy

cleared up doctrinal use of the word Hypostasis

215

gave the care of the East to Asterius, of the West

216

Council of Ariminum, condemned by Synods


Spain, and Gaul

First Council of Paris

A. D. 360

to

Eusebius

in

Greece,

219

Bishops of Italy write to the Bisliops of Illyricum, to join


rescinding Council of

218

in

221

Ariminum

S. Athanasius obtains subscription to Council of Alexandria

through Synodical

letters

from almost

all

the

Church

222

Contrast of the issue of Councils of Nice and Ariminum

225

Synods of Macedonian and Arian Bishops

228

Council of Alexandria to instruct the Emperor Jovian

229

Council of Antioch to maintain Creed of Nice

230

Macedonian Synod of Lampsacus

232

Valens employs Synod of Arian Bishops against Semi-Arians

Semi-Arian Synods from Smyrna,


lia,

Pisidia, Isauria,

234

Lycia, returning to the faith

Synodical letter of Liberius and Bps. of the West

Synods

in Sicily

and Tyana to restore the

Synod of Tarsus, stopped by Valens


Anomoean Synod at Sigedin

faith

235

236

237

ib.

238

Synods under Damasus


Council of Alexandria warns against Auxentius

239

Its Synodical Epistle to the African Bishops

Council of Bishops from Italy

and Gaul

at

ib.

Rome

to

hear the

240

cause of Auxentius and set forth the faith


Its Encyclical letter to the

233

Pamphy-

Bishops

in

Illyricum

Council of Antioch confirms letters of Western Bishops

ib.

242

CONTENTS.
PAGE
S. Basil's efforts to re-unite the
S. Basil labours

and his Bishops

to bring S. Meletius

communion with

243

Church by consent of Bishops


into

Athanasius and the Bishops of the West

S.

256

Councils and Creeds of Arians


S. Basil's

course of peace-making

S. Basil's yearly

Synod

Synod

257

at Satala

258

Synod of Bishops

259

at Nicopolis

Letters of

communion everywhere given by Bishops

261

262

Diocese sub-divided, to gain weight through Bishops

Bishops of Pontus regained

Lycia restored

to

263

to S. Basil

communion by Bishops and

Synod of Arian Bishops gathered


fathers

was

Marcellus' petition to

to

265

priests

268

against S. Basil

Letter of Synod of Iconium, explaining,

by Nicene

why Creed

set forth

2G7

be enlarged

Synod held by

270

S. Athanasius

Seemingly not accepted by him, though accepted by the

E
271

gyptian Bishops

Council at

Rome

against Apollinaris

Synodical letter of another Council of

Bishops

276

Rome

to

call in civil authority to enforce their

Emperors

ib.

279

judgments

281

Proposals of Council granted by Gratian

by Synods

282

eminent Bishops there

283

Ecclesiastical causes to be heard

Council of Valence

244

254

Councils held on Eustathius of Sebastia

First Council of Carthage under S. Gratus

284

Notices of previous Councils

286

Donatist Councils and heresy

287

Anabaptism made open question by Donatist Council

288

Donatist Councils

290

Novatian Councils

291

Origin of Priscillianism

292
293

Council of Saragossa
S.

Ambrose holds Council

in

295

behalf of one traduced

State of the faith in Constantinople just before the second

General Council

297

CONTENTS.

Maximus

....

the Cynic, his irregular consecration and expulsion

Edicts of Theodosius in behalf of the


heretics

Eminent Bishops

faith,

and against

Meletius President

Macedonian Bishops
Principles of election of Bishops

by Bishops

Creed of Nice enlarged at Constantinople out of existing Creeds


Canons enjoin Bishops not

to interfere with each other

new Rome, placed next


Canon iii. at Chalcedon

Constantinople, as

Expansion of

"Tome

Why

of the Westerns,"

its

to

Rome

meaning

only 150 Bishops present

Creed of Council received

Canon

iii,

in

West, but slowly

Actual precedence of Bishop of Constantinople


Council asks Emperor to confirm

Emperor names Bishops,

its

Acts

as centres of

communion

Council at Aquileia

Emperor

calls first a general, then a partial.

Council

Council of Bishops of Italy and Legates of Synods


Synodical letter to Bishops

The Council of Aquileia


demned, and

who had

sent deputies

asks Emperors to remove those con-

to assemble Council at Alexandria

....

Proposed Council to

settle disputes at

Full powers of Legates

of Italy

Antioch

second letter of Council of Bishops

Council of Constantinople, A.D. 482

Bishops provided with proxies for definite objects


It confirms the

Synodical

Council of Antioch

letter

and Confession of

faith

from

Damasus

against Apollinarians

Synodical letter against Timotheus and Apollinaris

Bishops meet at Rome, on Apollinaris


Council of Constantinople, A.D. 383.
Separate Councils

in

East and West

fail,

because separate

Council of Constantinople gives rest to the Church

298

PREFACE.
The
begun

following sheets are a fragment of a large work


in 1850, but interrupted

through the circum-

some times by the necessity of perothers, because it seemed a more

stances of the times,


sonal defence, at

pressing duty to defend some one doctrine, or to meet

changes which menaced, as


this place, as a place of

feared, the usefulness of

education.

studied, with a

view to that work, the history of the Councils of 1000


years.

For Spain,

studied especially the history and

character of the Councils of Toledo, as

learned out of themselves.


cils,

in addition to

analyzed

and

all

it

to

is

For our Anglo-Saxon Coun-

any data which history furnishes,

our remains of Anglo-Saxon law,

ecclesiastical.

be

For the

French

Councils,

civil

the

account given of the Ordo Palatii by Adelhard, ("a


wise and aged relative of Charlemagne, and Abbot of

Corbey, whom," Hincmar says,


the

first

among

the

first

^^

in

my

Councillors,")

youth

became

saw

a clue

PREFACE.

xii

to distinguish between the

Phicita or

Parliaments,

which are often called Concilia on account of the presence of Bishops, or Conventus, and the pure Ecclesiastical

To

Councils, which consisted

this end, I

solely of

Bishops.

examined whatever accounts remain

of the Gallican Placita, or Conventus, or Concilia.


After repeated endeavours, however, to resume the

work, and repeated interruptions, the fleeting years of


man's

life

admonished me

would do aught
on

besides,

religious edification.

to contract

my

plan,

if I

bearing more immediately


I

determined, therefore, to

confine myself to the Councils of the Primitive Church.


I

had printed the following pages, and had made

some progress in the history of the Councils down


to the limit which I had fixed for myself, the close
of the Council of Chalcedon, A. D. 451, when ihe

Goode compelled me again


And now, not knowing when

personal attack of Mr.

to

break off the work.

or

whether
it

shall be able, with health, for the time

so please

God, impaired, to complete what

already written,

have thought

it

if

have

best to publish

apart, this account of the Councils of the

first

most

important period.

began the history of the mixed Councils of the


kingdoms of German origin, in France, Spain, and our
I

own Anglo-Saxon

times, with the desire of satisfying

minds, discontented with the relations of the Church


and the State. I wished to shew that the only authority of the State,

which the Church of England has

ever formally recognised, had been recognised in times.

PREFACE.
lonoo

xiii

antecedent to the Reformation, times, with whose

whom

was writing, would


be satisfied. I began the work, in order to shew that
we had not conceded too much. But so rapid are the
revolutions of these times, that I had to continue it,

precedent the minds, for

with the view of shewing that those same times afI began,
forded no precedent for conceding more.
again, then

anew from

the

first,

and have endeavoured,

in this portion of the work, to exhibit the evidences

furnished by the earliest period of the Church, that

matters of doctrine were always exclusively decided or


attested by those, whom the Apostles left to succeed
to such portion of their office, as uninspired

discharge,

the

men

Bishops of the Universal

could

Church.

But, as nothing could be more dry than to treat the


history of the Councils of the Church, with the view
of shewing simply, of

whom

those Councils were com-

soon quitted the form of direct proof, and have

posed,

rather

left

the history to impress the fact, which appears

have incorporated, as much as I


could, the language of the original writers or documents, thinking that their evidence would be given
in its every page.

most unsuspiciously

my

in their

own

immediate object was limited,

words.
I

Although

trust that I have,

in this way, given an intelligible history of the


cils

of the Church

down

General Council of
Arianism finally

The

Coun-

to the close of the second

Constantinople,

before

which

fell.

period, although of primary importance, being

limited to three centuries and a half,

thought

it

right

PREFACE.

xiv

to give the above statement of those larger labours, in

order to shew, that although

have given the evidence

of one period only, the conviction itself rests on the


history of

1000

years.

In the next period,

have

dropped altogether the form of proof, and have been


simply writing the history of those Councils, as furnished by the original authorities.

must

leave, with myself, in the

CHRIST CHURCH,
Easter, 1857.

Its

Hands

completion

of God.

ERRATA.
Page

32.

1.

15 for as brothers, may, read as brothers they,

note, for

A.Bp. read ABp.

186.

heading, /or Son, read Scr.

205.

title,

for Arians, rend Aetius.

249. for Phsebadius, read Phoebadius.

THE SYNODS
OF

THE ANCIENT CHURCH


COI..COT.L

T.IRRAR^
Statement of the question asI to the admission
OF the laity into the SYNon!!k.OF ^HE -fefei^rRcii^
~
AND argument FROM HOLY ScRIPTtmE.

The

wliicli I

and

of

line

its

'

defence of the Cliurcli of England in

was engaged, when the Gorham judgment


consequent evib burst upon her, consisted

however unsatisfactory many of our


relations to the State are, the Church of England had
not, by any concession -^Tung fi'om her, abandoned
in this,

any

that

trust

committed to her by God.

there are and have been,

Whatever

evils

the Church has often had

them before and therefore the endurance


of them by the Church of England, as the lesser of
two evils, is no justification of the hard imputations
to endm^e

of being "a State Church," "a creature of the State,"

which enemies or discontented sons have cast upon


In pursuance of this plan, I was engaged in
her.
shewing that "in

later centuries, the affairs of the

Some grounds for a

legislature

for

the

Church

Church have at thnes been arranged in mixed councils, in which what was specially Ecclesiastical was
transacted

by the

And

Ecclesiastics."

hereby I wish-

ed to shew that there was nothing wrong in

itself in

the genuine constitution of the Church of England

or in the relation of Convocation to Parliament, that

the Civil Assembly gave a

decided by the ecclesiastical body.

astical matters

With the

present anomalous state of things, in which

Parliament, composed as
(it

may

sanction to ecclesi-

civil

be)

it

is

of persons of any or

of no definite religious

Church

for the discipline of the

fliith,

legislates

at least, of the

or,

Clergy, the

Church of England has nothing

except that

it

it

endures

it,

intolerable, or justice shall

The Gorham
ple's eyes to

to do

until injustice shall

amend

make

it.

decision to a great extent opened peo-

the anomaly of our actual position.

It

shcAved that any doctrine, however clearly expressed


in the Prayer Book, was, for any judicial piuyose or

mercy of a Court, two


members need be members of the

as a matter of discipline, at the

only of whose

Church, upon whose doctrines they were to decide.

Those two moreover need not

sit

in

any given

cause, as on that occasion they actually did not

On

Church,

on her own

principles,

has long been forcibly silenced.

years

ought to

And

speak,

even now,

if

any whisper on matters of


would soon cause her hundred and thirty-eight

allowed to assemble at
faith

sit.

the other hand, the organ through which the

of silence

to

all,

be

renewed,

so

long

as the

distinct from rarliamenf.

and State

present relation of Chnrcli

statesmen any power

sliall

give to

to silence her.

Bnt apart from actual or future questions of fiith,


the

very enlargement of

life

within the

Church,

which people must

take,

whether for or against the truth, requires the

more

and the consequent

interest

a legitimate, and so a

urgently,

safe,

instrument of

The needs of the Church are now confessed.


owned that they must have remedies. The cries

action.
It is

of our neglected poor,

which have long reached the

Most High, now at last, through His grace,


The Church has relinquished all repierce our OAvn.
ears of the

on the

liance

But
men,

it is,

state,

to speak plainly, grotesque,

-svithout consulting the

for her.

It

own work.
when states-

to perform for her her

Church, would

legislate

was with a strange, although well-meaning

simplicity, that a

young member of the lower house,

proposed at once to double her Episcopate, without

having ascertained that her present Bishops, her Clergy


or her People, wished for any such sudden and almost
organic change.
w^ell-disposed,

Such

proposals,

but inexperienced

indicate what, in an age of


likely to

be devised by

on the part of the

and uninformed,

unexampled

activity, is

those of other minds and

tempers and rehgion.


Again, one Bishop was censured before this miscellaneous body, because he did examine a Candidate
before institution; another was blamed, because he,

having examined one,


not to

have done

was supposed,

so.

B 2

on hearsay,

Neil) organization needed


It is plain, tliat the

to

recover

Church alone can adapt

to the varied wants of the people.

herself

She cannot be

adapted to them, as a mere machine, by those external

For they can neither understand the needs

to her.

which she has

to meet, nor her

own

inherent powers,

nor the way to apply them, nor the conditions under

The mind of
the Church must, under the guidance of God the
Holy Ghost, remedy the deficiencies of the Church.
The great body of Churchmen, then, who think at
which they can be healthfully apphed.

on these

all

subjects,

are convinced that,

sooner or

the Church must meet in her Synods, to

later,

remedy

the evils which hinder or check the fulfilment of her

Divine mission, and to develope and apply her powers.

She herself ought to debate upon remedies, and


should not leave to individual

We

whole.

towns;

them
our

work of the

need Missions among the poor of our

organized bodies

of

Clergy living

among

and lanes of
which should re-

licensed preachers in the streets

cities

brotherhoods, or guilds,

place socialism
office

effort the

or

sisterhoods of mercy,

of mercy, which our

Lord

wills to

any

for

be exercised

towards His members, or towards those His outcast


ones
to

whom

Him.

love, for love of

We

Him, might bring back

need Clergy to penetrate our mines,

to migrate with our emigrants, to shift with our shift-

ing population, to grapple with our manufacturing

system as the Apostles did with the slave-system of


the

ancient world,

Delta's

to secure in Christ's

Name

of population, which the everflowing,

the

over-

parts of England from Satan.

spreading stream of our English race


casting

his flock,

is

the relation of the Parish Priest to

lovely as are the

and gentle

Village Pastors,

radiating from those

village

homes of our

are

the influences

as

who

" Point to Heaven, and lead the

is

continually

up.

Beautiful as

yet

is

there

now an appalUng need

zation for a harder,


warfare,

if,

more

by God's

principalities

"

of further organi-

self-denying, self-sacrificing

we would wrest from

help,

and powers of

His kingdom,

way

of which,

the

those portions of

evil,

while unregarded by the

Church, they have been taking fuU possession.

The

present system of the English

Church

is

well

adapted to retain the ground, which our forefathers


of old won, not to recover that which those in the
last

generation

hand down the


ceived

lost.

stereotyped system can

Our

which has once been

impression,

with difficulty can

it

be adapted to

re-

any

The le<ral forms which fence in our resTilar


system, cramp and resist its extension. Bodies which
chano-e.

have

far less of spiritual life

than the Church, can yet

adapt themselves to newly arising wants, more readily

than the Church.

A Wesleyan

chapel rises far more

easily than a Church, even because

The Church

appears.

Coming

is

it

easily dis-

built to await our Lord's

but a generation or two

may have gone

meet their Lord "Whom they kncAv


reared.

more

not,

before

it

to
is

Large remedies can only

The

Church

he devised by the lohole

and the deep

gigantic evils of our crowded cities

degradation of their inhabitants cannot even be miti-

gated by ordinary remedies.

on a small

and

scale

carried out

and

as local plans,

by the Bishop of the

ordination to the Church, he

may

which Christ
o"\vn

Extraordinary remedies,

is

may

be devised
In sub-

Diocese.

free to use the

give him, to

wisdom

order within his

Diocese whatever he believes to be well-pleasing

to his Lord,

whatever
cided

is

^liaving to

account to

Him

Alone.

But

must be deour remedies are to be com-

to be applied to the whole,

by the whole.

If

mensurate to the whole extent and compass of our


evils, if they

who

are to unite the hearts of those

support them, as the heart of one man,

if

should

they are to

proportioned to the

call forth self-sacrificing efforts,

and breadth
ought to com-

greatness of the needs in the whole length

of our land, then the Church herself

mend them

The anxiety

to her children.

Church should

fulfil

both her

offices

viz.

that the

the main-

tenance of the faith which our Lord committed to


her,

and the guardianship of the

given to her keeping, makes


or later, she

mode

wiU be

it

souls

which

He

has

certain that, sooner

called to deliberate

on the best

of securing both.

Scarcely two*^ years have elapsed, since any very

body of the Clergy desired the restoration of


Convocation and now, with the lightning-rapidity,
which characterises these times, its functions are anlarge

^ Writtcu iu 1852.

Various meanings of
ticipated

it is

the " lay-element.

assumed that

it

will reform

"

itself,

and

that part of that reformation will be the introduction

of the

some way, into

laity, in

deliberations, or

its

in connection "with them.

Things very different

are, indeed,

intended by what

has already received a sort of Proper Name, "the lay

Some contemplate

element."

Parhament

in

some

a lay-body allowed by

and degree

sort

which Parliament,

civil functions,

and must be constituted

with

as

it is

is

no

lon-

reference

to

the

for civil purposes,

ger calculated to discharge

its

Church, and so

place, as to questions affecting the

performing

occupy

to

Others look upon the "lay element," as a

Church.

means of ascertaining the minds of the laity, and securing harmony between them and their pastors, so
that, at least no change in what might any-where be
the existing state of thmgs, or any restoration should
be made without the concurrence of the

Some

laity.

look upon the introduction of the laity as a mere check

on an excessive ritualism or formalism, which they


think a portion of the Clergy would,
selves,

upon

be

unmse enough

this assent

to introduce.

on the part of the

rent right of the faithfid,

the

Church.

Some

i.

e.

United States as our model

new

the

certain

would

outward

Others look

laity, as

Chmxh

lay

in the

body should be
Others,

limit the concurrence of


subjects,

an inhe-

and so would concede,

extensive with that of the Bishops.


contrary,

them-

the communicants of

appeal to

that the province of this

if left to

co-

on the

laymen

to

reserving to the Bishops

Lay-element recognised^

and

questions of doctrine and discipline,

tlie

right of

deciding what are questions of doctrine and discipline.

The more

part, probably,

introduction,

Some

have no

of those

who

definite idea

advocate

on the

its

subject.

professedly refer the question of the admission

of the laity to Convocation


assembled,

(as

it

is

itself

when

cate the present recognition of the lay

the abstract, deferring

shaU be

all

limitations of

element in
its

nature,

powers, on the very ground that the

objects,

Power

it

hoped) hereafter; others advo-

or rather politicians

who

advise the Sovereign,

will never allow Convocation to meet, except

understanding, that the laity


part of

on the

are to form an integral

Others assume that the introduction of

it.

the laity

Civil

is

as certain as

any thing future can

be,

and

so are anxious for the speedy settlement of the ques-

bad precedents should be set. But


these parties, however they may diflPer a-

tion, for fear that

almost

mong

all

themselves, concur in

one point,

tliis

viz.

to

urge on the adoption of that, in the meaning and


object of which they disagree

Lately ^,

as is well

" the lay-element."

known,

a majorlf?/ of the

Scotch Bishops agreed upon a modified statement

" That the admission of the

laity into Ecclesiastical

Synods, imder certain conditions, and to speak and


vote therein, on a large class of Ecclesiastical questions,
is not inconsistent with the Word of God, and is not
contrary to that pure Constitution of the Church, to
^ At a Sj-nod holden in Edinburgh. Apvil.

20. 1352.

not

which

meaning.

its

has been the privilege of the Church

it

Scotland to bear testimony.

in

"

This resolution was perhaps advisedly, but unhap-

worded

pily,

fact

so vaguely,

that

meaning might

its

in

be restricted or enlarged to almost any extent.

and

It raised then large


fears,

but had

no

itself

admits of so many.
(although

still

indefinite expectations

meaning, because

definite
It

it

was limited, accordingly,

with a degree of vagueness) by two

resolutions in a Diocesan Synod, held

by the Primus

same year;

at Aberdeen in the

"That

and

the Constitution of Ecclesiastical

Synods,

Diocesan, Provincial, and General, having been fixed

by the ancient law and immemorial usage of the


Church, and no clear instance having been produced
from past history of Lay Christians forming Constituent
this

Members

of such Synods,

Synod, that

Church

the opinion of

it is

not competent for a particular

it is

to innovate

upon a custom

so ancient

and

so

universal."

" Resolved, further


that,
it

that this

Synod

is

of opinion,

under the existing circumstances of our Church,

may be

deem

it

lawful, if the Rulers of the

Church should

expedient, to form a mixed Convocation or

Convention, of Clergy and Laity, to deliberate upon,

and decide, with the concurrence of both orders, such


questions relating to Ecclesiastical government, and

the temporal concerns of the Church, as do not trench

by which definithe power of the Keys,

upon the divinely constituted


tions

of

doctrine,

and

order,

The

10

Bisliops^ elected hy the laity,

are reserved for

Rulers of Christ's kingdom."

tlie

The whole question as regards the laity really lies in


these three points; 1. Whether the influence claimed for
them in regard to the legislation of the Church, be
direct or indirect

those

who

i.e.

whether the claim

be, to

choose

shall legislate for them, or themselves to

a part of the legislative body.

2.

be

If the claim be, that

the laity should be a part of the legislative body,

whether they claim

for themselves a civil or

siastical authority.

3.

an

eccle-

In what matters authority

is

thus claimed.
i.

first,

Indirect influence the

laity plainly

had

at the

and have in the Church of England, through the

share which they have had or have in the selection

In

of the Bishops.

S.

Cyprian's time they accepted the

judgment of the Bishops of the Province, or, through


their own personal knowledge of those presented to

them for their Bishops, enabled the Bishops to correct


or they presented to the Synod of
that judgment
;

Bishops for their judgment, such persons as they


themselves knew and valued.
to later precedents,

own hands

In England, according

the laity had virtually in their

the selection of the Bishops.

In

fact,

with certain limited safeguards as to bad appointment, the laity absolutely nominated aU the members
of that body, which
legislature, the

body

is,

in principle, the ecclesiastical

Synod of Bishops.

in a degree which,

if

They nominate that

applied to the Temporal

Lords, would have been thought subversive of the

balance of the constitution.

the laivfid representation

The body of the people

11

the laity.

never, either in

Church or

even in the completest democracy,

State,

for

of

The theory

itself.

legislates

"lay element"

of the

does not imply that they would. The question

whether the

who

itself
is,

not

should choose for themselves those

laity

should legislate for them, but out of

should choose them.

Convention of the

The

whom

they

lay-representatives in the

Church in the United

States are,

equally Avith our Bishops, a few persons, chosen out

of a very large number.

who

discontent to those

No

office.

that,

can never be a subject of


that their selection

select,

those best quahfied to

to

restricted

It

discharge

reasonable person would think

it

is

the

hard,

during a period of cholera, the management of

a board of health should be entrusted exclusively to


physicians.

There can be no hardship in having to

make a

selection,

selection

is

made

when

the body out of which the

and in that body the num-

is large,

ber of well-qualified persons


in so considerable a

form,

it is,

body

is

considerable.

as the Clergy of

of course, easy to point out

Now

England

numbers who

are not quahfied for the office of a Bishop or for the

task of legislation.

This

is

a matter of course.

Many

an admirable Parish Priest would plainly not have


the varied quahfications required in a Bishop.

And

easy to throw contempt on the office of the


Clergy by saying " Are such men as A. or B. (Parish
so

it is

Priests)

more

qualified for the office of legislating for

the Chiu?ch, than C. or D.

But

this is plainly

intelligent

not the question.

lapnen ?

"

The question

Siijiciency of English Blshojjs achiowledged of old.

12

would not even

be,

whether out of above 17,000 Clergy

of England, 10,500 possessed no great qualifications,


or even were altogether

unfit,

for

but whether there be a limited

any such

number

ofiice,

of persons,

qualified to discharge both the executive

and

legis-

lative ofiaces of a Bishop.

In times

past, this

has been solemnly acknowledged.

For not only did the sjnod of old,


hereafter

as shall

consist exclusively of Clergy,

be

she^\Ti

but the Act

Henry viii, which set forth the independence of


Enghsh Church, rested the argument for that
independence, upon her acknowledged sufficiency.
The Act " for the restraint of appeals " ( 22. Henry viii.
"Where by divers sundry old authentic
c. 12. ) runs
histories and chronicles, it is manifestly declared and
of

the

expressed, that this reahn of

and

so hath

England

is

an Empire,

been accepted in the world, governed by

one supreme head and king, having the dignity and


royal estate of the imperial crown of the same

whom

unto

a body politick, compact of

all sorts and degrees


by names of spirituality and temporahty, been bounden and owen to bear,
next to God, a natural and humble obedience - - the body spiritual whereof having power, when any
cause of the law divine happened to come in question,
or of spiritual learning, tlien it was declared, interpreted, and showed by that part of the said body

of people, divided in terms, and

politick,

called the spirituahty,

called the English

Church,

reputed and found of that

sort,

now

ivhich

being usually

cdways hath been

that both for knowledge,

"

Bishops of English Church chosen hy


integrity

and

always thought,

and meet of

of number,

sufficiency

and

is

it

13

hath been

also at this hour,

sufficient

without the intermeddling of any

itself

exterior person or persons,


all

the laity.

to

declare

such doubts^ and to administer

rooms

duties, as to their

all

spiritual

and determine

such

offices

and

doth appertain,

Nor can the character of our Bishops, in the last


when Bishops ceased to be consulted about
the appointments of Bishops, be of any moment in this
argument. Had the laity of the Church of England
century,

cared about the rioht exercise of their legitimate influence in the selection of Bishops, they could have ob-

tained

it.

With the

single exception that the Arch-

bishops and Bishops collectively for the time being,

an extreme case, refuse consecration, the


had the selection of Bishops, whoUy in their o^vn
hands.
The majority of the laity virtually selected
the Prime Minister of the Cro^vn the Minister of the
day and his friends, vu'tually nominated the Bishops.
The knowledge that consecration coidd be refused
could^ in

laity

might check certain extreme

Yet such a negative, Avhen

cases of evil appointment.

it is

not formally conceded,

The personal influence of


some eminent Bishops mth" the sovereign, at times
interposed a check
It was a mitigation of prevaihng

reaches but a

little

way.

".

evils.

^ In our ovin. days, I heard one speak somewhat querulously to the late
Archbishop Plowley, that " it was a pity that there was not more inter-

"Perhaps there
was the quiet answer.

ference in preventing imsatisfactory appointments."

have been more, than people are aware of

"

may

Laity abused hut can secure

14

With

these checks only, the

when

most plenary right

of Bishops, ever conceded

the nomination
laity,

their trust.

their rights

to

to

the

were the most ample and un-

by the English laity in


They virtually elected the

circumscribed, was possessed


the eighteenth

century.

who nominated
Had they "s\illed it, they might have had
who would have deserved their confiHad they so done, there could have been no

Bishops through their representatives,

them.
Bishops
dence.

more room

for desiring

any other body

in grave spiritual matters,

other legislative body

is

than,

to legislate

in the State,

to control or to

desired,

check the decisions of Parliament.

any

It is

not necessary

here to enter into the miserable principles, or want of


principle,

upon which,

in the last century,

were taken out of the Priesthood


of Bishop; whence there grew

which

trust of Bishops,

is

for the higher office

up that habitual misoff.


The

not easily shaken

laity bartered their " birthright for a

age. "

persons

mess of

j^ot-

Church patronage was, at the best, employed


The laity had the Bishops

for purposes of this world.

whom

they desired

and when they had them,

des-

pised them.

But there
ciple,

why

is

no ground, upon any ancient prin-

a real and legitimate influence of the laity

should not be used in the selection of Bishops.


almost any

mode

have Bishops, in

of appointment,

whom

Under

the laity might

they could confide, provided

that according to the Apostolic

taken that they be "blameless,

rule,

as

the

due care be
stewards of

Civil sanction or temporalities not Bishops

God,

"

"holding

been taught.

"

fast

For

the faithful

as

it

he hath

this,

is

a guarantee, which,

has been shown*^ and might be shown yet more

vi^idly
its

as

the Apostohc custom of

Confirmation of Bishops elect


(

word

office.

the English Church intended to maintain in

complete integrity.
ii.

The

Ecclesiastical Authorities of the

have nothing to do, by virtue of their

any

civil legislation, or

civil

office,

Church
with any

sanction or authority for

Their authority belongs to a kingdom,

their acts.

any authority which comes to


them, in matters of this world, comes to them from
the authorities of this world, and can be lawfully
not of this world

limited

by the power which gave

These two

it.

li-

mitations at once exclude questions, which are often

popularly mixed up ^\^th the idea of ecclesiastical

Such are,
and confuse it.
consequences from any ecclesiastical

legislation

whole question of temporalities.


1. The acts of the Church, as a

1.

act,

any

civil

2.

the

spiritual bod}^, affect

only the court of conscience, and are binding only on


her members. She declares, for instance, what is the

law of God
is

as to marriage

her exposition of that law

binding upon her children. But whether that law

any temporal consequences to children,


born contrary to the law of God and of the Church, is
a matter, not for the Church to decide, but for the cishall involve

vil authorities.

INIr.

The

State in

Badcley'ij speecli iu "

England has accepted in


The Hampden

Case.

16

Bishops direct spiritual things

too often l3een proposed,

it

as

it

the law of the

law,

was

before.

Ci\dl authorities can give a civil sanction to

the laws of the Church, or can withhold


If they give

will.

not,

shall

it

may

body of

be necessary to the
Ecclesiastical

as

body

With regard

laj^nen,

without

distribution,

aj)-

whose assent should

civil validity

of the acts of the

in matters spiritual.

to

sacrilege,

they

There could

be given.

what

are called the temporalities

of the Church, Avhat has been given to

their

it,

also prescribe the

of course, be the shghtest objection to the

pointment of

2.

they

it,

upon which

terms,

as has

if,

were to legahse any mar-

by the Di^dne

Church would remain,

The

laity temporal.

judgment of the Church

this instance, the

riage forbidden

God

But

be taken from God.


modification,

cannot,
as to

or other questions

concerning them, there can be no Di\'ine right.

For

although the principle that " they which wait at the


Altar are partakers with the Altar,

"

has Divine au-

thority, the details are not of Divine,

but of human,

origin.

No

principle

of Church property

involved in the distribution

is

by laymen, any more than

taxing of the Clergy for the purposes of the


It

would be a gainful exchange

lea-ving to the laity the

temporal

affairs,

in the

state.

for the Church, if

whole arrangement of her

her Bishops and Priests were undis-

turbed in what our Lord entrusted to them, the decision in spiritual matters
iii.

all

The remaining

when they should

question,

outward questions or

civil

whether

arise.

conceding

sanction as things not

'^

and Xeiv Testament 17

Teachers'' promised in Old

belonging to Ecclesiastics,

such as in any

way

do belong to

tlie

questions of

doctrine,

involve decisions upon

or

doctrine,

is

one of fundamental

principle, intimately connected

with the very being

Clerg}^,

of the Episcopate.
It

to go about to

would seem almost superfluous

prove any thing so obvious, as that Holy Scripture


does

make a

difference

between the pastors or teachers

Both Prophets and Apostles speak

and the taught.

Christian dis-

of teachers, as a distinct part of the

the prophet Jeremiah,

-"^

pensation.

God promised by

"

you pastors according to Mine heart,


feed you with knowledge and under-

I will give

which

shall

And

standing. "
istic

Isaiah

speaks of

of the Gospel Covenant

teachers be

"

as a character-

it

Yet

shall not

thy

removed mto a corner any more, but thine

eyes shall see thy teachers. " And in conformity with


enumerates " pastors and teachers " athis, S. Paul
"^

mong

those

whom

our Lord gave " for the perfecting

of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the

Body

of Christ

till

we

all

come

in the

unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son


of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the
stature of the fidness of Christ.

To

"

teach, to feed, to rule in things concerning the

soul, are parts

of the Divine Commission, given

our Lord to the Apostles, and their successors.


Lord Himself, jiLst before His departure from
^

Chap.

iii.

15.

''

Cliap,

xxx.

20.

"^

Eph.

iv.

11--13.

by

Our
this

Teachers promised

18

earth, solemnly

to those, to

gave

whom

to the

tliis

end of

the ivorld.

charge to His Apostles and

they, possessed of Divine inspira-

and "full of the Holy Ghost," should commit

tion

Our Good IMaster accompanied this gift


"vvith the promise, " Lo I am mth you alway, even to
the end of the world."
The Apostles plainly were
their office.

not to live to the end of the world

they were to

serve their generation, to preach the Gospel in the

whole known world, and then committing, [as they


did,] their place of teaching to others, themselves to
rest

from their labours.

them and

to

to those

succession from them,

Himself

He gave them

But our Lord

speaks, in one,

Avho

in

should,

continuous

receive the commission from

the two-fold

to bring

office, 1.

the nations into His fold, in the faith of the Holy

Trmity wherein they were

when

teach them,

and

faith

"

Make

and

to be baptised,

2. to

so received, to keep every thing in

which

practice,

He had

enjoined

them.

them in the
and of the Son and of the Holy
Ghost, teaching them to observe (or " keep " ) all

Name

disciples of all nations, baptising

of the Father

things whatsoever I have

The words

My
and

lambs,

to S. Peter,

" besides

commanded
" Feed

restoring

effiicing his threefold

My

him

"

you. ^

sheep, "

" feed

to his Apostolate

denial of his Lord, were

spoken to the Church in his person.

They

constitute

a difference between the shepherds and the sheep.

one

sense,

all

who hope
^ S.

to be at the Right

Mat. xxviii.

19.

Hand

In
in

"

Apostles committed

of teaching

office

19

to Bisliops.

the Great Day, whether teachers or taught, are the

Who

Alone

and

Peter,

under and

for

and

Paul,

S.

whom

Christ,

through

feeds,

as shepherds

He is the One Shepherd,


those whom He appoints

In this sense

sheep of Christ.

Him. In

John were

S.

"feed" His " Church, which


His 0^\Ti Blood

and

tles,

all,

"

and

this,

who from

He

S.

when

In another

rejoicing.

Christ has appointed the ministry of

sense,

men

Peter and

all

the Apos-

the Apostles, have received,

descent, the commission to teach, have done,

do,

by

\drtue of our Lord's words, " Feed

My

lambs.

nor any

Apostles,

been given the


nations
sins

" S.

"
:

self

same

"

office,

to

whom had
disciple all

" Receive ye the

Holy Ghost. Whosesoever


remitted unto them, and whose-

said to him, " says S. Augustine, "

Lovest thou Me, feed


This same
"

office

Very

My

sheep.

"

"

it is

When
said to

whom

all,

the Apostles committed to the


perfect

they

it is

"

and unblameable

in

things," says S. Irenaeus,^ " did the Apostles wish


to be,

and

sheep,

Go and

office to feed them^

ye remit, they are

Bishops.

My

Peter had no authority over

soever sins ye retain, they are retained.

'

to

hath purchased ^\ith

by

" feed

S.

sheep of

all

He, the Good Shepherd found,

and laid on His shoulders,

lost,

this sense,

left as their successors,

all

them

delivering

them their own place of teaching." For the fulfilment of that office, it was enjoined to them, that they

to

should,

1.

themselves " hold fast the form of sound

De

agone Christ,

c.

c 2

39.

iii.

.3.

1.

"

20

of Bishop in teaching not arbitrary,

Office

words, s"

fast, "

" hold

from them, " the faithful


ing,

^'

"

so as not to let

word according

to " take heed to the doctrine,

"^

doctrine,

was part of

keeping or teaching the

his general office of

The

faith.

witness to the Apostolic doctrine


tolic

Commission,

the Apostles.

It

But

office

of bearing

part of the Apos-

is

handed down by succession from


was given to the Bishops, in

from the Apostles

cession

be "apt to

then of the Bishop, in the S}Tiod, as re-

office

to

lates

" keep the

by sound doctrine to exhort and con-

vince the gainsayers.

The

"

" 2.

good deposit committed unto him^;


teach^;" 3. "

be wrung

it

to the teach-

it

was not given

to others.

was there any

in neither part of the office

suc-

arbi_

In neither, might the Bishop teach

trary authority.

any thing new, any thing of

his

own mind. He dared

not to propose, as certain, any opinion, however probable, or

any inference of his own

vidual or private fancy.

what he had

to teach

He

much less, any indi-

himself was under a law,

He

received.

could impose no-

thing as a law to others, to which he was not subject

To

himself

them, before

known,

Synods,

individuals he taught what,

he taught them,

it

although to

was uncertain or un-

he had himself received as certain truth. In

when

occasion arose, the Bishops collectively

bore witness to some portion of that same truth, which

some new heresy had impugned.


alike,

But, in both cases

they taught or bore witness to what, apart from


8
'

2 Tim.
2 Tim.

i.

13.

iii.

2.

Tit.

i.

2 Tim.

9.
ii.

'2 Tim,
24.

"'

iv.

Tit.

i.

16.
9.

^ 2

Tim.

1.

14

hut

hear ivitness

to

to ivliat

themselves, was certain

tliey

he

had

taught in subordination

Our

to an authority above themselves.

was given

in its fiihiess to

21

received.

Lord's promise

The same

the whole Church.

promise belonged, in their degree, to

all

who were com-

missioned by Him.

Each who bore our Lord's com-

mission possessed

in his proportion, subordinately

it,

to those above him, as those above

him

to the whole.

There was subordination in the Christian army

under authority

"

"

men

but "having soldiers under them

"
;

and, under the Great Captain of our salvation, each


petty officer had this authority, so long as he spake

Name, not in his o^vn.


Responsibility was the very condition of

in his Lord's

The

authority.

individual Priest teaches the souls under his care

with

all

confidence, because he himself

The Bishop

his Bishop.

subordinate in the
Bishops.
teaches

which
in His

The local or
and regulates

dence, because

its

amenable to

teaches with authority, because

first

He gives. Who
Name but it

is

instance,

S}mod of

to the

provincial or national Sjmod,


things,

is

through the wisdom

present with those gathered

does so with the more confi-

decisions are liable to be revised,

cancelled or confirmed

by the whole Church.

In

fact,

the most important decisions on doctrine have been

made

in Provincial Synods, because they

they taught

that,

which they,

in

knew

common

that

with the

A large General
rest of the Church, had received.
Council, like that of Ariminum or the Latrocinium of
Ephesus, might and did
of

its

err,

if it set

own and it was corrected by


;

forth

any thing

the whole.

A small

The

22

office

of teaching through Synods

Provincial Council,

demned the

such as those which

first

con-

doctrine of Novatian or Arius, Pelagius

knomng

or Eutyches,) decided fearlessly,

that

it

Avas

dehvering the one truth which had been taught from


and it was confirmed by the whole.
the first
;

These two parts of the


principle, the same.

was

The

office

of teaching were,

office of

necessarily continuous

it

in

teaching individuals

extended to ""all things

which a Christian ought to know and believe for his


soul's health. " The bearing witness to the truth in
S}Tiod, was both occasional in time, and, on each
For the

occasion, limited in extent.

trutli

was from

time to time only so contradicted as to require the

Synod

and the truth so contradicted was, on each occasion, for the most part, some
one, or at most, some connected truths only.
And yet, although more limited in extent, the
laying dovni of the truth in Synods was, beyond all

interposition of the

comparison, a far weightier

dual teaching.

Preaching,

well-being of single souls

office

than that of indivi-

teaching,

concern the

formal statements of faith

involve the well-being of the whole aggregate of souls,


the Church.

Individual teaching

afi*ects

mostly but

At most, even if extended to


a few individuals.
others, it reaches them only individually. It does not
until they have
affijct the Church through them,
Church
to act as a
weight enough to induce the
whole.

The

acts of the

Office of

whole body,

Baptism of Infants, end.

as a whole,

far more weighty than preaching in Churches.

23

The teaching of doctrinal


statements, received by any portion of the Church,
affects the whole being of the body which so receives
alone affect

them.

its

It is

very being.

then

open to the

laity,

fortiori is that

which

The administration

pubhc preaching.

Eucharist, or the power of the keys,


distinct

ground in Holy Scripture.

oiE.ce of

teaching

is

sacred as

mth

it is )

is

far
is

far less,

of the

Holy

have their own

But the whole

Certainly to teach, even in

one.

may

the house of God, what

rison

is

the taking part in doctrinal decisions,

greater,

office

which

to say, that if that

little

soon pass away,

is

an

of slight moment, in compa-

that of permanently fixing the authorized

teaching of the Church.


If

any one who

decisions

desires that

lapnen should share

on matters of faith, would yet be

prised to see all or

at all sur-

any large number of our most

important pulpits occupied by la3nnen,


laymen,

in

or to have

although without power to administer the

Holy

Eucharist,) as our Parochial Ministers, or that

those

whom

they think of as associated in the future

legislation for the

to our poor,

Church, should preach the Gospel

then certainly he has wholly miscon-

ceived the relative magnitude of the two


far higher spiritual gifts, greater

rate doctrinal knowledge,

Church than

individual members.

in

For

wisdom, more accu-

deeper insight into Divine

who are to
those who are

truth, are required in those


for the

offices.

good Parish

pious and well instructed for his

sit

in Council

to teach her

Priest,

office,

is

though

not there-

24 The

question^ not of talent^ hut of Christ's promise.

fore well-qualified

to decide accurately, or to judge

of the whole bearing of complicated questions, or to

maintain the truth against heretical aggi'ession.

But the question does not turn upon the


talent,

learning, judgment, human msdom

respective

of the Laity

and the Clergy, however natural it is to suppose that


the more eminent Clergy would be most versed in
those matters of the " law Divine " to which they
have vowed

*'

to

draw

all

the care and study

The question does not

lives.

"

of their

relate to God's natural

man, even though cultivated by aid of the


Our Lord's commission had a blessinggrace of God.
attached to it, " I am with jo\x always even to the
gifts to

end of the world."

So long

as

we

words were spoken eminently


the question

their successors,
gifts in

believe, that those

to the Apostles

not as to those other

is

themselves, but as to those

Lord's promise or without

it.

and

gifts,

with our

Faithfulness on man's

plainly the condition of all God's promises.

part

is

But

if faithful.

Bishops have, by virtue of Christ's

Synod beyond what attends


should this seem a strange
Nothing is outwardly changed by

promise, a Presence in
their ordinary

acts.

thing to believe

Why

the inward Presence of God.

Accordingly, until the unhappy precedent,


in

made

very evil times by the Church of the United

States,

when

struggling for

was

representation

"

life,

consistently

the question of lay-

confined to bodies

Oflicc for Ordination of Priests.

Bad precedent
who

rejected

America

set in

had

25

times.

the Apostolic succession, theP Conti-

nental reformers,
It

in

and the

dissenters in Great Britain.

must be said plainly, that the precedent set

the United States

is

radically wrong,

and

in

fact,

in
is

so far, the adoption of a principle belonging to bodies

who

and the whole


and of a commission,

reject the Apostolic succession

principle of a deposit of faith,

transmitted from the Apostles and part of the


of Christ.
forbid

a part of

Yet, in so saying,

do not mean

mind
(

God

that she has thereby forfeited her claim to be


tlie

of the faith,

She has abandoned a bulwark


a function of the office inherited by her

Church.

Bishops, not the faith

itself

nor the Apostolic suc-

cession.

Through our

neglect she became what she

and we owe her therefore not sympathy


respectful

and humble sorrow.

Still,

became

only, but a

while

we own

our own share in the sin, and that through God's


mercy alone we have been preserved, it were thank-

own

lessness for our

undergone

loss.

mercies, not to own, that she has

Nestorianism

and

Eutychianism

were not the produce of one generation only, nor are


they extinct.

The Athanasian Creed

at once the

is

bulwark against those heresies, and the clearest exposition of the deepest truths

It sets forth in clearest

mighty

and in the

His lowest creatures,

us.

c.

in Himself,

See Bishop Bilson's Tracts

m.

p. 388.

on the very Being of God.

terms the Being of

p. 2.

He

God

Al-

relation wdiich through

vouchsafed to form with

Perpetual

comp. Field on the Church. B.

Govemment

5. c. 19. p.

of Christ's Church

616.

26

Perils of other changes in

On

His whole rational creation.

man mind must


its

dwell, if

Author and

Thoughts

it

American Church.

would think

End, and on

its

those truths the huat all

on God,

redeeming Lord.

its

which the Athanasian Creed

like those

wonderfully embodies, must come across, every

The

tive mind.

soul

must think

upon

man

its

or pleasures of this

toils

God.

man

God and

is

He

Saviour, as

silently to

believed. "

from

it

'*

They

their heart,

And

It ivas

a loss

solemn warnings to

American

clearest expositions of that

drop from them.

only with the Creed


fession that

its

Is.

wilfully part with the faith, the

Church allowed one of the


faith

dwell

more danger lest the soul of


where it would most need and
where error would estrange it

then, that, misunderstanding

who

rises

near to the mind of

manifold, truth one.

the

is

long to think aright,

those

to

Error

should go astray,

its

earth

it

lies as

as truth.

from

if

Yet error

therefore there

reflec-

some way on

in

every subject mentioned in that Creed,

above the

so

itself,

They

parted, not

but with the very con-

ought thoroughly to be received and


did not

mean

to part with the faith

but they parted with

its

confession

In like way, they did not deny, but

from
they ignored the value of absolution.
their lips.

They did not deny,


suppressed the truth.
future

history

of

the instrument of
they, if

we

lower ours.

but, in both instances


It is plain, then,

the Church, either

God

they

that in the

we must be

in upholding their faith, or

enter into closer relations with them, will

Not then

in reproach, but in self defence

Appeal
it

was

said,

tliat

27

Council of Jerusalem.

to the

a Church which had " omitted the

Athanasian Creed, and bracketted the Nicene,

no model

was

"

to be safely copied.

to a co-ordinate voice in

The admission of la}Tnen


Councils on the

faith,

is

not an heretical

Yet,

act.

an innovation upon that rule which the inspired


To depart from their
Apostles left mth the Church.

it is

must needs be the commencement of a perilous


course, the issue of which God Alone knoweth, and

rule

from which

may He

preserve us.

The question of lay-representation was originally


thrown out by the Lutheran States, as a ground of
'^

objection to the Council to

which they were

Then Luther, in his


that Laymen ought equally
faith,

invited.

rough off-hand way, assumed

"

to decide in matters of

because matters of faith equally concerned them.

His followers appealed to the Council of Jerusalem as


an authority, in which, their ^vriters on Ecclesiastical'
1 It is mentioned as one of the grounds of the German Protestant States,
against attending the proposed Council. " The chief judgment in the Chmxh
no ways belongs to the Pope, but to the Church itself, i. e. not only to the

Bishops but also to Kings, Princes, and other orders. " Protestantium Imperii
Statuum rationes cur Synodus &c. 1537. in Goldast. Politic. Imp. 27. 4. p. 1201
;

"

Among them

should be some intelligent and true-hearted laymen

alive,
s

he or such as he,

As

The Magdeburgh Centuriators

(after St.
votes,

for

Herr Hans von Schwarzenberg were


must needs be trusted." von den Conciliis. 1539.p.203.

the matter concerns them too.

if

gravely relate as matter of history

James' sentence) the other elders

too, andf/ie lolwle Church

and the sentence provided, that "men are

without the works of the law". Cent.

1.

&

2.

c. 9.

justified

by

"Then

gave

their

faith only,

Col. 548.

" The decrees of the Council were conveyed both through letters written
by the common suffrage of the Apostles and elders and whole Church, and
viva voce by some of the chief brethren. " etc. lb.

28^ uthority of council of Jerusalem from ins])ired Apostles.


was decided by the votes
of the whole Church, that "man was justified by faith

history inform us, that

only mthout works.

it

"

It is strange that a Council, in

" filled with the

Holy Ghost,

"

which Apostles,

the commissioned and

inspired teachers of the Church, the instruments of

the Holy Spirit in giving to us the Holy Scriptures,


who spake as well as A\Tote, " as they were moved by
the Holy

Ghost, "

pronounced, taught, spoke with

Divine authority in the midst of an assembly possessed


of no authority, should be selected as a specimen of

subsequent assemblies
all

who spoke were


made as

should be

that fi^om a Council in which

infallible,

to

any inference whatever

any subsequent Council when

plenary individual inspiration should be mthdra"\\ai.

The Council of Jerusalem would have been a mere


small provincial Council of some four or five Bishops

without authority over other Christians, had not those


Bishops been the inspired Apostles of Christ.

Plen-

ary authority then lay in those single organs through

whom God the Holy


it

Ghost at that time

fully spoke, as

has since in the concurrent voice of the whole Church.

Each Apostle was, on the One Foundation, a Foundation of the City of God against which its Author said,
the gates of Hell should not prevail.

Church of Christ could not

fail,

James were,

to the

organs of the words of God.

when

delivering His

Word

the

neither could any one

foundation, upon which that Church rested.


S. Paul, S.

Since

S. Peter,

end of time, to be the

Had

they been

fallible,

in the Comicil, our Lord's

To

Jiave questioned

promise

woiilcl

we have

God's

have

it

deny

ivere to

failed

29

the faith.

our whole security that

Word, would have

perished.

Nothing

could be taken from that Avhich Apostles spake Avith-

out denying

Him Who sent them. No

Bishop or Priest

or Lapiiaii could by his private judgment add any au-

what were the words of God. The Council


of Jerusalem would be a precedent, not for Councils
which (as all admit even of General Councils) may err,
but for infallible Provincial Councils. If it is to be an

thority to

authority for a decisive voice being given in Councils to

the
lity

laity, it

also for the infallibiIt is true that

of small Provincial Councils.

men were
is also

to

must be an authority

it

true that the Council of Jerusalem was infalhble,

which

thing,

Lay-

present at the Council of Jerusalem, but

infallibility these

lapnen could not add any

and so could not in truth add any thing to

the Council

itself.

In the Council of Jerusalem, to have questioned


the Apostles' teaching, would have been to deny the
faith

and

The

to destroy its foundations.

tion of the Apostles

was the guarantee of God

truth and Divinity of the whole Faith.

the Spirit of Truth,

full inspira-

is

He

come,

for the

" TVTien' He,

shall guide

you

into

the whole truth;" "the whole truth," which belongs


to this our condition as Avayfarers

the entire truth

of the Gospel, Avhich the Church was, to the end of


time, to receive

from them.

have erred in one matter of


t

S.

John.

IG.

If the Apostles could


faith,

13.

thus solemnly

"

Council of Jerusalem

30

brought for their

decision,

rests solely

on inspiration.

they might have erred in

all.

The People were present at the Council of Jerusalem,


but to hear and to obey the words of God delivered
through the Apostles' mouth to them and the whole

Church of God. True, they did speak


puted but when
;

they even dis-

Before the Apostles spake." Certain

of the sect of the Pharisees

what clamorously

to

who

believed, "

seem some-

have urged their plea; "It was

needful to circumcise them

the

Gentile converts

and to command them to keep the law of Moses.


For S. Luke goes on to say " When there had been
much disputing. " But when an inspired Apostle had
spoken, " then

" S.

Luke

relates," all the multitude kept

and gave audience to Barnabas and Paul." The


people listened; Apostles spoke. Even Apostles dwelt
chiefly upon the direct and visible witness of God the
silence,

Holy Ghost. S. Peter appeals to the descent of God


the Holy Ghost upon those firstft-uits of the Gentiles,
Cornelius and his household S. Paul and S. Barnabas
to the " miracles and wonders which God had wrought
among the Gentiles by them. " S. James, as Bishop
of the place, and president of the Council, confirms, by
prophecy of the Old Testament, the meaning of these
;

miracles,

and gives

his sentence.

none could depart, who


rity

and

mth

it

From

that sentence

did not deny Apostolic autho-

the foundation of the faith and the

promise of our Lord Jesus Christ, and so had become


an apostate.

Without that plenary inspiration, the Council of


Jerusalem would have had no authority to prescribe

Laity of Jerusalem had no authority over

31

others.

Of the twelve Apostles " James, Cephas


and John who seemed to be pillars''" were, probably,
its

decree.

The

alone present, with Barnabas and Paul.

the Apostles, (except

St.

James the

elder

rest of

who had

borne witness to Christ by his death, ) were probably


dispersed throughout the world, preaching Christ.

There was no representation of those absent; no


Bishops, nor ( as these will have it, ) laity collected
from the whole Church. The Council of Jerusalem
could have had no weight, at

all,

mth

save from that authority which gives

the Church,
it

its

weight

now, that the words spoken there by the Apostles


were the words of God, and were owned as such then,

by us now.
The Laity of Jerusalem had no authority over those

as they are o^vned

of Antioch or of the rest of the Church, nor were they


entitled to accept the decree in the

name

of the rest.

They had not been consulted by the rest. Paul and


Barnabas were sent "to Jerusalem, unto the Apostles

and Elders about this question.''" "The Apostles and


Elders came together, for to consider of this matter.^"
Paul and Timothy gave to the Churches which they
visited,

"the decrees that were ordained

Apostles and

Elders,

which were

of

to examine, nor to receive of their o^vn mind,

"for to

The decree

keep.''

the

at Jerusalem,''" not

itself is in

but

the words of

the inspired Apostles, "it hath seemed good to the

Holy Ghost and


" Gal.

ii.

to us;" those in Avhose

9.

"

Acts xv.

2.

^'

lb. 6.

Acts

names
xvi. 4.

it

was

32

framed

as

Mention of Laity

altogether doubtful.

having ordained

it,

same who were

Elders, the

were the Apostles and

called together to consider

The whole Church

of the matter.

obeys and circulates

no

their sentence,

at

Jerusalem

but Apostles having given

it;

Lapuan

other, Bishop, Priest, or

spoke, or voted, or judged in the matter.

The very

mention of the Laity, at aU, as even agreeing in the


decree,

is

For, according to a

uncertain.

reading,

extant in the second century and for which there


considerable authority, the words are,

and

Elders,

the Gentiles in Antioch,

Apostles and Elders,

title,

In this

&c. "

As

may

brothers,

who

by the same

Gentiles, call themselves

brethren.

the

case,

the brethren

^\Titing to

is

Apostles

which are of

to the brethren

brethren,

came from the

"The

A\Tite to brothers.

But whichever be the right reading of the text, if


it is regarded as in any way a precedent for subsequent
Councils, when those present had not the plenary
inspiration of the Apostles,
against, not

becomes a precedent

it

For

the concurrence of the Laity. ^

for,

the decree of the Apostles and Elders was issued as an


authoritative decree to be kept by the Laity throughout

the world,

whom

those at Jerusalem were not entitled

Potter notices this reading as being that in the time of S. Ircnrens


232. ed. Grabe. Apostoli et preshyteri fratres. ] of the okl Latin

y Al)p.

[iii. 12. p.

Version

Apostoli et seniores fratres.

of the Alexandrian, and other

of good authority [on Church Government,

reading without the

viz,

x-oa,

in the Cod, Alex. Vat. Ephr.

Pacian.

Vigil,

Lachmaun and

in

rescr.

Cor. ix.

5.

p. 223. ed.

Cant,

and Arm.
it

Crosthw.

It 'PTfEO-^vrefoi

Cant, in S.

Muralto. Griesbach notes

Alter, Matthite, Scholz

compares

in a.'rroa-ToT^oiKcu

Vulg.

the

c. 5.

It

is

as the less

A. Bp. Potter urges

sister wife."

this.

1.

c.

see also

Ilamniond ad

Atlian.

adopted only by
probable reading

and Tischendorf retain the common reading.

"a

MSS.
The

a,h\(pol occurs

Origen. S.

Iren.

loc.

Potter

Presbyters commissioned

teach as ivell as Bishojys.

to

to represent, nor did they represent

things to

tliem, as necessary things,

But

given no consent.
full inspiration, it

in truth,

33

upon
which they had
and

it

laid

being the result of

forms no precedent at

decree so issued was binding at once

all.

For the

upon

all

the

Church, whereas the decrees of Councils obtain their


authority from their reception by the Bishops of the

whole Church.

had the same power of teaching, absolving, consecrating, lodged in them as the Bishops.
They could lawfully do all which the Bishop did,
Presbyters

Those powers, however,

except confirm and ordain.

they held, not independantly of the Bishop, but liable

by his will. They difthat by Ordination they had

to be restricted in their use

fered from the Laity,

in

received a commission from God, to teach as well as

They

to do all besides appertaining to their office.

from the Bishops even in those things which

differed

they held in

common

"with the Bishops, in that the

Bishops had the authority fully in themselves


Priests in subordination to the Bishops,

and

the

so far

only as they were directly or tacitly permitted by the


Bishops.

But

if

the Bishops

with themselves in any

associate

the

Priests

of teaching,

they only

allow the free exercise of a commission,

which the

office

Priests

have through them already received from God.

If they

were to admit the

admit them to that


in the
as

Lait}^,

office in

as such,

they would

an unauthorised way, not

way which God


He has promised His

has appointed, and to which,

His appointment,

blessing.

34

Proof

Synods consisted of Bishoj[)s

that

CHAPTER.
Notices of Councils^

doum

to

only,

II.

Cypimis

S.

time.

The amount of evidence, that Bishops alone had a


definitive voice in Synods,

throughout the history

is,

of the Church, in proportion to the detail, in which


the account of those Synods

must

questioned

No

voice.

word

nature be

OAvn

in its

tlieyi,

" S}iiod,

it

given.

The evidence

No

incidental.

that Bishops alone

had that

"

by the very

On

one

definitive

The
of the term, meant

one then went about to prove

the Council of Bishops.


that

is

force

it.

the very ground then,

was the received term, writers of that age had

no more need

to

mention that the Council consisted

of Bishops, than an English Historian,

who mentioned

the meeting of Parhament, or of Convocation, would

have to enumerate their constituent


documents,

the

House of Peers

consisting of the " Lords spiritual

Ordinarily there

is

no occasion

In formal

parts.
is

described

as

and temporal.

to state

"

what every

one at the time knows.

had an authoritative
are sometimes furnished by the

Indications, that Bishops only

voice in Councils,

subscriptions to the Councils.

we

These subscriptions,

from Eusebius, ) were annexed to the


But the acts which
decisions of very early Councils.
(

as

shall see

contained the subscriptions are not, in the earliest


period, preserved.

The Synodical

letters

TOtten by

must

he incidental

35

various sorts of proof

the Bishops present at the Council to distant Bishops,


contain, as early as in the time of St. Cj^^rian, another

Sonietunes again the Bishops are

kind of evidence.

mentioned in reference to the numbers who were


sembled

sometimes in relation to the Provinces

which they were gathered.


It may, then, be that some Councils
direct evidence at

may peld no

Considering that

all.

as-

from

was,

it

and

could be, no direct object of the ^\Titers to mention,


of

whom

the Council was composed, that

it

would

even be unnatural that they should mention what was

known

to

all,

except

further to mention,

much

it

when
is

there

something

was

even remarkable that so

evidence should remain.

For the early period of the Church, the


tical historians are

Ecclesias-

In gi\ang

the chief authorities.

the facts as to the Councils, they are led incidentally


to mention those

before them.

who

The

decided the question brought

Epistles of St. Cj^^rian, being fuU

of the history of the times,

of which

St.

Cj^orian

himself formed so large a part, furnish evidence of


their OAvn.

Testimonies have already been given* during the

period of the six

first

General Councils, and far

into the ninth century (A. D. 889.

hand, those laymen

who had most

that,

down

on the one

influence in the

Church, the Christian Emperors, wholly disclaimed

having any voice in matters of

faith,

^See above Royal Snpremacj\ Part.

d2

1.

and that the

p. 17. sqfj.

Emperors disclaimed

36

all autliority as to the faith.

on the other hand,

Bisliops,

during

that

spoke of decisions in matters of

period,

entrusted to themselves

earlier

as

faith,

by God.

The Emperors Constantine, Theodosius the

Elder,

Valentinian the Elder, Gratian, Honorius, Theodosius


the younger,

Emperor
disavow

as

by

represented

as contrary to the

interference,

all
is

not lawful iov one not of the

most holy Bishops,

is

not lawful for me, whose place

busy myself with matters of

and Bishops,

by

to

themselves,

Valentinian the Elder.

whom

is

to us, the obedience of

among

Divine

ques-

this care belongs,

wherever

they

will, "

Honorius; "The
religion. "

as

to

say, it is

is

said

interpre-

still

used

not permitted to

any manner

in

meet

them [the Bishops;]


Towards the close

of the ninth Century, the same language

by the Emperor Basil; "I


any layman whatsoever,

the Laity,

Let then the

faith.

tation of Divine things belongs to

questions

alike

of the

to mingle in ecclesiastical

to

apart

list

the

Theodosius to the Council of Ephesus. "It

tions," says

Priests

Florentius,

Basil in the eighth Synod, Justinian,

" It

law.

to

or to

ecclesiastical subjects,

move
stand

against the whole Church, or an OEcumenical Synod.

For
and

to search out these things belongs to Patriarchs,

and Teachers,

Priests,

ruling

is

to loose,

assigned, to

and

to bind

whom
is

given,

the Church and of Heaven

he

is full

of

all

to

whom

the office

of

the power to consecrate,

who have

for the layman, although

reverence and msdom,

and a sheep, not a shepherd.

the keys of

"

is

yet a layman,

Synods of Bishops

earliest

Even Constantius

Arian

tlie

emerge

late,

Semi-Arian

-uTites to

Bishops, disclaiming the Anomoeans;

those who, though

37

system of the Church.

'"^

would exhort

out of this mire,

to

agree T\ith this decree, which the Bishops, wise in

Divine things, have decreed for the


quired.

"

need

as

best,

re-

In another mood, when threatening Eleusius

and Sylvanus, he was answered, "Ag 'had the power


of deciding punishment; they^ what was godliness or
ungodliness; and they would not betray the belief
of their fathers. " " But C onstantius, " adds Theodoret,

"whereas he ought to have admired their


courage and boldness
expelled

for

^\'isdom

the Apostolic doctrine,

them from the Churches, and ordered that

others should be set in their stead."

Laity or representatives of the Laity, were often


present

m Councils

on matters of

concerned them.

faith

Ecclesiastical trials, because such

to them.

because the

faith,

They were not present

might be a scandal

But wherever they were

sheep not as shepherds

at

present,

it

was

as

not as the

as the taught,

teachers.

Besides the disclaimers on the part of the Emperors


to interfere in doctrine or in the things of God, I
also shewn already at gTeat length,

''that

have

Spiods of

Bishops were part of the earliest rule of the Church.

The Ante-Nicene Canons prescribe that Synods of


Tertullian,
Bishops should be held tmce in the year
;

at the close of the second century,

^
^

Ep. ad Eccles. Antioch.


Royal Supremacy Pt. 1.

fin. in

Sozom.

ix. p. 57. sqq.

speaks of Councils,

iv. 14.

<=

Theod.

ii.

27.

38

Antiquity of Apostolic Canon, etijoining

habitually held in Greece, in words corresponding to

the Apostolic Canon.

spoken of by

In the third century they are

Firmilian,

St.

as

meeting regularly.

The Council of Laodicea, A. 320, contains a direction


about them.
The Council of Nice enlarges the
Apostolic Canon, and, being an Q^^cumenical Council,

ordains

them

for the wliole

Church, decreeing that

"for each year, in each province, there should be


S}^lods

tmce

the year,

in

in

order that,

Bishops meeting in common, such questions

excommunication) "

may

be examined.

all

"

the

as to

"

The Antiquity of the Apostolic Canon, as compared


with those of Nice and Antioch, is illustrated by its
conciseness, and by the absence of any reference to
later titles or arrangements.
The later Councils say
that

" Bishops

common

"

of each

Ejjayxhy

the Apostolic

Canons,

are

to

which

meet in
do

not

mention the Eparchy, were probably framed, before


the Ecclesiastical divisions were conformed to those
of the Empire.

In like way, the Councils both of

Nice and Antioch speak freely of the Metropolitan

nation ought to

"The Bishops of each


know who among them is accounted

whom

they should regard as a head, and do

the Apostolic Canons only say,

the

first,

moment without his privity.^"


quoted as "an ancient Canon of our

nothing of greater

Canon is
Fathers " by the Council of Antioch. ^ The very fact
tliat the Apostolic Canon was expanded by these two
Tills

<

Can. Ap. 35.

fCan.

0.

annual Councils of Bwho^s on faith and

independant Councils implies that

it

39

discijiUne.

was a recognised

rule of the Church.

The object of these "Councils


laid down in the Apostohc Canon

of the Bishops"
itself.

" Lets

is

them

question one another as to the doctrines of godliness


[

e.

i.

of the true faith,

tical contradictions

we

and

let

which may

them

settle Ecclesias-

arise. "

Accordingly

have, long before the Council of Nice,

Canon

received in the Church, that there should be twice in

the year, Synods of the Bishops exclusively, and these

and

to treat of matters of faith,

settle Ecclesiastical

questions.

Another frequent occasion of early Councils was


the election of Bishops.
S. C}TDrian,

election,

An

African S}aiod, under

held A. D. 254. speaks of the

as a

mode

of

"Divine Tradition and an Apostolic

That Council, held about 150 years


after St. John was taken to his rest, had good means
of knowing what were, or were not, Apostolic obserobservance. "

vances.

"The

practice, received

from Divine tradition

and Apostolic observance, must be dihgently upheld


and kept, which is also kept by us and by almost all
the Provinces, namely, that to the due solemnization
of ordinations,

all

the neighbouring Bishops of the

same Province should meet together among the People


for whom a Prelate is ordained, and the Bishop
should be chosen in

know most

the presence

fully the lives of each,

Can.

38.

of the People,

who

and are thoroughly

40

Election of Bishops

made hy

BisJiojys, in

presencey

acquainted with the character of every one from his


This too

conversation.

we

see

was done among you

in the ordination of our colleague Sabinus, so that

by

good will] of the whole brotherhood, and by the judgment of the Bishops who had met
together in their presence^ and who had written to you
the suffrage,

[i.

e.

concerning him, the Episcopate was conferred upon


"

The People were rightly consulted in this,


both because they knew the previous lives of those
presented to them, and because it is of the utmost
him.

moment

that there should be the fullest confidence

between the teacher and the taught, the shepherd and


the sheep.

S.

Cyprian lays

stress

upon

this

know-

ledge of the character of the individual to be chosen


for that high office, in his application of Numbers xxiv.
25,

6.

to this case;

"This ^we

see to

be derived from

Divine authority, that a Priest should be chosen in


presence

the

of

under the eyes of

People^

approved worthy and

fit

"

"

and

testimony

that the

ordinations

solemnized

mth

again,

all,

and be

by public sentence and


instructs and shews us

He

of Priests

ought only to be

the knowledge of the People standing

by, that so, hy their presence^ either the crimes of the

wicked

may

be detected, or the merits of the good

proclaimed, and that ordination be right and lawful


Avhich

had been examined mtli the


"
] and judgment of all.

suffrage

[i.

e.

approbation,

But the

decision lay with the Bishops.

'Ep. 67.

4. p.

211.

The new

and

and good

with the testimony

Bishop was cliosen not "by" but


the People, "

Both

points,

who knew most


the

"m

the preseiice

of

fully the lives of each.

by the

choice

41

will of the People.

and the

Bishops,

acceptance by the People, are contained in the ancient


" 'Let no one be given as a Bishop to an
rule.

The Bishop was ^^ given to the


People, " not chosen by them yet he was not to be
forced upon them, if unwilling.

mmlling

People."

Orio-en lays the

same

on the

stress as S. C}^)rian

presence of the People, in order that they might be


satisfied that the fittest

person was appointed, and that

He

there might be no gromid for subsequent scruple.


is

speaking more broadly of

office

all

"Let ^us

of the Priesthood.

any

ordinations to
see

the order of

'Moses called an assembly

appointing a High-Priest.

and said unto them, this is the law which the Lord
commanded.' Although then the Lord had given command as to appointing the High Priest, and the Lord

had
For

chosen, yet the assembly also

is

called together.

in ordaining a Priest the presence of the People

required, that all

may know certainly that he is chosen

to the Priesthood, who, out of all the People,


excellent,

and

learned, holy, most eminent in

this, the

I).

is

most

virtue

may bene

For

this is

the Apostle too enjoined in the ordination of a

Nullus invitis detm- Episcopus.

A.

all

People standing by, '^that there

subsequent re-consideration or scruple.

what

is

428. quoted in the Decretals

'Horn.

6.

in Lev.

3.

p. 216.

Celestine Ep.

D.

2.

ad Episc. Gall.

61.c. 13.

cd.de la

Eiic.

i^

Adstantc

popiilo.

5.

c.

5.

42

Bishops often accepted

Priest, saying,

'

He must have

which are mthout

its

he

lest

snare of the devil, "

and

the choice

The

of

the

Peoples

a good report of

them

into reproach and the

fall

universality of the practice

object are attested

by the heathen Emperor,

Alexander Severus, who copied it with express reference


to the Jews and Christians. " When^ he purposed to
assign rulers to the Provinces &c. he proposed their

names, exhorting the People, that if any had any crime


and said that it was a
to object, he would prove it

grievous thing that,


did, publishing

the

when Jews and Christians so


names of those who were to be

ordained Priests, this should not take place as to the


rulers of Provinces, to whom the hves and fortunes of

men were

committed."

The People, of

whom

course,

very often had a Priest

they well knew, reverenced, loved.

If he

really eminent, they rightly longed that such

should be their Bishop


confirmed their choice.

and the Bishops

It

was

an one

as rightly

was no question of "patro-

nage" or " riejht of nomination, " on the one hand,


or of "election" on the other. One only object was
in the hearts of all, to find one apt and meet to feed
Church of God, purchased mth
His o-\\Ti Blood, "which, by age or by martyrdom, had
Right glad must the Bishops have
lost its Shepherd.

that portion " of the

been,
zeal

when

all

anxious enquiry was saved, and the

and love of the People bore such mtness

to the

merits of their Priest, that the Bishops could at once

'

Lamprid.

in vit.

ej. c.

45

"

for

People often knew best their oion Priests.

tlie

43

approve and consecrate the object of their choice,

and themselves return to the care of their own flocks.


Such is the picture, which the Synodical letter of
the Council of one hundred Bishops at Alexandria
gives of the election of St. Athanasius.

Arians] say that,

'after the

*'

They

name
seven Bishops elected him

a certain few having mentioned the


nasius,

or

six

tinely in a secret place.

Now

falsehood.

is

of Atha-

together as with one

Catholic

made

the

this

Christ,

subject

and conjured us

and

And

so

is

Church,

of their public prayers


to

grant

Church, nor suffering us to do


witnesses,

and

cried, shouted,

it

many

for

nights, neither departing themselves

too.

wi'ote

Church, assembled

mind and body,

that Athanasius should be Bishop of their

and

clandes-

what they

that the whole multitude

the People of the

all

the

Emperors, having no scruple about assertmg

to the

any

This

'

death of Bishop Alexander,

so,

of

all

to

days

from the

this

we

are

the whole city and the province

that he was elected

by the greater part of

our body in the sight and with the acclamations of


the People,

all

are

more

we

ivho

elected him, also testify,

who

credible witnesses than those absent then,

and now falsifiers.


Much, either for praise or blame, may escape the
knowledge of the Bishops, which does not escape
those

who

the daily

are brought into continual intercourse with

life

"'In Apol.

c.

of the Priest.

Ai-ian.

6, p.

The People, then, could

128, St. Ath. Hist. Tracts p. 22. Oxf. Tr.

Case of disagreement referred hack

44

to the Bishojys.

give a valuable testimony either as to the merit or

who should seem eligible. A large


many eyes and ears, and these situate

demerit of those

multitude has

in such nearness as to discover concealed failings or

retiring virtues.

The Canons of the Church accordingly contemplated and provided for the case, that the People
might reject the Bishop provided for them. Yet
the very Canon" which contemplates that a Bishop
consecrated for a Diocese might be rejected by the

People, provided that such a case should be referred

back to the

full

Synod

The People had,

of the Province.

way "the "power

in this

either of

choosing worthy Priests or rejecting the unworthy.

Bishop elected amid their acclamations was

"

said,

sometimes, to be elected by their suiFrages,^ some" " If

any Bishop consecrated for a Diocese does not go to it, not fi-om any
own, but either through the People declining [ to have him ] or
for some other cause not arising fi"om himself, let him share in the dignity
and public ministrations, only not interfering in the affairs of the Church in
which he celebrates but let him wait until tlie full Sjaiod of the Province,
having judged on the case when brought before them, shall decide." Couc.
Antioch. (A. 341.) can. 18.
fault of his

St.

Cyprian Ep.

Synod.)

See above p. 40. from

to the people,

"No

S.

67. 3. p. 211. 0. T.

Cyprian Ep.

"judgment"

67.

where the word "suffrage " belongs


is expressed 5. and again,

to the Bishops, as

one, after the Divine sanction had, after the suffrages of

after the consent of

the people,

our fellow-Bishops, M'ould make himself a judge, not

of his Bishop but of

God."

Id.

Ep.

59.

ad Corn.

156. Ep. 68. ad Steph. 2. p. 217. Ep. 55.


he says also, " He ( Cornelius ) was made

6. p.

155. O. T.

7. p.

ad Anton. 6. p. 121. (where


Bishop by very many of our

Colleagues then present in the city of Rome. " ) The corresponding Greek
word is also used. St. Gregory of Nazianzum e. g. says that " S. Athanasius
was placed in the see of Marie by tlie svffraije ( vl'jjtpw) of all the people"
in contrast with those whom the Arian faction intruded into his see, by aid
of the civil power and military force." Orat. 21. 8. p. 390.

"Suffrage" expresses concurrence of


times with their testimony''

by the

at times, to

and

suflrage of the Clerks

45

the People.

be elected

at the petition of

the People.

Even a General Council used


" suffrage
laity in

"

The Bishops

tinople (A. D. 381.


*'

ice

term

the glad concurrence of the

to express

who appointed the

the act of the Bishops

Patriarch.

freely this

of the Council of Constan-

wrote to the Western Bishops

have made Nectarius Bishop, in the CEcumenical

Council with

common

consent, in the presence of the

Emperor Theodosius and the whole Clergy, and the


whole City concurring.^" They relate also how the
Bishops of the Province and of the Eastern Diocese

meeting together had canonically ordained Flavian,


the whole Church in harmony' honoring him as with

one voice, and how they had recognised Cyril as


Bishop of Jerusalem " having been of old canonically
"

ordained by the Bishops of the Province.

In the Council of Chalcedon, in the decision that

and Stephanus had

Bassianus

been

uncanonically

intruded into the see of Ephesus, the maxims occur,

"another, who had the suffrages* of

herd he

is

to be, should rule the

shall

be given to

q S.

Cypr. Ep. 44. ad

made and approved by


the people.

the

Com.

Metropolis

fin. p. 99.

all

whose shep-

Church.

O. T.

of

"When

a Bishop

is

as

once

the testimony and judgment of his Colleagues and

7r4'4/^(p(^o|i,v>7j

(TV

" There

Ephesus,

"
^

"

Cone. T.

ii.

p.

1150 ed Col.

^\ n'^ov

'4-n(Pn^o'f*>ov

Act. 12. Cone.

iv.

1624.

46

In

all cases, respo7isihility ivas with the Bishojys.

one pointed out by God, and having the

Bishop,

of all over whom he is to be shepherd, to be


" The
ordained by the Church there. " Another says,
suffrages

^^

''

know most about them

Province

Bishops of the

the two Bishops

them

so let

according to

say,

who ought

their reverence and awe of God,

to have

the see of Ephesus,"

Yet even in the very strongest but very rare case,


when the People, actuated by what seems to be a
Divine impulse, or, once, almost by force, constrained
the Bishops to elect and consecrate the object of
their choice, it was still, in theory, acknowledged
that the decisive judgment was that of the Bishops.
St. Gregory of Nazianzum relates, how, in Julian's
time, **^some''' Bishops came to Ca3sarea, to give the
People a Bishop ;" and that the whole People, naturally
full of eagerness,

seized one distinguished for piety,

but as yet unbaptised, against his

will,

and,with a mili-

him

tary force which happened to be there, presented

to the Bishops for Baptism and Consecration, mingling

constraint with
constrained,

persuasion.

baptised,

The Bishops "were


[him Bishop]

proclaimed

enthroned him, with their hands rather than their


minds.

should

They debated

"

rescind their act

afterwards
;

whether

they

at the persuasion of

St.

Gregory's father, then Bishop of Nazianzum, they


desisted,

on the ground that

''

^y>(pt^ojjitvoi

^Omt.

it

Act. 11. p. 1617, 20.

18. funebr. in patr. 33. p.

would have
Mb.

1625.

354 ed. Ben.

been

Frequency of

elections,

and so, of Synods.

better to have resisted to the utmost

any

peril,

47

and mcurred

than to revive discord afterwards.

way the Synod of Bishops was acted


upon, it was still the executive body, and had the
whole responsibility of what was done.
The whole question, however, how Bishops were
In whatever

elected, with

whose concurrence,

influence was exercised

Bishops thought
election,

is

it

what

degree

of

by any party, how much the

right to

concede

as

The more

altogether distinct.

to

their

the People

were consulted in the choice of the Bishops and the

more

carefully the principle was observed, not to force

any Bishop upon them against


implicit

was

their will, the

likely to be their

when appomted over them.

Bishops,

more

confidence in their

Here,

it

occurs

only as matter of e\idence, that Synods of Bishops

were convened in order to

up the vacant sees; that,


in consequence of the narrow extent and consequent
numbers of the sees, the Bishops of each division had
the more fi:'equent occasion to meet in discharge of this
office
and that, when they did meet, they formed a
fill

body, a whole by themselves, distinct from any others

who were
for

present.

Whether they presented a Bishop

the acceptance or testimony of the People, or

whether, in the rarer case, the People urged their o^vn


favorite

upon the Bishops, in

either case the decisive

voice lay with the Bishops alone.

Greek Canon

lays down, "

''

""It is

Can. Apost. 68.

An

Ante-Nicene

not meet that the

Canons

48

to

prevent Bishops abusing their poiver.

whom

Bishop sliould appoint

he himself willed, be-

stowing by favor the dignity of the Episcopate on

For

brother or son or some other relation.


just that he should

make

it is

heirs of his Episcopate

he ought not to subject the Church of

God

not
for

to laws of

It was alleged against Lucius, the Arian


heritage."
intruder into the see of Alexandria, that he was
brought in " not^ by a Synod of Orthodox Bishops,

not by the suffrage of true Clergy, not at the request


of the Laity, as the laws of the

Church expressly

enjoin."

In the West, the third Council of Carthage laid

down

a rule which has since been perpetuated in the


" When
Western law and in the forms of our own
"^

we [the Bishops] meet

to

elect

a Bishop,

any

if

opposition should arise (for such things have been

considered

among

us, ) let

not the three [who sufficed

to consecrate] undertake to clear the person to be

ordained, but let one or two

more be

in the midst of the people, for

whom he is

ed, let the characters of the


ed,

then

opponents

let their objections

and when he

shall

called in

and

to be ordain-

first

be discuss-

be thoroughly considered

have been publicly

cleared, let

him

be ordained."

The

subject

and method of

this

enquiry were laid

do^wn at the beginning of a Council of Bishops from

all

Africa under Aurelius,'' which was afterward received


into the Decretals''

>Tlieocl. iv. 22.

and became part of the Western law.

^Can. 40,

"

Cone.

Cartli. iv. can. 1.

''

Dist. 23.

c, 2.

Hindrances

to

large

49

Synoch through persecutions.

relation of the Christians to the surroundhig

The

Heathen was, donbtless in eariy times, a hindrance


Even in
to the meeting of large Spiods of Bishops.
peril of
imminent
always
intervals of peace, there was
a general persecution

general

toleration did not

preclude local or partial persecution

in all persecu-

(as the Captains of the Christian

tions the Bishops

army) were the especial object of Heathen enmity


any gathering from distant parts would
or malice
have given colour to the imputation of disaifection and
;

disloyalty, in

which the Christians were any how

in-

volved by their antagonism to the religion of the

Emperors.

Conventions

At times such

pressly prohibited.

The

were

ex-

prohibition records the fact

that the Synods in the Ante-Nicene period were Synods


of Bishops.
trasts

Eusebius mentions this among the con-

between Constantine and the persecuting

perors

who preceded

^^

him.

Em-

They'' forbad that Sy-

nods of Bishops should, on any account, any where be


hekl

he gathered to himself those out of all nations."

So much were Spiods of Bishops the law of the


Church, that even Eusebius regards Licinius' prohibition of them as intended to throw the Christians
into confusion,

and

to force

them

also to

break the

laws either of the State or the Church. "Having'^ no


ground of accusation at hand, nor any thing for

which

to

blame these men, he

issues a law,

straitly

charging that the Bishops should no where and by


^Vit. Const,

iii.

1.

'^Ib.

i.

31.

50 Not

to

hold Synods of Bishops, against law of Church.

no means communicate with one another, nor any of


them be permitted to sojourn in the Church of his
neighbour, nor hold Synods or Councils, nor consider

what should be

for the

common

This was an

good.

excuse for overbearingness towards us.

For we must

needs either, by transgressing the law, expose ourselves to his

vengeance

or if

sacred laws of the Church.

it

break the

it,

was not

possible

any questions of great moment, otherwise

to set right

than

we obeyed
For

through

Synods.

Besides,

this

God-hater,

having decided to act contrariwise to the God-loving

For he

Prince [Constantine] issued this command.


[

Constantine

out

brought together the Priests

harmony but
;

was good,

tried to disturb the

in the

Priesthood,

Bishops ] for peace and

Licinius, essaying to destroy

We find accordingly in
how,

the

of respect to

S.

harmonious concord.

"

Cyprian, repeated notices

judgment both of

vacancy of the see

whatever

himself,

and

of the Presbyters of the

in the

Roman

Church, weighty matters must needs be deferred, until


peace should be restored.

The

smaller half-yearly

Synods might more readily escape notice; the conflux


of any larger

number

of

Bishops would doubtless

have often been construed into a conspiracy against


the State.

There are however, even during the second Century,


notices of

extraordinary Councils, convened,

when

occasion required, throughout the Christian world.

Each

separate Council was smaller

but the concur-

rence of the whole, or well-nigh the whole Church,

EMra-ordinary Synods

51

in second Century.

was obtained through Synods of Bishops

in the se-

veral Provinces of the Empire.

In the question as to the time of the celebration of


Easter, the practice of the Churches of Asia

was opposed to that

'''of

the rest of the world.

Minor

the Churches throughout

"

Eusebius

relates

all

" Synods

"^

and assemblies of Bishops met. They all, with one


accord, framed by Epistles an Ecclesiastical decree for
Eusebius then mentions
as yet extant, the Synodal " Epistle of those

Christians every where. "


in detail,

then assembled in Palestine,

Bishop

Theophilus

Bishop of

of

over

whom

Cassarea,

of

Jerusalem; another

presided

and

Narcissus

the

Synod

Rome, bearing the name of the Bishop, Victor


the Bishops in Pontus, over
as the eldest;

Irenaeus

of the

cities

of

Palmas presided,

Churches in Gaul, under

Osrhoene and the

of Bacchyllus

whom

at

there

St.

the Epistle

the Bishop of the Church of Corinth

and of very many others who having given one and


the same opinion and judgment, decided in the same
way and all these, " he adds, " defined one and the
;

same thing, that which I have mentioned. " The


words which he uses are throughout words which
describe acts of authority.

All these were S}^iods of Bishops throughout the

The Bishops enacted the decree,


and promulgated it among the faithful every where.

second Century.

<=

H. E.

V.

23.

<

S.

Jerome

says, " Bacchyllus,

distinguished under the same Severus, wrote an elegant

person of

all

the BishojJ^s of Achaia."

de Virr.

E 2

111.

c.

Bishop of Corinth,

Book on Easter
44.

in

the

Synods about heeinng of Easter.

52

Equally, on the side of the Asiatics, mention is made


" Polycrates ^ was chief of the
of Bishops only.

Bishops of Asia,

who

assevered that they ought to

keep the custom delivered to them from of old." Poly-

John and celebrated Bishops before him, Polycarp, and Thraseas, and
Sagaris, and Papirius, and Melito, and seven Bishops,
his o^vn relations. " But I could, " he adds, " make
mention of the Bishops, who were present with me,
crates speaks of St. Philip

whom you
and

Victor ] requested

as I

little

Victor,
off

St.

me

to call together,

have called them, whose names

But

are great multitudes.

me,

and

who

they,

am, approved

seen

On

this,

my

epistle."

"

presided over the Romans, essays to cut

from the common unity, the Dioceses of

[Minor] together

mth

heterodox; and

proclaims

not please

all

by

letters,

that all

But

the
did

this

They, in turn, exhort him

Bishops.

to thoughts of peace

Asia

all

the neighbouring Churches, as

there are excommunicate.

brethren

they

if I ^^a4te,

when they had

and brotherly unity and

love.

Their words too are preserved, sharply censuring


Victor.

Amono;

whom

Irenteus also, writino; in the

set,

whom

he was
"
mentions &c." Eusebius adds that Iren^eus cor-

person of the brethren of Gaul, over

responded not only with Victor, but with very

many

other rulers of Churches about the question which

had been
cissus,

raised.

The Bishops

of Palestine, Nar-

Theophilus, and with them Cassius Bishop of


s

Eus. H. E.

V.

24.

Subscriptions of Bishops

53

early Councils.

to

Church m Tyre, and Clerus Bishop of Ptolemais,


and those who met with them in Synod on the tradition as to Easter which had come down to them by
tlie

succession from the Apostles," attested that they kept

Easter on the same day


.

and desired that "copies of

those at Alexandria,

as

throughout the Church, that we


towards those who

Every step
its

may not be

guilty

readily deceive their souls."

in settling the question, or in resisting

being settled,

It w^as finally

be sent

their letter should

is

spoken of

as decided

decided by Bishops

by Bishops.

at the

Council

of Nice.

In the same century ApoUinarius Bishop of Hierapolis

says "thaf" the faithful in Asia, having

and
\dna'

in

many

places

met together

many times

to that end,

and ha-

examined the novel doctrines and declared them

profane, and rejected the heresy, they (the Montanists)

were thrust out of the Church, and excluded from


Communion." "Serapion', Bishop of Antioch at that
time after Maximine, " mentions in an Epistle " the
subscriptions of divers Bishops" to their condemnation.

"One of them thus subscribed, Aurelius Cyrenius Martyr; I pray you may fare well. Another thus, iElius
Publius Julius Bishop of Develtum in Thrace, 'as

Godliveth who is in Heaven, the blessed Sotus Bishop


of Anchialus wished to cast the demon out of Priscilla,
but the hypocrites suffered

graph
'

subscriptions

In Eus. H. E.

V. 16. p.

it

of very

230. ed Rend.

not.'

And

many

other

>

the auto-

Bishops

lb. v. 19.

Statement of numbers of the Bishops present.

54

asfreeinsf

with these, are in circulation in the aforesaid

letters. "

The

letters of

Serapion appear to have em-

bodied a Synodical Epistle from the Bishops of Thrace


(in

which are Develtum and Anchialus) to Serapion.

The Synodicon
this Council.

linarius

It

supplies the

mentions

and twenty

''

number

of Bishops at

a ''Council held

six other Bishops

by Apol-

at Hierapolis,

Montanus and Maximilla and condemned


Theodotus the tanner" as also one at Anchialus by
Sotus and twelve other Bishops, which refuted and
condemned Montanus. It enumerates also the Counwhich cut

cils

off

on the question of Easter, mentioned by Eusebius,

specifying the

number

of Bishops.

that by Polycrates at Ephesus

On

the one side

on the other, that at

Rome, by Victor and fourteen other Bishops; Jerusalem by Narcissus with fourteen Bishops Cassarea by
;

Theophilus and twelve other Bishops; Lyons by Irena3us and

thirteen

Bishops;

and eighteen other Bishops

Corinth by Bacchyllus
Asia Minor by Plasmas

[Palmas] with fourteen other Bishops; Osrhoene^by


eighteen Bishops, whose presiding Bishop
tioned;" Mesopotamia

is

not men-

"by eighteen Bishops, whose

President none of the Historians have mentioned." It


states that a

other

Roman Synod by

Victor and fourteen

Bishops, rejected Theodotus, Ebion and

Ar-

temon; and another rejected Sabellius and Noetus


with Valentinus.

The Synodicon was probably compiled


^

Cone.

i.

()1'5.

in the ninth

Its authenticity

Century, so that

Other Synods of

it is

55

Bishops.

altogether a later authority

it

has also mistakes as to some of these early Councils.

Yet the writer had manifestly some good information;


the very fewness of the Bishops, stated to have been

present at those Councils, the writer's readiness to ac-

knowledge that he knew not things which he knew not,

would neither exaggerate nor


His statement that " 7io?ie of the Historians

indicate a mind, which


invent.

mentioned the name of the Bishop who presided at


the Council in Mesopotamia, " implies that he
access to writers no longer extant.

had

This incidental

testimony then, that Bishops only were present at each


Council, given simply as

number

it

is,

in the

mention of the

may

be regarded as authentic tesAllatius says, " the writer, whoever he was,

present,

timony.

The Synodicon "was compiled most

was very pious."

accurately in the time of Photius."

of the
in

who

writer on heresies,
fifth

lived before the middle

Century, called Prtedestinatus, mentions


^

the second Century a Synod of

all

the Sicilian

HePergamus, of seven Bishops, under Theo-

Bishops, about A. D. 126. against the heresy of

racleon; at

dotus. Bishop of Pergamus, against an astrological

heresy of Colorbasus"; a Council of Eastern Bishops


against that of Cerdon

He

Corinth.

'

speaks of

with
it

Published by Sinnondus Opp. T.

Apollonius Bishop

of

as the act of Bishops" [sa-

1.

The

writer mentions Nestorius,

and

stops short of Eutyches.


>"

de

hscv.

i.

16.

Cone.

i.

555.

"

Ib.c.l5. p. 573.

"

lb. c. 2o. p. 583.

"

56

Origen complains of neglect

eve?!

of Presbyters;

cerdotes] 'Ho recall others fiom falling headlong, and

shew that they condenlned sects, not men."


In the next, the thhd century, Origen complains
that the advice even of the Presbyters was not wont
to be asked. " Who," he says, (in contrast with Moses

to

listening to Jethro)

"Who,

are set over the people,

vealed to him by God, but

^of those

who

do not say,
if

if

at this time

aught be

re-

he have some attainment

in the knowledge of the law, vouchsafes to receive

counsel even of an inferior Priest?

Much

less

of a

layman or Gentile.
Origen's complaint of the neglect of the inferior

Clergy was indeed unjust

for

he himself had, as a

Presbyter, been called in to help by argument in two

important Councils, as Theologians have been present


in later

Western Councils,

although without any

voice in deciding.

These two Councils were held

in Arabia.

Origen was employed to bring

first,

In the

Beryllus

distinguished Bishop of Bostra, back to the faith


the other, he was

a
in

employed to recover some who held

a strange doctrine as to the corruptibility of the soul.


In both he was successful.

Of

the

Council as

to

Beryllus (A. D. 229.) Eusebius relates, "afi that time,


Beryllus,
[

having

of faith,

alien

perverted the

rule

essayed secretly to introduce certain things

from the

faith,

and Saviour did not


r

Ecclesiastical

In Exod, Horn.

venturing to say that our Lord


exist in a

xi. n. 6. p. 171. cd. cic la

Personality of His
Rue.

'i

H. E.

vi.

33.

called in

to

own, before
matter, very

refute heresy, not as

imrt of Synod.

'

57

He came to dwell among men. In this


many Bishops ha\dng put questions and

disputed with the man, Origen, having been called in

with others,

first

entered into intimate conversation

with the man, &c.

There are yet extant in

the documents of Beryllus and the

TVTiting

Spiod held on

account of him, which also contain the questions of

Origen to him &c."

Of the second Council Eusebius

says,

" Again

^"

in

Arabia there sprung up those wdio would bring in a


doctrine foreign from the truth.

the

human

These

said,

that

soul for a while in this present world died

and was corrupted together with the body, but would


live again

Then

mtli

it

at the time of the resurrection.

no small Spiod having been assembled,


Origen, being again requested here too, and having
also

discussed the question before the assembly, so bore


himself, that the

minds of those before deceived were

changed back again."

The Synodicon mentions Origen only and

fourteen

Bishops as present in this Sjmod.


It is plain that

1.

Origen, a presbyter,

of as distinct from the S}Tiod of Bishops

him

is

spoken

who

called

Origen could not have used the above


language of laymen, had they formed part of the
in.

2.

Synod and had

a decisive voice in

it.

A. D. 230. Demetrius Bishop of Alexandria held a

Council on Origen himself, because, "


>

lb.

c.

37.

quum

se

sponte

Origen condemned in three Synods of Bishoj^s.

58

law of the O. T. and

abscidisset," he had, against the

of the Church, been ordained Priest,

Bishop of Csesarea,

own

by Theotecnus

without the cognizance of his

Pamphilus, his Apologist, relates that

Bishop.

"Demetrius^ gathered a Council of Bishops and of


certain ( rivuv ) Presbyters, which decreed that Origen
should remove from Alexandria, and neither live
nor teach there, but that he should not be removed

from the honor of the Presbyterate."


A. D. 232. Demetrius held a second Council on
Origen.

Pamphilus

says,

" Demetrius* Avith

certain

Egyptian Bishops, deprived him of the Presbyterate

who had voted with him subscribing with


Origen's own displeasure shews
interdict."

too, those

him the

that the Synods consisted exclusively of Ecclesiastics.


S.

Jerome

says,

pulls to pieces

" Whereas

that Epistle

""

of Origen

Demetrius Bishop of Alexandria, and

inveighs against the Bishops and Clergy of the whole

world, and says that he was causelessly excommuni-

And

cated by the Churches &c."


generally against the Priests

the Church, by

whom

again,

'"

Disputing

Bishops, sacerdotes

of

he had been held unworthy

of her communion."

Origen was condemned in a


gen"
ting

Roman

Synod.

''

Ori-

condemned by Demetrius the Bishop, excepthe Bishops of Palestine and Arabia, and PhcBis

Photius cod. 118.

" cout.
" id.

Kuf.

Ep.

3.J.

ii.

p. 297.

18.p. 509,

quoted In- Euf.

10. ed. Vail.


Iiiv.

ii.

19.

Id. lb.

Summary
iiicia,

and

statement of Synods at this time.

59

Rome joined

in his

condemnation.

Two

It

of

gathers a Synod against him."


are mentioned at

more, insuhited Councils


about A.

one

In

time.

this

The City

Acliaia.

Patriarch of Alexandria

is

Synod of Bishops, and

in

Ammonius

D.

have gathered a

said to
it

235. '""HeracLas,

have brought back

to

In the other, a Synod of

to the truth.

were condemned.

Acliaia, the Valesians

The Councils held

at

time upon heretical

this

baptism, and those of Africa generally, had perhaps


best be considered in connection with the times of S.

Cyprian. Here

it

may

be said generally, that a Council

of Bishops was assembled on heretical baptism,

by

Agrippinus in Africa, probably before or about the

beginning of the third Century


cils

were held

the

memory

," (S.

Dionysius

" very large Coun-

us) "long ago in

tells

of the Bishops before us, at Iconium

Synnada and many other

and

Laymen had been

places."

from making

prohibited by a Council of Bishops,

Clerks guardians of their children.

The

rule that

" causes should be heard where the oifcnce had been


committed,

"

had been enacted before

S.

Cyprian's

S. Cyprian speaks of it to S. Cornelius, as


having " been decreed by our whole body, " i. e. all

time.

Bishops every where.


prian

is

The Canon intended by

S.

Cy-

probably the tenth Apostolic Canon, which im-

who receives to CommuCommunion in his own place.

poses a penalty on any one

nion one suspended from

w Pncclcbtin.

i.

37.

Couc.

i.

671.

Summary

60

Such
tieth

of

tJds

period.

cases, if disputed, were, according to the thir-

(which the Council of Nice enlarged)

Canon,

Synod of the neigh_


Canon was first
framed, it is another clear instance, in the Ante-Nicene
period, of a Canon framed by the Bishops of a local
Council and by them communicated to the whole
Church which received it. It was received by the
to be referred to the half-yearly

bouring Bishops.

Wherever

the

whole Episcopal body.

The

Apostolic Canons generally must have been

the fruit of Ante-Nicene Councils, although they do


not,

by themselves, prove the nature of those Councils.

We

have then already Councils, consisting exclu-

sively of Bishops,

on various subjects,

in

communication

with one another on what concerned the whole (as in


the

more extended

extraordinary

heresies,

or apart

for questions of ritual,

ordinary or

as the

keeping

of Easter and the close of the Lent fast,) or to judge

and determine heresy; larger or smaller, as the case


required or circumstances

may have

permitted.

We

have already Synodical letters from the Bishops assembled in Synod, and notices of subcriptions, as in the
later times.
full

The Synod,

in this earliest period,

use and exclusively Episcopal.

is

in

Belief of S. Cyprian as

to office

CHAPTER.

61

of Bishop.

III.

Times ofS. Cyprian. A. D. 249258.

The history

of that inherent and inde-

establishes the principle

insulated

Bishop, whicli

authority of the

pendant

Cyprian the more

of the times of S.

expressions of that gentle Father of his People have

But before we enter

been quoted to disprove.

the details whicli were personal to

enquire

how much

to forego or to suspend,

it

Cyprian, and

S.

own mind, was

he, of his

will

into

pleased

be well to examine

what, according to his principles and practice, were


He taught
the office and prerogative of the Bishop.
then, habitually, that Bishops were chosen
Lord'^; protected and inspired

verment

governed by

with them

His*'

God

made'^ by

by Him^

by

the

in their go-

Presence and the Church


;

the

that

Church^ was

upon her Bishops and every act of the Church


and this, as ordained by
was regulated by them
" our Lord, determining the honour of a Bishop, and
settled

the ordering of His

own Church

"
;

that they " by

vicarious ^ ordination were successors of the Apostles;"

that they preside^ in the Church of God, governing^


a

Ep. 48.
" Christ

fin.

49,

2.

p. 108.

Oxf. Tr. 55, 6: 61, 2

69. 6.

Ep. 48.

Who

fin.

by His Will and Fiat and Presence, governs the Prelates


themselves, and the Church with the Prelates." Ep. 66. . 8. p. 207.
<=

^
f

''

Ep.
Ep.

3,

2.

55, 6. 7. 59. 6. p. 15.

66. 3.

Cone. Carth.

Ep.

75.

u, 79.

17. p.

Ep. C6.

279. 0. T.
3.

Ep. 33.

^Ep.

69, 4.

1.

p.

75.

"

62

of Blsliops, singly or

Office

collectively.

the Church of the Lord with the same power


the Bishop "

that

Church and the Church in the


Bishop" " that each^ Prehate hath in the government
of the Church his own choice and will free, hereafter
is

4n

the

Lord," " so long

to give account of his conduct to the

bond of concord remains, and the inseparable


Sacrament of the Catholic Church endureth " that

as the

he

is

a judge^ in Christ's stead

God

appointed by

responsible

a judge for the time


"

to Christ alone

be obeyed" at peril of spiritual death, and


the sanction of the

this

says, " the Divine

we with the

to

under

word of God.

Collectively, of the Bishops in Council

he

rest,

^'

assembled

favour will bring to pass, that

our Colleagues,

may

stably and

and uphold the peace of

firmly administer our office,

the Catholic Church in the unity of concord.

On

whom

the case of the lapsed, as to

individually

he purposed, as we shall see, to have the opinion of


the Laity, he says, " for the rest, as I have written
'^

to very
is

many

of

my Colleagues, we will

by God's permission,
together."

''

Read

when,

at large in a full Council,

done more

to be

consider what

"

we

shall

be enabled to meet

these same Epistles to

my

leagues also, should any either be with you or

among

'

Ep.

66,

Ep.

55. 17.

7.

1^

Cone. Garth,

Ep. 48.

fin.

Ep.

counsel for mollifying and healing

72. fin. 73. fin. 59,


"

p. 286, 7.

come

unaminity and concert, we

that with

you,

may take wholesome

Col-

"

19. p. 166.

Ep.66.
Ep.

Cone. Garth,

p. 287.

2.

3. p. 5- 4, 4. 59, 5. 66, 2.

Ep. 32.

fin.

"^

Ep.

34, 2.

Synods of Bishops.

N^otices of previous
tlie

wounds of the lapsed

sider

we

more

fully

purposing together to con-

concerning

shall begin again to

when, by God's mercy,

all,

come together.

whom

In the case of Felicissimus,


cates,

63

"

he excommuni-

he writes to Bishop Caldonius and another

we

Bishop, "'all which matters

will then take cogni-

when by God's permission we shall have


met together with more of our Colleagues."
Such were the principles of S. Cyprian and his
zance

of,

times as to the office of the Bishop, apart or with


other Bishops.
entire

In principle,

responsiblity

Church

the

in

he asserted that the


rested

on the

Bishops, that the sole authority, by the gift of God,


rested with them.

With regard

to this

Cyprian's works,

S.

actual history, there are, in

notices of Councils

been held, and the Synodal


in

one case, the Acts of the Council.

that the decision in

all

which had

and

letters of Councils,

All alike attest

matters, not those of faith

only, but judicial questions and points of discipline,

rested exclusively with the Bishops.

Thus,

S.

Cyprian writes to

had been decreed by


Africa, that causes

S.

Cornelius that

it

Body

in

the whole Episcopal

were to be judged where the

sin

had been and not to be removed to another Province.


" What is the occasion of their going to you, and of
*

their
set

announcing that a pseudo-Bishop

up against the Bishop


=

Ep. 41.

fin.

p. 92.

'

has

been

for either they are well-

Ep.

59,

19. p.

165.

"

Synods of Bishops in unison every where,

64

done, and persevere

pleased with what they have

wickedness

their

in

withdraw,

they

and

Body,

it

they

should

has been decreed by our whole

and

alike equitable

is

them and

displeases

know whither

they

For since

return.

or

if it

that every

just,

cause should be there heard where the offence has

been committed, and a portion of the flock has been


assigned to the several shepherds, which each

is

to

rule and govern, having hereafter to give account of


his ministry to the Lord.

"

Again, he writes " It" was long ago decreed in a

Council of Bishops, that no one should by his will


appoint one of the Clergy and Ministers of

God

to be

executor or guardian.
S.

Cyprian, in a small Synod of

cides distinctly as to

concurs

with

the

five

the abuse of the

judgement

Bishops, ^'de-

of the

consulted him, as to the Deacon

whom

and

o-uvaicraxTot,

Bishop who

he had excom-

municated.

In an African Synod of thirty seven Bishops^ he


returns answer to the Clergy and People of Leon and

Merida

Spain that Basilides and Martialis ought

in

not to retain the Episcopate, that Basilides had made


matters worse by imposing on Pope Stephen,
that his place

had been

In the same
"
witli

S.

Ep.

1.

are

in

the

"

Ep.

67.

he refers to a decree of

^ The fom* names joined


same distinguished from the

"present with them:" the three


67 the two first, with the fourth,
;

rightly filled up.

Epistle, ^

init.

Cj-pvian's,

and

first

recnr

among

among

the

those in Ep. 57.

"lb.

fin. p.

213.

in

Ep.

4.

Presi)yters,

Bishojis

in

Ep.

or local as

65

individuals.

to

Cornelius, in conjunction vAih the African Bishops,

S.

and

the Bishops throughout the world, that those

all

who had

denied the faith,

might be admitted

penance, but not restored to any Priestly

to

office.

He is probably speaking of a Council, when he says,


" to ^ adulterers also is a time for penitence allowed
hy us, and peace given." Any how, the question was
decided by the Bishops alone, whether individually or

some of the Bishops judging that adulought not to be restored to Communion, and

collectively
terers

so acting,

and yet not separating from those who did

restore them.

Of

"I have'

Privatus he writes,

by Felicianus,

brother,

there

that

Carthage Privatus, an old heretic

many

Lambesa, condemned

signified to you,

had come to

in the

Province of

years since, for

many

and heinous crimes, by the sentence of ninety Bishops,

and

you must needs bear

as

noted by the

letters of our predecessors,

made

May

Ides of

this

and was not suffered so to do,


Fortunatus a pretended Bishop, one worthy
just past,

proud

ungodly

Ep.

55.

Zephj-i-inus

heretic,

sacrificings

were

them,

Roman

company with Privatus,


came Jovinus and Maximus, who for

Moreover

of his College.
a

Fabian and

who, when he professed a wish to plead


cause before us in the Council held on the

Donatus
his

mind, very severely

in

in

and other crimes proved against

condemned by the sentence of nine

ad Antonian.

16, 17.

ou the same subject

TertuUian speaks of an "Edict" of Pope


i.

e.

probably a decision of Zeph\-rinus with

Council, in conjunction with the Afi-ican Council, as in the case of

the lapsed.

Ep.

59.

ad Corn.

12. p. 1(30.

Synods on

GQ

those

who fell

in persecution.

Bishops and Colleagues, and were a second time ex-

communicated by very many of

us, in a

Council last

year."

In Council with sixty-six Bishops/ he, with them,


decides that one, rashly restored to

Communion, was

not subsequently to be excluded

that the Baptism

of infants need not be deferred to the eighth day

and that no one should be debarred from Baptism


and from the Grace of God.

The

decision of this Council

was worded

so exactly

on the guilt and remission of original


though,

Augustine

" S.

"

'^

says,

'"'

sin,

as

through the Provi-

dence of God, the Cathohc Chm'ch were

already

confuting the Pelagian heretics."

On

the case of the lapsed, there are distinct ac-

counts of at least four Councils


there are at least seven.

only

the Presbyters of the City took part in the

Roman

S.

on heretical Baptism,

except that during the vacancy of the see of

Rome,
first

All these are of Bishops

Council on the lapsed.

Cyprian

in a Council of forty-two

to S. Cornelius, Bishop of

a former Council,

Bishops writes

Rome, of the

decision of

"we"' had determined some time

ago, dearest brother, having advised with one another,

who

that they

in the fierce warfare of the persecution

had been overthrown by the adversary and had


and had

defiled themselves

should do

full

'Ep.

64.

penance

ad ridiim.

"

for a

by forbidden

long while, and

Ep. 166, ad Ilieron.

24.

fallen,

sacrifices,
if

^-

danger

Ep.

57.

Successive measures adopted hy Synods for them.

of sickness should press hard

67

upon them, they should

They

receive peace at the very point of death."

then say, the approach of another persecution which


foretold, required that the people should

had been

prepared for
"

ned,

those

be

" AYe'' [the Council] have determi-

it.

he proceeds, "that peace

who have not

Lord, but from the

to be granted to

is

departed from the Church of the


first

day of their

fall,

have not

ceased to do penance and to lament and to entreat

the Lord, and that they ought to be armed and ac-

coutred for the impending battle.


ditFerence

"

They say

that a

ought to be made between those who had

gone into heathen

sin or heresy,

persevered in repentance, and

and those who had

sum up; "It

hath""

seemed good to us, the Holy Spirit suggesting, and


the Lord by many and plain visions admonishing,
since the enemy is foretold and shewn to be close

upon

us, to

gather the soldiers of Christ within the

the camp, and having examined the

case of each,

to grant peace to the fallen [lapsis,] yea rather to

supply arms to those about to


will

Which

w^e trust

be approved also by you, in contemplation of the


"

mercy of the Father.

The

principles of that former Council S.

explains

more

instance,

when urged

munion,

''^whaty

lb. p. 138.

Cyprian

fully in a letter to Antonian, a

of the severer school.

^'

fight.

was

He

says that in

to restore the

Bishop

the

lapsed to

first

Com-

to be determined in the case of

"lb. p. 141.

f2

^Ep.

55. .3. p. 119.

68
tlie

Princi])les

lapsed

of African Synod

deferred; that

when quiet and

tranquillity

had been bestowed, and the Divine mercy should


together^

then, the advice of

being given and weighed,

we might, on com-

allow the Bishops


all

parison of

all

But

done.

if

to

meet

things, determine

what ought

be

to

any, before our Council were held, and

by advice of all, should choose

before sentence given

rashly to communicate \vith the lapsed, that person

should be forbidden Communion.

However,^ accor-

ding to what had been before determined,

when

the

persecution was lulled and

given

for

number of Bishops, whom


and the protection of the Lord had

meeting together, a
their

own

faith

opportunity

large

preserved uninjured and

met together and, the

safe,

Divine Scriptures being adduced on both sides,

ive

balanced our resolution with wholesome moderation


so that neither should hope of

communion and peace

be altogether denied to the lapsed,


peration they should

fall

away

lest

still

through

des-

and,

further,

because the Church was shut against them, following


the world, should live as heathens

nor yet on the

other hand should evangelical strictness be relaxed,

might rush

so that they

in haste to

that penance should be

Communion but
;

long protracted, and the

Fatherly clemency entreated with mourning


cases,

and the

and purposes, and exigencies of each be ex-

amined

as

expressed in a

is

tract,^

which

I trust

has

reached you, where the several heads of our determi-

lb.

4,

5.

"

The De

Lapsis.

followed in both cases by the Roman,

nation are collected together.

And

69

the

lest

number

of Bishops in Africa should seem insufficient, we


wrote to Rome also on this subject to our Colleague

who himself likewise,

Cornelius,

in

a Council held

iciih

same

the

of our Co-Prelates, agreed


opinion with us, with like solemnity and wholesome

many

very

in

Whereof it has now become necessary


to write to you, that you may know that I did
nothing lightly, but according to what I had before

moderation.

comprised in

my

Epistles, deferred every thing

to

the

common decision of our Council, and in the mean time


communicated with no one of the lapsed, so long as
there was opportunity whereby the lapsed might
But
obtain not only pardon, but even a Crown.
afterwards, as the agreement of our College, and the
benefit fi'om recovering the brotherhood and healing

wound

the

required, I submitted to the necessity of

the times, and thought right to provide for the safety

now recede from these things, which


our Council by common consent been

of many, and not

have once

in

determined."
S.

the

Cyprian's example was in both cases followed

Roman

Church.

In the former

case,

it

by

was an

additional ground of delay on the part of the Church


at

Rome

that they had no Bishop

these matters

yet even thus,

who

Rome, who

settle

they did what they

could to obtain the judgment of Bishops.


byters of

could

The Pres-

in the forced privation of a

Bishop, were entrusted with the care of the Church


at

Rome, deliberated with neighbouring Bishops, and

70

Previous Councils of Bishops

others wlio having been the objects of persecution in

own

their

were then at Rome,

sees,

(the Bishop

being often singled out for persecution at

"We^

see.)

then here,

desiring

liis

own

observe this

to

moderate and tempered course in the treatment of


these cases, have for a long time,

many of

us,

and

moreover with several Bishops in our neighbourhood,

and such

had driven

as the heat of this persecution

from other distant Provinces

been

of opinion, that

nothing new should be done before the appointment


of a Bishop, yet have thought that the care of the
lapsed must be tempered \Ai\\ moderation

mean-while,
gift of

as long as

new

pleased

it

God

Bishop, the case of those

and that

to delay the

who can bear

the delay should be kept in suspense.

On

the subject of heretical Baptism,

mentions an African
in

Council

which " Agrippinus,

with the

man

many

who

Cyprian

S.

years before,

of excellent

Bishops with him

rest.

"^

memory,

at that time

governed the Church of the Lord in the Province of


Africa and Numidia,

did,

when by common

duly weighed, establish and confirm


milian writes
thereon, we,

" All

this,

some time

this. "

counsel
S.

Fir-

some having doubted^

since,

[jampridem] being

Ep. 30. Presb. Bom. . 8. p. 67. O. T.


Ep. 73. . 3. p. 244. " In that now, many years, and a length of time
have passed away, since under Agrippinus of honoured memory, very many
^
*=

Prelates being convened detennined this. " Novatus of Tamugada speaks of


" the decree of our Colleagues, men of most sacred memory. " Cone. Garth,
n. 4. p. 288.

It

have been A. D. 215, as being a year


* Ep. 75. . 7. p 274.
that the doubt related not to the principle, but to

Baronius supposes

of peace.

appears from

^
.

Ep. 71.
20.

the case of the Montanists.

it

to

fin. p.

239.

"

in Africa

and Asia

Mijior.

71

assembled together in Iconium, a place in Phrygia,

with those from Galatia, and

Cilicia,

bouring regions, confirmed,

as to be held

and other neighand firmly

maintained against heretics.


S.

Dionysius mentions another Council at Synnada,

and that there were many

"I learnt ^ this

besides.

also,

that those in Africa have not now, alone and wrongly,

brought in

this,

but that long ago,

the Bishops before

and

in the

us, in

too, in the

the most populous Churches,

Synods of the brethren in Iconium and

Synnada, and by many,

said,

'

shalt

castino;

For

it

is

not move the boundaries of thy

neighbour, which thy fathers have made.'

The

so

and contention among them.

Thou

Whose

was decreed.

this

decisions I cannot endure to overthrow,

forth strife

time of

Council under

"

C}*prian himself

was a

Council of thirty-two Bishops, whose Synodical

letter,

first

S.

addressed to eighteen Bishops of Numidia,


extant.^

It

begins,

"

When we

Council, dearest brethren,

you addressed

is

still

were together in

we read

the letter which

to us respecting those

who

are thought

by heretics and schismatics, whether,


when they come to the one true Catholic Church,
to be baptised

they ought to be baptised.

Wherein, although ye

yourselves also hold the Catholic rule in


fixedness, yet since out of our

have thought good to consult


sentence as
sAp. Eus.
of Trullo

mutual

us,

ive

its

truth and

afi*ection

deliver not

ye
our

though new, but, by a kindred harmony,

y\\.

''Ep. 70. It

7.

can. 2. See

Note

b. p.

232. 0. T.

is

acknowledged by the Council

Other matters ruled also in these Synods.

72

we

unite with you in

tliat,

long since settled by our

and observed by

predecessors,

The Bishops

us."

of

the one Pro\^nce under S. C}^3rian answer the Bishops


of the other.

In a second Council, the African and Numidian


Bishops united to confirm the former.

when we had met

"Now' too

together, Bishops of the Provinces

both of Africa and Numidia, to the number of seventy-one,

we

again confirmed this same by our sentence,

ruhng that there

is

one Baptism, that appointed in

the Cathohc Church; and that accordingly, whosoever

came from the adulterous and profane water, to be


cleansed and sanctified by the truth of the saving
water, are not re-baptised, but baptised

S C}^3rian in a Synodical
Stephen,

letter writes to

many

other matters also.

to the settling certain matters,

by the

aid of our

necessary,

dearest

a Council, whereat

common
brother,

many

In which Council

together.

us."

Pope

second Council of Bishops was

that this

assembled for

by

"In order

and regulating them

counsel,

we deemed

to assemble

Prelates

many

and

it

hold

were gathered

things were pro-

j)Ounded and transacted.

But wherein chiefly we


and to confer mth
thy gravity and wisdom, is that which most concerneth the Episcopal authority, and the unity as well as
thought

it

right to write to thee,

dignity of the Catholic Church, &c.

On
'

Ep.

this followed

73.

1.

p 243.

Pope Stephen's renunciation of


*

Ep.

72. init.

"Cyprian and the rest."

73

Laity of Carthage only hearers at one Synod.

Communion,

Cyprian's

S.

a Council of Bishops.

Avliicli itself

was

tlie

act of

In the third Council, " on the Baptism of heretics,"


we are told in the Acts themselves, that not oidy the
Presbyters and Deacons "of the Bishops, but a great

These were

part of the Laity also were present. "


plainly the Laity of Carthage
''a gi^eat

since manifestly

itself,

part of the Laity" of eighty-seven Episcopates

from the Provinces of Africa, Numidia, and ]\Iauritania coidd not be present, and the Presbyters and
Deacons came with the Bishops as "

Presbyters

their

The Acts open

and Deacons " not so the Laity.


thus " when^ on the Calends of September very
many Bishops from the Pro\dnces of Numidia and
Mauritania, mth their Presbyters and Deacons, had
;

met together

at Carthage, a great part of the Laity

present."

But neither Presbj^ers, Dea-

being

also

cons,

nor Laity, gave either opinion or vote.

C}TDrian addresses his Colleagues

heard, most beloved Colleagues,

fellow-Bishop has written to


that

we

me

"^

"

only.

S.

Ye have

what Jubaianus our


" It remains

&c."

severally declare our opinion

on

this

same

subject, judging no one, nor depriving any one of the

right of
"

Communion,

"Pope Stephen with

rest,

resisted."

he

differ

from

us.

For no

the rest his Colleagues, yet himself more than the


Lir. I. 6.) The renunciation of Communion is

(Vincent.

himself ( Ep, 74, 10. ) and S. Firrailian (lb. Ep. 75.


Peace was restored by his successor, S. Xystus.
Cyprian's Epist. p. 286. The heading is, " The judgments of eighty-

mentioned by
.

if

S. Cj-prian

26. p. 284. )

Among S.

seven Bishops in the Council of Carthage on the question of baptising heretics."


" So also Felix of Uthina. 23. "No one can doubt, most holy fellow- Prelates
[co^^!^acerdotcs]

74:

Cyprian

S.

consults Laity individually, not in

Synod

one of us setteth himself up as a Bishop of Bishops,


or

by

t}Tanical terror

necessity of obeying

forceth

his

inasmuch

Colleagues to a

as every Bishop,

in

the free use of his liberty and power, has the right of

forming his own judgment^ and can no more he judged


"
The
by another than he can himself judge another.
eighty-seven Bishops then not only exclusively give
their judgments, but the whole Synod is called " so
large an assembly of most holy Prelates".

"

AU

give

judgments, but many, with words expressing

their

that they are dehvering formal judgments."

On

the other hand, the language of

S.

Cyprian,

which has been dwelt upon as implying an admission


of lay-authority, relates, not to S5mods but to the

wisdom
who,

government or the

of his

special case of those

openly denying the faith in persecution,

after

desired to be restored individually to the

of the Church.

with legislative

Communion

The whole question had nothing to do


Synods. The Bishops, as we have seen,

by one agreement through the whole Church,

settled

the principles as to the restoration of the lapsed.

Cyprian,

when

not about
his

provincial or legislative

own way

Diocese,

writing to his o^vn People,

in

cases, in the

of proceeding in

is

S.

writing

Synods, but as to

his OAvn

examining with his Clergy,

particular

individual

presence of his People.

Bp. Sage (Vindication of Cypri" Sacerdotnm, a title of Bishops, n. 8.


anic age, p 382.) thus recounts them " Censeo " n. 2. 8. 11. 16. 22. 31. 32. 33.
37.41. 43. 72. 74. 83. (with 84. 85.) 86. dccerno. n. 6. 38. 59. Mea sententia est.

n.

9.

87.

Secundum motum animi mei

dico. n. 73. Existimo. n. 78.

"

refraining

from

his right, out

That great Bishop and

75

of love of souls.

Saint,

so deeply

imbued

with the love ofthe Church and of souls, and of unity,


furthering both and as the

as

raised

bond

of Christ,

was

in very stormy times, to hold together

by God,

wisdom and love which God gave him,


He saw
the conflicting elements in the Church.
clearly what was to be done he would not do it,
until he had won the minds of men, so that, unperBut
ceived, his own mind was impressed upon all.

by the

grace,

in his

very statement ol his principle of action, he

shews

that he was forbearing

exercise of his o^vn right,

and suspending the


not conceding any right of

others.

It

in speaking of the restoration of the

is

lapsed that he lays


Episcopate.

down

the memorable rule of his

"As ^regards

the matter whereon our

feUow-Presbyters, Donatus and Fortunatus, Novatus

and Gordius, wTote

to

me,

could give no answer

by myself in that, from the beginning of my Episcopacy, / resolved to do nothing of my o^vn private
judgment without your advice and the concurrence
of the People but when by the grace of God, I shall
;

have come to you, we will consult together of the things


which either have been or are to be done, as respect^
for another requireth.

In that he says

own
p

resolved to

do nothing of

private judgment," he shews that he

Ep. 14.

1 "

"/

Sicut

fin. p. 37.

my

had the

O. T.

mutuus honor

poscit. "

The

expression

is

illustrated

by that in

Ep. 19. of the Laity " qnibvis et ipsis pro fide et timore suo honor habendus

est.

"

76

Sj)ecial difficulties in restoring -the lapsed to

power, had

thought good.

so

lie

do

as

if

could not have

fully in himself, to

English Sovereigns could not speak

other\vise.

now,

He

he had authority

so spoken, unless

Communion

were a concession to consult their

it

Parliaments, because

it

would be unconstitutional not

to consult them.

Again, in that, in the same place, he spoke of "consulting together of the things

which either have been,

or are to be, done, as our respect for one another requireth,

in
is

",

he could not be speaking of actual voting,

which

all

who

He

give votes, are so far equal.

plainty speaking of mutual courtesy, not of a prescrip-

tive right.

With regard

to the case of the lapsed,

it

was one

which (as we know by experience, even amid our


laxity of discipline) touched the Laity very nearly.

The

re-admission of careless livers to

Communion,

without adequate knoAvledge or token of their repentance,

is

very often a scandal to communicants,

was wont, among


of dissenters.

ourselves, to

be one of the taunts

Cyprian himself mentions

S.

culty in his Epistle to Cornelius.

He

this

own moral

diffi-

speaks of the

responsibility of restoration resting with himself,

of his

and

and

obligation, not to restore some,

the risk of injuring others.

"These,

at

when they saw

up amongst them,
discovered that they were cheated and deceived, and
day by day stream back, and knock at the door of

that a pseudo-Bishop

'

Ep.

59.

was

set

20. p. 166. O. T.

through their oicn fault

We

the Churcli.

and repugnance of the

who must

however,

People.

11

give account

meanwhile anxiously ponder and careexamine, who ought to be received and admitted

to the Lord,
fully

For to some,

to the Church.

either their

own

crimes

form so great a hindrance, or the brethren so


lutely

and firmly

object, that

reso-

they cannot be received

without the scandal and peril of very many.


For neither should some ulcerous parts be so brought

at

all,

as to

too-ether,

occasion

whole and sound


shepherd,

who

nor

wounds

in others that are

he a useful and prudent

is

and tainted

so mingles the diseased

sheep with his flock, as to

afflict

his

whole

the infection of their contagious malady."


speaks, as having to give account to

moral responsibihty towards his

flock T\ith
S.

Cyprian

God, with a

flock, that

he injure

not those committed to him, but as ha\^ng the entire


authority in the whole

matter.

His responsibility

lay in the due exercise of his authority.

was part of the object of the course of public


penitence, that the lives of those who had fallen into
deadly sin might be observed, and so it might be
It

known

that they could safely be restored to

nion.

S.

C}^man

letters in question.

states this,

" Since

'

very

in one of the

in lesser offences,

God "

are not committed against

Commuwhich

[directly, as in the

denial of the faith itself] "penance

is

done

for

an

appointed time and confession made, vAi\\ enquiry


into the

life

of

him who
=

is

Ep.

doing penance, nor

17. p. 43.

may

Authority

78

to restore the

lapsed, allowed

Communion, unless hands shall first


have been laid upon him by the Bishop and Clergy,
how much more in these most grievous and extremest
any come

to

ought

cases,

all

things to be observed \vith caution

and reverence, according to the disciphne of the Lord!"


But with regard to the abstract power of restoring
the lapsed, it is acknowledged to he mth S. Cyprian,

by the

Martyrs*^

others, misled

who send

by

When

the petition to him.

presuming upon

certain Presbyters,

the honour in which they were held for their sufferings for Christ, used an authoritative tone, granting
reconciliation to all those,

of whose conduct, subse-

quent to their lapse, the Bishop should be satisfied,


they still directed their "decision," (as they called it)

and through him to his Colleagues,


as beheving that the absolute power of restoring the
"We" desire, through you
lapsed, rested with them.

to S. Cyprian,

to

make known

He

also."

in

behalf

this

our decision to other Bishops

himself decides^ to accept those petitions


of

dangerously

ill

lapsed

of the

such

restoring those also

Christ, confessed

Him and

as

who

might

after

be

denying

were banished.

The power of the Bishop is evidenced both by S.


Cyprian^ who abides by his first decision, and by the
other Bishops who were overborne by the clamorous
demands of the lapsed and received them to com-

munion

In both

at once.''

that the decision was


t

Ep.

15.

Ep.

18.

and
and

16.
19.

3.

cases, it

was acknowledged
The " Laity

with the Bishops.

and

17. p. 43.

" Ep. 24.

5.

"

Ep. 23.

"

Ep. 27.

3.

on

hands

all

not consulted by

who stood " were

bids his Presbyters


culates
as

them and

many

can, "

>'

by

abide

eitlier.

He

all."

his former letters,

cir-

"among

vacancy of the

discipline

He^

settled."

to the Presbyters of

Rome, and
^

the concurrence of those

"ruling Presbyters" at

so obtains

who
Rome and

also in the

state of things

communicates the

see,

might

from them the

receives

approval of "what he had^

from Italy

for the time acted as

of other Italian

At Rome too the lapsed were bidden to


the appomtment of a Bishop,^ as at Carthage

for his return.

C}^rian circulates their

S.

Roman Confessors
"very many of his

writes to

they would consider what was


the broad principle^
mission,

Matt

S.

Colleagues," that

done in a very

to be

the lapsed themselves he lays

To

fuU Coimcil.^

letters as

in answer to his

well as those of
OT\Ti,

Cj^^rian

other of his Colleagues [the Bishops] as he

be observed by

wait for

S.

his treatise " on the lapsed "

"in order that one rule of

Bishops.

79

with S. Cyprian.

to rest

" thence [from our Lord's com-

16.

18.

19.]

the ordination of

Bishops and the ordermg of the Church runs


alons: the course of

down

down

time and hue of succession, so that

upon her Bishops and every act


of the Church is regulated by these same Prelates.
Since then this is founded on the di\ine law" &c.
The delay of the decision as to the lapsed was determined, not by the Laity, but " as ^well by us [S.
C}^rian] as by the Confessors and Clergy of the City,

the Church

is

Quod

settled

statuimus.

Ep.

26.

Ep.

21. p. 51. 30.

8. p. 65.

"
'

Ep.

25.

"

Ep. 32.

Ep. 27.
Ep. 33.

*=

Ep.

30.

Ep. 43.

.
.

11. p. 67.
2.

"

80

Laity consulted as

by

as also

The

seas.

by

rejection of this

rents, S.

Felicissimus

Cyprian speaks of as "

sacerdotal

The

the Bishops established in our Province

all

or beyond

cases ofindividualsj

to

[i.

e.

and

his adhe-

destruction of all

a^^

Episcopal] authority."

extent of the lapsed, the danger of their total

ajoostacy, the easiness of

some Presbyters or Bishops,

the rigidness of others, the existence of stern prin-

which deviated into Novatianism, the

ciples

cessions

and presumptuous claims of some of the

Confessors,
difficulty,

made

whole case one of extreme

the

aggravated by the presence of a party

But the

personally opposed to S. Cyprian.

which

S.

was

judge the cases of individuals, not to

to

inter-

Cyprian on

They were not

office to

admitted the Laity,

this occasion

legislate.

to determine the principles

of the

restoration of the lapsed, but the merits of individuals.


S.

Cyprian fixes the time, and the fact of the restora-

tion

he reserves to the judgment of the Laity, not

any principle of
dual case.

"

discipline,

but the/c^5ofeach indivi-

When' peace is
we have begun

first

given to us

all

by

the Lord, and

to return to the Church,

each case shall be examined

in

with aid of your judgment."


Epistle,

contrary.

which has been of

their

So again
late

in

quoted

another
the

for

Cyprian himself decides that those who

S.

had received

your presence, and

letters

death-beds

'

lb.

from the Confessors, might on

be

received to

'

Ep.

17. p. 43.

Communion

O. T,

he

81

out of regard^ not of right.

reserves the enquiry into the cases of the rest, to be


settled in

common.

It

of principle. " This''


cipline

is

is

again, a question of fact, not

becoming to the modesty and dis-

and character of us

all

that the Bishops meet-

ing with the Clergy, and in the presence of the Laity

whom also, for their faith and fear,


honour is to be shewn, may settle all things with the due
who

stand

to

fast,

reverence of common consultation. "


present even here of right
S.

The Laity

are not

but out of the regard which

Cyprian had for their steadfastness, he wished that

they should be consulted as to the case of those who,

having denied the

communion.

faith,

sought to be restored to their

In another passage alleged,

Council under

an African
hasty and

S. C}q)rian censures the

premature restoration of one of the lapsed, the more

had been done, without the request or


knowledge of the People, when no sickness urged,
nor necessity compelled. A hasty restoration was
because

it

the more gratuitous,

when without

occasion or tempta-

tion.

The people had no formal

vote,

but they had

knowledge of facts, (as neighbours are wont to have


now) which the Bishops and Clergy might not have.
S.

know the case of


who had restored them.

Cyprian bears witness that they

some better than


" Thou wouldest
labour

himself,
see,"

he says to

S. Cornelius,

have to persuade our brethren to patience,

that, stifling their grief of mind, they

"

Ep,

"what

19. p. 46.

Ep.

64.

p 195.

" Ep.

would consent

59.

21. p. 167.

82 Repugnance of
to

receive

rejoice

laity in receiving certain lapsed.

and are glad, when such

less culpable

return

resist, as often as the

as have
sacrifices,

For as

and restore the wicked.

tliey

and

are bearable

as

so contrariwise they

murmur and

incurable and froward, and such

been contaminated either by adulteries or

and who, with

all this,

are moreover proud,

return in such manner to the Church,

would corrupt the good

that they

within

dispositions

scarcely persuade the people, rather I extort

it

it.

from

them, that they would allow such to be admitted.

And

the grief of the brotherhood appears the m.ore

some few, who, when the people


strove and spoke against it, were yet admitted by my

reasonable, in that

easiness,

have proved worse than they were before,

and have not been able to keep

their pledges of

repentance, because neither was the repentance true,

wherewith they returned."


S.

Cyprian hunself speaks expressly of the

office

the Laity, as relating to each particular case.


"blessed Martyrs have written to

me

persons, requesting that their desires

dered.

When

peace

is first

given to us

"

of

The

about certain

may be
all

consi-

by the Lord,

and we have begun to return to the Church, each


case shall be examined in your presence, and with
aid of your judgment."
And again "that when" by
the mercy of God, we shall come to you, ha^dng
summoned several of my Colleagues, we may, after
the discipline of the Lord and in the presence of

Ep.

17. p. 43.

lb. p. 44.

Honor

to those

who had

stood,

for having

83

stood.

examme

the Confessors, and your judgment also had,

the letters and requests of the Blessed MartjTS. "


letters

cases

and requests of the Martyrs related to uidividual


so then did the judgment of the People.

The same
which

The

S.

is

the bearing of

all

the passages in

Cyprian speaks of the participation of the

Thus, as already cited, he says, in contrast

Laity.

with the haste of some of the lapsed to be restored to


Communion " This ^ is becoming to the modesty
;

and character of us

all

meetmg

that the Bishops

with the Clergy, and in the presence of the Laity

who stand fast,


honour

is

(to

whom

and fear,

also, for their faith

may settle all things with the


of common consultation." This he says,

to be shown,)

due reverence

in contrast with the "irreverent" haste

But here too he speaks of it,

of others.

as a concession to the

people, for their exemplary conduct, not


right
their

"the Laity who

faith

and

stand

fast, to

honour

fear,

is

to

whom

for

be shewn."

S.

Cyprian could not so have written as to a


the whole

their

as

also,

right.

But

concession relates to the merits or demerits

of individuals, not to any principles.

present as witnesses, not even as Jury,

The Laity were

much

less

as

Judge.

and Moses and Maximus with


the Confessors, echo S. Cyprian's language. They speak
of the case of the lapsed, as a special case, on account of

The Roman

Clergy,

But the Roman Clergy speak

their great multitude.

Ep.

19. p. 46.

g2

Roman

84
of

tlie

Clergy imitate S. Cyprian.

They them-

Bishop as having the authority.

selves are

obhged the more

had no Bishop. " On us^


for delaying this matter,

because they

to delay,

there lieth a further necessity


since the decease of

in that,

Fahianus of most honoured memory, on account of


the difficulties of circumstances and the times,

have no Bishop yet appointed, who should

and might,

these matters,

all

with authority and

who have

take account of those

counsel,

we

settle

lapsed.

However, in a business of such vast magnitude we


agree with what you also have yourself fully express-

ed

that the peace of the

Church must be awaited,

and then, in a full conference of Bishops, Presbyters,


Deacons and Confessors, with those of the Laymen
also

who have
For

lapsed.

stood,

taken of the

be

account

seems to us both very invidious

it

oppressive, to

examine without advice of many,

what many have

committed, and for one to pass

and

when

sentence,

so great a crime

spread and extended

itself

is

among

known

numbers

great

neither indeed can a decree be firm,

to have

which

shall not

appear to have the consent of numbers."

Moses and Maximus write with the same express


reference

to

the

words of

Cyprian

S.

"A"" great

which has spread with incredible desolation over


almost the whole world, ought only, as you write, to

sin

be dealt with, with caution and moderation, in a consultation

of

all

Ep. 30.

the

8. p. 65.

Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons,

"

Ep. 31.

. 7.

p. 73.

Causes heard publicly before, not by,

and Laymen too who have stood

Confessors,

you

yourself testify

lest,

while

85

the People.

as

fast,

we attempt un-

seasonably to repair the ruins, we should be found to


occasion other and greater."

So

an

airain

as to

the case of two Subdeacons and

"who

Acolyte,

in the

withdrew

middle of the

persecution, and afterwards returned,"


of each

question

single

case.

"In^

it

is

this

still

matter

must be considered separately,


and decided more fully and more accurately, with
advice not only of my Colleagues, but of the whole

the

case

of each

People."

In another place,

S.

Cyprian speaks of suspending

the refractory Presbyters

by

his

own

authority,

and

on his return, before the whole


People but he gives no hint that he is speaking
of any thing more than a pubhc trial. " Meanwhile*
let certain rash and incautious and sweUing persons

hearincc their cause


;

among

who

you,

fear

not

God nor regard man,

be assured, that they shall no longer persevere in the


I will use that admonition which the Lord
same.
bids me use so that they shall be restrained mean;

while from offering,

cause both before

and have

me and

to plead their whole

the Confessors themselves

and the whole People, when, by permission of the


Lord, we shall begin to be re-assembled in the bosom
Mother the Church."
Cyprian once more announced

of our
S.

to

"^

Ep. 34.

. 3.

p. 78.

tEp.

16. fin.

"

his

Ep. 43.

People

fin. p. 98.

86

Schismatics restored at

the close of the persecution

Easter

Day

I shall

Colleagues

before

tJie people.

" so that " he says " after

be again restored to you with

whose presence we

in

Rome

shall

my

be able

to arrange and perfect the things that are to be done,

both according to your judgment, and the


advice of us

occur in

all

Cyprian, as to the presence of the Laity.

S.

They amount
of his

been already determined."


the statements, (I believe,) which

as hath

all,

These are

common

own

at the utmost to this, that S. Cyprian,

will,

brought certain causes before them,

and judged those causes in their presence, taking their


He thought
opinion, in part, on individual cases.

power of restoring the lapsed


individually to Communion, without the general concurrence of the Laity, although there was no question
or thought of any formal vote to be given by them.
The restoration of the Confessors, who had joined
right not to exercise his

the schism of Novatian, in some degree illustrates


this.

S.

and

five

Cornelius assembled the Presbyters of

Bishops

the

Rome

Bishops alone gave their

Then the Confessors, who had been imopinions.


posed upon and repented, were re-admitted, and finally
presented before the People, and received, not by
any formal
v

not

vote, but with the strongest'' approbation.

This passage illustrates the use of " suffragium," " suflfragia," which do
a formal vote, but approbation of that which might be done or was

mean

done without

it.

S.

nicated Felicissimus.

Cyprian had himself with two other Bishops excommu-

Yet he

-wTites to his

people

" Let them alone undergo

the punishment of their conspiracy, who, formerly, according to your suffrages,


now according to God's judgments, have deserved to undergo the sentence of
their

own

more

at length into other instances,

conspiracy and malignity."

Ep. 43.

. 4. p.

Vindication

96.

c. 7. n.

Bishop Sage enters

3538,

No reference to
[maximo

sufFragio.]

Laity tn matter ofdodrme.

"The whole ^

being laid before me,

87

proceedings there-

seemed good that the


Presbyters should be assembled. There were there
fore,

it

who to-day

also five Bishops,

consent of

all,

what ought

were present, in

also

order that by weighty advice,

might be

settled by
done regarding their

it

to be

And that you may know the feeling of all,


and the advice of each, it seemed good that our
several opinions, which you will find subjoined, should
persons.

be brought to your knowledge."


It is remarkable, that S. Cyprian does so frequently
refer to the

People

in the single case of the lapsed,

or of hearing causes before them, whereas he does


not allude to them in any other case whatever.
They are mentioned, as hemg pi^esent at the Council

of Carthage, as they were invited to be present at


discussions

whereby they might gain

the contrast

very striking,

instruction.

But

that

throughout the

question of the restoration of those

who had denied

is

the faith, mention

judgment
there

is

because

is

made

of the Laity and of their

throughout that as to heretical Baptism,

no reference whatever
S.

to

them.

Plainly,

Cyprian wished for their concurrence as to

the restoration of offenders.

The question of

heretical

Baptism was a matter of doctrine, in which the Laity


were not to concur in judging, but were to be taught.
But, again,

it

seems to have belonged to a vivid

appreciation of the unity of the whole body of Christ,


that

all its

members were spoken


'^

Ep.

19.

. 3.

p.

107.

of,

as

banded and

88

Laity under Apostles and Bishops^ one in Christ.


^

bound together in one common interest, not in the


way of voting, nor of share of responsibiUty, but in
This was probably

the bonds of the love of Christ.

the ground of the wording of the Apostolic decree.

though the People must have a voice, because


their names were used, but because they obeyed the
Apostles and what the Apostles taught, they believed
and so, without responsibility or choice as to the mat-

Not

as

ter itself (for they

had no choice except to believe

whom God had

those

them

sent) the Apostles united

with themselves, and "they clave to the Apostles'


doctrine and fellowship," and in both ways

shewn,

how

all

were one

it

was

in Christ Jesus.

So Holy Scripture bids us " Bear ye one another's


So the old
burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ."
law forbids to " suffer"^ sin upon thy neighbour." So,
not as usurping

may

offices

which do not belong to them,

the teachers as well as the taught concur to

" the perfecting of the body of Christ." So S. Cyprian


associates the People in a matter, in which they
could have none but an individual influence. He
says of the case of the aweiaaKTot " in nothing must
^

both Bishops and People labour more earnestly than


that we who fear God should observe with all
diligence the precepts of His holy discipline
suffer

own

our Brethren to go astray, and

devices and lusts, but that

live

y Ep.

4. p. 8.

nor

after their

we should

consult the eternal welfare of every one."

Lev. xix.n.

O. T.

faithfully

89

Unautlioritative influence of Christian laymen.

So when

certain Presbyters

had not only neglected


he writes to

their duty, but perverted the People,

them, "

know both the meekness and

the fear of

our People, that they would have been watchful in

appeasing and deprecating the wrath of God, had


not certain of the Presbyters,

Do

deceived them.
dually,

in

order to please,

then even ye guide them indivi-

and by your advice and

temper the

restraint,

minds of the lapsed in accordance with the Divine

He

precepts."

uses the strong words, regite, temjwrate,

of the lawful influence of individual laymen

upon

one another.

So the Roman Clergy, in an anonymous and very


invidious Epistle,'' (for which S. Cyprian gently rethem) having said "it

proves''

who seem

incumbent upon

is

to be set over the flock, to guard

of the shepherd" [the Bishop of

Rome

instead

it

in the

us,

vacancy

of the See, and seemingly of Carthage in the absence


of S. Cyprian] still join the Laity with themselves.
" The Brethren who are in bonds, salute you, as do
the

Presbyters, and the whole Church, which also

with the utmost solicitude watches for

upon the Name

To sum
and

in the

up, S. Cyprian states without hesitation

most varied ways, that the entire

Himself

to

the

whether of doctrine or
^

Ep.

call

of the Lord."

authority in the Church of Christ


Christ

who

all

17. p. 43.

spiritual

had been given by


Every principle,

Bishops.

discipline,

Ep.

8.

was

laid

down by

Ep.

9.

Summary

90

of S. Cyimaris times.

the Bishops exclusively.

Judgments on heresy were

pronounced by the Bishops alone.

The whole

pro-

ceedings as to the lapsed themselves, the delay of


restoration, the mitigation

the final reception

of the

of the

enactment, and

whole number, on the

approach of a new persecution, were regulated, step

by the Bishops exclusively. The opinion of


the Laity was taken solely as to a matter of fact
which came before their eyes, the outward tokens of

by

step,

who

the penitence or impenitence of the individuals

sought

to be

restored to

here, the Bishop,

if

And

Communion.

even

he thought right to over-rule the

opinion expressed by the People, exercised that power


naturally, as wholly vested in himself.
letters give a vivid picture of his times

Cyprian's

S.
;

they give, not

only the outward facts of an eventful time, but the

inward feelings of the

was willingly of

actors.

They mention what

free grace allowed

they mention the desires,

wishes,

nances, of the several parties.

by

Cyprian

S.

requests,

But there

is

repugnot the

any wish of the Laity to assume to


themselves any part of the legislation, which our Lord
had entrusted to the Bishops. There was no quesslightest trace of

tion

at

that

under the

under the

time about Episcopal authority,

it had been included by God


commandment, as the Levitical Priest-

New Law
fifth

for

hood had been under the Old.

91

Synods occasioned by SabelUus.

CHAPTER
From

A. D. 258.
Council of Nice. A. B. 325.

Cyprian's martyrdom

S.

These seventy years are


of the Arian heresy and

in

chiefly

its

and the Donatist heresy


issuing

IV.

in

the

marked by the

rise

forerunners in the East,


the

Council of Nice,

the

to

West
the

the former

Donatist in

the great Council of Aries.

The author

of the Synodicon states that S. Dionysius

Synod in which he condemned Sabellius. While he was *Urying to withdraw


some Bishops in the Pentapolis in Upper Libya from
the Sabelhan heresy %" he was misunderstood by

of Alexandria gathered a

"some

of the brethren,

who betook

Rome, and spoke

against

him

onysius, Bishop of

Rome.

He

to signify

to his

themselves to

namesake Di-

wrote to Dionysius,

upon what they had spoken against him."


S. Athanasius says,*^ "gave great pain

" The charge,"


to

the

Roman

who expressed

Council and the Bishop of

Rome,

their united sentiments in a letter to

namesake, [Dionysius of Alexandria.] This led


to his writing an explanation, which he called a
*
book of refutation and defence.' The Roman Counhis

ts

S.

Ath. dc sent. Dionys.

Ii2. Oxf. Tr.

c. 5.

13.

^ Id.

Counc. Aiim. and Sclcuc.

43. p.

Three Councils against Paul of Samosata,

92

consisted exclusively of Bishops; for S. Athanasius

cil

goes on to speak of

all

concerned

in this, as

"the

two Dionysii and the Bishops assembled on that


occasion at Rome."

Three Councils apparently^ were held soon

after-

wards against Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch,


"
who taught that our Lord " was an ordinary man.

To

the

first

Council, Eusebius says that Dionysius,

Bishop of Alexandria, being asked to come, excused

"But the
Church came

himself on account of age and infirmity.


other Shepherds"

[i. e.

Bishops] of the

different quarters, all hastening

from

to

against a waster of the flock of Christ.

Antioch as

Of

these, the

most distinguished were Firmilian Bishop of Ca3sarea


in Cappadocia, Gregory and Athenodorus, Brothers,
Shepherds of the districts in Pontus Helenus Bishop
;

and Nicomas of Iconium Hymeneeus of


and Theotecnus of the
the Church at Jerusalem
neighbouring Caesarea Maximus also, who governed
of Tarsus

admirably the brethren at Bostra.

no

There would be

difficulty in recounting multitudes of others,

who

together with their Priests and Deacons were there

gathered together at Antioch for the same cause.

But the above were the most eminent." "Firmilian,"


the Bishops of the second Council say in their Synoe
f

lb.

45. p. 143.

The Bishops of the

last

Council say in their Synodical

letter,

that S. Fir-

have presided at the Council, " had twice come to


Antioch on this matter, and condemned the heresy." He died on his way to the
Coimcil from which this letter was written.
s Eus. H. E. vii. 28. Troi/ieVes ( Bishop Sage remarks, Vindication of the prin" Bishop.
ciples of the Cyprian, age. vii. 28. p. 387. ) in Eusebius always means

milian

who seems

to

out offorhearance^
dical letter/

and sloicness

"having twice come

we who were
and many others know

his [Pauhis'] innovations, (as

present

know and testify,


) but when Paul promised

Antioch, con-

to

demned
equally

93

condemn.

to

to change, he [S.

Firmilian] believing and hoping that the matter would

be corrected without any scandal to rehgion, deferred


his judgment, being deceived by him who denied
also his

own God and Lord, and guarded not

the

which he himself before had."

faith

In the

last of

these councils,

"a
many

(A. D. 2G9, 70.)

Council," Eusebius says, ^"of most exceeding

Bishops, the leader of the Antiochene heresy, having

been detected and now clearly condemned by all, was


ejected from the Catholic Church under heaven.

Malchion convicted him, while hiding


his guilt a man eloquent, having been head of the
Greek School of dialectic at Antioch, and who, for

But

especially
;

the exceeding purity of his faith in Christ,

counted worthy of the Presbytery

He

there.

pressing upon Paul his enquiry (which

having been taken down by notaries we

crafty

man,

of

alone

extant) was,

still

had been
Church

in the

all,

Malchion, having rendered


in

to

to

be

detect the

he was in concealing his meaning."

skilful as

and being,

able

know

the

fact,

this

actual

eminent

service,"^

writer^ of the

Sy-

nodical Epistle, was allowed by the Bishops to join

on

his

name

to theirs.

In

the

former Council,

"questions had been moved in every session, the


^ ap.

Eus.

memorated
'

S.

Y\\.

30.

the

Jerome de

'

vii.

29.

^ "

He is in consequence com-

Greek Menology Oct. 28." Val. adloc.

virr.

ill.

v.

Malchion.

MalcMon

94

refuted : Bishops condemned.

Samosatene trying to hide his heterodoxy, the others


to lay bare his heresy

Paul had succeeded.


detected him.

But

he could not

sit

Eusebius ascribes

(whose alone

When

it

and blasphemy against Christ."


In this Council Malchion alone

as a Presbyter,

he could

refute,

judgment on the Patriarch.


the condemnation to the Bishops
in

could be;) the detection to Malchion.

then the Synodical Epistle, after enumerating

the more eminent names, adds " and Malchion and


Lucius, and

all

who with us

are dwelling in the

neighbouring Cities and Provinces, Bishops, Priests

and Deacons, and the Churches of God,

to our be-

loved brethren in the Lord, greeting,"

plain that

this attests the unity of all

it is

under their Bishops, not

their authority over their Patriarch to depose him.

The Bishops

write to " Dionysius and

Maximus,

and to our fellow Ministers throughout the world.

and Deacons, and


Catholic Church under heaven," and

Bishops,

in

Priests

the name

" Bishops,

to

the whole

so they write

of the whole Patriarchate of Antioch,

Priests,

and Deacons and the Churches of

But they who wrote, Eusebius says, were


the Bishops of one Patriarchate to the two remaining
God."

Patriarchs. "

The shepherds

[i. e.

Bishops]

who were

common

consent,

by

convened together, having,

addressed a letter personally to the Bishop of the

Romans, Dionysius, and


of Alexandria, send

it

to

round to

Maximus the Bishop


all

the Eparchies."

This Council became the subject


because the Arians alleged

that the

of discussion,

Bishops

who

95

Council of Eliheris.

condemned the Samosatene laid down in writing


that *'the Son is not One in Substance with the
Father " i. e. as understood heretically by him. They
are spoken of as "the seventy^" or "eighty Bishops."

The

act

is

spoken

of,

When

as wholly theirs.

refused to cede the see-house to

Paul

Domnus, who had

room by the Council of Antioch,


the heathen Emperor Aurelian being appealed to,
gave the question to be decided by Bishops, "the
^ Bishops of the doctrine in Italy and the City of the
been elected

in his

Romans."

The Council of Eliheris

or Elvira about A. D. 305.

formed eighty-one Canons on


teen

discipline.

Bishops were present,

great Hosius, subsequently

the President of Councils,

Many ?

and Sardica.

at Nice

Only nine-

among them the

but

of the

Canons of the

larger Council of Aries A. D. 314. were taken from


it.

The brief

notice prefixed

religious Bishops

is,

had taken

the Church of Eliheris,

i.

e.

" When the holy and

their seats

together in

Felix Bishop of Guadix,

Hosius &c, twenty-six Presbyters also sitting down,


the Deacons standing by, and

Bishops

said,

&c."

Most

all

of the Canons run in

the form, " It hath seemed good.


absolute.

The

Priests,

been present, either

by the Bishops
1

S.

for

" Placuit.

All are

Deacons and People

may have

temporary causes, then settled

in Council, or to

Ath. Cone. Arim. et Seleuc.


de Synod, prop. fin.

S. Hil.

Cone.

i.

987.

the People, the

hear these Canons

45. p. 143. Oxf. Tr.


"

Eus.
p

vii.

30. p. 364.

Harduin ad loc.

96

First Councils o/Donatists

But they take no part what-

which affected them.


ever in

it.

In the same year was the

first

Council of the

authors of the Donatist heresy.

Synod was held

A. D. 305. a small

Numidia, from whose Acts

and the

rest

who

Cirta in

at

appears that Secundus

originated the Donatist schism were

themselves '^traditores";

mitted

it

i.

they had themselves com-

e.

the very act of which they falsely accused

the Catholic Bishops

they had delivered up the Holy

Scriptures in the persecution of Diocletian.

cerning your forefathers," S.


is

*'

Con-

Augustine says, "there


'

extant a Council of Secundus of Tigisis, held with

very few at Cirta, after the persecution, as to giving

up the [sacred] volumes, that then a Bishop should


be appointed in the place of the departed."
In the Council, whose Acts
served,

Augustine has pre-

S.

Secundus charged those present successively

with being traditores, until at last one, bolder than


the rest, retorted the charge

illustrates

held

to

in

mode

of

life

in itself,

was made by the

of the person Elect.

few years afterwards A. D. 311.

nings of the Donatist schism.

is

in

the Synods of Bishops,

Bishops, enquiry

Bishops into the

how

the fact,

elect

and the scene ended

Strange as the scene

a mutual amnesty.
it

were the begin-

This same Secundus,

Bishop of Tigisis and Primate of Africa, vexed that

he had not been called

c.

in to consecrate Ca^cilian,

Crescon.

Hi. 26. 27.

and

97

Council of Aries.
listening to

his

rivals,

condemned him,

absent, un-

heard, and guiltless, for the very offence of which he

had himself been

and consecrated Majorinus

guilty,

This was done in a Council of seventy

against him.

who had been proved

Bishops, including those


at the

Synod of

The appeal
that their

Cirta.'

of the Donatist Bishops to Constantine,

question

should be settled by Gallican

Bishops, has been already mentioned

Rome,

and the con-

Rome by

sequent hearing of the cause at


the Bishop of

guilty

Synod of

three Gallican Bishops appointed

by the Emperor, and

fifteen other Italian Bishops.

" Ctecilian was acquitted by the sentence of all;"


" Donatus was condemned, as having confessed that
""

he re-baptised and laid hands on lapsed Bishops."

The Council

He

Constantine.
tus Bishop

of Aries A. D. 314. was convened by


says in his circular letter to Chres-

" we

of Syracuse,

many Bishops from

have enjoined very

"

different places to

He

before the Calends of Augjust."

bring with

him

'*

meet

at Aries

asks Chrestus to

two of the second order [Presby-

them on the
was done by the Bishops or by Pres-

ters] with three servants to minister to

But

way."

all

byters, delegates of absent Bishops.


letter runs in the

ters
s

S.

who
1.

The Synodical

of Bishops only and Presby-

acted as legates of absent Bishops''.

Aug. Ep.

" Opt.

name

43. [al. 162,] 3. Opt.

i.

14.

'

'

26.

Royal Supremacy
Ap. Eus. X. 5.

"Consp. 32. sqq.

'"
"Two' sorts of Preshyters used to come toCoimcils. Some with their
Bishops, others for and instead of Bishops, when the Bishops themselves
were not present. The former had no right of suffrage, these last gave their
judgment with the Bishops and subscribed with them." Labbe App. T. i. p,

Ho3. D.

98

West

Bishops at Aries from the rchole

taiitine, " says

Augustine, " gave ^ tliem another

S.

judgment, that of Aries

of other Bishops.>"'

e.

i.

So ^ mad are these men, that they think that two

''

hundred judges

whom

the

number

of the Bishops

before

they were defeated, are to be less accounted of

Constantine

than the defeated disputants."


Bishops,

the Catholic

letter to

says

to

them,

his

"

a most

at last, having past

rejoice especially, that

in

just judgment, ye have brought them back to better

hopes."

Bishops

"I
'^

Himself

say, as the truth

ought to be so accounted, as

and judged."

sat

nary universal Council,

Church.

that the

is,

S.

Augustine

Bishops met there from Gaul,

Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, Britain.

judgment
" So

as

then

if

the

calls

of the

a Council

of " the present authority of our

judgment of

it

Lord
a ple-

Universal

Italy, Africa,

The Bishops speak


" of their own

God

"the judgment of God and of the Church."

God

being the Judge, and the INIother

Church, who knoweth and approveth her own, they


[the Donatists] were either condemned or repelled."
" But," they proceed, " we did not judge right to
treat of those things alone, for

But we held

it

which we were

invited.

right to consult for ourselves.

And

whereas they are divers Provinces from which we

came

hither,

w^e think

so also are there various points,

we ought

to observe.

Ep. 43. [al 162.]

We

which

decided then, in

c. 7.
Ep. 105. [al. 166.] . 8.
* Sacerdotum.
Ep. Parui. i. 5.
^ plenani totius orbis Concilii de Bapt. cont. Donat. i. 7. ii. 6. 9. totius orbis jiidicio c. Parm. iii. 4. and 6. totius orbis unitati lb. ii. 13. add Ha;res.
>'

^ c.

69.
'

Ep. 43. ad Glor. et Eleus.


Ep. S}Tiod. Cone. i. 1449.

. 7.

Ep. 185. ad Bonif.

c. 1.

99

Councils of Ancyra, Neo-Ca?sarea, Laodlcea.

the Presence of the Holy Ghost and His Angels [a

We

mutilated sentence.]
thee especially,

who hold

decided also that through

have decided] should be conveyed to

The summary

[what we

a larger Diocese,
all."

"

of the Epistle runs.

To

the

Lord

and most holy brother Sylvester, Marinus and the assembly of Bishops, united at Aries, what we have
decreed by

common

your Charity, that

Counsel, we have signified to

may know, what

all

henceforth

they ought to observe."

About the same time probably, A. D. 314, when


the Church breathed again from persecution, were
three Councils in the East, which fi-amed Canons, in

harmony with, and ultimately adopted by the whole


The Council of Ancyra was chiefly enChurch.
gaged

regulating

in

had lapsed
cribed by

the repentance of those

in the persecution.
its

eighteen

Canons are sub-

Its

Bishops.

Most

'^

Bishops were subsequently at Nice

these

of

one having, in

the interval, received the crown of martyrdom.


President was Vitahs, Patriarch of Antioch.

Bishops were of Asia Minor,

Armenia,

Its

The

Cappadocia, Pontus,

Syria.

Cilicia,

The Council

who

of Neo-Caesarea,

also

A.

D. 314.

relating to Presby-

enacted 14 Canons, most of them


It is subscribed by nineteen Bishops.
ters.
""

Ten of

them are the same who framed the Canons of Ancyra.


The Council of Laodicea also was probably held
d

Cone.

i.

T.

150.5.

h2

'

lb. p. 1518.

100

Origin of th e Meletians.

before the

Council

nons, of which the

of Nice.

It

laying

last,

Books of the O. and N. T,

framed sixty Ca-

down

recites the

the Canonical

Old Testament

without the Apocrypha, but in the N. T. omits the


Apocalypse, whose Canonicity was finally established
in the East at the Council of Nice.

Canons

The

title

of

its

"Canons of the holy and blessed Fathers


[Bishops] who met in Synod in Laodicea of Phrygia."

The

are,

brief preface only says,"

The holy Synod gathered

in Laodicea of

Phrygia from different Provinces of

Asia,

Ecclesiastical rules as follows."

set forth

Council in Trullo speaks of them generally

holy

Fathers

Bishops] assembled in

''

The
as the

Laodicea of

Phrygia,"

About A. D. 306. (S. Athanasius says,) " Peter ^


was Bishop among us before the persecution, and
during

When

the

course

of

it

he suffered martyrdom.

who held the


Egypt, was convicted of many
Meletius,

title

of Bishop

crimes, and

in

among

the rest of offering sacrifice to idols, Peter deposed

him in a general Council of the Bishops. Whereupon Meletius did not appeal to another Council, or
attempt to justify himself before those who should

come

after,

poused

but made a schism, so that they who es-

his cause are

even yet called Meletians instead

He began

of Christians.

immediately to revile the

the Bishops."
S.

Alexander of Alexandria shewed long forbearance


f

Apol. ag. Ar.

59. p. 88. O. T,


Appeal to Bishops every where against andfor AriusA^l

whom

towards Arius,

He

tried at first to recall

he would not

had stirred into heresy.


him from his error. When

envy

but laboured to infect others,

desist,

spreading his heresy from house to house, Alexander

was compelled

to act

had spread through


Then,"

Thebais.

The ^heresy
Egypt, Lybia, and the Upper

more decidedly.

all

''

Alexander writes, " we,

S.

being

assembled with the Bishops of Egypt and Lybia


nearly one hundred in number, anathematized both
them, and their followers."

On

this

" the

Arians, thinking that they must be

beforehand in gaining the good

will of the

of every City, sent deputies to them

Bishops

such

a doc-

among almost all, the


common before the Bishops

trine having been dispersed

same enquiry came in


every where, Alexander wrote to

every where, not to

Eusebians,
party,

having

with the

The

Eusebius of Nicomedia and


collected

Bishops

the

write to
cate

e.

[i.

the Bishops

all

communicate with them.

Synod

in

his

Bithynia,

where, to communi-

every

Arians as Orthodox, and to induce

Alexander so to do."
This not succeding, "Arius applies to Paulinus

Bishop of Tyre and Eusebius Bishop of Cassarea


and Patrophilus of Scythopolis " " They, meeting
in

to

Palestine,

agreed

request, bidding him gather his

people

Synod with other Bishops


Arius'

as before, but to be subject to

[in public worship]


e

Theod.

p. 300.

i.

O. T.

2.

''

Socr.

in

i.

'

6.

EncA'cl. Letter

Socr.

i.

15.

3.

in S. Ath. Hist. Tr.

102

Constantine suminons Council at Nice

Alexander, and try to be admitted to peace and com-

munion with him."


Under these circumstances, Constantine gathered
His own object

the Bishops at the Council of Nice.

was

simply,

doctrine,

uniformity

to

not understand the

did

in

keeping

Easter, as

unity

to

of

Indeed, he himself at this time believed in

faith.

no

He

peace.

and attached as much or more importance

doctrine, but that of Providence

and spares no

terms of contempt as to the pettiness of the dispute

between Alexander and Arius.

Yet he saw and knew thus much, that the Govern-

ment of the Church resided with the Bishops, and


he assembled them.
Council sets forth, " I thought

therefore, at considerable expense,

His

letter after the

that this
that

my

ought to be

among

aim above

things,

all

the most blessed People of the Catholic

Church, one

faith,

and sincere

love,

and one-minded

piety towards Almighty God, might be maintained.

But
or

since this could not be stably ordered, unless

at

most of the Bishops coming together,

least

things

all

were considered which appertain to the

most holy
collected

religion
as

many

on

this

special joy, that I

things have

'

am

after

had

myself also being

would not deny, what


your fellow-servant)

is

all

been duly examined, until what was

Constantine selects this as the single essential doctrine, in proof that

Alexander and Arius had the same


">

ground,

possible,

as

present as one of you (for

my

all,

lb.

iii.

17.

faith.

Eus. de

vit.

Const,

ii.

71.

103

from Europe, Africa, Asia,


pleasing

God was brought

All-seeing

the

to

to

one harmonious agreement."


convoked," " says Eusebius, " an CEcumenical

light unto

"

He

Council, with respectful letters inviting the Bishops


to hasten

from

only, but in

" They who not

all sides."

soul

in

body and country and place and nation,

removed from one another, were brought


together and one City received all, as it were a
were

far

great chaplet of Priests, variegated with beauteous


flowers.

From

the Churches,

all

which

filled

all

Europe, Africa and Asia, there were collected together the first fruits of the Ministers of God. And

one house of prayer, as


contained

within

Phoenicians and

at

it

were enlarged by God,

once,

Syrians

and

Cilicians,

Arabians, and those of Palestine

those moreover of Egypt, Thebais, Libya, and those


who came from Mesopotamia. A Persian Bishop

too was present at the Synod

nor was a Scythian

Pontus also and


[Goth] wanting to the choir.
Galatia and Pamphylia, Cappadocia and Asia and
Phrygia sent their chosen ones the Thracians and
;

Macedonians, Achgeans and Epirots, and those who


dwelt yet more exceedingly further and from Spain
;

itself the very celebrated [Hosius] one, sitting with


many. And of the royal City [ Rome ] the Bishop

was absent,

for age

but his Presbyters being present

filled his place."

Eusebius,

comparing
"

this

lb.

c. 6. 7.

assembly

with

those

104

Wonderful assembly of Bishops,

Day

gathered at the

them

God

of Pentecost, says that, " to

was wanting that

it

all

were not Ministers of

but that in the present choir, there was a mul-

titude of Bishops, exceeding

and of

two hundred and

fifty

and Deacons attending on them and

Priests

Acolythes, innumerable."

One

" concordant faith prevailed," Eusebius says

" the same time was

acknowledged by

Saviour's Feast [Easter]

common was

all

p
;

for the

and Avhat they decided in

confirmed in -writing by the subscription

of each."
Constantine, in his circular letter to the Churches,

speaks of the authority of the Bishops, as he had after

Council

the

" These

of Aries.

"^

things

being

receive ye gladly the Grace of God, and, as

the Di\T.ne

is,

the holy

command.

For whatsoever

Council of Bishops,

is

is

it

so,

truly

done in

to be referred to

the Divine Will."

was indeed a wonderful Assembly. " There w^ere


that time," Theodoret says, ^ "many, eminent for

It

at

Apostolic gifts

many

Divine Apostle,

too,

who, according to the

bore about in the body the marks of

James of Nisibis both raised the


and did very many other miracles.

the Lord Jesus.'

dead to
c. 8. S.

life,

Ath. Ep. ad Afr.

init. S. Hil.

de Synod.

86. S.

Jerome Chron. and

count 318. [Val.] as do the Bishops of the third Roman


Council under Damasus, exflusive of the Pi-esbyters from Rome. A. D, 371*
or 2. Cone, (ad A. D. 369.) ii. 1043. Soz. vi. 23. Theod. ii. 22. The Council

Rufinus H. E.

i.

1.

of Nice is known as " the


quent Councils.
1'

c.

14.

tliree

hundred and eighteen Fathers

1 c. 20.

'

H. E.

1. 7.

" in subse-

105

Co7ifessors, or with miraculous gifts.

Paul Bishop of Neocaesarea had experienced the fury


of Licinius, his hands powerless, the red-hot iron

destroyed the power of motion


eyes

dug

out; others

was Paphnutius.
seen

hamstrung

of Jesus Christ

wrought miracles

in the knees, of

who lost one


*

eye for the testimony

Leontius

"

Bishop of Csesarea in
spirit

Amphion""

of Gangra, Confessors

Hj'patius

who

Bishop of Trimithus,

Cappadocia, gifted with a prophetic


of Epiphania,

whom

Potamon

Others specify

Spiridon

had

their right

crowd of mart}TS might be

gathered in one."

Bishop of Heraclea,

had

others

and

Nicolas of Myi'a, even then distinguished for piety.

Alexander of Alexandria,'

S.

tioch,

way

S.

James of

Eustathius of

S.

were in every

Hosius,

Xisibis,

An-

Macarius of Jerusalem was also a

eminent.

distinguished maintainer of the Xicene faith.

But the very enumeration imphes that piety, suffering for the faith, the " marks of the Lord Jesus/'
were accounted their
Eusebius says " some "^ were

spiritual gifts, not knowledge,

eminent

qualifications.

eminent for the word of wisdom


of life and endurance
ly."

others for hardiness

others possessed both moderate-

Socrates ^ mentions,

although he repudiates,

the party-charge of Sabinus, a Macedonian Bishop

and dishonest

writer,

that the "Fathers of Nice were

simple and ignorant men."

Rufinus H. E.

Rufinus.

''

Soz.

i.

10.

i. 5.

1. 4.

Socr.

i.

says that he

is it

was renowned
" S.

10.

Nor

V. C.

of much moment,

for Apostolic miracles.

Greg. Naz. Orat. 18. infun.patr.


iii.

9.

i.

8. p. 21.

12.

06 Learned Laymen disputed; Bps. tho' unlearned decide

that a heathen philosopher, Avith sophistical argument

and pompous
was,

made

Avords,

of the Bishops, but

jest

by a Lay-

related, miraculously converted

it is

man and

Confessor.

Nor

'^

that one so gifted as

is

it

very remarkable,

Athanasius, was, although

S.

a Deacon only attending on his Bishop, Alexander,

admitted to the chief place in the defence of the

orthodox

on both

faith.

sides

Still,

lay-dialecticians are

on the Arian, the Bishops, Eusebius

ofMcomedia, Theognis, and Maris.


Socrates

mentions

says, "

" Against these,"

Athanasius contended nobly

as the

it

mentioned

";

and

ground of the subsequent grudge

Sozomen says that


many of the Bishops who then met together and

of the Arian party against him,


'^

who

the Clerks
puting,

followed them, being powerful in dis-

and practised

in these

distinguished themselves"; but

one Deacon,

S.

methods of discourse,
he too

Yet, whether those of the Bishops,


tual

were more or fewer,

gifts,

of those

had a

decisive voice.

laymen spoke

in the

an aged Confessor,

who

It

it

who had intellec-

was not on account

office sake, that

but for their

gifts,

specifies the

Athanasius.

they alone

was by permission

Spiod

that the

yet a simple lajnnan,

Clergy

was allowed to speak.

followed the Bishops, distinguished themselves in

discussions

on the

faith.

Spiridon, on the contrary,

"

had been a shepherd, before he was,


made a shepherd of men and even

for his piety,

as a Bishop,

y
^

Socr.

i.

8.

c. 17. fin.

Soz.

i.

"

18.
*

lb.

c.

18.

Socrates
'

i.

8. p. 19.

Socr.

i.

12.

All Bishops, learned or unlearned, held the one faith 107


in

liis

men

great humility, he fed his sheep

Yet Lay-

still."

or Deacons or Priests, though possessed of the

same (or even,


knowledge or
hohness of

life

as S. Athanasius, greater) theological

acuteness,

and

or,

however eminent

sufferings for Christ, for

for

which

Bishops also were eminent, had no voice in the decision.

The Bishops alone

decided, as having alone

They came not

the commission from our Lord.

mtness

disputants, but to bear

they had

When ^ the

"

questions,

some advised not

are often the

discussion
to

more

embraced

different

innovate,

contrary

from the beginnino*, and

to the faith delivered

es-

whose simpUcity of mind led them,

pecially those

mthout

the faith which

to

The simpler

received.

faithful.

as

curious discussion, to admit the faith in God.

Others protested,

that the

more ancient opinions

ought not to be followed Avithout examination."

All

the Bishops, learned or unlearned, except the

few

who had been seduced by

When

Christ.

creed, ''all

and

betraying the

calling

it,

"And when

the faith of

all

it

spurious

accused them of

the Arians rose up in fear, and,

faith,

Secundus

and

"The Arians

Arius."

knew

the Arians proposed their heretical

straightway rent

adulterated."

except

Arius,

Theonas,

excommunicated

concealing their disease, (for

they feared the multitude of the Bishops) assented


to

what had been


S.

set forth."

Athanasius describes in few sentences, the prin-

Soz.

i.

17.

Theod.

i.

7.

lb.

c. 8. fin.

Bishops attested faith, decided

lOS

and the

ciples

ritual.

"As^to

objects of the Council.

Nicene Council,

it

was not a common meeting, but

convened upon a pressing necessity, and


able

The

object.

the

Syrians,

Cilicians,

for a reason-

and Mesopo-

tamians, were out of order in celebrating the Feast,

and kept Easter

"svith

the Jews

on the other hand,

the Arian heresy had risen up against the Catholic

Church, and found supporters in the Eusebians, Avho


were both zealous for the heresy, and conducted the

upon

attack

This gave occasion for

religious people.

an CEcumenical Council, that the Feast might be


every- where celebrated on one day, and that the heresy

which was springing up might be anathematized. It


took place then and the Syrians submitted, and the
;

Fathers pronounced the Arian heresy to be the fore-

runner of Antichrist, and drew up a suitable formula


against

And

it.

yet in this,

ventured on nothing
or four men.''

and

like the

seemed good as foUows.'

as they were, they

proceedings of these three

Without prefixing

they wrote

day,

many

Consiilate,

For

it

the faith they wrote not,

Thus

believes the Catholic

they confessed
that their

own

how

'It

'

It

did then seem good

that there should be a general compliance.

'

month,

concerning the Easter,

seemed

Church

;
'

But about
good,'

but,

and thereupon

the faith lay, in order to shew

sentiments were not novel, but Apos-

and what they wrote down, was no discovery


of theirs, but is the same as was taught by the

tolical

Apostles."
'i

Couiie. Ariiii.

. 5.

p. V3.

UrsaciuS; Valcns, Geriuiiiius &e. Arian Bishops.

109

Siihseqiient influence of Council of Nice.

they attested on matters of discipline they


determined, as " seemed " to them " good."

The

faith

embody

It is difficult to

in

words the influence of

on the subsequent history of the Church.

this Council

The subsequent General Councils

are grounded

upon

After the struggles of fifty-six years, against the

it.

Eun'omians or Anomoeans, Arians or Eudoxians, SemiArians or Macedonians, the impugn ers of the Holy
Ghost, Sabelhans, Marcellians, Photinians, and Apolthe second General Council, at Constanti-

linarians,

nople, in

its first

" Let not the


Fathers

but

who

Canon, knits

itself

faith of the three

on

to that at Nicaea.

hundred and eighteen

met at Xic^a in Bithynia be abrogated,


remain firm, and

let that

let

every heresy be

After which the Council specially

anathematised."

The Fathers of

above-named.

anathematises those

the Council of Ephesus, in the like way, affirm "the


faith of the three

hundred and eighteen (of Nice) and

the one hundred and fifty"


'It'

would be long

religiously

of Constantinople.

to recount

how

the Fathers reverenced

all

the

as

an inviolable law, Athanasius

Nicene

To

Council, as an oracle given fi-om Heaven.


J

purely and

this,

ever appeals, whe-

ther his contest be with Arius, Asterius or Eusebius.

With

this,

Hilary

'^

upbraids Constantius, the deser-

ter of his father's faith,

and contends that

Hist. Cone, prefixed to Council of Nice Cone.

Nic. Def.

.9. p. 84.
^ adv.

27. p. 49. Oxf. Tr.

and note

Constant,

e. .
e.

and references note

14. p. 93.

23. and

ii.

o.

20. p. 103. Orat.

Fragm.

8.

it is

the

6.

Council Arim. and Seleuc.


1. c.

Arian.

. 7. p.

188.

110

Attempts

overthrow

it,

shewed

and rule of aU other Synods.

test
it

to

as the

solidity.

Epiplianius

anchor of the tossed Church. To

extols

this, as to a

Ambrose " leads Gratian who,


war, had asked him concerning the

of the Faith,

fortress

on the eve of

Why

faith.

its

recount individuals

An

(Ecumenical

Synod, whatever they would do or discuss, professed


at the outset that they willed to tread in the footsteps

They

of the Nicene Faith.

upon

are like great stones built

the foundation of Nice.

The kings of the Goths

and Spain, of the Vandals in Africa, Constanand Yalens, Roman Emperors, throughout the

in Italy
tius

whole world,
praetors,

arrayed against the Canons of Nice,

soldiers,

large Councils of Bishops at Rimini

Yet

all

destroy

much

these were not so

and

the

Seleucia.

hostile engines to

as trophies of victory for endless glory,

it,

thereby attesting that the faith of Nice, which

God

such might of

floods,

shake, w^as founded


^'

Synods,

Provincial

armies.

winds and storms could not

and

Pleas for Councils,

settled

" said "

the

Bishops

" will not longer circulate about.

num,

of Nicea having anticipated

done

on the firmest rock.

all

them once

at

Arimi-

The Bishops
for

all,

and

that w^as needful for the Catholic Church."

"Those holy and venerable Fathers, says S. Leo,"


who, at Nice, having condemned Arius with his

'

adv. Ha;r 69.

n in S.

14.

enacted laws

impiety,

sacrilegious
.

11. Aiicorat.

>"

119-121.

Ath. Coiinc. Arim and Seleuc.

. 9.

Ep. 106. ad Anatol. Episc. Constant,

e. 4.

ad Anast.

Max.

c, 4.

c.

2.Ep. 105. ad Pulch.

c.

of Ecclesiastical

2.

p. 84.

de fide ad Gratian.

i.

18.

O. T.

add c. 3. and Ep. 135. fin. Ep.


Ep. 107. ad Julian. Ep. 119. ad

Fourfold subjects on

Canons

to abide to the

ze'hich

it

Ill

decided.

end of the world,

live in their

constitutions among us and throughout the world

and any

thing,

which

instituted

generally for abiding benefit,

The Acts of
They decided

variation or change."

Great Council were fourfold

this

for ever the matter of faith

regulated for ever the keeping of Easter


fij^ed

otlier

without delay annulled, so that

may undergo no
1.

any where ventured,

is

than they enacted,

what was

is

2.

they

3.

they

the terms on which the Meletian schismatics in

Egypt should be re-admitted into the Church 4.


they enacted Canons. The Bishops then, so assembled, themselves alone, explained and estabhshed
the faith, regulated ritual and discipline, and enacted
;

Their Synodical letter

laws for the whole Church.

The Bishops who have been gathered


together at Nice, and have held the great and holy
Council, to the (by the grace of God) holy and great
Church of Alexandria." They state how they had
been assembled, had enquired into and condemned
the ungodhness of Arius together with Theonas and
is

inscribed, "

Secundus; and then their forbearance to Meletius.


To him they left his title, although mthout power to
The Priests whom he had
exercise his functions.
ordained, they admitted," after they should have been
confirmed by a hoher ordination," to the second place
after those previously

ordained by Alexander, to be

selected to succeed them, "if they should

seem worthy

and the People should choose them, Alexander, the


P in

Theod.

i.

9.

General subjects of Canons of Nice.

112

Bishop of Catholic Alexandria, consenting and confirming

it."

The Council
those

leaves

to

the Laity the choice

of

should be their Pastors, with the approba-

who

tion of the Bishops

every other detail

is

ordered for

them.

Of

the twenty Canons of the Council of Nice some

confirm or enlarge former Canons, some were

whoUy

They embrace the

largest

as the distril^ution of Patriarchates,

or the

framed by the Council.


subjects,

appointments of the Bishops of the whole Church, or

minute points of

ritual

kneeling on the Lord's


season

or discipline.

Day

They

forbid

or in the Pentecostal

who had

regulate the restoration of those

lapsed in the persecution of Licinius, or of the Novatian

and Paulianist

peril of idolatry,

or of those who, with

heretics,

returned to the military

life.

relate mostly to the disciphne of the Clergy,

who should be admitted

to

Holy Orders

exclusively relate to the Laity.

received

bound

to

but some

AU were every where

and Provincial Councils held themselves


do nothing against any Canon of the

Council of Nice.
it

They

or those

The whole Church obeyed whatever

bade or forbade.
But, beyond

all

questions of detail which

were

thus ruled for the Universal Church, the half yearly

Synod of Bishops were then, by virtue of an authority


acknowledged every where as supreme, appointed for
the whole Church.
The especial object of their meeting was the protection of all under the Bishops, Laity

Synods of Bishops made Court of appeal every loliere.W^


or Clerg}^,

against

any private wTong

But the protection lay

Bishop.

individual

apj)eal to the

an

feeling of

an

in

Bishops of the Province collectively.

The Canon,

as has

been already

the Ante-Nicene Canon, which

it

said,

confirmed

enlarged.

" Con-

cerning those who, whether in the rank of the Clergy


or of Laity, have been excommunicated by the Bishops

judgment hold according to


the Canon which forbids that those rejected by some
But let enquiry be
should be admitted by others.
excommunicated
been
made, that they have not
through pettiness of mind or contentiousness or any
in each Eparchy, let the

like displeasure

the matter

In order then, that

of the Bishop.

may be

sifted,

as

meet,

is

it

seemed well

that in each Eparchy Synods should be held twice in

the year, that

all

the Bishops of each Eparchy being

brought together in one place, such questions should


be examined, and so those

who

confessedly offended a-

gainst the Bishop, should deservedly be held exconamu-

cated by
lectively

But

let

all,

until

to pass

it

seem good to the Bishops

col-

some milder judgment upon them.

the Synods be holden, the one before Lent,

that, all petty

grudge being removed, the Gift

may

be

offered more purely to God


the second about
Autumn."
The Canon of Nice, framed by Bishops, representing all the Bishops from the whole Church under
Heaven, and received by all, gave fresh impulse to
the habitual assembling of Synods of Bishops as the
;

Courts of appeal for

all

grievances of conscience.
I

It

114 Originallaiv explained, enlargedjixedfor the Church.


took up the law which before existed, on the local
authority of particular Churches.

words
it.

ed

of that law, while

It itself re-enacted
it

it

It

embodied the

enlarged or

and fixed that

rule,

explained

and stamp-

by the formal authority of the whole Church,

that Synods of Bishops were the tribunal of appeal

from any arbitrarmess of an individual Bishop.

General character of Synods from A.D. 325--381. 115

CHAPTER

V.

Coimcils hetzveen the first General Council at Nice

A. D. 325. and

the second
thioijle.

The next period


which
is

is

381.

of the Church,

the

given by Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret,

These

overthrow

of

Arianism,

The

fruitful in

in

its

different

authority

various parties,

who modi-

God

the Son, to

which the whole Church had borne witness

One

''Faith,

at Nice,

once delivered to the Saints."

assailed sometimes the Faith, sometimes its great

supporters, until the Faith gained a yet

cided

the

of fraud or violence, to supersede, or un-

dermine, or suppress the Faith in

They

forms,
of

developed the original heresy of Arius, tried

way

as the

Sy-

comprise and conclude

decision and

the

Council of Nice.

every

years

fifty-six

struggles

fied or

history of

the

one of the most eventful and most

nods.

to

General Council at Constan-

A.D.

victory

in

the

second

General

more de-

Council at

Constantinople.
In this troubled and stormy time,

we have not only

the struggles of the Church with heretics, and heretical

Bishops with the Church, but we have the heretical


party

itself, dissatisfied

with

i2

its

own

proceedings, and

Avian Synods could come

116

essaying again and again to

to

no good,

amend them,

or swaying

backwards and forwards, at one time a party being

in

the ascendant which verged on orthodoxy, at another,

the extremest heterodoxy

putting

and

itself forth or veiling itself,

or even anathematizing

heterodoxy

this

itself,

contradicting itself

as the state of things

itself,

permitted or required of a body, which had no principle except expediency.

The Councils

of this period

were, for the most part, eminently unsatisfactory, because they were, for the m.ost part, attempts by God's

mercy

fruitless, to

Ghost

in

undo the work

Church.

the

They

of

w^ere

God

the

Holy

waves dashing

against the rock of the true Faith, which foamed out


their

own shame.
synods that

It is of these

S.

Hilary speaks in terms

so often misapplied to Councils generally.

"We ^de-

termine yearly and monthly creeds concerning

we

God

we defend those who


we anathematize those whom we have defended we condemn our own doings in those of others,
or others in us and gnawing each other, we are well
nigh devoured one of another." They were Councils,
not of the Church, but against the Church.
They
repent of our determinations

repent

could not but

fail

because they were arrayed against

that Faith, against which our Lord has promised, that

The

the gates of Hell shall not prevail.

God

of truth was pledged against them.

sius gives the

truth of the
S.

Athana-

same picture of Arian changeableness.


"

S. Hil.

ad Const,

ii.

5.

because against God.

"^ Every year, as

117

they were going to draw up a con-

if

they meet together and pretend to write about

tract,

the faith, whereby they expose themselves the more


to ridicule

and disgrace, because

their expositions o,re

by others, but by themselves."

rejected, not

"''They

dissent from each other, and, whereas they

have

re-

volted from their Fathers, are not of one and the same

mind, but

about with various and discordant

float

And,

changes.

as quarrelling with the

Nic^a, they have held

many

Council of

councils themselves,

and

have published a faith in each of them, and have stood


to none

nay, they will never do otherwise

versely seeking, they will never find that

they hate."

"''So

it is,

for per-

wisdom which

they have convened successive

Councils against that CEcumenical one, and are not yet


tired."

"''I

have accordingly subjoined portions both

of Arius' writings, and of whatever else

could collect,

of their publications in different Councils

you

will learn to

w^hereby

your surprise with what object they

stand out against an (Ecumenical Council and their

own Fathers without

blushing."

Yet, although so wrong

in their principles

end, the Synods of this period do but the

more

trate the constitutio.i of Synods, in that so

them were convened by

tius
<>

illus-

many

of

and under the pres-

heretics,

Constantine was indifferent

sure of the secular power.


to truth,

and their

and anxious only

to secure peace

Constan-

and Valens were powerful and unscrupulous per-

Letter to Eg. Lib.

"

Counc. Arim.

<

lb.

&

21. p. 103.

. 6.

Hist. Tr. p.

Seleuc.

. 14. p.

13L O. T.

92, 3. O. T.

lb. 14. p. 93.

118 Heretical Emjmi'ors attacked Church

thro'

Bishops

Yet both heretical Bishops and heretical


Emperors felt that they could only wound the Church
through the arms of the Church. Bishops were the acsecutors.

knowledged Guardians, Shepherds of the Church and


Synods their collective voice. The heretical Bishops
;

strove to reinforce their

numbers by

and

of Bishops, and the Creeds of

to set

up Councils

illegal ordinations,

those Councils, over against the Council and Creed of


the

Church

to cast out or

or to depress

one another by Councils,

But
method whereby

depose one another by Councils.

the Emperors, also,

knew

of no other

to substitute an heretical

Creed than by corrupting

Bishops, packing or dividing

Councils

of Bishops,

banishing the orthodox Bishops, when they could not


terrify

them, and, through Councils of their own Bi-

shops, replacing expelled Bishops


as heretical as themselves.

by other Bishops

They even introduced a

mihtary force to over-aw^e a Council

of disorder, the outward forms of the


served.

The Emperors knew

yet in this time

Church were ob-

way

of no other

in

which

they could act upon the Church, than through the


Bishops.

Even

were obliged

to

in tyrannising

submit to the forms of the Church.

Every act of doctrine or


Bishops.

over the Church, they

Whether

discipline

is

ascribed to the

in the Councils of the

heretics, Arians, in their different shades,

Church or of

Macedonians,

Novatians, or any other, or for whatever end they were


gathered, the Synods were of Bishops.
in

What was done

them was done by Bishops, and what

these did, they

did with complete authority, looking for no further

Impossible object of Aricm Councils.

119

confirmation, except that of the Bishops of the whole

Church.
period between the two

The

one of

cils, is

of some

more

vivid

In

fifty-six years.

eighty

Councils.

impression

first

It

general Coun-

there are notices

it

may

help to give a

of the Synodical system

and

the Church, to survey in order this spasmodic

convulsive

action of that system,

when withdrawn

from the calm and regulating power of the

and misdirected by
to

of

faith,

heretics.

The general object of the early Arian Councils was


attain what was unattainable, to devise a Confession

of faith, which, treating on the Divinity of

Son, might

fall

God

the

short of the explicit belief of the Nicene

Creed, and yet not altogether and overtly reject the


The Bishops who composed these Creeds, even
truth.

anathematized more naked heresy.

what

is

not

middle

God

point

Nature of God

is

Yet

since, plainly,

a creature of God, and so there

is

no

between the entire Oneness of the


the Son with the Father, and His

being a mere creature,

whether any supposed

Him

have been created before, or in, time ) all the


ambiguous phrases to which the Arians or Semi-

to

Arians resorted must be understood altogether in the


one sense, or in the other. Some of the Semi-Arians
did not probably for a time see this,

or received the

doubtful formula? in a higher sense, than these necessarily bore, or than, if understood as in
differing

as to all

any way

from the Nicene, they could bear.


things " might include " substance

''

"

Like
also

"

mean between

120iV^o real

the full truth of Nicene Creed,

" likeness in substance " meant any thing different from " oneness of substance," it also implied
but

if

" unlikeness " or " imperfect likeness " and so the


" Homoeans," or any who maintained the mere " like;

ness" of the Son to the Father, and " Anomoeans


declared that they held His " unlikeness"

who openly

Gibbon

to the Father, really held the sapie heresy.

" at the difference of a single diphthong be-

sneers

tween the Homoousians and the Homoiousians," and


represents the distinction between

and the Catholics

the

Undoubtedly, the

as being as fine.

words used by the Semi-Arians,


true, or, as S.

religious

Semi-Arians

if

taken in their

Hilary says, in their " faithful

would coincide with the

sense,"

faith

Holy Scripture and the Church.


true, unless

things
ness

"

in

things "

all

includes

''

But

it

" is

real

of

not

if real,

" likeness

real

likeness in substance "

substance

substance.

" Likeness
" Likeness " then,

complete.

it is

" likeness in

is

and

in all

"

like-

cannot be without identity of

"
is

also

true that the Semi-Arian

terms expressed the Faith inadequately and were


capable, ( as S. Hilary subjoined,) of " an s irreligious
sense."

For

"like" might

" like in qualities " only,


shall be like

de Synod.

s " I did

Him."

"

Of

more

naturally

as it is said of us, that

'

77. p. 1193.

not speak of

likeness

'

might im-

like substance,"

'

a religious sense

'

of

'

like substance

derstood that there was an irreligious, so that I did not

word

mean
''
we

and yet vi^arned that

its

'

save that I undisapprove

the

only religious meaning, was that

which inculcated Oneness of Substance." Id. lb. not.

a.

121

and full and undisguised Arianlsm.

Father and the Son were two " like,"


And
but independant and distmct, " Substances."
this ambiguity could be the only object of mainply, that the

taining terms, distinct from the ancient word,

" of

one Substance," embodied in the Creed of Nica3a.


" Homoiousios " differed then but by one letter fi'om

" Homoousios,"

as

"creature"

differs,

but by one

from "Creatour"; but the belief represented


by them differed by infinity, that same infinity which
For
Creator.
lies between the creature and his
letter

Homoousios

expressed that the Son was God, Co-

eternal, Consubstantial, Coequal, Infinite

Homoiou-

same sense as Homoousios, implied that the Son was a mere creature.
This, in the course of these Councils, became clear
to the more religious Semi-Arians, and they won
back their way to the Faith and language of the
sios,

unless understood in the

Church

worked

the less religious

their

way out

into undisguised Arianism.

and protectors of Arius were


Bishops of Palestine and Syria and Asia Minor,
Eusebius of Nicomedia ( the political chief of the
party ) Eusebius of Ca^sarea, Theodotus of Laodicea,
Paulinus of Tyre, Athanasius of Nazarbi, Gregory

The

chief Patrons

of Berytus, Aetius of Lydda.


claimed.'^

Besides these,

Patrophilus
Narcissus

of

These Arius himself

Menophantus of Ephesus,
Theognius of Nice,

Scythopohs,

of Neronias, and two Egyptian

Epist. ad Euseb. in Theocl.

i.

5.

Bishops,

confirmed by Theodoret lb.

122

Bishops ivho were the heads of

Theonas of Marmarica, and Secunclus of Ptolemais,


took the part of Arius, but

him, except Secundus and Theonas.


cedon, and George,

anathematized

finally

Maris of Chal-

'

presbyter of Alexandria, after-

wards Bishop of Laodicea, had been overt Arians


before the Council of Nice.^

This was the original Arian party, called

Euse-

sequently added to their

two Eusebii. They subnumber Bishops whom they

consecrated,

Stephen,

bians from

its

Placillus,

sively Bishops

Eudoxius

leaders, the

of Antioch,

successively of

Leontius,

Theodosius of

succesTripoli,

Germanicia, Antioch, and

Constantinople, and Eustathius of Sebastia one of the


leaders of the Semi-Arians.^

room by the expulsion

For these they made

of the orthodox Bishops.

In

way, they expelled the Bishops of Balanea, Pal-

like

Gaza,

tus,

Taradus,

filled

the sees with their

Beroea,

own

Sirmium, and

Asia,

partizans.""

Secundus,

deposed by the Council of Nice, was chief in these


ordinations."

Ursacius of Singidon in Upper Mtesia,

and Valens of Mursa, Demophilus of Bercea, Germinius of Cyzicus and Sirmium (A. D. 351.) Cecropius
of

Laodicea and Nicomedia,

Epictetus of Civita Yecchia,

same way.
party

were

Acacius,

from

Auxentius
were

of

Milan,

intruded in the

whom

the Eusebian

sometimes called Acacians)

succeeded

*Theod. i. 7.
Ath. Cone. Arim. et Seleuc. . 17. p. 99. O. T.
" Id. lb. . 5. p. 22-?.
1 S. Ath. Arian Hist.
. 4. p. 222, 3. O. T.
" Counc. Arim. et Sel. . 12. p. 88, 9. add S. Julius in Apol. ag. Arian. .
S. Ath. Letter to Eg. Lib. . 7.
p. 133. Arian Hist. . 75. p. 286.

^ S.

24.

Arian and Semi-Arian


Eusebius of Cassarea,

123

parties.

his instructor in heresy.

A. D.

33S.

The

chiefs of the better Semi-Arians,

of Ancyra, (placed by the

were Basil

Easebians in the see of

Marcellus) Eustathius, and Eleusius of Cyzicus (so

remarkably praised by
Arethusa.
bius of

S.

Hilary;^) then

Emesa

Eusebius of

died an Arian

Samosata and

Laodicea, and
heart Arians

of

Euse-

S. Cyril of Jerusalem, for

mixed up with them, died

time

Mark

George of

Saints,

Eudoxius, were probably always in


they became avowed Anomoeans.

The wretched

who became

Aetius,

was the founder of the Anomoeans

Deacon

only,

Eunomius was

their chief defender.

This

may

enumeration

a thread in

furnish

the

following account of the Synods of this period, which

given chiefly in the words of the original

is

rians.

It illustrates also

were intruded into

ans

Bishops who became

how many
sees,

histo-

of the chief Ari-

and were not merely

heretical.

Some

of

them had

been refused ordination by Eustathius, the Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, and were now ordained
without enquiry into their

lives.

'i

"-^

Profligate

then youths, not even Catechumens,"

made
p

Bishops, and thrust into

1186.
1

were at once
place of vene-

" Except Eleusius the Bishop and a few with him, the ten provinces of
know not God truly." de Synod, c. 27.

Asia, where I am, for the most part


p.

the

hea-

S.

Ath. Arian Hist.

lb. .73. p. 285.

. 3. 4. p.

221, 2.

Course of the Aricm ai tacks on the Church.

124

They

rable and aged Bishops, exiled for the faith.

were ordained on account of their impiety.'


The first step of the original Arian Bishops
with

to regain

Emperor the

the

was

The
Then followed

oppress S. Athanasius.

to

for that of

the attempt to substitute heretical creeds

which they were checked at

Nicsea, in

parently by fear, then by

among them,

ty

although the

of a parso

that

were

Ari-

truth,

Bishops

Semi-Arian

or

negative

Creed

A. D. 357, when the second Sirmian

until

ap-

first

presence
the

to

Eusebian

were

Creeds

their

ans,

the

nearer

chief

which

influence

Council of Nice.

they had lost through the


rest

M'as

was put forth by the Arian party, which was followed by the Semi-Arian Creed at Ancyra, put

by

out

Basil.

and

Semi-Arians

Thenceforth, the

the Arians were in conflict with one another.

On

other

the

hand, about

D.

A.

360,

when

Macedonius was deposed from the see of Constantinople, a part of the Semi-Arians following him
formed overtly a new heresy, denying the Divinity
of

God

the

This however was, at

Holy Ghost.

all

times, of necessity, involved in Arianism.

In

and
the

the

Synod of Nice, Eusebius of Nicomedia

Theognius,
Creed,

and

although

were

unwillingly,

received into

accepted

Communion.*

After the Council, they took the part of the Arians,

and joined themselves with them."


=

S,

Ath. Lett, to Eg. Lib.

192. ed. Vail.

. 7.

"

p. 133.

'

Eusebius

se-

S. Jcr. adv. Lucif. . 20. p.

Ep. Const, ad Nicom.

ap.

Theod.

i.

20.

125

First measures of Eusebius of NicomecUa.

cretly urged Constantine to intercede for him, but,

and

he

as

Theognius

condemned by the
sent a

themselves

chief Bishops/

petition of penitence

they were

say,

to

whom

they

praying for their

res-

toration.

Five months^ after the Council of Nice, April 16.

Synod of Bishops, Athanasius was


This office was
ordained Patriarch of Alexandria.
always so conferred,^ and so was the occasion of

A. D. 326.

many

in a

Synods, in the diiFerent Patriarchates.

Three years afterwards, A. D. 328.

two hundred and


cording to

fifty

Bishops

Philostorgius,^

at

Synod of
Nicomedia acin a

Eustathius

Patriarch

Antioch was, through the influence of Eusebius

"*

of

and

Theognius, deposed on a charge of immorality, supported by perjury, as the wretched person afterwards
confessed.^
Socrates remarks, " The Bishops" are

wont

do thus, as to

to

whom

all

they depose, ac-

cusing them of impiety, but not adding the causes

He was

of the impiety."

deposed

for his

maintenance

of the faith.

The

persecution

of

S.

Athanasius began about

About A. D. 331. the Emperor "wearied'^ by his enemies, Eusebius and Theognius, commanded him to go to a Synod at Cajsarea, whither,
A. D. 328.

months, he refused to go, fearing the trea-

for thirty

chery of the two Eusebius'.


ap. Socr.
==

ii.

= i.

7.

24.

i.

14.

==

^
"^

S.

Epiph. Hser. 68.

Theod.i
Soz.

ii.

21.

25.

6.

Council then was


y

Vales. Obss. in Socr.

''c.22.

iii.

U,

Synod of Tyre packed against

126

summoned
that

there

" The Emperor

Tyre."

at

should

Athanasms.

S.

be a

Synod

proclaimed

*"

at the

of Bishops

House of Prayer, which he was


Jerusalem,
But first, he commanded

consecration of the

building in

Bishops being assembled at Tyre, to ventilate

the

the case of Athanasius, that the contention being


there removed, they might perform more peacefully
dedication

the

Church, consecrating

of the

it

to

This was the thirtieth year of the Emperor

God.

Constantine, and there were present at Tyre, sixty

Bishops from different places, Dionysius, the Conconvening them." " Constrained^ more vehe-

sular,

mently, Athanasius came to Tyre."


this
it

Eusebius blends

Council with that of Jerusalem, and boasts of


the greatest after that of

as

It

Nice.*-'

appears

from Constantius' Epistle to the Synod that


" I have

packed.

"which ye

in

whom

come and share your

and

who ought

shall

as to

to

But

anxieties.

order.

For

if

was

them,^

have sent to
should

sent Diony-

both remind those

shall

come

to the

be an inspector of what

good

to

ye wished, that they

an ex-Consular, who

sius,

Bishops

he writes

all,"

your letter marked out.

Bishops

those

done

it

Synod with you^

is

done, especially

any, (as I trow not)

too essaying to set at nought our

command,

now
shall

not choose to be present, one shall be sent hence

from

us,

out,

shall

who by Imperial
teach that

"^

Socr.

Vit. Const,

i.

authority casting

orders of the Emperor, given


f

28.
iv.

47.

him

''

Soz.

1. c.

ap. Theod.

i.

29.

Count, to keep order

127

Bishops, to decide.

must not be resisted. For


be the work of your holinesses, with

in behalf of the truth,

the

rest, it will

unaminous and impartial judgment, following the


Ecclesiastical and Apostohc Canon, to devise the

remedy

fitting

what has been,

for

either

through

wrong or error, done amiss, that ye may both free


the Church fi:om all reproach, and lighten my cares,
and giving back the grace of peace to those now
at variance^

good
S.

may

gain for yourselves an exceeding

report."

repeatedly

Athanasius

excepts

against

the

Presidency of secular persons, as destructive of the


" How can they have the
very name of Council.
boldness to call that a Council, at which a single

Count presided &c." "As soon as the Eusebians


heard that the trial was to be an Ecclesiastical one,
at which no Count would be present." Liberius does
The Council of Chalcedon, and the eighth
the same.
Council state the same as to Ecclesiastical

Count and of the Bishops are


The Count had
separated by Constantine.

But the
clearly

trials.

offices

to regulate

of the

outward

things, to preserve, if

he could,

outward proceedings, to aid in gathering the Bishops together, and afterwards in look-

fairness in the

ing

out

for

Athanasius.

witnesses of the calumnies against S.

The

authority to remedy the evUs, the

debating, the decision, Constantine ascribed

the Bishops.

whoUy

to

Irregular as the presence of the Count

'

See Ancient Precedents

p. 28-30.

Arian Synods against

128
was,

it

was, in truth,

much

murder

of S. Athanasius

For "

needed.

of good

trusted with the care

Afhanasius,

S.

''those en-

order hindered the

him from them

snatching

and putting him on board a vesseL"


S. Athanasius, as is well known, having signally
defeated two shocking calumnies of murder and corthe Synod, and was on that account

ruptio virginis,

left

condemned.

Arians

get

against him, contrary to the protest

up a charge

of forty-seven

were sent to the Mareotis to

Egyptian

strances of the Count,"

and

Bishops and the remonS.

Athanasius was deposed

by a Council which had no authority over him.


'^Forthwith" came letters from the Emperor, directing the Synod to come to the new Jerusalem." There
they received Arius and his companions, alleging
that they complied with the Emperors' letters, declaring that he

was

satisfied as to the faith of

Arius

and Euzoius."

On

Athanasius personal appeal to the Emperor

S.

'

as to the injustice

done him, Constantine summoned

the Council to Constantinople

;''

but they sent depu-

abandoning their old calumnies for a new one.


The Arians next attacked Marcellus Bishop of
Ancp^a. Whether he himself was at this time here-

ties,

tical or no,^ it

^
>

Theod.

i.

was

for the part

which he took against


i

30.

ap. S. Ath. Apol. ag. Ar.

77. p. 108. O. T.

Socr.
"

lb.

i.

32.
81. p. 114.

p Socr. i. 34.
add Cone. Arim. . 21.
and the Roman Council held him innocent. ( Ep. in Apol. ag.
Ar. . 32.) S. Athanasius first held him guiltless, then rejected him. At last it
is to he hoped that he recanted, see ib. p. 52. n. 1. and on Counc. Arim. and
Scleuc. p. 110. n. r. and Introd. to Orat. iv. against Arians . 2. p. 503. sqq.

Socr.

Pope

i.

33.

Julius

and Paulus.

129

Synods of T}Te

and Jerusalem,

MarcelliLS

Arianism at the

by "the Bishops, collected at


The same Council appointed his

that he was deposed


Constantinople''."

and directed

successor,

his

books to be sought for

and destroyed.
A. D. 340. was another Arian Council of Constan-

"Constantius was' inflamed with great wrath

tinople.

at the election [of Paulus, the orthodox Patriarch]

and having gathered a council of Arian Bishops,


and, translating Eusebius,

aside Paulus,

set

made him

Bishop of Constantinople."
A. D. 341. S. Athanasius being restored
stantine the son,* a fresh persecution

by Con-

was commenced

by the Eusebians whereupon nearly" " one hundred


Bishops," the whole body of Bishops, " assembled at
Alexandria, out of Egypt, the Thebais, Libya, and
;

Pentapolis," wrote a circular letter in his defence to

"the Bishops of the Cathohc Church every where." In


the

persecution, they say, " circumstances did not

first

you also know." S. Athanasius heads


the letter; " The ^ following are the letters, written
in my favour by the Bishops in the several Councils,
and first, the letter of the Egyptian Bishops."
permit

it,

as

"Eusebius

A. D. 341.

''

contrives

that

a Council

should be gathered at Antioch on pretence of the dedication of a Church, but, in truth, to overthrow the
Soz,
t

ii.

33.

Ep. in

S.

Ath. Apol. ag. Ar.

ii.

8.

Eusebius of

Socr.ii. 7.

87. p. 121. O. T.

" lb. . 2. fin. p. 1 7.

" lb. init. p. 14.

" Socr.

C.ie.sarea

was now dead.

" Creed of the Dedication " atAntioch.

130

Homoousion.

faith of the

In

this

Synod

ninety'' [or

ninety seven ^J Bishops met from different Cities." In


this Sjrnod the twenty five Canons were framed, re-

by Innocent 1 as "composed^ by heretics, but received by the Comicil of Chalcedon ^ as "the righteous
rules of the Fathers," and placed in the Codex of the Canons of the Universal Church''. But the Council had an
Arian side also. "When^ all the Bishops had met, and

jected

the

Emperor Constantius was

also present,

the more

part [of the Bishops] were indignant, and vehemently

accused Athanasius of breaking a sacerdotal

e.

[i.

Episcopal] law which themselves had framed, and re-

suming

They

his see, before

he was permitted by the Synod."

Gregory the Arian in his place. "They pub-

set

lished also

two Creeds,^ which they

the Nicene

the

first

set over against

very negative, the second

fuller,

avoiding^ the use of the word "Consubstantial" of the

and containing the Arian statement that the

Son,

Holy Trinity are " three


;

ment one
sense

is

"

in subsistence,

and

in agree-

yet using other expressions whose obvious

orthodox. This

is

the Creed known, as "the

Creed of the Dedication." The Synodical letter^ is


rected to their like-minded and holy fellow-Bishops

Athanas. Counc.

^ so also S.
y Soz.

iii.

5.

and

S. Hil.

Sel. et

de Synod.

Arim.

di^

in

25. p. 109.

28.

ad Constantinop. A. D. 405.
Zachary [Ep. 7. ad Pepin] calls them "sanctions of the blessed
Fathers." Nicholas [i. Ep. 9. ad Michael. Imp.] "the Venerable and Sacred
Antiochene Canons." Harduin.
Soz. iii, 5.
Socr. ii. 18. S. Ath. Cone. Arim. . 22. 23. p. 105-7. O. T.
==

Ep.

Act. 4.

7.

<=

Soz.l. c.

''

<

Cone. T.

ii.

p. 583, 6. ed. Col.

avWuTovp-yols

131

Fourth Eusebian Creed.


tlie

Provinces, and says,

much

consideration,

*'

AVhat was decided, amid

by the united judgment of

all

of

us the Bishops, collected together out of different provinces at Antioch,

we have brought

to

your knowledge,

trusting to the grace of Christ and the

Holy

Spirit of

peace that ye also will conspire with us, as virtually


helping with prayers, or rather united

present and

and with us present in the Holy Spirit, consulting and defining the same as we, and sealing what
has been decided aright." The subscriptions extant pre-

with

us,

names of twenty-nine Bishops, subjoining

serve the

" and the

rest

Phoenicia, Coele-Sja'ia, Arabia,

Isauria
ty-five

of Palestine,

out of the Provinces

Mesopotamia,

as follows "

and they enacted

Cilicia,

&c. [the twen-

Canons.]

The Council presupposes that the consent of Bishops alone fully establishes its decrees. The Bishops
usher in their

first

Creed with the disclaimer, "

We ^

have not been followers of Arius. How could we,


being Bishops, follow a Presbyter?" The Bishops
*'

a more negative

subscribed," at the same Council,

Creed by Theophronius, Bishop of Tyana, " accepting the faith of this

manV

few months afterwards, the


to

Eusebian Bishops

and sent four Bishops from


the Emperor Constans in Gaul.

composed a fourth Creed

"the Council"

This Creed also was negative, omitting

much

doctrine of the Creed of Dedication.


Ath.

''

S.

i'

S. Ath.

1.

c. . 21. p.

1. c. .

103.

25. Socr.

ii.

'

18.

k2

S.

Ath.

1.

c. .

of the

132

The Macrostich Creed.

" After 41iree years [A.

D.

345."^]

the Eastern

Bishops

agam form

another

faith, sent it to

from

length, Avas called the Macrostich, contained

its

a Council, and having framed

them

in Italy."

higher teaching than any before

Son

The Eusebians

to call a Council,

was asked

but

to be himself the judge,

Julius called the Council, as he

Athanasius appearing, the Euse-

S.

S.

Athanasius," " requested

S.

and

bian legates disappeared

be present, and

the Eusebians declined to

Athanasius was acquitted, on ex-

Roman Synod

amination of the case, by a

than

fifty

of

more

Julius wrote to the East, in the

Bishops".

name and mth

which

wrote to Julius, and think-

also

he so pleased."

if

embodies

like other creatures

ing to frighten me," says

him

still

and asserting that the Son

to the Father,

was made, although not


were created by Him.
"

yet

Arian heresy, affirming the inferiority of

distinctly

the

it,

This which,

the concurrence of the Synod.

Three or four of the Eusebian Bishops were sent


with the Macrostich, or Creed of A. D. 345. to Milan,

"The?

where Constans was.

Bishops of the West

would not receive it, not understanding the language,


and content with the faith of Nice." The Eusebians
" refusing ^ to condemn the heretical doctrine of
Arius, departed in anger from the Council."

Socr.

ii. 1

"

Apol.

ag.

lb.

9.

Soz.

Ar.

iuit. p. 14. .

P Soz.

iii.

iii.

U.S. Ath.

1.

c.

Pagi A. D.

.26.

344.

20. p. 39.

20. p. 39.

11. Socr.

ii.

20.

Arian
q

Hist.

15. p. 230.

Liberius Ep.

2.

ad Constant. Cone. T.

ii.

p. SOI.

Council of Sardica

133

summoned by Emperors.

About the same time fourteen Bishops

in a

Coun-

with the concurrence of ten more,


deposed one Euphrates, a Bishop who denied our

Cologne

at

cil

Lord

to be God.

Eusebians' proceeded without shame,

"The

dis-

turbing the Churches, and plotting the ruin of many.

The most

religious

Emperors Constantino and Con-

stans being informed of this,

commanded

from both the West and East

the Bishops

meet together

to

in

the City of Sardica."

Paukis

''

the expelled Patriarch of Constantino-

exhort that there should be

and Athanasius

ple ]

another Council, so that what concerned themselves

and the

faith should

be ended in a General Council,

shewing that the object of their deposition had been


A General Council is then
to destroy the faith.
again

summoned

Emperors
the

to Sardica,

by the

the one [Constans] asking this by letter

readily con-

Emperor of the East [Constantius]

From

senting.

of the two

will

the West, there assembled about three

hundred Bishops,

as

Athanasius

From

says.

the

East, Sabinus says that there were only ninety-six

Bishops,

Bishop

among whom was reckoned


of the

Athanasius, appointed
country.

sured

on

Cone. T.

bodily weakness

of notice,

the

of

that

others cen-

casting

the blame

the Bishop of the Romans, although 18

Julius,
r

shortness

Ischyras,

they who deposed

Episcopate

the

to

Some pleaded

the

whom

Mareotis,

ii.

p. 643.
'

Socr.

ii.

S.

Ath. Arian Hist.

20. tsoz.

iii.

11.

36. p. 59.

134 Eiisehian Bishops ivithdraw.

cited,

some condemned.

Synod had been


called, and Athanasius had stayed at Rome, awaiting the Synod. When then they were met at Sarthe predica, the Easterns would not come into
sence of the Westerns, saying that they would not
months had intervened,

since the

come to conference, unless these expelled AthanaWhen Protogenes


sius and Paul from the assembly.
Bishop of Sardica, and Hosius of Corduba, would
Orientals forthwith departed."

not allow this, the


S.

Athanasius mentions another reason for the de-

They had hoped, as


was their wont, to overawe the Council by the
" But ^ when they saw that
presence of military.
parture

of

the

Eusebians.

the cause was to be conducted as simply an eccleone, without

siastical

or of

soldiers

the

presence

when they saw

the

of

the

Count

accusers

who

every church and city, and the evidence brought against them," and " the venerable

came from

Bishops

[Arabian]

up

in their

Arius and Asterius,

who came

company, withdrawing from them and

siding with us,

and giving an account of

their

profli-

gate conduct, they feared the consequences of a


lest

and

trial,

they should be convicted by us as false accusers,


it

should

produced

by those whom they

be discovered

in the character of accusers, that they

themselves suggested

all

had

they were to say and were

the contrivers of the plot."


"The'*'

Council of Bishops called upon the Eusebians

Arian Hist,

15. p. 230, 1.

O. T.

"

Apol. ag. Ar.

36. p. 69, 6.

135

Letters of Council of Sardica.

to

come forward,

saying.

pose of undergoing a
are here,

You have come

trial.

for the pur-

Athanasius and his friends

accused while absent. If you pre-

whom you

tend to be unwilling, being unable, the Council will


give sentence against you, as calumniators."

The Eu-

sebians, knowing that they could neither maintain

charges, nor disprove those alleged against

own

their

under the sentence of calumniators and


" They recontumacious. S. Athanasius sums up

them,

fell

ceived us, as injured


ciates in wickedness

parts of the world,

they deposed Eusebius' asso-

they wrote to the Bishops in

and

all

to the diocese of each of the

injured persons."

To

the

Presbyters

of

and

Alexandria,^

to the

Bishops of Egypt and Lybia ^ the Council sent a


separate

answer to

in

letter,

To them

received from them.

the
the

grounds

of

its

Alexandrian

desire

Presbyters

andrian Presbyters

which

mentions,

it

to the Bishops

it

refers

at

acquittal of four

its

had

it

of S. Athanasius

acquittal

of S. Athanasius,

letters

the Council set forth


to

the

Alex-

more ex-

pressly to its condemnation of eight Bishops, "leaders

of Arian heresy."

"They were
the

holy

To both

unwilling to

Bishops."

Bishops from

all

Of
parts

it

says of the Eusebians,

meet the Council of


Athanasius,

S.

"all

determined upon

communion with Athanasius."

Of Gregory,

all

the

holding
illegally

thrust into his place, " Gregory, illegally ordained by


w

1. c.

^ ib,

40. p. Q5.


Summary

136

of

letter

been degraded by the judgement of the

heretics, has

whole

of Encyclical

sacred

Council."

It

mentions to

an

both,

application to the Emperors, in consequence of the op-

pression

"We

power.

civil

by the Arians, by

exercised

would

command

whose

duty

it

give judgement

of

the

have written to beseech our most

and Godly Emperors, that

religious

aid

that
to

is

none

of

only to

attend

Graces

their

the

magistrates,
civil

causes,

upon Clergy, nor henceforward

any way, on pretence of providing

for the

in

Churches,

attempt any thing against the brethren."

The Encyclical

addressed to their

letter is

''

most

^beloved brethren, the Bishops and fellow ministers


of the Catholic and Apostolic Church every where."

They

say, "

Our most

Emperors have them-

religious

selves assembled us together out of diiFerent Provinces

and

Cities,

and have permitted

be held in the City of Sardica


dissension

this

holy Council to

to the

may be done away, and

all

end that aU
false

being driven from us. Christian Godliness

alone

The Bishops of the East


being exhorted to do so by the most

be maintained by
also attended,

doctrine

may

all

men.

religious Emperors."

"Although all we Bishops were met together,


and above all, he of most happy old age, Hosius,
waiting and exhorting them to come to the trial,
that what they had circulated and written in the absence of our fellow-ministers, they might establish in
their presence, they
y

II

43, p.

would not come."

fin.

Theod.

ii.

6. S.

Hil. Fragm.ii,


137

Council of Sa7'dica.

They then declare why they acquitted


nasius,

whom

Nicene father/

regard

In

and Marcellus.

to

S.

Atha-

Asclepas, a

the Eusebians had deposed,

they mention a Council of Eusebian Bishops, who


had been constrained to acquit him. " Our brother
Asclepas produced Reports which had been drawn

Antioch in the presence of his accusers and Eusebius of Caesarea, and proved that he w^as innocent

up

at

by the sentence

of the

who judged

Bishops

his

We

pronounced Athanasius, Marcellus, Asclepas, and those who minister to the Lord svith them,
to be clear of offence, and have written to the Diocese
of each, that the people of each Church may know
cause." "

the innocence of their

him

as their Bishop,

own

Bishop, and

and expect

may esteem
As

his coming.

for

those who like wolves have invaded their Churches,


let them neither give them the title of Bishop, nor

hold any communion at


ters

all

with them, nor receive

from them, nor write to them.

dorus &c. [Arians]

And

for

let-

Theo-

the holy Council has unanimous-

ly deposed them from the Episcopate, and we have


decided that they not only are not Bishops, but that

they are unw^orthy of holding communion with the


Charge your people that no one hold comfaithful.

munion with them

for there

is

'no

communion

of light

for there

with darkness ;'put away from you all these


'
concord of Christ with Belial.' And take heed,
is no
dearly beloved, that ye neither write to them nor
;

See

S.

Ath. Hist. Tracts,

p. 69. n. e.

O. T.

138

Other Bishops informed through Julius.

them

receive letters from

but

rather,

desire

bre-

ministers, as being present in spirit

thren and fellow

with our Council, to assent to our judgements by

be

j)reserved

where."
of

by

Rome,

judgments.

concord

fellow-ministers

may
every

sent also a letter to S. Julius

of which

close

inform the Bishops


their

our

all

The Council
at the

end that

to the

your subscriptions,

in

Sicily,

" Your

it

him

requests

to

Sardinia, and Italy of

excellent

wisdom should

arrange that through your letters our brethren^ who


are in Sicily, in Sardinia, in Italy, should

know what

has been done and defined, lest in ignorance they


should accept the literae communicatoriae, i. e. the
Episcopal

letters, of those

degraded.

But

let

whom

a just sentence has

Marcellus and Athanasius and

Asclepas persevere in our communion, because an


unjust judgment must not injure them, through the

and tergiversation of those, who would not


meet the judgment of all of us, the Bishops assembled." The Council of Sardica was collected out
flight

of forty-eight

"

Provinces.

The aged Hosius was again President

b
<=

Ep. ad Jul.

a Synod, fin. in S. Hil.

Tragm.

ii. .

'^

of the

13. p. 1292.

The Council repeats this at the end, "our brethren and fellow-Bishops." lb.
The Encyclical letter in Theodoret ii. 6. enumerated 38 S. Athanasius
;

Apol. ag. Ar.

init.

p.

14. )

36

but of these, Isauria, Cyprus, Tamphylia,

Dalmatia, Siscia, Picenum, Tuscany, Bruttia, Sicily, Britain, are not mentioned in the Encyclical letter in Theodoret.
^ "Bishops, having Hosius for their Father," S. Ath. Arian Hist. .15.
p. 230.

"Hosius and

all

the other Bishops." lb. p. 232. "the holy Council,

of which the great Hosius was the president." lb. "the president of Coun" . 42. p. 255. "who had the first place in the Council of Sardica."
cils
Theod. ii. 15. fin. " Hosius and those with him." Soz, ii. 12. init. "Hosius

Number of Provinces represented, of Bishops present. 139

Rome

Council; the Bishop of

pleading "a^ good and

necessary excuse for his absence," the risk lest his


flock should suffer

signs the first

from heresy or schism.

Hosius

Athanasius and Paulus did not sign

S.

the Encyclical letter, probably as relating to themJulius was the only other Patriarch represent-

selves.

ed in the Council, and signed by his Presbyters, next


to Hosius; then the Bishop of Sardica itself, the venerable Protogenes, a Nicene Father, to

whom,

thirty

one years before, A. D. 316, Constantius had sent a


rescript

about enfranchising

slaves

in presence

of

Bishops ^

The number of Bishops actually present


was small". S. Athanasius, an eyewitness,

at Sardica
states the

whole number, before the departure of the seventy" one hundred


six Eusebian Bishops, to have been

and seventy
Bishops
perhaps,

then
(

more

Bishops,

or less."

were only ninety-four

present

since S. Athanasius' "

more or

leave that latitude), the Orthodox


those eighty-six
was the
P.

iii.

in tlie

L.

1.

only,

judgment

at

who

less "

Bishops

or,

would
were

subscribed, mostly with

Sardica,"

Allocut. Cone. Chalc. ad Marcian.

1765. ed. Col.

Ep. Synod, ad Jul.

e
f

first

c. 1. iv. p.

'

The Orthodox

in S. Hil.

C. de his qui in Eccl.

Fragm.

manum.

S. Ath. says " the sentence that

ii.

. 9-

was passed

p. 1290.

Arian Hist.
in

15. p. 230. O. T,

my favor received the suffra-

( Apol. ag. Ar. init. p. 14. O. T. ) It was sub78. ) 284 names only are preserved. ( lb. and
lb.
Bishops
p.
344
(
by
scribed
"
Cone. ii. 707. sq. ) But S. Athanasius says that the names of nearly 63 others,
found in their
out of Asia, Phrygia, Isauria, who wrote in his behalf, might be

ges of more than 300 Bishops,"

own
'<

letters." (1. c. )

S.

Athanasius sets down the names of seventy -eight Bishops promiscuously


names those who subscribed from different provinces (Apol, ag. Ar. . 50.

before he

140

Judgements of Council of Sardica (Ecumenical

the names of their

But, although the Bishops

sees.

present were so nearly balanced, the Eusebian Bi-

" went

shops

''

out, being

convicted

by

their

own

conscience," fearing to be condemned, at once for their

witness

false

against

Athanasius, and for their

S.

The Orthodox, on the contrary,


were strong in their faith and conscience, in the
presence of the Holy Ghost, and in their knowledge of the concurrence of the Church every where.
The number of those who, at the Council's request,
" assented to its judgements by their subscriptions,"
were two hundred and eighty four, besides sixty three

own

true

guilt.

who "wrote

in S. Athanasius'

hundred and forty

behalf;"

all

three

seven.^

These subscriptions however, were appended to the


of the Council,

letter

and guaranteed the decisions

contained therein, as to the innocence of S. Athanasius,

and the other accused, and the

circulate

Synodical letter

at full length"^ into two


which the Emperors had con-

entered

of the subjects for

vened them. Into the matter of


p. 76, 7.

guilt of their

The Bishops present did not


enemies.
Their
the Canons which they framed.

Eusebian

O. T.

) S.

Hilary puts

down

the

faith

they declined

names of nearly the same Bishops with


by S. Ath. Two, Euphrates

their sees, omitting several, but adding six omitted

and Olympius, arc omitted by both. In

all,

they are eighty-six. Montf. Praef. ad.

S. Ath. p. xxxiv.
''

S.

John

viii.

The Council

9.

Apol. ag. Ar.

50. p. 75.

and n.

o.

O. T,

of Sardica itself says, "

The Emperors peimitted that all


things should be discussed anew, and, before all, the Holy Faith and integrity
of truth, which these had violated." The second related to those whom the
Eusebians had deposed the third, to the
ad Jul. in S. Hil. Fragm. ii. 11. p. 1291.
;

injiu'ies

which they had

inflicted.

Ep.

not

Canons ;

its

some of

to enter, (though

attempted
faith

subjects

on the

it, ")

ought not to be

141

these.

body "

their

who

the

lest

imperfect

desired

"

first,
;

and

desired

"

ground, that

set forth,

at Nice, should be thought

be given to those

of

second
written

and a plea

often to write

and

define about the faith."

The Canons were signed only by the Bishops


present. The Council of Sardica then became CEcumenical as to

its

judgements, being received by the

The Canons remained


Bishops who had framed them.
Church.

the act of the

as

These twenty or

twenty-one Canons related chiefly to Bishops, being


occasioned mostly by the misconduct of the Arian
Bishops.

They checked

secration

of Bishops

translations ,

small

for

and the con(both of

places?,

which the Eusebians had recently practised


their going to Courts, (which the Arian

as also

Bishops

had poisoned, but in going to which the African


Bishops had persisted against the judgment of Gratus,

Bishop

per

saltum

of Carthage
^

which

),

the

of Bishops

ordinations

Arians

had

frequently

done and in the case of very worthless persons,)


and the interference with the Dioceses and' Clerks
of other Bishops

As being framed

may

'

this

for a

with necessary

restrictions*.

pecuhar time, these Canons

not have been intended for general reception,

and on
" S.

but

this

ground may not have been

Ath. Tom. ad Antioch.

. 5.

p. 772, 3. ed.

circulated.

Ben.

Can. 1.2.

PCan.

6.

Can. 8-12.

Can.

14. 16. 18. 19.

Can.

13.

Can.

5. 15. 17.

142 Canons allowing to Bishops

limited reference to

Rome,

Other Canons ''secured to Bishops, deposed by


the neighbouring Bishops, the power of having their
These Canons also seem to have
sentence revised.
been occasioned by the tyranny of the Eusebians.
The right given was to have the sentence revised
Bishop of Rome should see good. " Yet
if " Juhus
^'

it

at

was not by way of appeal, but of revision; not


Rome, but by the Bishops of the neighbouring

province,

with

without the legates of the Ro-

or

man

Bishop."

The

first

instance,

seems again

specific

mention of Julius
to

in the

imply a temporary

object, such as was protection against the Eusebians.

In any case,

Rome

of

is

made

in a

"

was something new.


been judged in any
is

if

to the

limited reference

this

Bishop

form which shews that

it

If any of the Bishops have

cause,

and think that

his cause

good, so that the judgement should be renewed,

you think good,

the Apostle

let

memory of
who examined the

us honour the

Peter, so that they

cause should write to Julius, the

"This form

&c.

Tillemont'% " that

had not had


law

is

new.

He

&c.

"

Can.
4.

S.

it

was a

hitherto."

If

it

3.

''

right

to

Bishop

shew,"

says

which the Pope

The words

of the

Canon "

that the institution of this

seem good

to you,' says

Hosius

does not say that the ancient tradition

to be confirmed, as

can.

very

MarcaV' prove

says de

strong

is

Roman

4. 7.

was wont to be done


''

Can.

3.

He is

and 7. having been already spoken of in the


Athanas. Art. 51. T. 8. p. 221.

"

in matters

not mentioned by

third,

is

name

upon which they

Cone. Sac.

vii. 3. 8.

in

bear.

new from

their form; allow re-hearing hy other

Bps. 143

which reqmred only the renewal or explanation of


the ancient law." S. Athanasius himself insists strong-

two forms of speech, the


the other enacting what

ly on the difference of the

one declaring what is old,


" They ^ [ the Council of Nice
is new.
cerning the

Easter,

wrote con-

seemed good

It

as follows

'

then seem good, that there should be a


for it
general compliance but about the faith they wrote

did

not, 'It

Church

seemed
;

'

good,' but

and thereupon they confessed how the

in order to

lay,

novel,

'Thus believes the Catholic

shew that

faith

were not

their sentiments

but Apostolic."

These three Canons form one wholes

who

quired the Bishops


Julius Bishop of

Rome,

if

held the

Can.

3.

re-

to write to

trial,

the deposed Bishop should

That in such cases a


successor be not appointed to a Bishop deposed
by the judgment of the neighbouring Bishops,

think his cause good.

Can.

4.

until the cause be determined.

mode
at

in which the cause should

all,

viz.

that the Bishop of

Can.

diligently

inquire

appoints the

be reheard,

Rome

to the Bishops in the neighbouring


they should

7.

and

was also given to the Bishop of

if

reheard
write

should

Province, that
define.

Rome,

Power

to send a

Presbyter, " to judge with the Bishops^ with the authority of him,

This was the

But
y

it

by

first

difibred very

Couac. Arim. and

whom

he was sent."

impulse to appeals to Rome.

much from

Sel. . 5. p. 80.

the system engrafted

'

De Marca.

1.

c. .

10.

144 Revision (^^

upon

1.

it.

a.ppeal different ;

What

it

sloioly

granted was a revision of a cause,

The deposed

not strictly an appeal '\


case,

Canons of Saixlica

party, in this

remained deposed, though no successor was ap-

The cause was heard where it


happened, not drawn to Rome. 3. It was mainly
decided by the Bishops of the neighbouring Province
the legate of the Bishop of Rome, if sent, only
pointed to him.

judged

2.

them.

luith

4.

were allowed an

Presbyters

appeal to the neighbouring Bishops, not to Rome.

Greater powers were conferred on the see of Constantinople,

by the ninth Canon of the Council of

Chalcedon.

The Canons of Sardica were not received even in


West until the sixth century, when Dionysius

the

Exiguus inserted them,

as also

some African Canons,

Codex Canonum. The Bishops of Rome did


not know to what Council they belonged, since they
quoted them continually as Canons of Nice. S. Epiphanius calls the Council of Sardica " a Western
in his

'^

The African Bishops could not but have

Synod."

known

the Sardican Canons, since Gratus Bishop of

Carthage who was present at the Council, says in


the first Council of Carthage, " I remember that it

was enacted

in the

most holy Council of Sardica,

Holy Orders ] a
another people." Yet when in

that none should usurp

man

belonging to

*=

in or for

the case of the wretched priest Apiarius,


trary to the Canons of "^Africa
^

see

De Marca

^Caii. 5.

Cone,

1.

c. 6.

ii.7'19.

and

7.

who

con-

and of Nice) appealed


''

Hger. 71.

Can.

init.

13. 15.

ii,

CG7. 670.

received in West; in East, in a measure at Tndlo.

the

to

145

Zoshmis and Boniface

Bishop of Rome.

claimed the right of hearing the appeal on the alleged authority of the Council of Nice the African
;

Bishops, and

among them

S.

Augustine

acknowledged the authority of the Canon,

distinctly,
if it

should

peremptorily set aside the

be a Canon of Nice, but


claim, when it appeared from the collation of the

ori-

and Constantinople, that it was


not a Canon of that Council.'' They acknowledged in
principle the authority of a General Council, but did
ginals at Alexandria

not recognize that of a Canon of Sardica.


In the case of translation of Bishops, the African

Church observed the Nicene, not the Sardican Canons^ Nor is there any trace of the reception of the
Sardican Canons in the period before Leo I. The
Bishops

of France deposed such Bishops as merited

and when Zosimus,


at the instance of Patroclus of Aries, would depose
Proculus of Marseilles, the attempt had no effects.
Nor did S. Hilary of Aries know of any Canon, which
mostly without interference

it,

justified S.

Leo

in interfering in behalf of Celidonius

whom he himself, with a Galilean


The Canons
in the

Synod, had deposed".

of Sardica were received in a degree

Greek Church

in

the

Council of Trullo',

but not as those of an CEcumenical Council.

Cod. Eccl. Afr.

Note

e.

134.
^

61. T. 8. p. 690.

The

^ See Tillemont Notes sur S. Atlianase.


See Qiiesnel Diss. v. Apol. pro S. Ililai io

c. 16. in S. Leo 0pp. T. 2. p. 835. sqq.


S. Leo Ep. 1 0. ad.
See S. Hilarii Vit. e. 17 lb. p. 333. Qiiesuel lb. c. 14. sqq.
Cone. vii. p. 134(i
Episc. Vienn. c. 2, 3. p. 6.34', 5. ' Cone. auinl-Sext. can. 2.

Arelat.
h

146 Sardican Canons not received as of a General Council

by the well-known famihar


and eighteen

of Trullo

Councils, that

four General

at Nice, the

titles,

designates

the three hundred

one hundred and

fifty

at

Constantinople, the two hundred at Ephesus, the six

hundred and thirty holy and blessed fathers at ChalceThe Canons of Sardica are no otherwise mendon.
tioned than those of Ancyra, Neo-Cassarea, Gangra,
Antioch, Laodicea, Carthage, or the Canons under
Nectarius and Theophilus, or even the Canons of
single Patriarchs

Bishops,

or

Athanasius, S.

Peter, S.

as

S.

Dionysius, S.

Timothy and

S. Cyril of

Alexandria, the S. Gregories of Neo-Caesarea, Nyssa,

Nazianzum, S. Basil and S. Amphilochius, to which


the " Council subjoins the Canon, set forth by Cyprian, formerly Arch-Bishop of Africa

and the Synod

in his time

and Martyr,

[on heretical Baptism,]

which according to transmitted custom, prevailed in


the place of the aforesaid Bishops [of Africa] and
there only."

The immediate

result

short-lived restoration

of the

of S.

Council was

the

Athanasius to his see,

extorted by the Emperor Constans from his brother

had addressed both


Emperors^ Constantius himself said to S. Athanasius, " Thou "^ hast recovered thy see by the vote of

The Council

Constantius*".

itself

the Council, and by our consent"; and restored to


their sees all

had

restored.

ii.

"

Theod.

inS. Hil.
Socr.

ii.

8.
1.

23.

whom

he had banished and the Council

fm.

c. . 12. fin. p.

1291,

and

S. Hil.

himself Fragm. ii.fin.p. 130G.

Arian Council of Phillppojwlis.

147

''Meantime the '^Eusebians, departing from Sardica,

made

a Council for themselves at Pliilippopolis."

Philippopolis and Sardica lay on the opposite sides

of the mountains which separated Thrace and lUyri-

cum, the boundary Provinces of the Empires of Constantius

The

and Constans.

pass of Succi furnished

an easy communication between the two Capitals.

The Eusebians then


patron

retired into the

where the

Constantius,

Empire of

their

neighbourhood

of

Sardica countenanced their fraud in giving out that

they were

the

Catholic Council of Sardica.

They

dated their Synodical letter from Sardica, and put

out their faith as the faith of Sardica. They call


themselves " Bishops from the different Provinces
''

of the

Eastern parts," (of which they enumerate

twenty-four,) "gathered at the City of Sardica."

They

address their letter to the Arian Bishops of Alexan-

and Nicomedia with the Donatist Bishop of


Carthage and eleven others, " and all our fellowdria

under heaThey say, " To

Bishops, Presbyters, and deacons, and

ven in the holy Catholic Church."


maintain a blameless

life

pecially of us Bishops,

&c.

who

is

all

the duty of

all,

es-

preside over the most

holy Churches; secondly, that the rules of the Church


and the holy traditions and judgments of the Fathers

should remain firm and steadfast for ever, and should


" Socr.ii. 10.

who

states

and spread abroad by

Amm.

Marc. xxi.

1 in S. Hil.

Fragm.

wrongly that they "anathematized the Homoousion


Anomoion."
S. Aug. Ep, 41. ad Glor. &c. . 6. C Cresc. iii. 34.

their letters the


10.
iii.

p.

i'

1307.

l2

148 Bishops

in

E.

W.

received each other's decrees,

not be disturbed, especially in making or rejecting


Bishops."

Their special plea against the

Council of Sardica

Athanasius had been condemned by

was, that S.

Bishops in the East, and so that his cause ought


not to be reheard in the West.

True,

They

judgment had not been corrupt.


Council of Sardica]

[the

'

own

their

if

say,

" They

thought to introduce a

law, that Eastern Bishops should be judged

new

Westerns."

"They

essayed to introduce

by

this novelty,

abhorrent from the ancient custom of the Church,


that any thing which Eastern Bishops had settled in

Council, might be ripped


in like

up by Western Bishops

But

[should settle] might be undone by Easterns.


this

way, whatever Bishops in the Western part

they did out of their own most perverse mind.

Whereas the Acts

of our forefathers establish, that

the decrees of

Councils duly and lawfully held,

all

are to be confirmed.

Rome,

of

in

For a Council held

in the City

the time of Novatus and Sabellius and

Valentinus heretics, was confirmed by the Easterns

and again what was enacted

in the East, at the time

of Paul at Samosata, was sealed


rest,

by

all."

they repeat their wonted calumnies

For the

condemn

Julius, Hosius, and three other Bishops, " according

a most ancient law," for

to

"

110,

lb.

lb.

12. p. 1314.

29. p. 1322, 3.

Land .26. p.

communicating with

lb.

26. p. 1320.

comp. S. Ath. Coimc. Arim.

111. O. T.

aucl

Seleuc.

25. p.

Character of these Arian Bps.

Council ofJerusalem. 149

Marcellus, Atlianasius, and Paul


their confession of faith,

and subjoin,

as

die fourth of their Creeds,

which they had ah-eady sent into Gaul, adding only


the anathemas of the Macrostich, without their ex-

planation

the remarkable addition, then made,

or

which comes so near to the Catholic

The letter is signed by


They call themselves eighty
gerating themselves into
existing letter

The

is

party, with

Bishops.^

seventy-three
^'

Bishops, perhaps exag-

a round

The

number.

a copy of that sent into Africa."^

who

chief Bishops of those

the too well

faith.

known

sign the letter are

Arian

leaders of the extreme

as Basil of

some few of the Semi-Arians,

of Pelu-

The Meletian Bishops, CaUinicus


sium, Eudsemon of Tanis, Ision of Athrib,

Ancyra.

the false

accusers of S. Athanasius at the Council of Tyre,^


also subscribed, together with the infamous

victed Ischyras,^
sius

the

whose perjuries against

and con-

S.

Athana-

Eusebians had paid with a Bishopric in

Mareotis,^ the scene of his plot.

The Council

of Jerusalem

was held

Athanasius on his return towards his


then set forward on

my

S.

"Being

see.

journey," he writes,^ " as I

met with the Bishops of


who, when they had called a Council at

passed through Syria,


Palestine,

to receive

Jerusalem, received

me

courteously, and themselves

" lb. p. 1323-6.


V lb.
. 1(). p. 1315. Socrates (ii. 20. ) from Sabinus,
have seen, left them and joined the Catholics.
^ Socr. i. 27.
" S. Hil. lb. fin.

y
^-

The four names


Soz.

iii.

12.

are

amongst the

calls

siibscriptions in S. Hil.
^

Apol. ag. Ar.

them

76.

Two, we

Fragm. iii. p. 133i,


57. p. 85.

5.

150

Cyr'iTs consecration valid, though by

aS'.

also sent

me on my way

in peace,

Avian Bps.

and addressed the

following letter to the Church, and

the

Bishops."

was one of congratulation on the restoIt is signed by sixteen


ration of their Bishop.
Bishops^ fifteen of whose names ^ are appended to

The

Epistle

the Council of Sardica, being "all

'^

the Bishops of Pa-

lestine, except two or three of suspected character."

" Maximus," without delay, sent for certain of the


Bishops from Syria and Palestine, and having convened a Synod, himself also restores communion and
to

his

dignity

too

wi^ites to

Athanasius.

And

the Synod itself

the Bishops in Alexandria, and to all

the Bishops in Egypt and Lybia, what had been decided and decreed concerning Athanasius."

Maximus the
S. Cyril

and
"
consewas

confessor, died soon after this,

succeeded on his death

f.

He

crated by Acacius, and the other Arian Bishops."

The

General Council of Constantinople, in their

Synodical Epistle to the Bishops of the West, owned

him, as having been " long since canonically consecrated

by the Bishops of the Eparchy, and having,

in different places, striven against the Arians."

Stephen, the Arian intruder on the see of Antioch,

and President of the Council of Philippopolis, upon


the discovery of a disgraceful plot against the two
Bishops who had been sent from Sardica to Constan-

>

^
f

lb. p. 80.

Ar. Hist.
Theocl.

ii.

25. p. 238.

20. S.

lb. p. 78.
^

Socr.

ii.

Jerome Chron. A. D. 3^2.

24. Soz. iv. 6.


s

Cone.

ii.

1150;

Stephen
tins,

was

'^

Photimis deposed ; C. of Milan.

by the secular judges " to the

"

given over

151

The Syno-

Bishops there present, to be deposed.^"

dicon says that he was condemned by the very here-

Synod which he had himself convened/ He


was succeeded by Leontius, as heretical and more

tical

crafty than himself.

Photinus was condemned at three


Milan, A. D. 347.

Councils

at

Sirmium where he was Bishop,


by Catholics A. D. 349. and again at Sirmium A. D.
351. by the Eusebians.
S. Hilary mentions the two
;

at

*'

first.

To remove

who had two


heretic in

out of

'

Photinus from the Episcopate,

been condemned as a
the Synod of Milan, Bishops are gathered

many

years

before

Provinces, the

more anxious

thing should be again confused, because

necessary to cut off from the Church


guilty either of false

of

lest

it

many

every

had been
Bishops,

judgment against Athanasius, or

communion with the Arian heresy."


The Fathers at Ariminum mention in

to Constantius, that " Ursacius

""

their Epistle

and Valens asked

pardon, [as to their heresy and the part which they

had taken against

S.

Athanasius] and obtained

it

then at the Council of Milan, in the presence of the


legates
>

Theod.

of the

Hser. 71. n.

1.

Church."

These two Arian

i
Cone. T. ii. p. 765.
Photini damnatione in Cone. T; ii. p. 783. ed: Col. S. Epiph.

10.

ii. 9,

^ see Petavius

Roman

cle

condemned at Sardica, hut the Encyclicalletter


The Macrostich speaks in condemnation of his disciples

says that he was

does not mention

it.

Counc. Arim. . 16. p. 114. O. T. see further on the Councils of Sirmium, Note
on Counc. Arim. and Sel. p. 160. sqq. and Pref. to S. Ath. Hist. Tracts, p.
xvii-xix. O. T.
Fragm. ii. 19. p. 1296.
1

"in

S,

Ath. Counc. Arim.

10. p. SO.

152 Synods receive C. ofSardica; Liber his' early conduct


Bishops owned "

all whicli

Athanasius to be

false^

they had said against S.

and anathematized the Arian

heresy, although insincerely."

The judgments
rusalem. " Hosius

were

of the Council of Sardica

formally received

at
"

Councils of Cordova and Je-

the very holy Bishop of Cordova,

having called a Divine and holy Council of Bishops


in

his

own

City,

uttered

the

clearly

Divine

in-

condemning whom the Sardican Council


deposed, and again, receiving whom it acquitted."
Soon after the accession of Liberius to the Roman
struction,

see,
S.

It

Arians circulated fresh calumnies against

the

Athanasius

and endeavoured

to gain

Liberius.

seems probable that Liberius was even then so far

misled,

as to

send to

S.

Athanasius,

Rome, that Avhatever was the

discipline of the

An

might be enacted towards him."

in S. Hilary's historical w^ork to be

Bishop of

Rome

to all his

"to come to

Church

Epistle, stated

from " Liberius

most beloved brethren and

fellow-Bishops throughout the East," states that he

had received letters from them written


that he had sent to S. Athanasius, " that

"
"
tliis

if

he should

Communion

not come, he was alien from the

Roman

to Julius

of the

Church," that Liberius' " Presbyters reported

Synodic, in Cone. ii. 778.


Baronius (ad A. D. 352.) and

tlie

Benedictine Editors of S. Hilary regard

an Arian forgery. Tillemont regards it as genuine. (Les Ariens


350-7. S, Athanase art. 64. viii. 138-40 and Note 68).
The letter

letter as

art. 48. vi.

does not bear the character of a forgery.


There is dislocation in these fragments, here as elsewhere. What follows in S. Hilary relates doubtless to a
letter of the Council of Sardica,
Fragm. iv. p. 1327.
i'

as

Ath.

to S.

asks Einperor to convene a Council. 153

on their return that he would not come. Following


then your letters, clearly beloved, which you sent us

know

as to Athanasius,

ye by these

letters,

which

have addressed to your Unanimity, that I am in


Communion Avith you all, and with all the Bishops of
the Catholic Church, and that the aforesaid Athanasius

alien

is

from

my Communion

e.

i.

of the

Ecclesiastical

and from the fellowship of

Church,

Roman

Epistles."

Liberius, however, probably repented on receiving

the letter of the Egyptian Bishops concerning him,


and, for the time at

least,

suppressed his

letter.

For

he did not then renounce the comAthanasius. He pleads, however, rather

clear that

it is

munion

of S.

timidly to Constantius, that he had read to a Council


of Italian Bishops letters in his" defence both from the
Oriental Bishops

probably a Council

all

of which

contained the same criminal charges against


nasius,

gency to have the cause of


on the same occasion the

for

Atha-

Liberius however even wished in the emer-

Bishops.

if

S.

and from a large body, of eighty Egyptian


Athanasius re-opened,

S.

faith could

be settled once

all.

He

writes to Hosius,'' "

many

Bishops of Italy met

most religious
would command, as he

together, who, with me, entreated the

Emperor
had once

Constantius that he

Aquileia."
Ep.
^Ep.
q

settled, that a

On

Council should be held at

the failure of

2.

ad Const, Cone.

1.

lb. p. 799. S.

ii.

801. S. Hil. Fragra. v.

im. Fiagni.

Liberius adjures

this,

. 2. p.

vi. . 3. p. l-33i.

1330.

154

Cliaiige in Constantius after death

the Emperor that " he


faith

with

and of

would cause the matter of

Athanasius to be diligently considered

S.

care

all

'

of Magneyitius,

in

an assembly of Bishops

so that

what should be confirmed by the judgment of the


Bishops of God, should be kept for the time to come,

when

should be ascertained that

it

exposition

all

agreed in the

among so many Bishops."


The death of the Usurper Magnentius,
derer of Constans,

and

torians

'

notice a change in

up by prosperity and
*'my

eternity,"

mur-

in a position to

him

his-

at this time, as lifted

arrogant, so that he spoke of

called

world," " the Eternal."

"Lord

himself

In

of the whole

which the Heathen

this,

thought "a declension from

justice," the

shops flattered him. " Pretending


Lord, they name

the

Even Heathen

Catholics there.

the

Nice

A. D. 353. put Constantius in

possession of the whole West,

persecute

at

which was confirmed

of faith,

""

Arian Bi-

to write about the

for themselves another Sovereign,

who bestowed on them


this reign of irreligion, and they who deny that the
Son is everlasting, have called him Eternal EmConstantius.

peror."

"

For he

They

"'

it

was,

deceived the ignorant King, that

occupied with wars, he should expose the faith to


faithlessness, and, himself

not yet regenerate, should

impose on the Church the law of belief"


flattered
s

and

arbitrary,

and readily

Ep. ad Const, p. 802, S. Hil. Fragm. v. .


Zosim. L. i. fin. Amm. Marc L. 15. init.
^ S. Ath. Cone. Arim. . 4. p. 76, 7,

6. p.

Thus

listening to ac-

1332.

S. Hil. de Syn.

78. p. 1191,

uses art 8^force to induce Bps. to


cusers,

condemn S. Ath. 155

Constantius had a special dislike to

nasius as one opposed to his will.

flamed him against

S.

S. Atlia-

The Arians

in-

Athanasius, and he himself du-

ring his expedition against Magnentius, was irritated

by

seeing

how

the Bishops were in

communion mth

him.^ The unbaptised Emperor wished to impose


his own belief on the Church, requiring more open

conform to

to

heretics

it,

yet chiefly persecuting

Yet the persecution fell on those


mostly, who had the power of deciding matters of
Catholics.

the

faith,

the Bishops. Constantius bent his force against

them, knowing that

if

they could be corrupted, or

subdued, his end was accomplished, and not knowing


that the

"
tius

Rock

of Faith was immovable.

Magnentius had perished, and Constanalone held the Roman Empire, he used all dili-

When

gence, that the Bishops in the

who thought

with those

had been
[S.

of like substance'

with such

first

but persuading them to confirm what


adjudged by the Bishops of the East

Athanasius.

against

the Son

This he did, not at

with the Father.

open force

West should agree

For he counted,

that

if

man

Athanasius] were removed out of the way, he

could easily succeed in matters of religion."

In a Synod of Bishops at Aries, A. D. 353. Constantius, having threatened to banish the Bishops,
J^

unless they

would condemn

way, except Paulinus


-

5'

S.

Ath. Arian Hist.

Snip.

ii.

55.

S.

Athanasius,

all

gave

who was condemned by

30. p. 243. O. T.

Soz.

iv. 8.

the

156

Aria7i Council of Aries, fall of Vincentius

wlien corrupted. " He was held," says S.


Hilary,^ " unworthy of the Church by Bishops, worthy

Synod,

of exile by the Emperor."


Vincentius, Bishop of Capua, formerly the representative of the Bishop of

Rome

at the Council of

Nice, was, with Marcellus a Bishop

the representative of the

Roman

from Campania,

Council now,^

The

Westerns offered what seemed a strange compromise,

would condemn Athanasius,


would condemn the heresy of Arius.^
that they

if

the Arians

It

must have

been offered, in order to expose the heresy of their


opponents, in the conviction that

would not

these

"After deliberation, the Ari-

accept the condition.

ans answered, that they could not condemn the heresy of Arius, but that Athanasius must be deprived

of communion, which alone they required." "Vin-

away into

centius too was carried


''

that dissimulation."

In the East A. D. 354. " Narcissus

of Cilicia,

Theodorus the Thracian, Eugenius of Nice, Patro-

and Menophantus of Ephesus,

philus of Scythopolis,
[

Arian Bishops

meeting
where,

and others
wrote

Antioch,

at

that

he

[ S.

in all about

Athanasius

thirty,

the Bishops every-

to
]

returned to Alex-

andria against the laws of the Church, not having

been

first

pronounced innocent in Synod, but through

contention of those like-minded

and they exhort-

ed not to communicate with him, nor send


to

him, but -with and to


^

Fragm.

lb.

i.

vi. 3.

6.

^ lb.
'1

Fragm.

Soz.

iv. 8.

letters

George of Cappadocia

v. 2.

**

lb.

i.

5.

Councils of Antioch and Milan; violence at Milan. 157

whom

tliey

had

Constantius tried to

consecrated.

persuade the Western Bishops to agree to what had

been judged by the Eastern Bishops against AthaThis wrongful decision the Arians proceed-

nasius."

ed to use against

Athanasius in the West.

S.

Liberius, even after

renewed

gate,

Council.

many

"Not

the

"

of Vincentius his

fall

le-

Constantius to call a

his petition to

the matter of Athanasius alone, but

other things had occurred, for which I had

prayed your clemency that a Council should be held."

The Council was held A. D. 355. at Milan, because


the Emperor, on making peace with the Alemanni,
had gone into winter quarters there. "A^ysfew Bi^

shops were present from the East, the rest excusing


their coming,

the

for sickness or length of

journey

of

Western Bishops more than three hundred.^

When

the Eastern Bishops urged the condemnation

of Athanasius, that so he might be wholly expelled

from Alexandria, the


or ignorance of the

Bishop of Alba

rest,

facts,

through fear or
agreed.

rather Milan

deceit,

Only Dionysius

and Eusebius Bishop

of Yercellte, Paulinus of Treves, Rhodanus and Lucifer resisted."

"

The

faith," says S. Hilary,^ "

All was done

priests."

of Sardinia was

" called

was impugned by the

by violence. When Lucifer


upon to subscribe against

^Liberius in his Epistle to the Emperor speaks of Vincentius' mission to

^Amm.

Aries, as past.
^ Socr.ii. 16. gives the

take for thirty.

be given

to

But the

Marc. xiv.

same number.
title of

one so small. Cone.

the Council

ii.

877,

10.

Soz.

Vales, conjectures that


is

iv. 9.
it

a mis-

is

Universal, which would hardly


'

ad Const,

i.

9.

158 Constantius sets himself to


Athanasius,
faith of the

Bishops

Orthodox Bps,

we must first be certain of tlie


for he knew that some of those

'

said,

lie

xoear out

;
'

He

present were defiled with heresy.

placed the Creed

of Nice in the midst, pledging himself to do

all

they

faith.

they would subscribe the confession of


Dionysius, Bishop of Milan, first took the

paper.

When

required,

scribing,

if

he began to profess the

faith

by sub-

Yalens [the Arian Bishop] violently wrested

pen and paper out of his hand."


Eufinus gives a summary of the policy of Con"He^ set himself to weary out the Wesstantius.
tern

and through

Bishops,

compel them

deceit to

to consent to the Arian heresy, premising the con-

demnation of Athanasius, as the removal of a most


mighty obstacle. Wherefore a Council of Westerns
Many were deceived;
is called together at Milan.
but Dionysius,

Paulinus,

and

Ehodanius,

Lucifer,

proclaiming aloud that there was treachery in the

and asserting that the subscription against Athanasius was contrived to no other end than
the destruction of the faith, were thrust out into
transaction,

banishment.

Hilary was joined

these, the rest

to

knowing or not believing the fraud."


am a Bishop," S. Hilary ^vrites to the Emperor

either not

"I

Constantius, " in the

Communion

and Bishops of Gaul,


distributing

Presbyters.

Communion
I

am
H. E.

although in
to the

in exile,

i.

of

19, 20.

all

the Churches

and

exile,

Church through

not through

ad Const,

ii.

guilt,

2.

still

my
but

"

159

Arhitrarmess and violence of Constantius.

through

false reports of

and by

faction,

the

Synod

to thee."

Two

characteristic

traits

of the

arbitrariness

Constantius in the Council are given by

"When

sius.

S.

of

Athana-

he saw the boldness of the Bishops,

Paulinus, Lucifer, Eusebius, and Dionysius, and

how

out of the recantation of Ursacius and Valens they


confuted those who spoke against the Bishop, and
advised that Valens and his associate should no longer

be beheved, since they had already retracted what


they now asserted, he immediately stood up and
I am now the accuser of Athanasius, and on
said,
'

my

account you must believe what these

assert.'"

"The"^ Emperor summoned [these same Bishops]


before him,

and commanded them

Athanasius, and to hold

to subscribe against

communion with the

and when they were astonished


procedure, and said that there was no

tics;

Canon

to this effect, he immediately

I will, let that be esteemed a

Syria

of

let

me

thus speak.

at this novel
Ecclesiastical

said,

Canon

here-

'

whatever

the Bishops

Either then obey or

go into banishment.'

Yet

this

except his

same Constantius, who knew of no law


own will, and " drew" his sword against

Bishops," was obliged to respect the constitution of


the Church and act against her through Bishops.

Hence S. Athanasius says, " he^' alleged a judgement of Bishops, while in truth he acted only to
please himself"
">

Arian Hist.

76. p. 287, 8.

O. T.

p -lb. .

" lb.

52. p. 265, 6.

33. p. 246.

"

34.

Inherent independance of the Church.

160

" Nevertheless his craft has not escaped detection,

but we have the proof of

it

For

ready at hand.

if

a judgment had been passed by Bishops, what concern had the

Emperor with

a threat of the Emperor,

Or

it ?

was only

if it

what need

in that case

was there of the so-named Bishops? AVhen was


such a thing heard of before from the beginning of
When did a judgment of the Church
the world?
receive

when

its

from the Emperor?

validity

Or

There have been

many

rather

Church

was his decree ever recognised by the

Councils held heretofore

and many judgments passed by the Church

?
;

but

Emperor

the Fathers never sought the consent of the

Emperor busy himself with the


The Apostle Paul had friends
affairs of the Church.
among them of Ca3sar's household, and in his Epistle
to the Philippians he sent salutations from them

thereto, nor did the

but he never took them as his associates in EccleNow however we have witsiastical judgments.
nessed a novel sight, which

is

a discovery of the

Arian heresy.

Heretics have assembled together with

Emperor

Constantius, in order that he, alleging

the

the authority of the Bishops,


against
cutes,

whomsoever he

may

avoid the

may

pleases,

name

exercise his

power

and while he perse-

of persecutor

and that

by the Emperor's government, may


and
conspire the ruin of whomsoever they will
they, supported

these are, all such as are not as impious as them-

One might

look upon their proceedings as a

comedy which they

are performing on the stage, in

selves.

which the pretended Bishops are

actors."

161

Persecution of the Bishops hy Constantiiis.


It

was then but a prosecution of the proceedings

against this Council, that Constantius used


lence to
ao:ainst

make
S.

all

all vio-

Bishops subscribe every where

Athanasius.

As

S.

Athanasius and the

Council of Sardica had sought from the Bishops in


their Provinces confirmation of its sentence, acquit-

Emperor sought

ting S. Athanasius, so the

to extort

by violence from the Bishops every where, confirmation of those subscriptions which he had already
extorted at Aries and Milan, condemning him.
" Orders were sent also and Notaries despatched
"^

to every city,

and Palatines, with threats

to

the

Bishops and Magistrates, directing the Magistrates


to urge on the Bishops, and informing the Bishops
that either they must subscribe against Athanasius,

and hold communion with the Arians, or themselves


undergo the punishment of exile, while the people
who took part with them were to understand that
chains, and insults, and scourgings, and the loss of
These ortheir possessions, would be their portion.
for the commissioners had
ders were not neglected
;

company the Clergy of Ursacius and Valens,


inspire them with zeal, and to inform the Emperor
The other
the Magistrates neglected their duty.

in their

to
if

heresies,

as

younger

sisters

of their own, they per-

mitted to blaspheme the Lord, and only conspired


against the Christians, not enduring to hear orthodox

language concerning Christ.


q

Ar.Hist.

How many

31. p. 243,4.

Bishops

162 Emperor and Arian Bps. unite


in consequence, according to the

were
this

'

brought before rulers and

to

force Bishops

words of Scripture,
kings,'

sentence from the Magistrates,

'

and received
or

Subscribe,

for the Emperor


withdraw from your churches
has commanded you to be deposed.' How many
;

in every city were

accuse
letters

them

made

to waver, lest they should

as friends of the Bishops

were sent to the

city-authorities,

of a fine was held out to them,

they did not

if

compel the Bishops of their respective


scribe.
full

Moreover

and a threat
cities

to sub-

every place and every city was

In short,

of fear and confusion, while the Bishops were

dragged along to

and the magistrates witnessed

trial,

the lamentations and groans of the people.


''

Such were the proceedings of the Palatine com-

missioners.

persons,

On

the

other

hand,

admirable

those

confident in the patronage which they

had

obtained, display great zeal, and cause some of


the Bishops to be summoned before the Emperor,
while they persecute others by letters, inventing

charges against them

to the intent that

the

one

might be overawed by the presence of Constantius,


and the other, through fear of the commissioners
and the threats held out to them in these pretended
accusations,

might be brought to renounce their

orthodox and pious opinions.

In

this

manner

it

Emperor forced so great a multitude


of Bishops, partly by threats, and partly by proWe will no longer hold commumises, to declare,
nion with Athanasius.' For those who came for

was, that the

'

to

condemn

S. Atlianasius. Council of Beziers.

163

an interview were not admitted to his presence, nor


allowed any relaxation, not so much as to go out
of their dwellings, until they had either subscribed,
or refused and thereupon incurred banishment. And
he did, because he saw that the heresy was
hateful to all men.
For this reason especially, he
this

compelled so

number of

many

to

add

names

their

to the small

the Arians, his earnest desire being to

collect together a

crowd of names, both from envy

of the Bishops, and for the sake of making a shew


in favour of the

patron

Arian impiety, of which he

is

the

supposing that he will be able to alter the

truth, as easily as

he can influence the minds of men."

A. D. 356. was the Council of Beziers, in which


Saturninus

hear

and the Arian Bishops

Hilary's

S.

circumventing

first

refused to

exposure of Arianism, and then,

the

" Foreseeing,' long

Emperor,

had him

banished.'^

the very grievous peril

before,

of the Faith, after the banishment of the holy men,


Paulinus,
ago,

I,

Eusebius,

mth

Dionysius,

Lucifer,

five

years

the Galilean Bishops separated myself

from the communion of Saturninus, Ursacius and


Valens, granting to their associates space for repentance.

Afterwards,

forced through

the faction

of

Synod of Beziers, I presented an account of this, which I undertook to


prove to be heresy. But they, fearing to be pub-

their false Apostles to the

^ Saturninus was Bishop of Aries, and " one of the worst of men, deposed
and excommunicated" at the Council of Paris, "for many and monstrous

crimes in addition to his heresy." Sulp. Sev.

S. Hil.

de Syn.

'

. 2.

c.

ii.

60.

Const.

?. 2.

Council of Sirmium and

164

its

Creeds,

would not hear what I pressed


upon them, thinking that they might falsely protest

licly

cognizant of

it,

to Christ their innocence, if they were wiUingly igno-

rant of what they were about to do knowingly."

A. D. 357. " Confusion

"

having

arisen,

distinctness

sequence [of the greater

with

in

con-

which

Photinus put forth his heresy ] the king commanded


There assembled
a Synod of Bishops at Sirmium.
there then, of the Easterns

Mark

of Arethusa, George

of Alexandria, Basil of Ancyra, Pancratius of Pelu-

sium, Hypatian of Heraclea.

From

the West, Valens

Bishop of Mursa, and Hosius the Confessor, who


having taken part in the Council of Nice, was,
against

his will, present here too."

In order that

they might seem Catholics, they condemned Photinus


in words,'' in deeds they furthered him." This Coun-

put out three ^ Creeds.

cil

The

distinctly

The

Arian

first

(being the

first,

sixth of the Eusebians) was Semi-Arian

the second

the third Homoean.

was an abridgment of the Macrostich or

Creed of Antioch A. D. 345. "subtracting the greater


part, and adding in its place," S. Athanasius writes,
" as
S.

they had listened to the suggestions of others."


Hilary explains it and its anathemas in a true
if

sense.^

Philastrius says " Photinus ^

was

cast out of

the Church of the Sirmians, overcome by the holy


Vigilius, in illustration of the fact, that
Bishops."
S. Greg. Naz. orat. in laud. S. Ath.
ii. 29. Soz. iv. 6.
^ S. Ath. Cone. Arim. 27-29. p. 117-123. and . 8. p. 83. O. T.
* de Syn. . 39-G3.
^ de Hter. 18. B. P. iv. p. 708.
" Socr.

""

23.

Semi- Avian, Arian^ and Homcean.


" after

the Council of Nice, the Bishops,

many

165
gathered

many enactments of faith,


against the mad outbreaks of new heretics," instances,
among others, this Council. " Of that Catholic Counin

places, published

gathered from the whole East against Photinus,

cil,

who can

gather in one the manifold sanctions as to

faith ? "

The Council had a Catholic side, in that it


condemned heresy.
The second Creed was Tvn^itten in Latin by Potamius, Bishop of Lisbon, and apparently received by
The preface to
the Arian Bishops of the West only.
the Creed says, "ALL points of faith have been carefully

investigated

Valens,

Sirmium, in the presence

at

Germinius and the

Ursacius,

rest."

of

It

is

undisguised Arianism.''

This avowal of naked Arianism, however, gave

rise

The Semi- Arian

to fresh dissensions in the Council.

party were supported by Constantius, on whose countenance they


their next

all

depended for their influence.

In

Creed at Seleucia, A. D. 359, they speak

of the third Creed, as "published ^lately at Sirmium,

under sanction of
of their

new Creed

The Creed

it."

Ms

religioicsiiess the

"

Consulate.

being plainly "equivalent to

as

itself is

to the presence of the

The

"^

Emperor^'' and

ushered

with a parade as

in,

Emperor, and dated by the

Cathohc

was published in

faith

the presence of our Sovereign, the most illustrious

and gloriously
2 c,
^

Eutych.

V. init.

victorious Emperor, Constantius,


B. P.

viii.

736,

7.

see S. Ath. Counc. Arim. p. 122, 3.

Counc. Arim.

29. p. 124.

referred to in notes on S. Ath.

and notes
*

lb.

t.

u.

8. p. 83.

Au-

Discussions of faith in presence of

166

gustus, the eternal

and

Emperor
Consulate of

majestic, in the

the most illustrious Flavians, Eusebius and Hypatius,


in Sirmium on the eleventh of the calends of June,

May

Whitsun Evc-^)
^ drawn
up [the seS. Athanasius says,
cond] and then becoming dissatisfied, they composed
(i.

e.

22. A. D. 359.

" having

the faith, which, to their shame, they paraded with

Germinius,

the Consulate."
says

present,

"A

faith.

that

who

w^as

arose in a dissension on the

it

dissension

Arian,

the

as to the faith

having arisen

between some in the presence of the Emperor Constantius, there being present George Bishop of Alexof Ancyra

rule

Mark

after

holding a disputation on the

and bringing

of Arethusa], chosen

wherein

faith,

is like

self,

the night,

into

faith

the

Valens also and Ursacius being present

my poor

and

Bishop

Basil then

andria, Pancratius of Pelusium,

the Father in

by us

thus written,

is

it

all

to a certain

it

'

all,

dictated

that the

Son

Holy and
To whose sound

as the

things,

Divine Scriptures say and teach.'

we aU agreed, and subscribed with our


"The word 'substance' was removed, as

confession

hands."

having been adopted by the Fathers in simplicity,

and giving offence, as being misconceived by the


people, and not contained in the Scriptures;" as, of
course,

many

of the Arian terms also were not,

Athanasius remarks

we would

and our terms cannot

be,

if

explain, not simply repeat, the Scriptures.

d lb. n. z.
K see

^)

(S.

Nic, Def.

lb. . 29. p. 123.

18. p. 31.

28.

and

in S.Hil.

n. p. p. 52. 0.

Fragm.

15. . 3.

T. Counc. Arim.

36.

"

decided hy Bishops. Hosius tortured

The presence of the Emperor


Yet even among
Socrates ^ also.
his power,

who

is

167

to sign.

remarked

by

these idolaters of

" Eternal

in adulation called him,

and " Bishop of Bishops," he was present, but they


" These things were thus decreed as to
decreed.
'

the faith, while the

Emperor was

present."

of the second

Of these Creeds S. Hilary^ speaks

and

worst as that which the great and saintly Hosius was

induced by exile and suffering and blows, and tor-

added to the weight of one hundred years,"^ to


He calls it " the blasphemy ^written by Hosign.
Sozomen says that this was
sius and Potamius."

ture,

withdrawn by the

Council

itself,

and speaks

of

Hosius as consenting only to the Council generally,

and again

limits

which

his assent to the third Creed,

abandons the words "of one substance." Socrates says


vaguely, that "he ^subscribed the formulae there."
Hosius ' was condemned by the Spanish [Bishops ']
at least,

e.

[i.

refused

communion by the Bishops

there] " acquitted by the Gallicans." He died A. D.


360. " At " the approach of death, he bore witness to

p. 133, 4. . 39, 40. p, 136-8.

224,
^

5. .

de Synod.

^
o
s
t

and note
^

34. p. 229.
.

10. col. 1156.

see S. Ath. Ar. Hist.

add

i. .

Socf.
.

3. c.

46, p. 146. Orat.


ii.

31.

i.

Const.

23.

'

"

42-46. p. 255-61. O. T.

ag. Ar.

Soz. iv.

'

Socr.

1.

30. p.

6.

and Soz.

1.

c.

c.

Ep. Farm. c. 4.
Gaul. (1. c.)
Bishop of EliEusebhis of Vercellaj expresses his satisfaction to Gregory
had "resisted Hosius the transgressor," and then, having
1,

c.

S.

P c. 12.

Augustine speaks of them

1 1. c.

""

S.

Aug.

c.

as " Colleagues " of those in

Gregory
generally of his "not holding
spoken of those who fell at Ariminura, speaks
communion with " them, (see S. Hil. Fragm. xi. p. 1356.)

hevis, that

" S.

Ath. Ar. Hist.

45. p. 260.

168 Constantius

tries to ivin,

overhear, ivear out Liberius;

towards him, and

the force which had been used

anathematized the Arian heresy."


A. D. 358. appears to have been the
rius.

He had resisted

tated

at

" After

his

own

fall

Constantius nobly,

failure at the Council

of Libe-

when

irri-

Milan.

at

the Synod at Milan was dissolved nothing

done, the Emperor, holding

it

of

much moment,

that

the Church every^vhere should agree as to the doc-

and the Bishops be of one mind, purposed to

trine,
call

the Bishops from

quarters to the West.

all

And

considering that this was laborious, on account of

the distance by land or


to do, but did not

sea,

he w^as perplexed what

wholly abandon the plan.

maining in the same mind,

he

Re-

sent for Liberius,

Bishop of Rome, and tried to persuade him to agree


w4th the Bishops around him,

among whom was

But when Liberius contradicted, and


protested that he never would do this, he commanded
him to be taken away to Beroea of Thrace. Another
plea for his exile was said to be, that he would not
Eudoxius.

renounce the communion of Athanasius."

"When

the Emperor urged the judgment of those every


where, [the Bishops], and especially of those who
met at Tyre, Liberius said, that it was wrong to join
their decision, as

and

partiality.

having judged only out of hatred

He

desired that

the faith

handed

Nice should be confirmed by the subscriptions of the Bishops every where, and that those in

down

at

exile

on

this

ground,
^Soz.

should be recalled.
iv.

11.

When

Liber, offers that


this should

be

Synod

clone, in

he costless to state; falls.

169

order that they [the Bishops]

might not seem bm^lensome or a charge, no one [of


them] should share any pubhc money or convey-

own

ances, but all shoukl, at their

expense, meet at

Alexandria, where were the plaintiiFs and the defen-

and the proofs of the charges, and where the

dant,

truth of

answer
sius,

all

this

could be accurately tested."

to a charge

of disloyalty against

Liberius "requested the

Emperor not

S.

In

Athana-

to avenge

himself through the hands of Bishops."


" When he would not submit to his bidding, the

Emperor banished him to Thrace, deprived him of


the Church of the Romans, and committed it to
Fehx, then a Deacon,"

who was

consecrated

by three

Arian Bishops in his room.

He endured

" two ^ years of exile " purposely insu-

lated from all other confessors (a special aggravation

of this persecution)

the Deacon

who bore

his letters

at last, "for fear of


Emperor was scourged
threatened death, he was induced to subscribe.^"
Fortunatian,^ Bishop of Aquileia [who had lapsed
into Arianism] " seduced him, and constrained him
to the subscription of heresy." He became the bearer
of the letter of Liberius to the Emperor. The heretical Creed was offered to Liberius by Demophilus,

to the

'^ ;

one of the worst of the Arians.


the Arians, as his "most

Liberius writes to

beloved ''brethren the Pres-

byters and his fellow-Bishops of the East."


"^

S.

Ath. Apol. ag. Ar.

y lb. p. 251.

89. p. 123.

S. Jer. cle Virr.

ill.

c.

97.

The

fall

* Id, Ar. Hist. 40. p. 25.3.


Ep. Lib. in S. Hil. Fragm. vi.

5.

170

Avian Greedy

Liherius accepts

Such a

wa3 miserably complete.


a

He

half-fall.

retires

fall

from

could not be

apologises to the Bishops for ever

having defended

Athanasius, on the ground that

S.

Bishop Julius his predecessor had so done; but "having learned," he says, "when it pleased God, that

you had condemned him


sentence.

So

even his

assented to your

then Athanasius being removed from

communion

the

justly,

of us
I

letters,

am not to receive
am quite at peace

so that I

all,

say that I

and concord with you

all,

and with

all

throughout the Provinces.

Bishops,

may know

better, that in this letter, I speak in true

same

faith the

the Eastern

But that ye

as

my common

Lord and brother

Demophilus, who was so good as to vouchsafe to

your

exhibit

which

Creed,

Catholic

at

Sirmium

was by many of our brethren and fellow-Bishops


considered, set forth, and received by all present
this I received with wilHng mind; contradicted in
nothing; to
this

is

it

gave

held by me."

my
S,

assent;

this

follow;

Hilary interrupts the ac-

count thrice with the words "This is Arian faith"AnaThis say I, not the Apostate."
lessness.
say to thee, Liberius and thy associates."
"Ao-ain and a third time anathema to thee, prevari-

thema

He

to

subjoins

cator

Liberius."

"the

faithlessness written at

Liberius'

Sirmium, which Libe-

him by Demophilus,
Theodorus, Basil, Eu-

rius calls Catholic, exhibited to

was written by these; Narcissus,


>

The

<:

S. Hil. lb.

text

is

slightly corrupt.
.

7.

letter;

I have supplied

qua

after ea loqui

communion of S. Athanasius ; joins

that

of Arius. 171

Demophilus, Cecropius, Silvanus, Ursacius,

doxius,

Valens, Evagrius, Irenceus, Bassiis, Gaudentius,

Ma-

cedonius, Marcus, Aetius," with six others, including

the leading Arian, with a few Semi-Arian, Bishops.

The

letter,

addressed

Valens, and Germinius,

is

by Liberius to Ursacius,
still more miserable.
"Be-

know that ye are sons of peace, and love


and the unity of the Church, therefore,
not compelled by any constraint, ( God is my witcause I

concord

ness,

which
these

but for the


is

good of peace and concord,

preferred to martyrdom, I gTeet

letters,

you with

Lords and brethren.

dearest

Your

prudence then should be informed, that Athanasius,

who

zoas

Bishop of the Church at Alexandria, was

condemned by me, before

I sent the letters of

the

Eastern Bishops to the Court of the sacred Emperor,

and that he was separated from the Communion of

Roman Church, as the whole Presbytery of the


Roman Church is witness Ye are to know, dearest

the

brethren,

by

mind, that

and simplicity of

these letters in truth

am

at peace with

you

all,

the Bishops of

Ye will gain for yourselves


great consolation in the Day of retribution, if, through
you, peace should be restored to the Roman Church.
the Catholic Church.

But

wish that, through

you,

our brethren

and

fellow-Bishops Epictetus and Auxentius, should also

know, that
them.

am

at peace

But whoever

shall

and

by the

and concord, which,


''

in

dissent

lb. . 8. 9.

communion with
from our peace

will of

God,

is

esta-

172 Liberius intimates


tlirougliout

blislied

he

is

his fall to BisJioj)s

world, let

tlie

of Campania,

him know

separated from our Communion."

gain subjoins,

"Anathema

S.

that

Hilary

a-

I say to the prevaricator,

tosrether "with the Arians."

Liberius

wrote yet a third

of Capua, whose

fall

letter

to Vincentius

he had once deplored,

"I^

thought that I ought to signify to thy Holiness,


that I

have retired from that contention on the

subject

of

and have given

Athanasius,

letters

to

our brethren and fellow-Bishops, the Easterns, concerning him.

But

by the

since,

will of

God, you

too have peace every where, be so good as to assemble the Bishops of Campania and to convey

them, and some of your number, together

to

this

with your

so

his

may

God

to the

most clement Em-

harmony and

perfect

peace, that

(And

be freed from great sadness.


I

am

see ye to

God

shall

it

in

at peace with all the Eastern

and with you.

in exile,

\vrite

my

own hand)

Bishops
to

to

as

peror,

letter

if

have acquitted myself

ye will that

be judge between

should die

me and

you."

Thus then Liberius was expressly in communion


with the whole Arian and Semi-Arian party, in
the East and West, even

Arians^; out of

with the

communion with

all

worst of

who

the

rejected

lb. . 10.

Of the Arian Bishops whom Liberius writes to or specially recognises, Auxentius was intruded into the see of Milan, from which " Dionysius, a godlyman, had been banished for his piety towards Christ" (S. Ath. Ar. Hist.
'

Auxentius "pragmatical rather than a


and unskilful in everything except
impiety." (lb.) Epictetus was "a novice, a bold young man whom George of

75. p. 286.) S.

Athanasius

calls

Christian, ignorant as yet even of Latin,

in

communion

the Arians

ivith the ivorst

Avian Bislwps.

own

intreating his

173

Rome

restoration to

through the heads of the persecuting Arian party;


and promoting in Campania the reception of Arianism and the rejection of

S.

Athanasius.

The Arian Creed, ^ which he


calls "Arian perfidy": S. Jerome
retical ^pravity."

signed,

S.

Hilary

"heresy'"' or "he-

His own words

fit

in

most ob-

viously with .the second i. e. that same Arian Creed,


which the great Hosius was betrayed into signing.'^

Sozomen
from

speaks

exile,

of

Liberius,

upon

as,

"

The

first
'^

recal

compounded of

subscribing a formula,

the Creed of the Dedication (which

and the

his

is

partly Arian)

Sirmian Creed.

Emperor

sent for

him from

Beroea,"

where

Cappadocia made his friend, perceiving that he was ready for any wickedand by his means carried on his designs against those of the Bishops
whom he designed to niin." (lb.) Ursacius and Valens were foremost in
eveiy plan against the truth. "They were from the iirst educated as young
men by Arius, though they were formally degraded from the Priesthood,
and afterwards got the title of Bishops on account of their impiety." (Lett,
to Eg. Lib. . 7. p. 133. ) They had once formally recanted their charges
against S. Athanasius and anathematized Arianism. (Ar. Hist. . 26. p. 239.)
then under Constantius they retracted their retractations (lb. . 29. p. 242.)
and used violence towards the Catholics at Aries, Milan and Sirmium. Liberius had himself instanced Demophilus as one of the extreme Arian party:
ness,

" The Easterns signify that they wish to be united at peace with us. What
peace is that, most clement Emperor, when, on their side, there are four
Bishops, Demophilus, Macedonius, Eudoxius, Martyrius who, eight years ago,
when at Milan they could not condemn the heretical opinion of Arius, left
the Council in anger? " (S Hil. Fragm. v. 4.) Germinius alone of these was

a Semi-Arian.
s Sozomen ( iv. IL) reports a speech of Liberius, even while resisting
the
Emperor, in which he uses the current Semi-Arian formula.
It was on refusing the gold, offered by the Emperor. " To us, Christ Who is in all things
like to the Father,' is our Nourisher and Provider of all good."
*
de Virr. 111. 1. c.
Chron. A. D. 352.
^ Not Blondelouly and others, but Petaviusalso (in Epiphan. p. 336.) thinks
that Liberius signed the second Creed. Baronius A. 357. n. 50. holds it to
have been the first. Tillemont leans to this.
c. Const. . II.
'

>

'

">

Soz.

iv.

15.

Liber ins sent hack

174

to

Rome. Eudoxius gains See

he was banished, " and, when the legates from the

who hap-

East were present, collecting the Bishops

pened to be
fess that

Father.

at the

Court, he compelled him

to con-

the Son was not of one Substance with the

When

Eleusius]

they [Basil of Ancyra,

had gathered into one

Eustathius,

writing,

what had

been decreed against Paul of Samosata and Photinus


of Sirmium, and the Creed set forth at the Dedication,

(as

though under cover of the Homoousion

some were endeavouring to set up a heresy of their


own,) they manage that Liberius and Athanasius,
Alexander, Severianus and Crescens, African Bishops
In hke way there assented
should assent to this.
Ursacius, Germinius of Sirmium, Valens, Bishop of

Mursa, and

all

present from the East.

They

received

also from Liberius a confession, rejecting those

deny that the Son

is

like the

Father in

who

substance

and in all things."


" The Emperor gave Liberius leave to return to
Rome, and the Bishops at Sirmium wrote to Felix,
who then presided over the Roman Church, and to
the Clergy there, to receive him, and that both
should govern the Apostolic See and exercise the
sacerdotal office in
S.

Hilary^ to

most

"

common."

Constantius,

know

not," says

"in which thou

didst

impiously, in banishing or in restoring him."

The

successful ambition of Eudoxius first divided

and weakened the Arian party.

He was

Bishop of

Germanicia in Syria, but at court with Constantius


Hearing of the death of Leontius, the
in the West.

175

of Antioch against suffragans ; avoivs Arianism.

Arian Bishop of Antioch, he obtained leave of the


unsuspecting Emperor to return to Syria, on pretence of some needs of his
of Antioch.

When

own

diocese," or of that

he " possessed

there,

himself of

the Patriarchate of Antioch, neither George Bishop


of Laodicea, nor

Mark

of Arethusa,

who were then

the most distinguished Bishops of Syria, nor the rest


to

whom

When

the election belonged, consenting.

then he had gained possession of the

Church of

Antioch [A. D. 358.] he avowed the Anomoean heAnd having met in Council at
resy more openly.

who

Antioch, with more

held the same, (of

whom

were Acacius Bishop of Ca3sarea in Palestine and


Uranius Bishop of Tyre) he negatived the word ' of
the same substance,' together with that * of the like
substance,' under pretence that the Bishops of the

For Hosius, together with


some of the Bishops there, with the view of extinguishing the contentiousness of Valens and Ursacius

West had done

the same.

and Germinius, being constrained

way
'

one substance

'

or of

the

hke

Sirmium, gave

made

that no mention should be


'

at

either of the

substance.'

To them

therefore, as having succeeded in regard to Hosius,

he sent a

letter,

thanking Valens, Ursacius, and

Germinius, as having been the occasion, that those


in the

West thought

aright."

In the same " Council

of Bishops, he attempted

" Aetius,"
to restore to the Diaconate," the wretched

whom
"Soz.

Leontius, his
iv.

12.

"Socr.

ii.

Arian predecessor, had been


37.

lb.

n Socr.

1.

c.

"

Re-action at Semi- Avian

176

compelled to depose. " This

Synod of Ancyra.

failed,

because the hatred

was greater than the zeal for Eudoxius."


" While ^ Eudoxius was thus innovating, and many

to Aetius

Church of Antioch who opposed him were

of the
cast

out,

these,

the

receiving

George,

of

letters

Bishop of Laodicea, came to Ancyra of Galatia.

For Basil [of Ancyra] was there, at the consecration


of a Church which he had built, having invited

of the neighbouring Bishops, to

whom

many

he gave the

Epistle of George."

The

Epistle

is

addressed to four Semi-Arian Bi-

shops, Macedonius, Basil, Cecropius, [Bishop of Nico-

media] and Eugenius

them

to

place, as

help

many

[of Nice].

against
as

may

In

it

he exhorts

" Meeting

Aetius.

in

one

be, ask for subscriptions of

the other Bishops, that Eudoxius should

cast out

Aetius from the Church of Antioch, and cut off his

who had been inserted among the Clergy."


" The Bishops at Ancyi a, when this innovation of
disciples

Eudoxius had been made plain to them through

what he, together with those

whom

he had met in

Council at Antioch, had decreed in writing about


the faith, shew this to the king, and beseech

him

some care should be taken that what had been


adjudged in Sardica, [Philippopolis] Sirmium, and
that

other Synods, should prevail,

agreed that the Son was

'

where

like in

it

had been

substance to the

Father.'

In this step backwards toward the faith they had


'

Soz.

iv.

13.


aided by letters of French and perhaps English Bps. Ill

been encouraged by

and

may

(it

letters

be) of Britain,

from Bishops of France

who throughout

communion with

Provinces remained in

several

Hilary,

S.

received letters from him, and were only hindered

from communication with him, by the uncertainty


A. D. 358.

S.

To

them, about the end of


Hilary addressed his book " on Synods,

of his place of exile.

He

or on the faith of the Easterns."


his " best-beloved

it

and most blessed brethren and

low-Bishops, of the Provinces of the

Germany, of the
first

inscribes

first

first

to
fel-

and second

and second Belgium, of the

and second Province of Lyons, of Aquitania,

Novempopulania, out of Narbon to the People and


Clergy of Thoulouse, and of the Britannic Provinces."

The book

addressed to the

is

Bishops, with the

exception of Thoulouse, whose Bishop, Rhodanius,

was, with S. Hilary, in exile for the

them,

'^

Roman
faith

'

faith.

had frequently, from many

He

cities

tells

of the

Provinces, signified to you the state of the

and

zeal of our religious brethren, the Bishops

of the East

"

"

great peril to so

had been

in fear lest,

many Bishops

in

the very

of grievous impiety

or error, your silence might arise from the despair of

" Now,

a defiled conscience."

having received the

letters of

your blessed

and

ye cleave to me, and that ye not only did

faith

faith,

learn,

that in spirit

not receive, but that ye condemn the

'

?.

l.p. 1149.

'

2.

impiety

of

178

Synod of Ancyra.

S. Hilary s character of

the faithless faith, announced and

made known

to

you from Sirmium [the second Arian confession of


that Synod]. I saw then that it was religious and
necessary, that now, as a Bishop,

communicating with

to Bishops

should transmit

me

"

answer, discoursing of saving truth."

Brethren For

prevailed.

late, to

Ye

have

of your un-

the reports

moved some Bishops

disturbed and unshaken faith

the East, although

an

Christ,

in

of

some shame of the heresy,

thence nourished and increased; and, having heard

what had been most impiously written at Sirmium,


they, by some decrees expressing their belief, contra-

And although

dicted the boldness of the irreligious.


this their resistance

ofPence

and anxiety

resist, as to

was not unaccompanied

with

to the religious, yet they did so

constrain to an acknowledgment of their

ignorance and error, the very persons

who then

at

Sirmium had given way to the opinion of Potamius


and Hosius, themselves too thinking and confirming
the same

again subscribing, con-

so that they too

demned what they had done."


The Synod of Ancyra was subscribed by twelve
Bishops
Eleusius
Synod,"^
sign.

only,''

yet there

may have been

more, since

who was deputed from the

of Cyzicus,

must have been present, and yet did not

The Synodical

Epistle

is

addressed from

''

The

^ holy Synod, assembled from different Provinces at

^ S.

. 3.

w S. Hil. de Syn.

Epiph. Hter. 73

90. p. 1203.

comp.

c. 1 1. fin. p.

63.

='

S.

859.

Epiph.

1.

c. c. 2.

p. 846.

immediate

Its

179

effects.

Ancyra, shortly before Easter, to the most honoured

Lords and
leagues

Phoenicia and the rest who think as we


many Bishops assembled as the time
the holy Day of Easter being close upon

^] in

" As

do."

like-minded fellow-ministers [their col-

permitted,

them, most being also hindered by the winter, as

they signified by their

The

letters."

object of the

to defend their own formula, that the Son


"
was like in substance " to the Father, against EuThe Sydoxius who taught that He was '* unhke."

Synod was

nodical

which

anathemas,

of

Hilary has translated but twelve, and, since

S.

Hilary

S.

closed with eighteen

letter

suggests that the three " most holy men,

and Eleusius," deputed by the Counsuppressed the last anathema against the Homo-

Basil, Eustathius
cil,

ousion,

it

that the others too were never sent.

may be

and defends the twelve anathemas,^


and says that "if there be anything amiss in them, it
lurks within, and does not lie on the surface." He
S. Hilary explains
'^

sums up

;" '^We have gone through

all

the definitions

of faith published by the Eastern Bishops which, in a

Synod assembled among themselves, they formed


gainst the emerging heresy ; few
tion to the whole."
tius,^

He

"

"^Bishops

in

a-

propor-

The deputation turned Constan-

who had been shaken by a

disciple of Aetius.

wrote to the Church of Antioch, disowning Eu-

doxius, and (the Arian Philostorgius ^ says) ^'banishy lb. p. 847.


<:

'

1.

lb. in p. 1158. not. q.

Soz.

iv. 13.

c.

^
"^

1. c. .

c.

90.

27.

H. E.

iv. 8.

12-26. p. 1158-66.

lb. 28.

and

66.

180

Object of Constantius

ifi

gathering new Si/nods.

ing seventy persons." Constantius closes his letter,

"P

would exhort those who

this

at last

slough, to join in this sentence,

remove from

which the Bishops,

wise in Divine things, have decided for the best, as

need required."
This mood, however, did not last long.
the

Eusebius,

Eunuch and Grand-Chamberlain, who had brought

Arianism into the Palace used


'

his

ascendancy.

He

was the friend of Eudoxius,'' and obtained, shortly


in favour

after,

of the

Arians, the

division of the

Council into two.

The Arians joined

Emperor, probably

in order to recover

which they had

lost

in

urging the
the ground,

to the Semi-Arians through the

Aetius the Sophist, surnamed the

Synod of Ancyra.

made the plea, although no worse than


the Arians who threw him over.^
The success of Constantius against Liberius and
Atheist, was

Hosius seems to have flushed him with the hope of


establishing what he thought a Scriptural faith, but
what was in fact a covert for Arianism, on the one
hand against the faith as attested by the whole
Church at Nicaea, on the other hand against the

more plain-spoken heresy of


''

to

was

put into shade the Nicene Council," and bring


one

to

all

Aetius. His purpose

belief, viz. that of

Constantius himself;

extinguishing at once the belief of the Church and


of the most extreme heretics.

Soz.
S.

S.

iv.

14.

Ath. Counc. Arim.

Ath, Counc. Arim.

Sonr.

. 6.

. 1.

ii.

p. 81.

Constantius "wished
^

2.

38. p. 136.

p. 74, 5.

0. T.

Soz.

O.T.

iv.

Socr.

16. fin.
ii.

35. Soz. iv. 16.

First plan to have select Bishops from each nation. 181

the Council to be held at Nice," in order to efface the

memory oithe Council

of Nice.^ Basil "and the [Semi-

Arian] party dissenting from

this, it

was

first

deter-

mined, that the Bishops should be assembled at Ni-

comedia in Bithynia, summoning with


a fixed day, those Bishops

seemed

in

every

all

speed, for

nation,

who

have most understanding and to be the


thought and speech, so that they should

to

ablest in

take part in the Synod and be present at the deciNision, in place of all the Bishops of the nation."

comedia was almost destroyed by an earthquake

and Basil then wrote to the Emperor agreeing to


''
On receiving Basil's letter, the Emperor at
Nice.
first

directed that, in the beginning of summer, they

should meet at Nice, except those weak in body, and


that those might send in their stead Presbyters, or

Deacons,

whom

they should choose to

make known

mind, to consult on things doubtful, and that


He directed
all should be of one mind about all.
also that ten from the West, and as many from the

their

East,

whom

common

Synod should choose with


should come to the Court, and

those met in

consent,

what had been determined, so that he might


see whether they had agreed together according to
Holy Scripture, and do as should seem best. After

relate

having taken counsel, he commanded all to


remain where they were, or at their own Churches,

this,

until a place should be settled for the Synod.

Soz.

iv.

16.

And

Avians obtain division of Synod ; numbers at

182

he wrote to Basil, to enquire by

of all the

letter

Bishops in the East, where the Synod should be


held.

Basil,

having prefixed the Imperial

own, made known to the Bishops

his

that they should consider with

When

the

all

each nation,

diligence,

and

the place which would please them."

quickly signify

"

in

letters to

Synod was urged on, Eudoxius, Acacius,

Ursacius, Valens, and their party, considering that

the

Bishops every where were

the

faith

and

that, if all

zealous

either

for

at Nice, or for that of the Dedication,

should meet together, they would

promptly condemn the opinion of Aetius, which they


themselves held, obtained that the Westerns should

meet

Ariminum and the Easterns

at

at

Seleucia

Isauria."

in

"The Emperor

then being persuaded, that

it

was

inexpedient to the State, on account of the expense,

and

to the Bishops,

meet

to

all

in

on account of the length of way,

one place, divided the Synod, and

wrote to those then at Ariminum and Seleucia,


settle

doubts as to the

faith,

first

to

and then, according to the

law of the Church, both to decide as to the Bishops,


said to have been unjustly deposed or banished,

and

to judge as to the charges brought against certain

" TheP Synod at Ariminum was

Bishops."

first as-

sembled, in which were above four hundred Bishops,

brought

"
T

Soz.

'^

together by the Officials of the Emperor

iv. 17.

Sulpie. Sev.

ii.

55.

S. Atli.

Counc. Aiini.

. 8, 9. p.

82-4. O. T. Socr.

ii.

37.

Arimimim

who were

fezv

Avian or eminent Bishops.

183

sent througliout Illyricum, Italy, Africa,

Ammianus, the Heathen HistoriConstantius "fomented the divisions"

Spain, and Gaul."

an

says,' that

amongst Christians,"

so, that,

while troops of Bishops

hurried to and fro in the public conveyances to what

they

call

whole religion on

their side,

bring over the

efforts to

Synods, in their

he hamstrung the Posting-

establishments."

Bishops, while at the Council also, were fed

The

at the public expense.'

cost,

preferred

Britain,

France,

The Bishops
to

live

of Aquitaine,

at

their

own

except three British Bishops who had no means.

The Arian Bishops were not more than

eighty.

A-

CathoUo Bishops, scarcely any of eminence


The names of few are preserved. It is
are named.
not explained why Liberius, Bishop of Rome, was
not present. Perhaps he and Vincentius of Capua

mong

the

were not invited, as having already subscribed the


formula which the Emperor desired.
himself addressed a letter to the

The Emperor

Bishops, assembled at Ariminum.

" The ^ institutions of old lay down, venerable men,


that the holiness of the law rests on ecclesiastical matters.

We have

seen abundantly from letters address-

ed to our Prudence, that heed must be given to these,


inasmuch as this belongs to the office of Bishops, and
the well-being of nations far and wide

"

S. Hil.

consolidated

^ Sulp. Sev. 1. c.
* Damasus mentions that these two
ii. 22.
others did not consent to the later formula. Ep. in Theod.

Hist. xxi. fin.

and many

is

Fragm.

vii.

1.

Emperor forbids Western to judge Eastern Bps.

184

on

But circumstances warn us that

this foundation.

what has been done should be


let

again.

This being

so,

your Piety know that ye ought to consider as to

the faith and unity, and give diligence that Ecclesiastical

matters should be put in befitting order.

Yet

this

matter must not lead your attention too

far.

For reason alloweth not, that anything be defined

in

Accordingly, ye

your Council as to Eastern Bishops.

ought to treat of those things only, w^hich your Gravity

knows

dispatched
to

my

to appertain to
all

and having speedily

common

consent send ten

we have intimated

to your Prudence

things, with

Court, as

you

in former letters."^

For these can answer

all

things,

proposed to them by the Orientals, or treat of the


faith, so that

competent
being

so,

every question

may be

terminated by a

and ambiguities put

issue,

to rest.

This

ye ought to enact nothing against the Ori-

entals, or if in their absence ye will to define

ought

upon yourselves, shall


For a sentence can have no force,

against them, what ye take

come

to

no

effect.

to which our statutes attest beforehand, that all force

and competency

shall

be denied.

This being

so,

ye

should, with a moderation suiting the venerable prelates of religion,

do what

shall

be respected, explain-

ing what religion requires, and no one using what


forbids to be heard.

The Deity

preserve you for

many years, dearest Parents."


The decision at Ariminum was
lost.

it

speedily

made.

Bishops confirm Nicene Creedj condemn Arians.

" While
ter

cius

185

the whole assembly was discussing the mat-

''

from the Divine Scripture," Germinius, Ursaand four other Arian Bishops produced the third

Sirmian Creed, and " demanded that the whole Council should acquiesce in it." " Marvelling at the deceitfulness of their language

and their unprincipled

tentions, the Bishops said,

'

want of a

faith

(for

we have not met

we have

that, sound), but to put to

now

here in

in us the faith,

Synods may no longer


Nicsea having anticipated

circulate,

if

let us

and

anathematize the heresies,

preserve the teaching of the Fathers

all

but

ye have met us, having the same mind as we,


with one mind,

have

If then ye

beginning to believe, ye are not

yet Clerks, as beginning with your Catechism

all,

and

shame those who gainsay

the truth and attempt to innovate.


written this, as

in-

so that pleas for

the

Bishops

at

and done

them once for all,


However, even

for the Cathohc Church.'

thus,

the Bishops again agreeing, the aforesaid declined."


On this ^ ''the Synod directed the Creeds of the here-

all

and of the Council of Nice to be read, that they


might reject the heresies, and confirm what was done
and that no one should henceforth call any
at Nice
sies

one in question as to those things, or ask for a Synod,


but be content with the preceding. Valens and Ursacius,

not agreeing hereto, but urging the faith which

they had proposed, they deposed, annulling the writing which they had read."
^

S.

Ath.

1.

c.

" Soz.

1.

c.

\d)^Bps.mamtainfctithhandeddowtiinSon,^hytraclitioii,

The

Council embodied their decision in three do-

cuments,

1.

a statement of their adherence to the

ancient faith,

2.

a condemnation

Arian Bishops of the West,

3.

of four

leading

an Epistle to the

Emperor.
S. Hilary

definition

heads their statement " The

made by

all

Catholic

the Catholic Bishops, before

by an earthly power, they were

that, terrified

asso-

ciated with the fellowship of heretics, at the Council

of Ariminum."

"

We

believe that

it

will please all Catholics, that

[we decide that] we ought not to depart from the


received Creed, which, in conference, we have ascertained to be held entire by

depart from

the

all

which

faith,

through the Prophets from God

and that we

we

have

will not

received

the Father through

Lord by the teaching of the Holy Ghost,


the Gospels and all the Apostles, as, laid

Christ our

and

in

down by

tradition of the Fathers, according to the

Apostolic succession, to the discussion held at Nice


against the heresy which
until

now.

To

all

had then

which,

we

arisen,

it

remains

believe that nothing

is

to be added, and it is plain that nothing can be


diminished from it. It seems good then that nothing
new be done and that the word substance and its
;

minds by many holy Scrip-

truth, conveyed to our

tures, should abide in force.

Which

truth, with

its

name, the Catholic Church hath been ever wont,


>'

1.

c. . 3.

subscribe sentence against Arians,send Bjys. to


witli its deific doctrine, to confess

definition all the

and

profess.'

This

one, sub-

agreeing in

Catholics,

Emp.\^l

scribed."

The condemnation

of the heretics was put to the

He

Grecianiis, Bishop of Cagli.

Synod by

rehearses

the forbearance which the Church had shewn towards


Ursacius, Valens, Germinius, Caius, Auxentius

mischief which these did, their heretical

attempting again to

the

spirit,

in

annul the Nicene Creed and to

introduce one drawn up by themselves. "Now then,"


the decree closes, " what seems good to you, again

may be

by the subscription
of each.'' All the Bishops answered, It seems good
that the afore-named heretics should be condemned,

declare, that

it

ratified

'

Church may remain in unshaken faith,


which is truly Catholic, and in perpetual peace."
" The Catholic Bishops ( as the Emperor had required ) sent ten Bishops, as legates to the Emperor

that the

'"

with an Epistle of sound

faith,

which they

heretical part sent ten legates

But the

subscribed.*^

of their

own

body." The Epistle began thus; " By the command of


God and injunction of your Piety we believe that it
has been ordered, that

we have met

at

Ariminum,

Bishops from divers Provinces of the West,^


both the faith of the Catholic Church may be

S. Hil.

Soz.

S.

1.

c. . 4.

see S. Ath.

1. c. .

1. p.

Fragm. viii. 4.
Hilary's text [Fragm. viii. 3] has

made

87. 0. T.

iv. 18. S. Hil.

iDeen followed, being probably the

Latin original.
^

that

Socr.

ii.

37.

and Soz. have

"

from

all

the Cities of the West."


Catholic legates from Arimimmi, ill-selected.

188

clear to

and heretics

all,

may

Churches should be troubled

be known.

oftener,

Lest the

we determined

to maintain the ancient institutions firm and inviolate

and that the aforesaid should be removed from

To

our communion.
cy,

we have

inform therefore your Clemen-

sent our legates, to announce

the judgement

letters

We

Council.

of the

by our
have

given them this one instruction, that they should dis-

charge

embassy on no other terms, than that the

this

ancient decrees should remain in

full force.

seech you also to direct, that so


are detained at Ariminum,

many,

distressed through

return to

their

Churches should

Provinces,
suffer,

by another writing

be-

many Bishops who

(among whom

are very

age and poverty) should


lest

the

people

of the

deprived of their Bishops.

Our legates will bring you both the


and names of the Bishops and legates
^

We

instruct

subscriptions
;

as they will

your holy and pious

wisdom."
ten legates sent from the Catholics were un-

The

happily

ill

caution

chosen,'*

the Arians sent crafty old men, of powerful

who

minds,

young ^ men with little learning or

readily gained the ascendancy with the

"

and the more because he was aggrieved,


that the Council "had^ not received the Creed which

Emperor

had been confirmed

He
^

in his presence

Sirmium."

received the Arian legates honorably, and set himSocr.

and

Soz. have "

who

will also teach

your Holiness out of the sacred

Scriptures themselves."
'

at

Sulp.

ii.

57.

s SoTi. iv. 19.

Emp.

tries to xvear out

Bps. S. Hilary at Seleucia. 189

wear out the Orthodox legates by delays.^ The

self to

heretical officers of the

Palace aided

Council sent a second

letter,

therein.'

The

protesting that they

should persevere, and praying to be allowed to return


home, before winter set in. " Your Clemency," they
say,

ed

"^

"knows

it

as well as we,

that in your

is,

how

grievous and unsuit-

most prosperous times so many

Churches should be without Bishops." The Emperor


delayed on pretence of the Barbarian war.
" Meanwhile the Bishops from the East, being

still

about one hundred and

sixty,

met

at

Seleucia in

Leonas had come with them, a noble Officer

Isauria.

in the Palace,

was present

who by

in the

command

the

of Constantius

Synod, so that the

faith

doctrine should be framed in his presence.

on the

Lauricius

too was present. Chief of the soldiers in the Province, to render aid to the Bishops in case of need."

The Council met on

Arianism was here

Sept. 27.

at strife with Semi-Arianism.


at the Council, "being'"

The

S.

now

Hilary was present

in his fourth

year of

being charged to

exile

in

Phrygia.

bring

all

Bishops to the Council, required his pre-

officers

sence too, and gave him part in the public conveyance."

S.

Hilary cleared himself and the Galilean

Churches of the charge of Sabellianism, which the


Arians had given out against them and all the
Catholics.
"
i

'

lb. S. Hil.

Theod.
Socr.

ii.

1.

He was
Fragm.

viii. 4.

Theod.

ii.

^ Id.

c.

39. Soz.

then admitted to take part in

iv.

22.

"

19.
ii.

Snip.

20.
ii.

58.


190 Strength and proceedmgs of the parties

"At

the Council.

"the

Homoiousion

the

nineteen the

substance
tic

Bishops in

five

hkeness

the

e.

i.

he says, "I

first secession,"

found that one hundred and

Anomoiousion,

e.

i.

and the Egyptians

at Seleiicia.

it

taught

of substance

the unhkeness of

only, except the here-

[George] of Alexandria, most firmly maintained

The pure Arian party had been


ordained by Secundus who had been deposed by the
the Homoousion."

great Council, and with these, the Acacians fearing


to

meet

came

In

their accusers, coalesced.

In the

thirty-four.P

all,

some other

session,

first

they be-

Bishops, as also Patrophilus, Bishop of Scythopolis,

Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople, and Basil


Bishop of Ancyra, suspecting that they should be

When

accused, were wanting.

on account of their

absence the others declined to examine the points in

them

question, Leonas bade

Thence, some wished

first

still

the question.

to examine the doctrine,

others, the lives of the accused

When

raise

among

themselves.

they came to the question of faith, some wish-

ed wholly to

name

efface the

of " substance," putting

forth the faith, which, not long before,

Marcus had

and which the [Bishops] who

composed

at Sirmium,*!

happened

to be at the Court, received

with

whom

was Basil Bishop of Ancyra. But the more part were


eager

for

the

set forth at the dedication of

faith

the Church at Antioch.

" c.
1

Const.

The Creed

12.

S.

After much contention

Ath. Counc. Arim.

of the Consulate.

The

third Sirmian.

12.

p Socr.

ii.

Sil-

39.

Degree

in

zvli'ich

Emperofs deputy

could interfere.

vanus Bishop of Tarsus, said that

191

was not to be

it

endured that a new formula should be introduced,


besides that approved at Antioch

The

should prevail.

parted

assembled

in the

by

alone

Acacians, vexed at this,

de-

had been

the rest, at that time, read w^hat

decreed at Antioch

being

that this

on the following day, having

Church, they closed the doors and

themselves

without

e.

[i.

Acacian

the

Bishops] they confirmed those decrees."

The
more

intervention of Leonas and Lauricius shews

vividly zvhat

Leonas was an Acacian, and he did

representatives.
all

was the power of the Emperor's

The Semi-Arian Bishops were appa-

he could.

rently afraid either of his influence or of the disso-

with
"
shewed ""privately
what the other Bishops had done,
Acacius, discontented

lution of the Council.

to

Leonas and Lauricius, the formula about which he


Acacius and his party would take no part

was eager.
in

the

unless

session,

prived and accused


those

on the

those

left

other

it.

side

whom

they had

This was done.

conceded

de-

For

suspecting

it,

that Acacius w^as looking for a pretext to dissolve

When

the Council.

they were

said, that he had a book, given

was a confession of

Acacius.

It

preface.

The

purposely hid
"^

c.

22.

S.

knew nothing

faith

of this

Coiinc. Sel.

25, 6.

The Creed

. 29. p.

123. 4. O. T.

friends of

with a sort of
:

for

When

with the names of the Bishops

Epiph. Hfer. 73.

S. Athanasius.

present, Leonas

being an Acacian.

The whole foiinula

preserved by

by

rest
it,

all

him by the

is

who

Leonas
it

was

suhscribed is

given more correctly

Division of Avian and Semi-Arian Bishops.

192

Synod was

read, the

it

set

Emperor had commanded

whereas the

forth, that

For

of confusion.

full

that nothing should be introduced into the faith, besides the

ing

Holy

Scriptures, certain persons, introduc-

from different Provinces Bishops

unlawfully made,

the

disturbed

some, and silencing others


cians, did not reject the

deposed

or

Council, insulting

that themselves, the Aca-

Creed

set

forth at Antioch,

although those then assembled had introduced

it

to

Then setting aside the


"
like
substance " as alien
and of

meet a question then

arising."

" of one substance

"

to the Scriptures,

and anathematizing " unlike," they

"subjoined a form, which might be signed by Arians or


Aetians," omitting the most orthodox expressions of

the Creed of Antioch.

'^Acacius

and

his followers

subscribed this." After some discussion, Eleusius of

Cyzicus concluded by saying, " we must follow that


faith

which was confirmed

ninety seven Bishops

contrary to this, he

Church.

But when

and

is

if

any one bring

in

aught

an alien to piety and the

those with him approved this,

all

On

the Synod parted.

Antioch by those older

at

the following day, the party

of Acacius and George would not again meet [in the


Council.]

Leonas

also,

although invited, declined,"

saying that he was " sent

'

by the Emperor

sent at a harmonious Council


variance,
in the

I,

he

said,

Church."

but since some are at

cannot come.

The

Go

then and babble

other Bishops then


Socv.

ii.

40.

to be pre-

summoned

Appeal of

193

S. Cyril to larger Syiiocl.

the Acacians, to judge the cause of Cyril Bishop of

This cause

Jerusalem.
in

is

remarked

as the first case

which a Bishop, although wrongfully deposed by a

had appealed to a larger Council.


Acacius, as an Arian, was opposed to S. Cyril, who,
although using only the ambiguous formula, " like in
rightful authority,

all

things to the Father," was sound in his behef.

" Acacius

'

then, with those Bishops of the Province

who were likeminded with himself, deposed Cyril on


the plea, that in a famine, when the hungry multitude,
in

want of necessaries, looked

no money wherewith

to the Bishop, he, having

to succour them, sold the sacred

and the hangings." S. Cyril " sent ^ to his


deposers a writ removing his cause, appealing to a

treasures

This appeal Constantius favoured."

greater Council.

"

The Bishops called in Acacius and his friends to deBut when these,
cide with them as to the accused.
being frequently called, came not, they deposed Acacius himself

and eight other Bishops, and they excom-

municated Asterius and eight others, prescribing that


they should so remain, until they should defend and
clear themselves

from the charge."

S. Cyril

was

res-

tored then, for he was deposed anew by the Acacians


at Constantinople.

The

representative of the

Emperor could even

in-

he could threaten,

(as

troduce things to the Council


at

Ariminum ) with banishment, but he could have no


t

Soz.

iv.

25.

" Socr.

1.

c.

194

Constantius misleads delegates from

voice in the Council


dissolve

Ecclesiastical acts.

its

Council of Seleucia then closed. "

The
demned
cil

he could withdraw, but did not

nor hinder

it,

Ariminum

Acacians

The conThe Coun-

flew to their King."

of Seleucia sent, as

it

had been required,

its

ten

delegates to Constantius.

Shortly after
tius

Oct. 10. A. D. 359.^ Constan-

this,

wore out or over-bore the ten Bishops, delegated

from the Council of Ariminum.

This took place at

Ustodizo near Nice in Thrace, and the conference


there held was craftily called the Council of Nice.

The Creed employed

to mislead the Westerns,

was

framed by the Arian minority from the two Councils

Ariminum and Seleucia.


The ^ Ursacians went to Nice, a City of Thrace,
and there made another Council. They translate

of

"

into

Greek the Creed which was read

publish and confirm

Consulate

it."

It

at

Ariminum,

was the Creed of the

but besides disclaiming the word

''

sub-

stance," a clause was added at Constantinople by


the Arian Bishops delegated from Seleucia, disclaim-

ing the

word " Hypostasis

"anathematising

all

"

also."^

It

the heresies hitherto

closed

by

condemned,

whatever have sprung up recently, contrary to


" They ^ gave out a report that the
this Creed."
or

Creed

at

Nice was approved by the (Ecumenical

Synod," wishing to deceive the simple by the ambi^ S. Hil.

Fiagm.

viii. 4. p.

" see S. Ath. Counc.


y Socr.

and Soz.

1.

c.

1346,

Arim.

* Socr. ii. 37. fin. Soz.


Theod. ii. 21.

7.

30.

comp.

. 8.

iv, 19.

having been

to ozon Ariaus, as not

guity of the

name

of Nice.

the Arians " brought


against their will,

195

heretics.

Theodoret

says,

that

to Nice most of the Bishops

and persuaded some

in simplicity,

some through fear, to complete the plan which they


had devised against the Faith." The Acts still exist.^

They

rehearse,

"When

the Bishops

had assembled

in

Council at a lodging at Nice, called formerly Us-

and thirteen other Catholic

todizo, viz. Restitutus

Your
that when

Bishops, Restitutus Bishop of Carthage said,

Prudence knows, most holy fellow-Bishops,

the Faith was treated of at Ariminum, the contention

made such

that there was

division,

disunion,

suggested by the devil, as to the Priests [Bishops] of

God, whence

who

I,

Restitutus and part of the Bishops

followed me, gave sentence against Ursacius,

Valens, Germinius and Gains, as authors of a corruption of the faith,

Communion.

we have

But

i.

e.

we separated them from our


in conference

since,

with them,

discussed every thing, and have found (what

ought to displease none) that they held the Catholic


Faith according to the Confession which we too have
subscribed, and never were heretics, therefore, inas-

much
God,

as peace
it

and concord are highly esteemed by

seemed good, by common consent of us

to cancel every thing done at


all

to

Communion.

each of
is

right,

We,

Ariminum and

restore

then, being present, ought,

us, to say w^hether

what

and to subscribe

with his own hand.'

^ 1. c.

all,

it

S. Hil.

o 2

1. c.

have dwelt upon,

Cone. T.

ii.

p.

913.

All

196 Bishops of Ariminum room out or misled


the Bishops said,

'

It

" The Bishops," says


a pure Creed

seems good/ and subscribed."


S.

Ambrose,^ "had

first

written

but when some willed to judge of the

Court, the result was

at

faith

to accept

that,

through

cir-

cumvention, those judgments of the Bishops were

changed."

The Emperor pushed


being then

let go,

[Taurus] had orders not to allow

the Synod [at Ariminum] to depart,

by

clare

till all

should de-

their subscriptions that they agreed to the

Recusants,

Creed which had been framed.


than

" The ' legates

his advantage.

fifteen,

if

fewer

were to be banished. The legates however,

on their return [to Ariminum] were refused communion,


although they pleaded compulsion on the part of the

When

King.

plexity was
our's

the decision itself was known, the per-

still

Then, by degrees, several of

greater.

were prevailed upon, partly through weakness of

intellect, partly

through weariness at their absence

from home, and gave themselves up to the adversaries.


Minds having been once unsettled, they went

over in crowds to the other side

till

our people were

But these were strong in proportion to their fe^vness and of these, our Phoebadius
and Servatio, Bishop of Tongres, were considered

reduced to twenty.

the most steadfast.


threats

and

terrors,

These, since they yielded not to

Taurus

and adjures them, with


*The Bishops were now
'

Ep.

assails

tears, to

with entreaties,

take milder measures.

passing their seventh month,

21. ad Valentinian. , 15.

Sulp.

ii.

5d, GO.

inadequate Creed, in hope of unity with the East.

immured

Worn

in one city.

197

out as they were with

the severity of winter and with want, no hope of

turn was given them.

And what would

re-

be the end

Let them follow the example of the many; let them at


least find authority in numbers.' Phoebadius however
declared that he was prepared for exile and for any
tortures he

might be

not accept a Creed framed by

were spent in

but that he would

called to,

this strife,

and

Some days
progress was made

Arians.

little

towards peace, when by degrees he too was weakened


and at last overcome by the conditions offered him.
Valens and Ursacius

declared,

'that the Creed in

question being conceived in the Catholic sense, and


put forth by the Orientals at the instance of the

Emperor, could not be rejected without

sin

for

what

what pleased
Then
West
?
the Orientals, displeased those of the
too if they thought anything not stated fully enough
in the present Creed, they might themselves add what
end would there be of their

differences, if

they thought required adding

and that they [Valens

what they should add.*


This plausible profession was received by all, now
bowed down, nor did ours venture any more to refuse,
and Ursacius] would

assent to

desiring at all hazards to finish the business.

Next,

composed by Phoebadius
and Servatio, wherein first of all Arius was condemned,
and all his misbelief, and the Son of God was debut
clared, not indeed to be Equal mth the Father,
confessions were put forth,

to be without beginning, without time.


as if helping our's,

Then Valens,

added a sentence, wherein was hid-

Bishops at Arimimim require Valens

198

Son of God was not a creature,


like other creatures'; and the craftiness of the conFor in these words,
fession deceived the hearers.
den

guile,

'

that the

wherein the Son was denied to be like other creatures,

He was

yet asserted to be a creature, only su-

Thus neither party could con-

perior to the rest.

sider itself as either wholly victorious or wholly van-

quished

since the Creed favored the Arians, the con-

fessions afterwards

added,

which Valens subjoined,

made

for us, except that

which was not understood

at the time, being noticed only

when

The

too late.

Council was then dismissed, having had a good beginning, and a foul close."

Jerome ^ has preserved, out of the Acts themof these Anathemas,


selves, some of the details
S.

The People

and the form of proceeding.


treachery,

so " Valens who

suspected

had framed [the clause

excluding the word Substance] professed in the presence of Taurus, Prefect of the Praetorium, that he

was no Arian, but altogether abhorred


phemy.

This, being a private transaction,

suspicions

allay the

of

the

People."

then were present, since the very object


their fears

"

On

their

blas-

did not

The People
was

to lull

but the whole was done by the Bishops.

second day in the Church at Ariminum,

crowds both of Bishops and laymen coming together,


Muzonius, Bishop of the Province of Byzacene,

whom
1

i.

c.

for

his

age

the anathemas sec

p.

all

gave the precedence,

197. aiul 199.

'

adv. Lucif.

c.

to

thus

18.

199

anathematize Arianism.

to

^What has been published abroad and brought


our knowledge, we enjoin that one of our body

spake
to

should read to your holinesses, that

one voice condemn, what, being


alien

from our ears and

swered,

'

with

ought to be

evil,

All the Bishops an-

heart.

When

Good,'

may

all

Bishop of

then Claudius,

the Province of Picenum, had, as directed, begun to

read blasphemies attributed to Valens, he, denying


that they were

his,

cried aloud,

'

any one deny

If

that Christ the Lord, the Son of God, was begotten

Father before the worlds,

of the

All re-echoed,

thema.'
lens.

'

If

'

according to the Scriptures,


'

'

God

God
him be

is

let

be

Father

like the

him be anathema.'
V.

'

If

not eternal Avith the

him be anathema.'

All cried out together,

'

If

any say that the Son

a creature, such as the other creatures,

anathema.' It was said as before,

anathema.'

any

is

Let him be anathema.' V.

of

to

Let him be anathema.'

say that the Son of


Father, let

ana-

Let him be anathema.' Va-

any one deny the Son

All answered,

him be

let

V.

'

things not-existing, and not of

be anathema.'

V.

Let him be

any say that the Son was of

If

him be anathema.'

'

let

AU
'

If

God

the Father, let

Let him

cried out together,

'

any

when

say,

time

Avas,

the

him be anathema.' Here all the


Bishops and the whole Church together, received
Son was

not, let

these words of Valens with a sort of jubilee of joy


" If

and applause."
Jerome, "that

any one

have invented

the public records.

The

suspect," subjoins S.
this,

let

chests of the

him

consult

Churches are

200 Bps.

at

Ariminum accepted Creed seemmghj sound,

and the thing

full,

sent at that Synod, are

still

themselves do not deny that

have
the

When

said.

then

and the Arians

living,

took place as

all this

were praising Valens to

all

and condemning themselves and repenting

skies,

that they

had

had begun

to read [the charges] said,

the same

suspected,

ther Valens, which, if


let

God

the Son of

you

condemn

us

in

'

please,

who

There are yet


lord and bro-

lest

any scruple

'If

any say that

common;

indeed before

is

Claudius,

my

a few things which have escaped

remain,

Some, pre-

of recent date.

is still

ages,

all

but not

before all time altogether, so as to place any thing

Him,

prior to

him be anathema.' All

let

Many

him be anathema.'
seemed

suspicious,

of Claudius.

he

will find

whence
'*

If

I too

This

'

Let

other things too which

Valens condemned, in the words

any wish

to

know more

in the Acts of the

it

said

have dra^vn

fully of this,

Synod of Ariminum,

this."

being so done, the Council was dissolved.

All [the Bishops] return to their Provinces, fuU of


joy.

For the king and

all

good people had one anxiety,

West should be united

that East and

in one

bond

of communion."

The Creed
assented, had,

to

which the Bishops

on the

surface, S.

at

Ariminum thus

Jerome s remarks, no-

thing unsound. " It was entire faith to confess, that


the
'

And

Son of God was God of God.

that the

they said

Only Begotten was Born Only from the


f

lb.

19.

].

c. .

17.

overlooked liere8y which lurhed in Valens'' Anathema. 201

Only

Father.'

What means

'

born

'

Certainly not

The mention of the Birth' excluded all susAs to


picion [that he was thought to be] a creature.
the rejection of the word Substance,' the reason asThe Bishops were not anxious
signed was plausible.
about a word, if the meaning was secure."
The error of the Bishops of Ariminum was that,
'made.'

'

'

to unite the Church, as they hoped, they consented to

abandon a word which had been found

"Under

others, the barrier against heresy.

all

beyond

to be,

the

plea of unity and faith, faithlessness," says S. Jerome,

" was framed, as

is

noiv acknowledged.

For

then no-

thing seemed so pious or becoming to a servant of

God, as to follow unity, and not to be separated from

Communion

the
also

his

of the whole world."

inadvertently

own heresy in

allowed Valens to anathematize

his

own way. His heresy

accounted our Lord


creatures"
tized this

i.

e.

The Bishops
was, that he

to be a creature like

in being a creature.

all

other

Valens anathema-

probably in the sense, that our Lord was

not like them, in so far as

He was

superior to them.

The Bishops then understood Valens to anathematize


the very heresy, which was contained by implication
They thought that he anain his own anathema.
thematized the heresy that our Lord was a creature
he,

ture

by anathematizing the
like

belief, that

other creatures, implied that

ture. " The ^ wound

ill

"

He was
He was

a creaa crea-

healed, while the pus remain-

lb.

18.

202 Bps. delegated from


ed, burst out anew.

Seleiic'ia

disjmte before

Emp.

Yalens and Ursacius began to

had not denied that the Son was a


creature, but only that He was like all other creatures.
Then the name substance was abolished the con-

boasts that they

'

'

The whole
world groaned, and marvelled that it was Arian."
The belief of the West was sound it had been endemnation of the Nicene Faith was

carried.

its

legitimate im-

strife

between pure

trapped into sanctioning what, in


plication,

was unsound.

Meanwhile, in the East, the

Arianism and Semi-Arianism had been removed from


Seleucia to Constantinople. At first it was carried on

by the ten Bishops delegated on either side from SeAcacius stirred up the Emperor by accusaleucia.
tions against S. Cyril of Jerusalem, and the Semi" The Courtiers 'perArians as connected with him.
suaded the Emperor not to assemble the whole Synod
(for they feared that the whole number would be united against them) but only the ten chief" Even thus,
Eleusius, Bishop of Cyzicus, compelled Eudoxius first
^

to

condemn

Aetius,

and then his own belief Sylvanus,

Bishop of Tarsus, then constrained him to anathematize

the Arian formulas.

Both of these abandoned

Semi-Arianism, confessed the Nicene Faith, and were


banished by the Emperor.

The Arians, having imposed upon the Bishops of


Ariminum, contrived that they should be nominated
as its legates to the Emperor. Ursacius and Yalens
'

Theod.

ii.

27.

imposed upon by perjury of Arian Bishojjs.

The Semi-Arians

appear at the head.

203

in ignorance

them against
man had
been condemned, rather than his doctrine." The legates, however, forthwith communicated '" with the
Acacians, and explained aAvay blasphemously all the
doctrine ^ of the Creed which they had induced the
Bishops at Ariminum to sign. And yet they ventured to practise upon the delegates from Seleucia,
the same fraud which had succeeded at Ariminum.
" They "made oath, that they did not believe the Son
The Emto be unlike in Substance to the Father.
apparently of their character, warned

the supporters of Aetius, saying "that 'the

peror pressed the Bishops to accept the Creed published


at

Ariminum, and although he had

day (Jan.

to attend the next

A. D. 360.) in the Consular procession,

1.

he spent the whole day and much of the night,

dis-

cussing with the Bishops, until they too subscribed

the Creed." Sulpicius states


terror were employed here

"The Arians

and

that violence, exile,

as well as at

Ariminum.

then, matters flowing but too smooth-

ly in accordance with their wishes, flock to Constan-

tinople to the

Emperor

there,

by royal authority

they compel the legates of the Synod of Seleucia,

whom

they found there, to accept, after the example

of the Westerns, that unsound Creed.


fusing, harassed
tion,

yielded

^ S. Hil.
'^

S. Hil.

Fragm.
1.

x,

c. . 2.

Several re-

by grievous imprisonment and starvaup their conscience. Many perse'

lb.

Epist. Orient, Episc. legat. ab


.

3. p.

1351, 2.

"

Soz.

Arim.

iv. 23.

lb.
ii.

. 1.

60.

204. Hilary sent hack bi/

God's Providence, to Gaul; Avians

veringly resisting, were driven into exile, with the

and others put

loss of their Sees,

in their place.

The

best Bishops being thus intimidated or banished, all

gave in to the treachery of a few. Hilary was there,


having followed the legates from Seleucia, there be-

commands

ing no definite

the will of the Emperor,

ed to return to

exile.

if

respecting him, awaiting

haply he should be order-

He, when he saw the exceed-

ing peril of the Faith, (the Westerns being deceived,

and the Orientals overpowered through wickedness,)


demanded an audience ^ of the king, to dispute conThis the

cerning the faith before the adversaries.

Finally, as the seed-plot

Arians strenuously refused.

of discord and disturber of the East, he

ordered

is

to return to Gaul, without remission of exile."

who through

the injustice of man, had brought

God,

him

into the East to bear witness to the Faith of the

West, carried him back into the West, through that

same injustice of Constantius, in readiness for what


He had for him to do, upon the death of Constantius
which was so soon to follow.
The Acacians meauAvhile pursued their victory.
" Remaining at Constantinople, they made another
Council, sending for the Bishops from Bithynia.
'

These, being in

all fifty,

among them. Maris

(and

of

Chalcedon) confirm the faith read at Ariminum," having added, that henceforth neither Substance nor
'

1 Sulpicius

says " in three treatises."

tions only one, which

is

S.

Jerome (de Virr. HI. c. 100.) menL. ii. in which alone, of the three

the ad Constantium

treatises directed to, or against Constantins, S. Hilary asks for


'

Socr.

ii.

41. Soz.

iv.

24, 25.

"

S. Hil. c.

an audience.

Const.

15.

at Constantinople re-alter Creed., condemn Ar'ians, 205

Hypostasis should be spoken of as to

God

and

tliat

besides this "svriting (Creed) every other, past or future,

Having done

condemned.

is

this,

they deposed

not only Aetius, but also Basil, Eleusius, Sylvanus,


and other Semi-Arian Bishops, and S. Cyril, not on

any plea of

faith,

but on divers Ecclesiastical and

personal charges.

"The Emperor required that Aetius should be condemned in writing. The partakers of his impiety
condemned him, their confederate. They wrote to
'

George, the [Arian] Bishop of Alexandria," a Synodi-

announcing the deposition of Aetius, who


had been his deacon. ''Aetius,'^ having been condemned
by the Synod for his wicked and scandalous -svritings,
cal letter,

the Bishops did to

him what was

agreeable to the

For he was deposed from the


We have also
out of the Church.

Ecclesiastical Canons.

Diaconate and cast

subjoined admonitions, that his Epistles should not be

even read, but cast aside as unprofitable and

add that

if

followers,

We

he abide in the same purpose, he, with his


Consistently,

anathematized.

is

who met

Bishops

useless.

in the Sjaiod ought in

all

the

common

to

have expressed their abhorrence of the author of the


scandals, confusions, schisms, and tumult throughout
the world, and division of the Churches, and to have

The Synod goes


number ^

agreed in the sentence against him."

on to

detail

held out

how

Serras and others of their

that the

Theod.

ii.

27.

Synod was obliged


" Id.

ii.

28.

'

Soz.

1.

to prefer the

says, "ten."

206 Synod of Constant, makes room for

S. Meletius

Canon of the Church to the friendship of men, and to


give them six months, mthin which, if they did not
accept what was decreed, they should lose their Episcopal dignity, and others be placed in their stead by
"the Bishops of the Nation.

Meanwhile they were to

abide by themselves, without ministering, or govern-

These

ing their diocese, until they should subscribe.

things having been deliberated and completed by them,

they

wi'ite to

the Bishops and Church everywhere to

keep and perform them."

Some

who

of the Bishops

refused to subscribe were

Libyan Bishops, who had been intruded by Secun-

They were

dus.

conscious

less

hypocrites than the


Serras bore

blasphemers.

*'Aetius affirmed that

God had

rest,

yet as

witness,

that

him what

revealed to

had been hidden from the Apostles till then."


The Synod of Constantinople, as its last act, translated Eudoxius to a third See, Constantinople having
just deposed Dracontius on the ground that he had
been once translated.^ Hereby, however, it made room
;

years'

Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, after a thirty


succession of Arians.
The great S. Meletius Avas

made

Patriarch of Antioch in a large Synod, A. D. 360.

for an

He had

been- consecrated

Bishop

of

Sebastia

by

Arian Bishops;'' and now both the Arians and the

Orthodox combined

in selecting him, the Arians be-

cause they thought

him an Arian, the Orthodox for


and holiness of life." "The^

his "soundness of doctrine

^'

Socr.

ii.

43.

Soz.

iv.

24.

Theod,

ii.

31.

>'

Id. lb.

Care

in his election

Bishops

many
must

Avian Council of Antioch.

who were then come


from

collected

be

first

set

together (and they were

all sides),

oyer the

207

flock,

said that a shepherd

and then, |n common

with him, they must consult about the doctrines."


The Orthodox " provided that the decree as to his

was written and subscribed by all [the Bishops]


with the very greatest care. Both parties gave it as
a joint compact to Eusebius Bishop of Samosata to

election

keep.

In the following year, Meletius was banished as if a


and "the^ Emperor, sending for the Arian
Sabellian
;

commanding the Bishops to lay hands


on him, made him Bishop of Antioch." This doubtless
"Contook place in a distinct S}mod of Antioch.

Euzoius, and

having renewed the truce mth the Persians,"


was there. He "again assembled the Bishops, compelling all to deny both of 'the one Substance,' and 'of
a different Substance.'" At this same Synod, the

stantius,

and endeavoured to
most ofiensive form. " The

Acacians threw off the mask,


establish

Arianism in

its

Acacians^ could not be quiet

but meeting

at

Antioch

with some few, censured what they had themselves


decreed, and settled to cut the

Creed read

at

Ariminum and

the Son was in

all things.

work

'Like' out of the

Constantinople, and that

Substance and WiU, unlike

which
the Father, and thought that He was of things
were not, as Arius did from the first.At the end when
they coidd not answer those

z Philostg. Y. 5.

="

Soz.

iv. 29.

who

see S. Atli. Counc.

censured or

Arim.

31. p. 126.

re-


208

Reported death-hed repentance of

Cojistantius.

proaclied them, having again read the Faith approved


at Constantinople, they dissolved

own

and departed

cities.^'

If Philostorgius^

is

be believed, Constantius was

to

referring the charge of Acacius against

a larger Synod,"

He

Julian.

and

to their

at the

settle the,

Eunomius "to

news came of the revolt of

immediately

Constantinople,

set off for

same time appointed a Synod

at Nice, to

He^ caught a
shake it oiF by

'of a different Substance.'"

slight fever at
travelling,

when

"

Tarsus, thought

to

was taken worse at Mopsocrenas, was bap-

by Euzoius, and when not much beyond


middle life, " parted with his kingdom and his life,"
says the Arian Philostorgius, " and his Synods in behalf of ungodliness." Both Theodoret and S. Gregory of
tised there

Nazianzum, agree in speaking of Constantius' deathwill the miserable

bed repentance, that he rescinded in


successes of twenty-five years,
*'

Constantius*^ departed

that he

"He

had turned

aside

men

selves." "It is said that

object of his hfe.

groaning and grieving

from the

repented at his last breath,

m.ent seat beyond,

the

life,

and the

faith of his fathers."

when

for the judg-

are unbiassed judges of them-

he o\\Tied these three

death of his kinsman,

his

evils

nomination of the

^ Theod. iii. 1.
Amm. Marc. xxi. 15.
Naz. Orat. xxi. 26. This miracle of mercy would be the less unlikely, if, as Socrates (ii. ult.) places it, his baptism by Euzoius was in health,
before he set out and this may be the more probable, because Euzoius was at
Antioch, and is not likely to have attended a hasty march. It might be yet
more likely, if he had been deceived by those about him. S. Athauasius,
''vi. 4, 5.

<=

S. Greg.

the better authority, places his baptism

at

the point of death,

(l.'c)

209

Constantkis' influence not lasting nor organic,

Apostate, and his innovations in faith, and that with


these words he expired."

The

constraint which Constantins used towards the

Bishops in the Synods, was rather


oro-anic.

He was

procuring the

fall

personal

than

the instrument of the Evil one, in

and disgrace of eminent Bishops

he

tarnished the memories of Vincentius, Liberius, and

the great Hosius, as also, in their degrees, of those

whom
S.

the Church afterwards recognised to be Saints,

Phoebadins and

S. Servatius.

He

left

a lasting blot

upon Councils, so that the Council of Ariminum became a byword. He embarrassed for some time the
defenders of the Faith, who had to show, how the reception of the Council of Nice by the whole Church
gave it a weight which was not due to the large and
numbers of the Council of Ariminum.
Immediately also he weakened the influence of some
Bishops who had defended the truth, banished others,
and re-placed them by heretics.

exao-o-erated

The

three great Sees of the East, Constantinople,

Alexandria, Antioch, were ruled by leaders of heresy,


as were Csesarea, Chalcedon, Laodicea, Ancyra, Tar-

Nicomedia, Milan, Sirmium, and so many


The Bishop of Rome, Liberius (whenever he

sus, Tyre,

others.

personally recovered), was disgraced in the


his
sixth year of his Episcopate, and, whereas, before
the truth, he
fall, he was an energetic defender of

may have

thenceforth, in those critical times, originated nothing


for the well-being of the Church,

and

his

name

appears

210

Extent of signatures

to

ambiguous formularies.

twice only in the nine remaining years of his

life.

A. D. 358-367.

We have seen Hosius, the President at Nice and Sardica,

excluded from the communion of others.

The

same confusion took place widely in smaller or less

The Council of Constantinople

important dioceses.

did not subscribe, but " through


it

opened the doors to heresy

ambiguous words,
plea being rever-

its

ence for Scripture and the use of sanctioned ^ words

Some

it

substituted an unscriptural Arianism.

[Bishops]

were unjustly expelled from their

its truth,

that

Sees; others substituted, but of these the subscription

to impiety [the

any

essential

ble,

the

To

informer.

new Creed] was

required, as

much

as

ink was at hand, as was also the

this the

most of

otherwise invinci-

our's,

gave way, not falling in heart, yet mispersuaded

to subscribe.

Except a very few, either overlooked

for their littleness, or


left to Israel as

a seed

nobly

and

resisting,

root, that

who were

to

be

might flourish

it

again and revive through the influxes of the Holy


Spirit, all yielded to

later

allured

either shaken

by

the times, only some sooner, some

by

fear, or

enslaved

flattery, or (the least fault)

by need, or

deceived through

ignorance.

The

confusion was exceeding great,

teachers of the

Church had

had failed through

timidity,

failed

which

when the

chief

but the more part


laid

them open

to

be deceived, choosing what an instinctive courage of


f

S.
i.

Greg. Naz. Orat. xxi. de laude


e.

by Holy

Scripture.

S.

Ath.

22. 24.

Julian's policy in restoring Bps. hanishedfor faith.


faith

would have seen to be

abandon the

They did not


they more quickly

perilous.

And

faith itself.

so

recovered, like S. Peter after his

spread the
error,

"some

some began
were in

As soon

less.
^

211

fall,

and the

own communion

retired within their

who

to send letters to those Confessors

account

on

exile

of

Athanasius

some

mourned over the communion [with the Arians]


which they had,

Few,

in despair, entered.

wont of human nature)

evil

they discovered the

as

into

(as is the

deliberately defended their

error."

The

early death of Constantius, A. D. 361, aged

45, set the

Church

orthodox Bishops

free, in that the

Julian the Apostate

could return from banishment.

two ways the instruThe great officers of the Court who

was, against or beside his

ment of God.
had been the enemies

will, in

of the truth, had also been the

enemies of his brother Gallus


" were a nursery of all vices."

those of the Palace,

And so he banished
some, and among them Taurus, who had gained his
^

Consulate by his craft at Ariminum.

Eusebius the

tempter of Liberius, who had brought about the


sion of the Councils of

Ariminum and

Selevicia,

divi-

was,

for his other crimes, put to death. Julian, as a heathen

was the weakness of Christians, and


he hoped to favor the restoration of Paganism, and

saw that

division

foment the

division of Christians

who had been


^ S.

banished for the

Jerome adv. Luc.

1.

c.

'

p 2

by

recalling Bishops

faith.

Ammian.

A heathen his-

xxii. 3. 4.

212

Eminent Bps. restored; those

i?)iposed on, retract

torian states this to have been his object.

" To

^ in-

crease the effect of his arrangements [for restoring

Pagan worship] he brought

the

into

Palace the

Bishops of the Christians, who, with the divided peo-

were at variance, and courteously admonished

ple,

them

that, laying their discords to rest, each should

own

fearlessly serve his

religion,

no man forbidding.

This he did determinately to the end that, the dissen-

by

this licence, he might not


him an unanimous people."
a heathen, see that the Church must

sions being increased

thereafter have against

He

could not, as

gain by the restoration of her Bishops, especially such


as S. Athanasius, S. Hilary,

and

S.

Eusebius of Ver-

who had been expelled


fi'om their Sees, through permission of the new Prince,
return to their Churches.
Then Egypt received in
triumph her own Athanasius
then the Church of
"All

cellte.

the Bishops,

Gaul embraced Hilary returning from

battle

at the return of Eusebius, Italy laid aside her

The Bishops who, taken

ing garments.

then,

mourn-

in the toils

of Ariminum, were reputed heretics without consciousness of heresy, hastened together, protesting

Body

by the

of the Lord, and whatever in the Church

is

holy,thatthey suspected nothing amiss in their Creed.

'We

thought,' they said, 'that the sense agreed with

the words, and feared not that in the Church of Christ

where

is

simplicity

and purity of confession, one thing

should be hid in the heart, another uttered by the

"

lb. 5.

'

S. Jer.

1. c.

Council of Arimiimmresciiidedhy Councils.

We
We

lips.

bad.

213

were deceived by our good opinion of the


did not think that Bishops of Christ were

fighting against Christ.'

Many

other things, which

omit for brevity, they asserted weeping, being ready


to

condemn both

their former subscription

and

the

all

blasphemies of the Arians."

own word)

This (as appears from S. Jerome's

took place in Councils.

S.

Ambrose^

says, that the

"The

Bishops '^^immediately recalled their judgment."


Epistle to Constantius attests their confession

sequent Councils confess their correction."

and Damasus,'' both

sub-

LiberiusP

in Synodical Epistles, attest the

The question was still raised whether those


Bishops should be deposed. " I would ask those over-re-

same.

ligious people," says S. Jerome,'^ " what they think that

the Confessors [S. Athanasius, S. Hilary, and S. Euse-

bius of Vercella?], ought to have done

Bishops, and ordain


few,

new ?

who have a good

be deposed

was attempted.

when

the people, loving

all

their Bishops, almost flew to take

those

But how

conscience, allow themselves to

Especially

It

Depose the old

up

and

stones,

kill

who would depose them."

Healing measures then were begun at once in


Alexandria and Paris. Eusebius and Lucifer were
both

in

banishment for the

faith

near Egypt.^

him

bius then ''entreated Lucifer to go with

andria to see Athanasius and consulting in

">

Concurrebant.

In Socr.

iv.

12.

"

Ep. 21. ad. Valentinian. . 15.


i In Theod. ii. 22.
' 1. c.

Id.

de fide

Euf. H. E.

Euse-

to Alex-

common

i.
i.

18.

27.

122.

all hut authors of heresy

214 C. of Alexandria received

with the surviving Bishops, form a decree on the


state of the

Lucifer refused to be present,

Church.

but sent his deacon as legate, himself hurrying eager" alone " to
ly to Antioch." " Eusebius then came
*

and

Alexandria,

with

together

there,

speed convened a Synod.

all

together from different

cities,

with

Athanasius,

The Bishops came

and

laid

open their

minds on very many important matters."


"After" the return of the Confessors,

whom

was

settled

362.] that, ex-

in the Council of Alexandria, [A. D.

cept the authors of heresy, for

it

error could not

be pleaded, those who repented should be joined to


the Church not as though those who had been heretics could be Bishops, but that those who were
;

received were acknowledged not to have been heretics.

The West

assented to this decision, and by

this so necessary counsel the

world was rescued out

The Synodical Epistle runs,


" Athanasius^ and the Bishops who were at Alexandria from Italy and Arabia, Egypt and Lybia, Eusebius, Asterius, (and sixteen others named) and the
of the jaws of Satan."

rest,

our beloved

to

and much longed-for fellow

Bishops Eusebius [of Vercellas], Lucifer [of Cagliari],


Asterius [of Petra in Arabia], Cymatius [of Paltus in
Ccele-Syria], Anatolius [of Eubcea]."

The immediate

object of the Council was to reconcile the distur-

bances in the Church of Antioch, which was divided

between the Eustathians, or the old Orthodox party,

'

Socr.

iii.

7.

S.

Jer.

1.

c.

20.

''

S. Atli.

Tom. ad Antioch. T.

i.

p.

770,

cleared up doctrinal language.

who,

215

death of Eustathius, were held toge-

after the

by Paulinus a Presbyter, the Orthodox adherents of S. Meletius, and the Arians under Euzoius.
The Council desired to unite the two Orthodox parther

and

ties,

all

who should

return from Arianism.

Those who returned were

to

confess the "Faith confessed

by the holy Fathers

Nice, ^

be required only to

and anathematize the heresy of

at

the Arians,

such as said that the Holy Ghost was a creature and


severed from the Substance of Christ

the impiety

of Sabellius and Paul of Samosata, the madness of

and the phrenzy of the


Manichees." The Council reconciled those who were
at variance, in that the one used the word " HyValentinus and

Basilides,

postasis," of " Person


It rejected the

;"

alleged additions of the Council of

Sardica as spurious.

It

condemned

to which the

monks who probably represented Apol""

concluded with an exhortation


It was subscribed by " Athanasius, and

linarius, assented.

peace.

It

other Bishops present

the

Lucifer Bishop of Sardinia,

from Paulinus

who

[of Antioch].

two Deacons sent by


and two other Deacons
Eusebius and Asterius,

with Lucifer, Cymatius and Anatolius were to

act upon the Epistle, also subscribe

Id. lb.

. 3,

sent also
.

it,

as being pre-

4. p. 772.

had the additional clause " There were presome Monks of Apollinarius the Bishop, sent for this end." (ad. A. D,

^ Baronius' copy of S. Athanasius,

362.

also the nascent

of Apollinarius in clear doctrinal language,

heresy

to

the other of the " Substance."

203.)

The

Benedictines have

it

not.

C.of A lexandria gives care of East

216

and express separately

sent,

The Bishops

ciples.

to Asterius,

their adhesion to its prin-

present had mostly been ba-

They were

nished for the faith under Constantius.

many more
" those ^who are

for they

the representatives of

themselves, as

left

together
Asterius.

away

They then had been


in the deliberations

before the " tome

adds, "

and

For the most of us have gone azoay to

had taken part


"

at Alexandria,

our fellow-ministers, Eusebius

with

their dioceses."

so

speak of

when

"

present,

and

but had "gone

was drawn up.

Rufinus

then that Sacerdotal and Apostolic

order had approved this judgment given by the authority of the Gospel, the care of the East

was by

decree of the Council enjoined on Asterius and the


rest

who were with him


-,

that of the West, on Euse-

bius."

The immediate

object of the Council was defeated

by- the precipitancy of Lucifer,

pated

its results,

and hurried

who probably

antici-

to Antioch, sending le-

gates only to the Council.

He perpetuated the schism

by consecrating, with two

others, Paulinus as a rival

Bishop to

S. Meletius, retired after

and died nine years

after,

awhile to Sardinia,

A. D. 371. the author of a

small schism, in the same year in which Eusebius died


as a Saint.^

The
left it

schism at Antioch being just healing, Eusebius

and

"wenf

ing at once the


>S. Ath.
a

1.

S. Jcroui.

round the East and


office of

c. . 9.

Chruu. A. D. 374.

Italy, discharg-

physician and priest.


^H. E.
'^

Kuf.

i.
i.

29.
30.

He

of West, to Eusehius

; its letter

adopted by S. Basil 217

brought back the several Churches, (havmg abjured


faithlessness,) to the soundness of a right faith, espe-

when he found

cially

Hilary,

(who with the other

Bishops had been driven into exile)

and

in

now returned

essaying to bring about the same, in

Italy,

restoring the Churches and the faith of the fathers."

Athanasius himself sent his Synodical letter to

S.

different Churches.

S. Basil

of Neo-Cassarea, that he

on

"*^Wlien I had received the

it.

blessed

which

father

Athanasius,

it,

and acted up-

letter of the

most

Bishop of Alexandria,

have by me, and which

which he pronounced

in

ask,

pleads to the Presbyters

had received

shew

to those

explicitly, that if

wished to leave the Arian heresy, confessing the

who
any
faith

of Nice, he should, without any question, be admit-

and when he had told me that all the Bishops


both of Macedonia and Achaia shared in this decision,
I, thinking that I must needs follow so great a man,
ted

on account of the trustworthiness of those who passed

and

this law,

also hoping to receive the

the peacemakers,' enrolled

those

who

To

Rufinianus, a Bishop

*'

the communicants

confessed this faith."

Athanasius, and to
to his

among

reward 'of

whom

who had

consulted S.

the aged Bishop wrote as

lord and son," he mentions Synods of Bi-

shops to the same end, in Greece, Spain and Gaul,


ad "When first the violence was allayed, there was a

Synod

"=

of Bishops from foreign

[that of Alexandria]

Ep. 204.

ixd

Neocffis.

6.

''

Ep. ad Eufin. T.

i.

p. 963, 4.

218 C.ofAri?ninum condemned bi/ Synods in Greece, Spain,

among

There was

&c.]

parts. [ Eusebius.

our fellow-ministers

who

also

dwell in

Synod
Greece

and
and no less among those in
the same was accepted here and every where." " I
make this known to your Piety, being confident that
you will receive this decision, and will not blame the
Spain and Gaul

lenity of the Synod.

Be

so

good

as to read this to the

Priesthood and people under you, that they too, knowing this, may not blame you for being so disposed

towards these persons." S. Hilary, meanwhile, had


been labouring independantly to the same end. He,

by the Providence of God, was sent back to France


by Constantius, although not freed from the sentence
of banishment.

"

When

he had traversed well-nigh

the whole world, infected with the disease of faithlessness, he, hesitating and labouring under a mighty

weight of

when many thought that communion


be held with those who had received the

care,

was not to
Synod of Ariminum, thinking it best to bring back all
to repentance and amendment, by frequent Councils
within Gaul, and almost
their errors,

all

the Bishops confessing

condemns [with them] what was done

at

Ariminum and

its

former

state.

restores the faith of the

Churches to

Saturninus, Bishop of Aries, resisting

and convicted of many nameless crimes, besides


the infamy of his heresy, was cast out of the Church.
Paternus of Perigeux, equally insensate, and not hesi-

this,

tating to profess misbelief,

was deposed the

Snip.

ii.

60.

rest

were

Gaul. C. of Paris E.

pardoned.

W.

Sf

All o^wn,

deceived as to each other\ 219

tliat

through Hilary alone our

France was freed from the guilt of heresy/" "France,


through Hilary, condemned the fraud of the faithlessness of

The

Ariminum."

first

ical letter

Council of Paris A. D. 360. whose Sy nod-

has been preserved, was one of many, held at

the same time.

Hilary gives to the Synodical letter

S.

the title "The ^Synodical of the Council, or the Catholic

Faith set forth in the City of Paris, by the Galilean

Bishops to the Eastern Bishops." The greeting of the


Epistle

is,

"

The Galilean Bishops

Priests, all the

provinces abiding in Christ." It


to S. Hilary,

letter

to their fellow-

Eastern Bishops throughout divers


is

an answer to a

written probably

Arians, after their deposition at

by the Semi-

the Synod of Con-

excommunicating the Arian

stantinople,

delegates

from Ariminum, and requesting the Galilean Bishops to

The Galilean Bishops

do the same.

your

and

letters,

first state

"From

which ye directed to our beloved brother

we have

fellow-priest Hilary,

learned the fraud of

the devil and the devices of heretics conspiring against

Church of the Lord, that, divided in the East and


AVest, we might be mutually deceived as to each other.
For most of those at Ariminum or Nice, were conthe

strained to silence as to the 'Substance' under the au-

Then after a sound confession


" Since our simplicity learns from

thority of your name."

of faith they add

your

letters,

S.

that

Jerom. Chron.

we were imposed upon

Fragm.

xi. iuit. p. 1353.

in being

220 Etisehms and Hilary

from

we too withdraw
which through ignorance we did amiss we

as to the

silent

restore Italy. Liherius adojjts

all

word

'

Substance,'

hold as excommunicate, Auxentius, Ursacius, Valens,


Gains, Megasius, and Justin [six of the ten legates

from Ariminum] according

to the tenor of your letters

the blasphemies which you have sub-

and condemn all


joined to your letters specially rejecting their apostate Bishops, who, through the ignorance or impiety
;

of some, have been set in the place of brethren banished most shamefully; promising before God, that

whoever within France shall resist these enactments


shall be cast out from our communion and his Episcopal See."

They announce

sisted this decree, had,

ters of our brethren,

that "Saturninus,

who

according to two^ previous

been excommunicated by

all

relet-

the

GaUican Bishops."

Unity and
S.

Eusebius and

faith
S.

being thus restored in France,

Hilary laboured together for the re-

storation of Italy, A. D. 363. S. Hilary chiefly, through


his natural gentleness

persuasiveness.^

and

"Thus

placidity, his learning

these

two men,

like

and

magni-

ficent lights of the world, irradiated, with their brightness,

lUyricum,

Italy,

and France;

so that the darkness

of the heretics was scattered even from their dark


corners."

At

this

time Liberius wrote "to the Catholic Bishops

throughout Italy," mentioning the severer judgments


b

i.

e.

he was excommunicated now for the

third time.

The

first

was

after the

Council of Milan A.D. 355. (S. Hil. c. Const. . 2.) The sentence, probably, was
renewed after the Council of Bcziers. (dc y\ n. . 3. Bened. Note ad loc.) Id.
i

liuf.

i.

31.

C. of Alexandria, Bps. of Italy zmite to Illyricum.

of some; "but'^

I,

who ought

to weigh

this

things calmly,

and Greeks have

especially since all the Egyptians

adopted

all

221

judgment, think that those who acted

in ignorance at

Ariminum ought

to be spared, the

authors of the heresy being condemned."

Liberius

adopts altogether the decision at Alexandria

"

any

if

give himself wholly to the Apostolic and Catholic


Faith, which existed

up

to the

They were the

of Nice."

meeting of the Synod

terms, on which he

Soon

himself been received back.

after "t\].e

'

had

Bishops

of Italy wrote a congratulatory letter to their most

beloved brethren, who throughout Illyricum, retain


the faith of the Fathers."

They formally rescind the

decrees of Ariminum, and ask the Bishops of Illyricum


" Since Italy has returned to the faith
to join therein.
of the Fathers,

i.

e.

the deceit to which


rejoice that

God

the Creed framed at Nice, owning


it

was subjected

and joy with you,

also,

is

decision,

fel-

has begun to approve

Receive then, dearest brethren, our


subscrip-

receive the Creed of Nice against Arius

Sabellius,

herited.

it

which we have confirmed with our

We

tion.

and

right.

Ariminum, we

having cast aside the

that,

lowship with faithlessness,

what

at

has looked graciously on Illyricum

We,

whose condemnation Photinus has


with reason, by consent of

all

in-

the pro-

vinces [of Italy], rescind the decrees of the Council


of Ariminum, which, through the

some, were corrupted;


to send copies, lest
k

S. Hil. Frajrm. xii.

it
1.

and

tergiversation of

we have decided

of this

should be thought that there


'

lb.

3,

222

S.

Atk

obtains stibscriptions to C. of Alexandria

was any disunion

either as to retaining the faith, or

Ariminum. Whoever then


communion with our united body, let

rejecting the Council of


desires to be in

him with

all

speed confirm our sentence, sending dis-

and

tinctly his subscription to the Nicene Creed,

rescinding of the Council of Ariminum.

his

We only ask

what we ourselves give with the consent of these many


provinces."

France, Italy, Illyricum, Achaia, Egypt, were thus


at rest.

The times

and

cil,

did not admit of a General Coun-

Athanasius thought that the emerging

S.

heresy of Macedonius, who was beginning to deny

Godhead of the Holy Ghost, was as yet sufficiently met by the Nicene Creed, as it then existed.
"For the Fathers of Nice," he says, "glorified the
Holy Ghost together with the Father and the Son
in the one faith of the Trinity, because in the Holy

the

Trinity there
S.

is

One Godhead."

Athanasius, then, resorted to the same

way

of

collecting the sense of the Church, which had been


adopted in the second century, about the keeping of

and which he himself had followed in the


confirmation of the Council of Sardica," by obtaining

Easter,'"

Synodical letters from the different Churches throughThus in the brief space of the year
out the world.

and a half of Julian's


" See

reign," S.

"

above, p. 50. sqq.

Constantius died Nov. 11, A. D. 361.

the Senate, Dec.

11. He

succeeded by Jovian, June

Athanasius had brought

Ab.

p. 140.

Julian was declared Augushis by

pviblished his edict soon afterwards


26. or 27.

A. D. 363.

fell,

and was


thro'

Synodical

letter8from

almost all the Church. 223

together the testimony of ahnost the whole hving

He

Church, that they adhered to the faith of Nice.


states this in his letter to Jovian

on

his accession

*'Know,p most religious Emperor, that these things

were preached from the beginning;

this faith the

assembled at Nice confessed; this

all

Fathers

the Churches

everywhere now in their places receive, in Spain and


Gaul, and the w^hole of Italy, Dalmatia, Dacia, and

and the whole of Greece, and


throughout all Africa, and Sardinia, and Cyprus,
Crete, Pamphylia, Lycia, and Isauria, and those in
Egypt and Libya, Pontus and Cappadocia, and the
Mysia, Macedonia,

Churches near

us,

and those

in the East, except a

The mind of
the fore-mentioned we know by actual trial, and

few wdiich hold the opinions of Arius.


all

we have

their letters.

And

thou knowest, most religious

Emperor, that though some few oppose


they can create no prejudice,

this Creed,

when

the whole world

later,

about A. D. 369,

holds the Apostolic Faith."


S.

Athanasius, a few years

from the Bishops of Egypt and


Libya to those of Africa Proper, mentions some additional countries, but states distinctly that this adherence to the Nicene Creed was given by Synods.

in a Synodical letter

by our beloved fellowminister Damasus, Bishop of the great Rome, and


those so many Bishops who met in Council with him
"1

P
1

What was

written both

Ep. ad Jovian. . 2, p. 781.


Ep. Episc. ^g. et Lib. et. S. Ath,

c.

Arian. ad Ep. Afr.

iuit.

T.

i.

p. 891.

224

Coimcils enact nothing new, but re-affirm the old.

might have

sufficed

and no

less tlie writings

of the

other Synods which were held in Gaul and Italy con-

cerning the sound

which Christ bestowed, the

faith,

Apostles preached, and the Fathers, assembled in Nice

from our whole world, handed


their zeal

who had
who had

For so great was

do-wii.

on account of the Arian heresy, that they


should be plucked out, and they

fallen into it

devised

it,

should be

made

the whole world long since agreed


there have been

many

Synods,

all

To

manifest.

and now

this

too, that

in Dalmatia,

and

Dardania, Macedonia, the Epiri and Greece, Crete

and the other

Islands,

Pamphylia,

Cyprus,

Sicily,

Lycia and Isauria, the whole of Egypt and Lybia, and

most of those in Arabia, having


fore them, confirmed

who had

subscribed

even

any

if

it

it

and they reverenced those

[the Nicene Fathers] because,

bitterness

yet survived

among them,

springing up from the root of the Arians,


tius

brought be-

this again

i.

e.

Auxen-

and Ursacius, and Valens and those who hold the

same

opinions, they

had been cut

off

and

rejected

by

these letters."

The

object of these Councils was, not to

add any

thing to what had been done by the Council of Nice,

but to show that the main body of the Bishops, however some had for the time been imposed upon
pleas about Scriptural terms,

which was confessed


S.

at Nice.

really held

"I

Athanasius in his celebrated

'

init.

T.

i.

p. 901.

for

my

letter to

by

the faith
part," says

Epictetus,

^ Ariminum.

Contrast of the issue of Councik of Nice

^'thought that

all

the idle speaking of

all heretics

225

what-

had been silenced through the Council at Nice.


For the faith therein confessed by the Fathers according

soever

to the Divine Scriptures is sufficient to overthrow all

ungodliness, and to establish the godly Faith in Christ.

now

Therefore, whereas

Sjmods

in Gaul, Spain,

many
Rome,^ aU who have

too there have been

and great

moved by one Spirit, have unanimously anathematized those who still secretly hold
the Arian opinions; I mean Auxentius in Milan, Urassembled, as though

and Gains of Pannonia. And since


these people devised to themselves names of Synods,
they wrote everywhere that none be called a Synod

sacius, Yalens,

in the Catholic Church, save only the SjTiod held at

Nice, which

was a trophy

specially the Arian,

was
still

chiefly held.

by

How

set

up over aU

then, after all this,

venture to question or dispute ?

The

heresy,

Synod
do some

reason of which the

relation of Councils to the

"

whole Church, of

which even General Councils are the representatives,


is illustrated by the different issue of the two Councils

Over and above the


Ariminum condemned here-

of Nice and Ariminum.

fact, that the

Bishops at

sy, while free,

and suppressed the

truth, under threats, the

Council of Nice was con-

Ariminum was
The confirmation or rejection by the

firmed by the whole Church


rejected by

it.

whole Church

clear expression of

set the seal

In contrast -with

that of

to

"Xew Rome" or

the character of the

Constantinople.

226

Council of Nice received everywhere, even

Council

wliicli

represented

*'

it.

to

The Council
*

India ;
of Nice

became CEcamenical, three hundred and eighteen


Bishops assembling concerning the Faith, because of
the Arian impiety
partial

Councils,

that even

It is full of piety,

all

against

For

any should seek something


beloved

it

hath

filled

the

This the Indians too acknowledged,

among the other Barbarians.


their toil who "are often striving

the Christians

Vain therefore
or

under pretext of the Faith, but

lack, that

whole world.

and

that there might no longer be

there were, they might not hold.

if

what did that

new

is

For these people have already held ten

it.

more Synods, changing

things from the

first,

and

in each, taking

away some

following changing

in the

and adding. And they have gained nothing up to the


present time, writing, erasing, forcing, not knowing
that

every plant, which the Heavenly Father hath

not planted, shall be rooted


the Lord which

But the

up.'

Word

came by the QEcumenical

of Nice remaineth for ever.

For

if

number with number, they of Nice


Councils, as much as the whole is

of

Council

any one compare

surpass the partial


greater than the

part."

The Arians exaggerated


shops at Ariminum to
t

Ep. ad. Afr.

2. p.

the numbers of the Bi-

eight

hundred and

thirty."

892.

Memorial to the Emperors, calls them six hundred. " I


think, most pious Emperors, that the unity of six hundred Bishops is not to be
reopened through the contentiousness of a few men." in S. Hil. c. Aux. . 13.
Philostorgius calls them three hundred only. (iv. 10.) Julian the Pelagian taunted the Church, as though out of six hundred and fifty, some seven only had
stood, (in S. Aug. Op. Imp. c. Jul. i, 75.) S. Athanasius says that there were
" Aiixentius in his

Council of

A riminum left scarce a vestige.

227

The Church could afford to argue, as if this were true.


The judgment of the Episcopate of the whole Church
confirmed the faith taught by the three hundred and
eighteen at Nicaea

it

corrected the timidity of those

Ariminum, and would have annulled

at

had they even been eight hundred and


for their plea with the ignorant, 'are

many

the

or the few

'

says S.

their decision,

" As

thirty.

we

to believe

Fulgentius,"" in that

the Council of Nice was celebrated with three hundred

and eighteen Fathers, whereas they boast that of


Ariminum amounted to eight hundred and thirty

will

explain

amid a few

The Homoousion, put

briefly.

[as

was alleged]

so prevailed, that

to the knowledge of the other

forth

coming

Bishops throughout

the whole world, they joyed in the honor of confessing

it.

Had

the Synod of Ariminum met in those

vast numbers which these assert, the Bishops of that

would multiply throughout the world, its people


would increase, its faith would occupy the Empire
But when the craft of its fraud was detected
itself.

sect

through prudent and approved men, the Homoousion


was so confirmed, that we see that scarce a vestige of

Ariminum remained wherewith to prove the Catholics."


The Semi-Arians and Donatists also availed themselves of Julian's permission to return to their Sees.

The Donatist

conventicles will best be considered to-

more than four hundred Bishops there. (Counc. Arun. . 8. p. 82.


O. T.) The Synodical Epistle of the Bishops of Egypt and Lybia
the present text) two hundred.
^

pro fide Cath.

3.

p.

893.

ix. p.

270.

. 3.

B. P. T.

Q 2

33. p. 130.

calls

them

(in

!;

228

Synods of Macedonian and Avian Bishops.

gether.

"

The

"^

gan openly

whom

party of Macedonius, of

Eleusius, Eustathius, and Sophronius,

were

who now

be-

be called Macedonians, as being parted

to

by the death of

into a distinct sect, being enabled

Constantius to act fearlessly, having called together


their

associates at

Seleucia, held

Synods

certain

and rejected the Acacians and the Creed confirmed


at

Ariminum, and approved that

and confirmed
lessly

at Seleucia.

differing

with

the

set forth at Antioch,

When blamed

for need-

Acacians, whereas before

they had communicated with them as being of one


mind, Sophronius of Paphlagonia answered,

Westerns approve of the


in

the East *the

'

Of One

'

The

Substance,' Aetius

Unlikeness in

The

Substance.'

Westerns confound the Persons of the Father and


the Son.

Aetius removed too far the relationship of

the Nature of the Son from the Father.


reverent in saying that the Son

'

is

like in

We

are

Substance'

to the Father, and have chosen a middle way, the


others

going to opposite extremes.'

"

As

if

there

could be any middle term between the Creator and


the creature, or as

if

any being, who was not God,

Equal with the Father, could be other than a creature

The

little

party of Aetius also

made

its

Synod.

Eudoxius wrote to Euzoius of Antioch to gather a

Synod to absolve Aetius from his condemnation. Eunomius with five Arian Bishops from Africa, who
before would not condemn Aetius,"" consecrated him
""

Soz.

V.

H.

" ah. p. 205.

Synodical Epistle

Bishop

to instruct the

Constantinople/

at

time, having gathered a

Emperor Jovian.

Euzoius, at

229
same

tlie

Synod of nine Bishops, an-

nulled the sentence against Aetius.

God

took away Julian, while threatening

evil to

the Christians, and gave them, through Jovian, an


eight months' peace. Jovian, elected by Julian's
in its difficulties,

within

foot

set

was a Catholic.
Empire, he

his

the banished Bishops

recalling

" As
first

army

soon as he

passed a law

and restoring the

Churches to those who held the Nicene Faith invio-

He

late.

wrote also to Athanasius, requesting him

him in writing accurate instruction in Divine


But he, gathering the best Divines of the
things.
Bishops together, wrote back exhorting him to keep

to send

the Faith set forth at Nice, as agreeing with the

The

Apostolic doctrine."

letter is inscribed,

" Atha-

and the other Bishops who met together, in


behalf of all the Bishops of Egypt, the Thebais and

nasius

The

Libya."
S.

Athanasius

Epistle

is

chiefly a statement of facts.

on the

insists

fact of the receptioti of

the Nicene Creed. " It was acknowledged and pro-

claimed everywhere in every Church."

"The ^Empe-

ror having read the letter was firmer in his

know-

ledge and disposition as to Divine things."

The Macedonian

Bishops, on their side, attempted

to gain Jovian to expel the

Anomoeans, and reinstate

themselves.

"

At

'

that time Basil Bishop of

y Philostrg. vii. G.
"

Theod.

iv. 4.

Theod.
"=

Soz.

iv. 2, 3.

vi. 4.

Ancyra and
-''

S.

Ath. de

fid.

Silvaad. Jov.

230 Semi-Arians ash Jovian

to

hold Synods de novo. C. of

nus Bishop of Tarsus, and Sophronius Bishop of


Pompeiopolis, and their party

'^

who

rejected the heresy

of the Anomceans, but accepted the


instead of the

stance'

petition to the

'of

One

'

of like Sub-

Substance,' sent a

Emperor, asking that either what had

been settled at Ariminum and Seleucia should remain


firm,
spirit

and what had been done through the partyand power of certain persons, be void, or that

the schism, which existed between the Churches before


the Synods, remaining, the Bishops everywhere be

lowed to meet where they

no other taking

selves,

al-

by themAt the same time a

willed, themselves

part.^

Synod being assembled in Antioch of Syria, the faith


of those who had met at Nice is confirmed, and it is
decreed, that questionless the Son be held to be of
One Substance with the Father. In this Synod Meletius, who had then the charge of the Church of Antioch

itself,

and Eusebius of Samosata,

[S.]

Pelagius of

Laodicea, Acacius and [S.] Irenio of Gaza, and Atha-

Having done this, they


shewed the Emperor what they had decreed, writing
thus
To our most religious Lord Jovian, the Synod

nasius of Ancyra, took part.

'

of Bishops met in Antioch from different Provinces.'

Thus did the Bishops then


names four other Bishops.

Socr.

" Nicephorus explains

iii.

25.

present at Antioch de-

tliis

of secular Officers who, at the command of the Em-

perors, wei-e present at Synods to keep order or to help (see ab. p. 127-8. 189-92.) For

he

substitutes the

words "no layman taking part"

[;u^ riphsKorr/xiKov kolvoivovvtos

Yet these words may be understood of Bishops


themselves, and perhaps better. For Basil, Silvanus and others, asked that each
Bishop might call Synods together within his own diocese, no other Bishop be-

for

^uTjSej/bs

&\\ov

ing present."

KoivttivovvTos.']

Vales.

"

Antiocli. Macedonians apply to Valentinian^- Valens.

231

own letter in its very words


the faith set forth by those who met at Nice." Socrates
adds the names of twenty-seven Bishops who subcree, subjoining to their

scribed

it,

including besides the above, Titus ofBostra,

Anatolius of Beroea, Isaac of Armenia Major

and of

the Acacians, Evagrius, Uranius, Zoilus, Eutychius,

Peter of Hippi, Arabion, Magnus, and Acacius himSocrates says

self.

"we found

this

book

in Sabinus'

collection of Synodical Transactions."

Valentinian succeeded Jovian, February 26. A. D.


364. and, associating his brother Yalens Avith himself,

assigned to

him

the East.

'

As

Valentinian was jour-

neying through Thrace from Constantinople to Rome,


the Bishops of Hellespont and Bithynia and as many
others as held that the Son was 'of^One Substance'

with the Father, delegate Hypatian Bishop of Heraclea to request to be permitted to meet [in Synod] for
the

correction

made

the celebrated

rank of a layman,
things

it is

not lawful to meddle in these

the Bishops, whose

let

To these Valentinian
answer; "For^ me who hold the

of doctrine."

office

it

is,

meet by

themselves where they will."


Soon after, " Valens remaining at Constantinople,
^

very
^

of the Bishops of the Macedonian sect

many

Soz. vi.

7.

Sozomen probably supposed these Bishops to have been sincere


Some correct Homoiousion " of like

in professing the Nicene faith to Liberius.

Substance."

Sozomen appears to have had some knowledge of this characteristic answer


who only menof Valentinian, and so to have corrected the account of Socrates
In the early days
tions the application which the Macedonians made to Valens.
Bishops
of their Empire, just on its division, it is probable that the Macedonian

applied to both brothers.

'

Socr.

iv. 2.

232

made

Macedonian Synod of Lampsacus.


"

The King, supposing


them to agree with the Acacians and Eudoxians, permitted it. They speedily gathered a Synod at Lampsacus." "And ^having consulted for two months, they
at last decided that what had been done at Constantinople through Eudoxius and Acacius should
be annulled." They adopted the word " of like Substance"asbeing^ necessary in their judgment "to distinguish the Persons" of the Father and the Son. "Then,
having confirmed anew ihQ Creed of Antioch, which
they had also subscribed at Seleucia, they anathematized the Creed set forth at Ariminum by those who
were lately joined in opinion with them and anew
they condemned Acacius and Eudoxius, as justly dethe

same request

to him.

"They decreed moreover that the Bishops


deposed by the Anomoeans should recover their Sees, as

posed."

having been unlawfully ejected from their Churches.


If

any one wished

the like

risk.

he should do

to accuse them,

it

The judges should be the orthodox

at

Bi-

shops of the province and the neighbouring provinces,

meeting in that Church, where are the witnesses

Having decreed this, and summoned the Eudoxians and allowed them repentance,
they, upon the non-compliance of the Eudoxians, published to the Churches everywhere, what they had
of the

life

of each.

decreed." "

not gainsay

Eudoxius

""

Bishop of Constantinople, could


the

all this, for

civil

war hindered him.

Wherefore Eleusius Bishop of Cyzicus and his party


"

Soz,

1.

"

The

revolt of riocopius.

c.

'

Socr.

iv. 4.

""

Soz.

1,

c.

"

Socr.

I.

c.

alens employs Synod ofAvian Bps.ag- Semi- Avian

became

233

stronger, having sanctioned the doctrine of

Macedonius, before of

little

account, but then

much

more kno^ai in the Synod at Lampsacus. I think


that this Synod was the cause that the Macedonians
For Lampsacus is
are numerous on the Hellespont.
on the strait of the Hellespont." " The ^ Emperor,
having prospered, again harassed the Christians, wishing to Arianize every religion.

The S}Tiod

Lam-

at

psacus especially angered him, not only for deposing


the Arianizing Bishops, but because it also anathe-

matized the Creed of Ariminum, He sent then for


Eleusius to Nicomedia and having gathered a Council
of Bishops of the Arian heresy, constrained

him

to

join their faith."

The

Historians differ as to the time

when Valens

He was seduced by his wife, who


fell into Arianism.
had been misled by Eudoxius. Theodoret is at pains
to shew that he was orthodox at first,^ but was bapby Eudoxius when about to march against the
Goths A. D. 368. Socrates ' and Sozomen speak of
him as an Arian from the first. Plainly, he must have
tized

'

been an Arian, before he chose

whom

to

receive

overt line at

whom

Probably, he took no

Baptism.

first,

and allowed

he had received

his

from

Eudoxius,

his

brother from

power, to prefix his name

to the Imperial letter to the Bishops of Asia.

The

persecutions of Valens began A. D. 366.

persecuted

lb. iv. 6,

all

who were not


1

Theod.

iv. 7.

and

12.

He

Arians, the Orthodox,

'

iv. 1.

'

vi. 6.

234

Sy7iocls

the

of Semi- Avian Bisliops returning

to the

Faith.

Novatians, as being orthodox on the doctrine

of the
Arians.

Trinity,

" In

and the Semi-Arians as not being

Thrace, Bithynia, the Hellespont, and

beyond, the Emperor and Eudoxius


thodox, neither churches nor priests.

left to

the Or-

In these parts

they directed their chief efforts against the Macedonians, as far

outnumbering them." This persecution of

the Semi-Arians was, in God's hands, the means of

bringing back a large section of the Semi-Arians to

The Macedonian Bishops, persecuted


"
decided " that they must betake themby Valens,
the Church.

Emperor of the
West) and to Liberius Bishop of Rome, and embrace
their faith rather than communicate with the EudoxThey sent therefore Eustathius, Silvanus, and
ians.
Theophilus with letters which they wrote, having
gathered Synods, from Smyrna, Pisidia, Isauria, Pamselves to his brother (Valentinian

phylia, Lycia."

The

three Bishops stated, " in the

book which they presented to Liberius, ' We acknowledge the Synod of orthodox Bishops which
took place in Lampsacus and Smyrna and divers
other places, of which Synod ^ we, being the legates,
bring to your Goodness and to

all

the Bishops of

and the West, a writing, that we hold and keep


viz. that, which having been conthe Catholic faith
and eighteen Bishops in
hundred
three
the
firmed by
Italy

the holy Council of Nice, in time of the blessed Constantine, abides


t

Soz. vi. 10.

" all the

till

now and

continually, undefiled

" Socr. iv. 12.

Syuods agreeing, they speak of

all

as one." from Vales.

depute Bps. to Liherius <^'Bps. of the West; their answer. 235

and unshaken

wherein the Homoousion stands holily

and piously against the perversions of Arius."

This

they promise to keep to the end, condemning Arius

and

his

of like

impious doctrine, with his disciples and those

mind

also all heresies of the Patropassians,

Photinians, Marcellians,

Sabellius, the Marcionites,

and Paul of Samosata and

their teaching,

like-minded with them, and

all

heresies

and

all

opposed to

the aforesaid holy faith, which was holily and Catholically set forth

the Creed

by the holy fathers

at Nice, &c.

and

Ariminum,

recited at the Council of

as

being contrary to the above Creed of Nice, which


Acts,

being brought from Nice to Constantinople,

they, persuaded through craft and perjury, subscribed." "This confession,

Eustathius, Bishop of Sebas-

and Theophilus and Silvanus legates of the Synods of Lampsacus, Smyrna and the rest, subscribe.'*

tia,

The answer

of Liberius

Liberius, Bishop of the

Macedonians."

and

entitled "

is

The

Epistle of

Romans, to the Bishops of the

It runs,

"

To

our beloved brethren

fellow-Bishops Eustathius, Cyril," (and sixty-one

others

who

are

named) "and

to all the

orthodox Bi-

shops in the East, Liberius Bishop,^ (and those) of


Italy,

and the Bishops

that " almost

all

those

in the

who

West."

w^ere at

He

mentions

Ariminum and

were deceived or led away, had now recovered, and


" Epiph. Schol.

vii. 25.

has " Liberius Bishop, and the Western Bishops."

Vales, prefers this, or to add otre before rrfs \ra\ias, to Socrates' reading,
" Bishop of Italy."
Liberius speaks a little afterwards of "the faith of my
Leastship, and of those in Italy

and

with the memorial of the three Bishops,

all

the Westerns," which corresponds

p. 234.

236

Synods in

Sicily

and Tyana

to restore the faith.

had anathematized the Creed of those who met at


Ariminum, and suhscribed the CathoUc and Apostolic
sanctioned at Nice

faith,

their acts, he adds,

''

"

and having rehearsed

we have known through the

confession of your legates, that the Easterns, having

recovered, agree with the Orthodox of the Westerns."

"Having received this letter, Eustathius and those


with him went to Sicily and having procured a
Synod of the Sicilian Bishops to be held, and having,
;

before them, confessed the faith of the Homoousion,

and confirmed the

faith of Nice,

them too

of the

those

letters

who

having received from

same import, returned to

sent them."

This, as far as relates to Eustathius himself, was

hypocrisy, and he

made

use of the restoration to the

See, thus obtained, to the furtherance of his

heresy

but

it

The

the East and West.

held that "the Son was in

legates explained that they


all

things like the Father,"

and that the word "like," "Homoios"


ing) no

way

Substance."
Liberius,

who

own

was a step to a better understanding of

differed

(in their

mean-

from " Homoousion," " of one

This letter was one of the

last acts of

died Sept. 24. A. D. 366. and was suc-

ceeded by Damasus.

"^Atthat time Eusebius Bishop of Csesarea, Pelagius


of Laodicea, Zeno of Tyre, Paul of Emesa, Otreus of
Melitine and Gregory of Nazianzum (father of S. Gre-

gory of Nazianzum

and many others who,

in the

reign of Jovian had decreed at Antioch to retain


* Soz. vi. 12.

Synod of Tarsus stopped by Vdlens ; Bps. banished. 237


the Homoousion,

holding a Synod at

letters of Liberius

and others of the

And

Tyana, the

West were

read.

being exceedingly glad thereat, they wrote to

all

the Churches, to read the decrees of the Bishops of the

West, and the

letters of Liberius,

and the

Italians,

Africans, Galatians in the West, and Sicilians, (for the

Lampsacus had brought their letters also)


and to consider their number; for they far exceeded
They wrote
in number the Synod at Ariminum.
also that they should be of one mind and communicate

legates from

with them, and signify by their own writing that they


are of the same opinion, and meet in the spring at Tarsus, at a

day which they

fixed.

But when the Synod

to be held at Tarsus, about thirty-four of

was about

met in Caria of Asia, praised their zeal for the harmony of the Churches, but declined the word Homoousion, and affirmed that the

the Asiatic Bishops, having

Creed

set forth at

vail, as

Antioch and Seleucia ought to pre-

being that of Lucian the Martyr, and having

been approved by those before them with perils and


much toil. The Emperor, instigated by Eudoxius, dissolved the

in Cilicia, writing

thereupon

He commanded also the

Governors

Synod expected

and adding

threats.

of the Provinces severally to expel from the Churches

the Bishops deposed in the time of Constantius and

who

resumed their office in the reign of Julian."


In the same year, Ursacius and Valens, Gains and
Paul, Anomoean Bishops, wrote from a Synod at Sigedin,^'

to

Germinius Bishop of Mursa (under threat of eny

S.

ffil.

Fiagm.

xiy. p. 1360.

238 Avians against Semi- Avians ; Synods undev Damasus.

some complaint of ill-treatment by two of


his Clerks made against him to their fellow-Bishops)
to request him to explain, that he was also an Ano-

tertaining

moean.

Germinius wrote back^ to eight other Bishops

there assembled, that he learnt and taught clearly, that

*'Our Lord Christ, the Son of God,


ther in

all

things, except that the

the

In

gotten."

Confession,""

is

Fa-

like to the

Father was Unbe-

which occasioned the

Arian Synod of Sigedin, Germinius said that he "believed in Christ, the Only Son of [God the Father] and
our Lord God, the Very^ Son of God, of the Very
the Father, Begotten before
in

all

things, like in all things,

Love, Power, Glory, Life,

Divinity,

God

Wisdom,

Knowledge, Majesty, to the Father, as being Begotten Perfect from Perfect."

Damasus,

at the

beginning of his Episcopate, was

occupied with the opposition of his wicked rival Ursinus.

S.

Athanasius and his Council A. D. 369. men-

tion to the African Bishops a letter written against

him and the Bishops who had met in


Synod with him.'' And " we ^ thanked " he says, " his
(Damasus') Piety and the rest who met at Rome, that

the Arians by

casting out Ursacius and Valens, with their associates

of the same mind, they preserved the peace of the

Church." Nothing more


does

it

is

known

of this Council, nor

appear what remained for Damasus and

his

rragm. xv.
This form while it approches in sound to
Fragm. xiii.
the Nicene Creed, only asserts our Lord to be " the Very Son," not to be
Very God. see Gesta Cone. Aquil. ap. S. Ambr. Epist. T. ii. p. 790. 1.
2 lb.

<=

''

see ab. p. 223.

Ep. ad Episc. Afr.

10. p. 899.

Large C. of Alexandria ivarns against Auxentius.


Council to do

Bishops

239

since a previous Council of Italian

had, in the

time of Liberius, declared them

already condemned.^

In a second Council of forty-four Bishops/

Dama-

sus was cleared of a calumnious charge of adultery,

and the calumniators


A. D. 369.

demned by

cast out of the Church.

One Chronopius, an " ex-Bishop

a Council of seventy Bishops,^ appealed to

the prefect of the city, and was

demned.

" con-

by him again con-

This second sentence Chronopius attempted

to suspend by a

new

appeal.

He

thereby incurred a

heavy fine, which the Emperor, Valentinian the Elder,


directed to be "faithfully expended on the poor." This

was now made a law "

for all Ecclesiastical causes."

This Chronopius perhaps belonged to the faction of


Ursinus.

A. D. 371. S. Athanasius wrote in the

name

of a

large Council to ''our^ beloved Damasus, Bishop of

Great Rome, against Auxentius, invader of the Church


at Milan, setting forth, that he was not only involved
in the Arian heresy, but

was guilty of many offences,

which he had committed together with Gregory [the


Arian invader of the See of S. Athanasius] the partner
of his ungodliness, and marvelling why he was not

The same

yet deposed and cast out of the Church."

Synod, which in

its

the African Bishops

Epistle to

mentions the Epistle which it had sent to Damasus,


urged the African Bishops to reject those who
e

see ab. p. 220. S. Hil. Frag. xii. p. 1359.


Quorum appellat leg. 20. T.

Cod. Theod.

Ep. ad Afr.

10. p. 899.

'

Gest. Pontific. Cone.

iv. p.

307. Cone.

ii.

lOiO.

ii.

1037.

240

Auxentius condemned by Bps. of Gaul and Italy,

maintained the Council of Ariminum against the


but all the BiNicene. " Not we alone write this
;

shops in Egypt and Africa, ninety in number.

same mind, and subscribe one

all are of the

others
S.

For

for the

they happen to be absent."

if

Hilary also wrote a circular letter to " his most

beloved brethren, the Bishops and

abode

people,

all

who

in the faith of the Fathers," against Auxentius.^

In consequence of the appeal of the Council of

Damasus assembled

Alexandria,

ninety-three

or

Bishops

Rome, " to hear the cause

a Council of ninety

from Italy and Gaul at


of Auxentius and set forth

the faith."

The

Letter of the Council was Encyclical.

was addressed

Synod

The Bishops who met

in sacred

Rome, Damasus, Valerian and the

at

brethren the

their beloved

They

"

state

"

By

Bishops

in

One

rest, to

Illyricum."

the report of certain Gallican [S.

Hilary] and Venetian brethren [Philastrius and Evagrius]

we have

Which

sy.

learnt that certain are set

evil.

upon here-

Bishops ought not only to forecast,

but they ought also to

resist

what

done by the

is

ignorance or simplicity of some, deceived by wrong


interpretations.

doctrines

Fathers.

on

I'

It

Auxent.

90. in

Ep.

is

decided that Auxentius of Milan

Theod.

ii.

It

is

is

right

p. 1263. sqq.
6.

Damasi Cone.

ii.

1031. and Theod.

ii.

22. sqq.

lished by Luc. Holsteiu has 93. Pontif. Ep. p. 165. Cone.


'

divers

they must rather retain the belief of our

ground especially condemned.

this
c.

They must not be shaken by

22.

ii.

The copy pub-

1013.

B])s.

then

atAriminum kneiv not what they did.

that

all

the

teachers

Roman

the

in

should be of the same mind and not

241
world

defile the faith

by divers teaching. For when the malice of heretics


began to put forth, as now too especially the blas-

phemy

of the Arians

fathers, the three

having considered

is

stealthily spreading, our fore-

hundred and eighteen Bishops,


it

at Nice, placed this wall against

the darts of the devil, and by this antidote removed

Father and the Son are of

his deadly poisons, that the

One

One Godhead,

Substance,

persons,

who,

at

&c.

But those very

Ariminum, were constrained to

change or to tamper with

this formula, corrected this

so far, as to confess that they

had been misled

into

other language, because they did not observe, that

was contrary

it

to the decision of the Fathers at Nice.

Your sound mind then

perceives that this faith alone

which was founded at Nice on the authority of the


Apostles,

is

of the East,

to be kept firm for ever,

who

But we believe
those otherwise minded will,

the Westerns, with us, glory in


that,

by

in

and that those

profess that they are Catholics, and

no great time,

it.

the very attempt, be severed fi'om our

nion,

and

that the very

name

commu-

of Bishop will be taken

from them, so that the people may breathe again,


For thez/ cannot recall
freed from their errors.
the people from error,

who

are themselves held

by the

meshes of

error.

Let your judgement, beloved, agree

Sozomen

(vi. 23.)

and Epiphanins Schol. have been followed in leaving


which are omitted also in the

out the clause Ka\

Cod. Reg. and

ol iK rrjs Vco/jloIoov ayioordrtis

edit. Basil, ap. Vales.

It bears the

appearance of an addition.

C. ofAntiocli confirms letters of Western Bishojys.

242
with

all

the Priests [Bishops] of

you are firm and

lieve that

you

to join with

God, wherein we be-

steadfast.

If then

we

are

in the right faith, gladden us, beloved,

with letters in return."

Another copy'' of the


the Synod

said to have

is

script," the

letter

is

preserved, in which

been held by " imperial re-

Bishops to have been ninety-three, and

the Synodal letter

is

addressed to " the Catholic Bi-

shops throughout the East."

The

letter

is

authenti-

cated by the subscription of Sabinus,"! Sabinus Deacon, legate of Milan, gave this from the original."
'*

The whole Eastern Church, having

at Antioch, believing

held a Council

with a harmonious

faith,

all

consenting to the faith above expounded, each con-

firmed

it

by

his subscription.

Meletius Bishop of Antioch.

The list is headed by


Then follow Eusebius of

Samosata, Pelagius, Zeno, Eulogius, Bematius, Dio-

dorus of Tarsus, and " one hundred and forty

six, [or

one hundred and sixty three,] other Eastern Bishops,


the authentic copy of whose subscription
archives of the

The

Roman Church

is

kept in the

at this day."

Sjniodical letter of the Bishops of Italy

and

France was sent to the Bishops of the East, in consequence of the application of

S. Basil,

had restored peace among

own

his

who,

after

he

sufiragan Bishops,

" published by L, Holstein and in Cone. ii. 1043.


After the subscription of
Sabinus authenticating the Epistle, and before the subscriptions, there occur
statements on the Holy Trinity, and against Apollinarianisra, probably authentic,

since mention

is

them

all

thought

it

for

made of Dorotheus,

the Presbyter sent by S. Basil to the

names. The original contained


Theodoret says " I would have inserted their names, had I not

West. ap. Holstein

I. c.

superfluous."

This copy

specifies ten

S. Basil's efforts to reunite Church hy consent ofBps.

243

had been labouring unceasingly for the pacification


To this centre three plans convergof the Church.
ed:
1. To bring about a good understanding between the Easterns and AYesterns, so as to exhibit the
Church in one against the Arians. 2. To heal the

schism at Antioch between the adherents of

S.

Mele-

and Paulinus, by gaining the Westerns to acknow3. To bring back the Semi- Arians,
ledge S. Meletius.
tins

or Macedonians, to the Church.

The Roman Church,

whom

Lucifer had consecra-

by recognising Paulinus,

ted in opposition to Meletius, was itself the chief supporter of the schism at Antioch. S. Basil also hoped,
that

if

West were once

the East and

pressions

united, the op-

of Valens might be mitigated, or might

The Western Bishops had, on their side, to


explain to the Easterns, what they had done to rescind the Council of Ariminum, as also how, uncea-

cease.

singly

condemning Arius, they abstained from censu-

ring Marcellus, whose doctrines, ending in SabeUianism,

came

to the

same

result

Sabellianism

as Arianism.

being imputed to the Cathohcs by the Arians, there


was the more apparent reason to clear themselves

from sanctioning

The

it

in Marcellus.

fruits of S. Basil's labours

was gone

to his rest.

The Arian

admit of large Councils.


self to obtain

whom
The

the

persecutions did not

S. Basil therefore set

common

unite.

step in his plan of healing,

the reception of

S.

Meletius into the

r2

him-

consent of the Bishops,

he was endeavouring to
first

appeared after he

was

to obtain

communion of

244
S.

S. Basil labors

to

Athanasius and the West, since

with him.

" For

and Ms Bisliops

bring S. Meletius

the East held

all

the other affairs of the West," he

writes to S. Athanasius, " perhaps thou

must have the

and thou must needs wait for


the good order of the Church
But
those from the West.
at Antioch plainly depends upon your Piety to make
aid of

more

[Bishops],

an arrangement

as to

some [Paulinus,]

and through harmony to


Church. We look to you to
people,

and put an end to

to quiet others,

restore strength
still

the

to

the confusion of the

partial Presidencies [the

Episcopate of Paulinus over a few] and to subject


S. Basil

to one another in love."

clearly, at S. Athanasius' request

of the whole East, and


in all

ways joined

much

more

explains this
" It

the prayer

" is

by those who
Meletius] to see him

desired

to him, [S.

all

are
or-

dering the Church of the Lord, as being unblameable


in faith, and in

life

admitting of no comparison, and

as presiding over the

whole body

(so to say) of

the

Church, whereas the others are only segments of parts.


But it has not escaped your matchless wisdom, that
this

seems good to those one-minded with you in the

West, as the

letters shew,

brought to us by the

sed Silvanus

" [of

who had been

West,"! A. D. 366].

Tarsus,

In

his letter to

opens his hopes further.

S.

bles-

sent to the
Meletius, he

After regretting the delay,

he says; '""The opinion has prevailed, that this our brother Dorotheus should go over to Rome, to stir up some
of those from Italy to visit us, coming
S. Basil.
P

lb.

Ep. G7,

p. 160.

Ep.

by

sea, in

order

66, p. 159.

ab. p. 234,

5.

Ep. 08,

p. 160,

into

communion with

S. Athan.

and Bislwps of West. 245

would hinder [the Arians]. For


I saw that those in power near the Ruler, neither
will, nor can suggest any thing as to the expelled

to escape those wlio

[Bishops] but account

done in the Churches,

a gain, to see nothing worse

it

If then

your Prudence thinks

the plan useful, you will be so good as to frame

and make
speak, and

suggestions,

letters,

of what subjects he should

whom. And that your letters may be


the more accredited, by all means include all [Bishops]
Things
of one mind with you, though not present.
to

here are uncertain, Euippius [an Arian] having arrived,

For they threaten that

but declaring nothing.

they too will have a convention of their associates

from Armenia, Tetrapolis and

To
ing

S.

Athanasius,

whom

the same care of

all

S.

Cilicia."

Basil addresses as ''hav-

the Churches, as of that spe-

him by the Lord," he betakes himself as "the head of allj" and asks him to send over
Dorotheus, deacon of the Church of Antioch, accompanied by his letters or by some of his Clergy. "For it
seemed to us suitable to write to the Bishop of Rome,
cially entrusted to

to visit* things here,


for

it is difficult

and give an opinion,

any from those parts

by a common and synodical

decision,

himself in this matter, choosing

men

so that, since

to be sent here

he

may

act for

equal to the

fa-

tigues of the journey, and qualified through meekness

Ep. 69,

S. Basil uses

visit of equals,

tation.

The

the

office

Eoman

in

an unteclmical sense, of a friendly

controversialists have taken it) of a Visi-

of the legate was to he, not to mediate, hut to hring over

to S. Meletius those

with the West.

word elsewhere

not (as some

who were opposed

to

him, and

who were

in

communion

246 Some Eastern Bps.

W.

require

to

condemn Marcellus.

and firmness to admonish the perverse among us" [those

who separated from

S.

Meletius^'who might bring with

them the account of all which has been done since


Ariminum, to undo what had there been done through
constraint."
(as it

"

seems to

Some here

me

require also as an essential,

also), that

they should banish the

heresy of Marcellus, as pernicious and alien from the

sound

faith.

For

to this day, in all their letters, they

anathematize unceasingly the miserable Arius, and expel the Arians from their Churches

but they never

appear to have passed any censure on Marcellus,

This was attributed

put forth the opposite impiety."


to an unwillingness to

own

who

their mistake in

admitted him to communion in ignorance.

having
S. Basil

also suggests to S. Athanasius that the legates,

"when

they came, should not introduce schisms into the


Churches, but rather constrain those

same

belief, to unite."

S. Basil's letter to

touches on the same topics, reminding

which Dionysius of

who had

Rome had

the

Damasus "

him of the

rendered to

aid

the Church

of C^esarea, by letters of consolation and redeeming


captive Christians.

Before Dorotheus returned from Eome,

wrote again to

S.

S.

Basil

Athanasius, to obtain restoration of

communion with some with whom it had been sus" Since ^ all which among us is sound in
pended.
faith, is sincerely directed to the communion and
union with those of the same behef, we come boldly
to beseech

your forgiving
"

Ep.

82.

spirit, to
'

write to us
Ep.

70,

all

[the

S.Basil congratulates W. Bishops on


Bisliops]

247

tlieir faith,

one Epistle, admonishing us wliat we sliould

For they wish that the beginning of the discusAnd


sion as to communion should be made by thee.
do.

since perchance, in

memory

of the past, they

may

be

most pious father, send


objects of suspicion, do
me the letters for the Bishops, either through some
this,

trustworthy person of your own, or through Dorotheus,

our brother and fellow-deacon, which when


unless I

I will yet not deliver,

from them.
of

first

Else, I will bear the

I receive

receive answers

blame

all

the days

my life."

The Bishops

of Italy and France sent their answer to

he might transmit it to
Athanasius sent it on to

S. Athanasius, apparently that

whom

he thought

S. Basil.^ S. Basil

best.

S.

expressed his joy at the agreement

in the West, "shewing that the shepherds followed

the footsteps of the fathers, and fed the people of the


Lord with understanding." In this letter, addressed

"To

the most holy brethren and Bishops

in

the

West," S. Basil begs them, " speak out openly among


us that good preaching of the fathers, which over-

throweth the unhappy heresy of Arius, and buildeth


up the Churches in the sound doctrine, in which the

Son is confessed of One Substance with the Father,


and the Holy Ghost is, with equal honour, co-numbered and co-glorified so that, through your prayers
and aid, God may bestow on us also that same boldness in the truth, and the confession of the Divine and
;

* Ep. 90,

248

S. Basil sends letters of

saving Trinity,

wliicli

W.

He

Bis]io]js to S. Meletius.

has upon you.

In

all

which have been done by your Reverences

tilings

ac-

cording to the Canons, I assent, accepting your Apostolic zeal for the right faith."

on the Synodical

S. Basil sent

letter of the

Bishops

and Gaul, to S. Meletius, with whom he was


communion, and hence it is that the Epistle sent
from the West is subscribed by S. Meletius and the
of Italy

in

Bishops in communion with him, who were not in communion with the West, and not by Paulinus, who was.
S. Basil answered individually, by Sabinus, the letters written to him
and applied to S. Meletius to send
;

a Synodical letter in answer to that from the West.


So, he hoped,
letter is to

might union be brought about. "If any

be

^vlitten to

the West, since an answer

ought to be sent to them by one of ours^ do you

dic-

For having met with Sabinus the


they sent, I have Avritten both to the

tate the letter.

deacon,

whom

and to the Bishops in Italy and Gaul, and to


some who wrote to me privately. But it were well,
that one should be sent as from the Synod in common,
to carry back a second letter, which do you have
lUjrrians

framed."

S. Basil also tells S.

Meletius that he could

do nothing towards restoring communion between him

and

S.

Athanasius, unless

S.

Meletius,

been advised by evil counsellors

munion, should himself seek

it

was "inchned to be joined with


='Ep.89.

'^

who had before

to delay that

com-

that S. Athanasius

W5,"S. Basil says, "but

Ep. 258, Epiph.

. 3.

ashing him for answer from

was grieved

at

Synod which

he sends.

249

being sent away before witbout com-

munion, and tbat tbe promises

still

remain unful-

filled."

In consequence of

S. Basil's advice, S.

Meletius and

tliirty-one other Bishops sent a synodical letter "to

and holy brethren and fellowministers the like-minded Bishops in Italy and Gaul."

their

most

religious

After a heart-rending account of the condition to


which Arianism and persecution had reduced the

Churches " from^ the border of Ill;yTicum to the Thebais," they urge upon the Western Bishops, " there is
need of haste to save those who remain, and that

make up a full
Synod, so that not only the gravity of those who sent
them, but their own number also, may accredit them

many brethren should come, enough

to

and they may renew the Creed


written by our fathers at Nice, and proscribe heresy,
and speak what shall be for the peace of the Church."

in their restorations

Then, ha^ing asked their aid in bringing back those

who,"

confessing'^ the right faith,

had devised schism,"

;" Of a truth,
[the parties at Antioch] they conclude
most highly blessed is that which has been bestowed

upon your Piety by the Lord, that ye distinguish the


adulterate from the pure, and proclaim the faith of the
Fathers without suppression. We too receive it, and
recognize

it

as cast in the Apostolic mould, ourselves

too agreeing with


.

dical letter

Ep. 92.

is

and with aU which in the Synodown canonicaUy and lawfully."

laid

it,

"

2.

" 3-

250 Fresh

letter to

Among

West sent round to Bishoj^s

to suhscrihe.

those wlio sent this letter, there

great names
S. Basil, S.

*=

of

the

are

Meletius, S. Eusebius of Samosata,

S.

Gregory [of Nyssa]

S.

Pelagius [of Laodi-

ceaj perhaps S. Barses/ S. Bitus [of

Carrh^] Abram

of Batnae, a Confessor.

was yet winter," A. D. 373. S. Basil "received letters^ from the most pious Bishop Eusebius

While

it

[of Samosata] bidding that letters should again be

sent

He

to

about some church-matters.

the Westerns

wished too that the letter should be framed by us,

and subscribed by
Not knowing how

[the Bishops] in

all

to write thereon, I

communion.

have sent the

memorial to your Piety, that having read it and considered what will be brought to you by our most beloved brother and fellow-presbyter Sanctissimus, you

may

good

yourself be so

occur to you, and

we

as to frame thereon

what

will be ready to agree to

shall

it,

and

be conveyed quickly round to


the [Bishops] in communion, so that he who is to go
to the Bishops in the West, may carry with him all

will cause the letter to

the subscriptions."

wrote again to S. Meletius, later in the


"
same year, If ^ there seem to you any necessity for
the Epistle to the Westerns, be so good, when you
S. Basil

we may have
it subscribed by the like-minded Bishops, and may
have the subscriptions ready, made on a separate paper, which we can join on to that brought by our
have framed one, to send

Init.

"

Ep. 121.

'
f

it

to us, that

in S. Basil's text, "Bassiis." Tillcmonl S. Basil Art. 76,

Ep. 120.

Ep. 129.

3.

S. BaslTs

letter

251

returned; legation asked for.

brother and fellow-presbyter."

Eusebius seems to

S.

have wished some fresh letter to be written as a

re-

S. Basil did not wish to repeat himself, nor

minder.

did he think of any subject untouched upon, except

"to exhort them [the Western Bishops] not to receive


indiscriminately to communion those who came from
the East

the

side, to receive

but having chosen one

on the testimony of those in communion with it,


and not to give credit to every one who wrote, on the
plea of orthodoxy." For that thus they communicated

rest

with parties, most widely at variance with one another


on matters of faith. Somwhat later, " Evagrius ^ a
presbyter of Antioch,

who had gone

to the

West with

Eusebius [of Vercellae] returned from Rome asking


of us,"(S. Basil writes to S. Eusebius of Samosata,)" a
S.

word for word what they dictated


(for he brought us back our letter, as not approving
itself to the more precise of those there,) and that

letter containing

there should be some legation of trustworthy persons,


so that they

ing us."

The

might have some

S. Basil consulted S.

occasion for visit-

Eusebius as to

this.

came to no end. Letters, (as S. Basil


another,) seldom avail. "I ^do not expect that

negociations

says of

anything of any account

will result

sidering the precision of the


;

to carry

its

in answer,

Ep.

from

point.

letters,

con-

man, and the very nature

for discourse so transmitted

of letters

!i

fair

You must

is

not calculated

say much, hear

much

remove objections, bring contrary grounds

1.38. . 2.

'

Ep. 156. Evagr.

2.

252GravermattersreservedforBj9s. asjnllarsofthe Church.

support of your cause, nothing of which can words


do, thrown powerless and Hfeless on the paper." S. Bain

sil

had no one

to send to the

West,

whom

he thought

fitted for the office.

A. D. 375. letters came from Damasus, recognizing

more

distinctly Paulinus, to the exclusion of S.

tius.

The Count Terentius was thought

won by

to have

been

the PauUnists, to take part against S. Meletius.

S. Basil, in all haste,

wrote to the Count, stating the

doctrinal question at issue to be of great

and urging him

moment,

"that^he ought to wait, that the pre-

sidents of the Churches,

whom

I call pillars

ground of the truth and the Church, should


this

Mele-

and the
initiate

union and peace."

A. D. 376.

S. Basil

speaks of Sanctissimus, as "very

earnest and going round the East, and bearing from


all

distinguished [Bishops] subscriptions and Epistles."

S. Basil himself

how

was "at a

to join those

loss

who wrote

"

what to

write, or

he thought that

it

had only increased "the haughtiness of the Westerns,"


and he blamed their pride and precipitancy. " They
'

neither

know

the truth, nor endure to learn

it.

Pre-

now as before in
those who told them

occupied by false suspicions, they do


the case of Marcellus, resisting
the truth,

The

and strengthening heresy by

event verified his fears. A. D. 377. Dorotheus

returned.

S. Basil, while apologizing to

of Alexandria for some

their influence."

Ep. 2U.

fin.

Peter Bishop

disrespectful language of

add. Ep. 215, 216.

'

Ep. 239. Euseb.

fin.

Do-

253

Emioeror sends on letter oforthodox lllyrian Synod.


rotheus, says""'He

related

to us his conversations

which he had with your reverence before the most


reverend Bishop Damasus, and he grieved us by report-

most rehgious brethren and fellow-ministers Meletius and Eusebius, were counted with the

ing, that our

Arians; whereas,

if

commended

nothing else

their

orthodoxy, the war against them from the Arians has

no

slight force of proof to those

who judge

candidly."

Better hope had dawned on the Eastern Church

from Illyricum; but

it set,

almost as soon as

it

arose,

through the sudden death of Valentinian, A. D. 375.


" Having heard that some in Asia and Phrygia
were questioning about the Divine doctrines, he [Valentinian] enjoined that there should be a Synod in
Illyricum,
to those

and what

who were

it

decreed and confirmed he sent

questioning.

They, having met,

decreed that the Faith of Nice should hold."


Imperial letter

is

written in

rors, Valentinian, Valens,

came from Valentinian

The

the names of the Empe-

and Gratian but in fact it


" So " large a Synod having
;

been collected in Illyricum, after much discussion


about the saving word, the most blessed Bishops set
forth the Consubstantial Trinity, Father, Son, and

Holy Ghost.

Our Majesty then

declares that this shall

be proclaimed every where." Valentinian speaks against


those who used the Emperor's name in matters of
the refaith. "Let not any say that we have followed
ligion of the

>

King who

Ep. 266.

fin.

rules this land, regarding not

" Tlieotl, iv. 7.

c. 8.

254

Letter of Illyricm Bjys. sent

Him Who
The Gospel

to

Bps. of Asia, ^c.

gave ns commands about our salvation.


of our

God hath

this judgement^, ^render

unto Caesar the things which are

God, the things which are

Caesar's,

and unto

What

God's.'

say ye

word

then, ye Bishops and Presidents of the saving

your faith be thus, then, loving

If the exposition of

one another, cease to abuse the

title

of the King, and

who rightfully serve God. Our


Majesty has straightly commanded, not to persecute,
nor oppress, nor harass those who cultivate the field

persecute not those

of Christ."

In the declaration of faith which the


mits as the doctrine of the Synod,
confess, in

Synod

Emperor
it

is

trans;

said "

We

conformity with the great and orthodox

[of Nice] that the

with the Father

Rome and

we

Son

is

of

One Substance

believe as do the recent Synods

One and the Same


Substance of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost in
Three Persons i. e. in Three perfect Hypostases. And
we anathematize those contrary-minded," &c. The

in

Gaul, that there

is

Synodical letter

runs in the names of" the Bishops

of Illyricum to the Churches of

God and Bishops

the dioceses of Asia, Phrygia, Carophrygia,

of

Paca-

tiana,"and subjoins the names of six Arian Bishops of


Illyricum

who were

deposed.

Eustathius Bishop of Sebastia was the occasion of


several Councils.

He was

originally rejected

Eustathius of Antioch for impiety

1'

lb. c. 9.

S.

Ath. Ar. Hist.

"^

by

S.

he then betook

4. p. 22L'.

O. T.

ShiftingsandcondemnationofEustatliius of Sebastia. 255

himself to Hermogenes, an Orthodox Bishop, offered


to him, while

on

a sound confession of faith,

trial,

and was ordained by him.' He was


rated from common prayers,* by his

deposed,' or sepao^wai

Bishop by the

a Synod of Neo-Caesarea.
in the

on

he was deposed in

""Arians. After'' this

"

Synod of Gangra^

his account,

father Eula-

He was made

lius, Bishop of Ca3sarea in Cappadocia.

He was condemned anew

in Paphlagonia, assembled

because, since his

first

deposition,

he had done many things against the laws of the


Church." Sozomen adds that he was convicted of
He states that he
perjury in a Synod of Antioch.

was deposed by

hundred Bishops.

five

After the

death of Hermogenes, he went to the Arian Eusebius


of Constantinople, and was condemned for fraud. He

was condemned

at Constantinople,

his acceptance of an Arian Creed,

notwithstanding

by Arian Bishops,

as having before been deposed in the Council of Meli-

The Canons of Gangra were directed against


the errors of Eustathius and his followers, but were
" The^ neighbouring
received by the whole Church.
tine.

Bishops,

assembled

at

Gangra,

decreed that they

should be alien from the Catholic Church, unless, according to the terms of the Synod, they condemned
these several things."

The Synodical

letter is ad-

* Soz. iv. 24.


= Socr. ii. 43.
r S. Basil Ep. 263. ad Occid. . 3.
' Ep. 244. ad Patroph. . 6.
S. Ath. 1. c. and Ep. ad ^g, . 7. p. 133.
' Socrates distinctly says [ii. 43.] that the Synod of Gangra was later than
Eustathii;s was
those of Seleucia and Constantinople A. D. 359. Sozomen, that
partly for
subsequently condemned at a Synod of Antioch, partly for perjury,

attempting to overthrow what had been decreed by those


[iv.

24.]

^ Soz.

lii.

H,

who met

at Melitinc.

256

and Creeds of Avians.

Cowicils

dressed by thirteen Bishops, "whoJ'met at the holy

Synod

at

Gangra

to their

most honoured Lords and


In his creed Eustathius

fellow-ministers in Armenia."

was a mere Euripus, taking up, and laying aside, and


resuming any creed or heresy, as it suited him. He
was, as

we have seen above, one

of the three Bishops

deputed by the Semi-Arians to Liberius, and satisfied


him as to his faith. ^'^He saw Cyzicus, and returned
with another

He imposed

faith."

even on

by

accepted the

his seeming love of truth and of souls;

Nicene Creed from

S. Basil

with added decLarations

S. Basil,

against the Macedonian heresy;^ and then would not

be present

communion

Synod ^

at a second
;

and became the

for the restoration of

enemy and

bitter

slan-

derer of S. Basil.

In enumerating the variations

of Eustathius,

mentions an Arian Synod at Cyzicus in his


time, which apparently put out a new Creed, of

S. Basil

own

known. "To pass on to his


Episcopate (omitting what he did meantime) how
One at Ancyra
often did he set forth a new faith

which nothing more

"^

is

another at Seleucia
at Constantinople

another the well

another at Lampsacus

that at Nice in Thrace

and now again

Cone.

ii.

else, I

423. In the old Latin version, three

Heraclius, and the great Osius. This last

of the sixth cent. lb. Note.


a

Ep. 125.

"

Ep. 244.

S. Basil
.

2.

is

afterwards

that at Cyzicus,

know nothing
imposing silence as to the' Of one

of which though I
that,

known Creed

know

this,

Subtance,' he

names are added, Bassianus,

omitted in a mannuscript perhaps

Ep. 244. ad. Patroph.


'^

lb. liu.

5, G.

S. Basil's course

now

ofpeace-making ; Synod at Satala. 257

circulates the

'

like as to

Substance/ and besides,

with Eunomius, writes blasphemies against the Holy


Ghost."

The

Church was one

pacification of the

of S. Basil's

chief object

accomplished, except as to the see of

life,

Antioch, two years after his decease, by the Council of

His great energies were employed in

Constantinople.

peace-making, whether of the several portions of the

Church with one another,

or within themselves.

Caesarea was a city of great political importance.


Its Ecclesiastical

Exarchate reached over

all

the pro-

Ar-

vinces, subject to the civil governor of Pontus.*^

menia was subjected

to

Even

it.

in the life-time of

predecessor Eusebius, S. Basil, through his

S. Basil's

Bishop's confidence, virtually governed the Diocese.^

On

his

(to

whom

own appointment, Valens

the Arian Emperor,

the peace of a frontier province was of even

more moment than

his heresy,)

commissioned

to appoint Bishops in Armenia.^

The

S.

Basil

suspicions of

Theodotus, the metropohtan, "the Bishop

who had

been appointed as his coadjutor," frustrated this.

S.

Basil having accepted Eustathius' profession of faith,

Theodotus w^ould no longer invite


Synod.
deferred.

The
But

"

Though

Church."

S.

c.

in a

Synod

S. Basil

14. T.

iii.

Greg. Naz. Or. 20.


?

"

was

at Satala, S. Basil recon-

and addressed them,

" so

p. Ixxxiv. 4.

in the second order,

care of the Churches

Basil to the

appointment of Bishops therefore

ciled the Bishops of Armenia,


d Vita S. Basil,

S.

S. Bas.

he was invested with the power of the


" To whom shall we make over the

p. 339.

Ep. 29. Eccl. Anc.

Ep. 99. adTerent. Com.

258

S. Basil's yearly

Synod of Bishops.

that they laid aside their wonted indiiference,

gave them

and

rules for the due care of things, neglected

and disordered through their indifference."


The province of Cappadocia being politically divided, Anthimus, Bishop of Tyana, attempted to gain
" Synods s were submetropolitan rights for his See.
tracted

by the new Metropolitan."

S. Basil tried to

turn evil into good, "strengthening^ his country by

The appointment of

an increase of Bishops."

Gre-

S.

gory of Nazianzum, as Bishop of Sasima, was a part


of this plan.'

But "Anthimus'^ coming with

certain

Bishops" tried by coaxing or threats to draw

Gregory

Anthimus summoned him


gave way

On

acknowledge him.

also to

On

for peace.

to a Synod.
his

S.

his refusal,

S. Basil finally

way to Armenia, he was

"about to meet the Bishops of the second Cappadocia,"


who, as soon as they belonged to a distinct province,

were

all

from him.

at once estranged

Eustathius [the turn-about]

A Synodical letter from


this matter), failed,

Eusebius.

On

certain Bishops, (probably on


fault,

to reach S.

return from Armenia,

S.

Basil

Eusebius to come to the Synod,^

S.

which," he says, "

did meet

accepted his terms.

through their

his

again "invited

who

He

we hold

yearly,

on the approaching

anniversary of the blessed martyr Eupsychius, Sept.


for the
is

appointment of Bishops, and to consider what

plotted against

me through

of Nyssa [his brother]


e S.

Greg, Naz. Or. 43.

"

Greg. Ep. 33. Basil.

S.

7.

the simplicity of Gregory

who is holding Synods

58. p. 813.

'

lb.

at Ancyra,

59. p. 814.

Ep. 98. Euseb.

'

Tb.

Synod

259

at Nicopolis.

and omits no way of plotting against us," Atarbius


Bishop of Neo-Cassarea,"" left the Synod in the midst,
and was summoned by S. Basil to clear himself from
the charge of Sabellianism.

A. D. 373.

S.

Basil again

"came"

to Nicopolis, in

the hope of correcting the confusion raised there, and


of tempering what had been done disorderly, contrary
to ecclesiastical rule."

Among

other troubles, one Faustus had applied to

with "letters from a certain Papa" asking that


he should be made a Bishop. But when we asked of
him," S. Basil writes to Theodotus,? Bishop of NicoS. Basil

pohs, "testimonials from your Piety

Bishops, he, despising us, went

to

and the other


Anthimus, and

having received consecration from him, returned without any notice to us." The appointment filled ArTo restore peace S. Basil was
menia mth tumult.
'I

ready to overlook the irregularity and the

slight, if

only Faustus could produce good testimonials. He


writes to Poemenius, Bishop of Satala, "Thaf admirable Anthimus,

who long ago made

having found opportunity to


consecrated Faustus of his

own

peace with

us,

satiate his vain-glory,

authority and with his

hand, not waiting the vote of any of us, and ridiIn thus conculing my preciseness in such things.

own

fusing the good old order, and despising you too, from

whom

he should have had testimonials, he has done

Ep. 126. Atarb. Vit. S.Basil, xxvi. 6.


Ep. 100. Ens.
doubtful whether this title in this place, designates a Bishop.
Ep. 122.
1 Ep. 120. Mel.
Ep. 121.

It is

""

s2

260

Troubles from disunion of Bishops.

what

cannot think pleasing to God.

with them then,

gave them no

Being grieved

letters to

any of the

Nor did I receive


Faustus to communion, protesting to him plainly, that
unless he should bring me letters from you, I will myArmenians, nor to your Piety.

remain estranged from him, and will induce those


who agree with me to be so. If these things admit of
self

a cure, send

you
do

see the

me

man's

"v^Titten
life

testimonial from yourself, if

to be good,

and exhort others

to

so."

An expostulation

A. D. 373.
out from

S.

Basil an

remedying the

of

S.

Eusebius drew

account of his difficulties

evils of the

in

Church, arising from the

coldness or suspiciousness of his suffragan Bishops.

He

anew excuses himself for his having been "absent^


from the most holy Synod" held by

S.

Eusebius.

Ill-

ness had prevented him, " bringing him doAvn to the


gates of death."

Not through

Church been betrayed


who communicate with

had the
"The Bishops

his remissness

to her enemies.
us, either

through indolence, or

because they suspect me, or through the Devil's opposition to

are

good

Avorks, will not help us.

many, the good Bosporius

in the second

too,

Outwardly we

[Bishop of Colonia

Cappadocia] having joined

us,

but in

truth they drew not with us in any the most necessary


What can I do alone ? The Canons (as you
thing.

too know) not conceding such offices to one Bishop.

And

yet

how have

not sought to heal

Ep. 141. Eiiseb.

this,

and

re-

Letters of communion everywhere given by Bishops.

261

minded them of Judgment, both by letters and when


we met
For they came to this city, hearing of my
!

But

death.*^

me

find

since

alive, I

it

pleased

God

that they should

When

spoke to them as befitted.

me, they respect me, and promise every thing

with

when

they leave, they return to their old mind."


A. D. 374.

Synod held

Basil mentions a

S.

when "a^ great multitude,

Ciesarea,

flowed in from

is

may have been

It

all sides."

as

at

natural,

his yearly

Synod, since he does not mention any special object


for

which

it

was holden.

In the same year,

wrote through S. Amphi-

S. Basil

lochius, to a Metropolitan (probably Symposius,"^' Bi-

shop of Seleucia) who had written to him, about the


restoration of

communion.

S. Basil asks

lect the like-minded Bishops,

him

to " col-

and to appoint time and

by the Grace of God, receiving one another, we may govern the Churches in

place of meeting, that

so,

the ancient form of love, receiving the brethren

who

come from either side, as our own members, sending


them on as to friends and receiving them as from
friends.

For

this

was formerly the boast of the Church,

that, from one end of the world to the other, the bre-

thren from every Church, provided with

found
the

all

fathers and brethren

enemy has now

A. D. 375.

S.

little

tokens,

whereof, with the rest,

despoiled the Church."

Basil, in a letter to

Euphronius,^

Bishop of Colonia, mentions "letters which he had


*

To

appoint his successor.

Ep. 190.

fin.

Vit. S. Bas. xxxi. 4.

"
'^

Ep, 169.

Greg;,

"

Ep. 195. Vit. xxxii.

Ep. 191. Amplul. see


1.

262 Diocese sub-divided^

to

gain weight through Bishops.

written to the Bishops of lesser Armenia, (probably

a Synod) which he expected to be transmitted to

Euphronius.
In the same year S. Basil " went
that, with the

as far as Isam-ia,

"

Bishops there, he might frame the matbrethren in Isauria."

ters relating to the

S.

Amphi-

had consulted him about


in answer,'' had praised him for his care,
agreed with him, that in itself, "it would be for the
this,

lochius

the year before.

S. Basil,

advantage of

all,

among many

Bishops.

find

fit

men, there

But

since

danger

is

divided

should be

care

that the

it

is

not easy to

we wish

while

lest,

to

gain weight from the number [of Bishops] and to

God be

provide that the Church of


fully

ruled more care-

through the increased number, we should un-

awares degrade the


those called to

it,

S. Basil

different."

office

through the unfitness of

then counselled that "

proved could be found, he should be

would be better

for

them

first

if

one ap-

set over the city,

with the power of joining others with him.


it

to be in-

and occasion the people

Else that

to assign Bishops of

the smaller cities or villages, which had formerly been

and then we

episcopal Sees,

the city, lest

[if

appointed

these arrangements, and

domestic feuds,

if

will set
first]

up the Bishop of

he should hinder

we should begin

at once with

he should wish for larger rule and

not consent to the consecrations of the Bishops.

If

time does not admit, your Prudence will assign to the

Ep. 216. Melct.

Ep. 190. Ainphil.

Bishops of Potitus regained

Bishop of Isauria,

his

own

consecrate those close by


us, at the
as, after

last

circle, so that

and

it will

he should

be reserved to

due time, to assign such Bishops to the

long enquiry,

we

shall

judge

fittest."

course appears to have been adopted

shortly after, advised S.


[in the

263

to S. Basil.

rest,

This

for S. Basil,

Amphilochius to "appoint^

emergency] a novice, with or without the

of Macedonius."

''

much pains

The'' journey to Pontus succeeded"

Eustathius,

that to Isauria.

will

whom

S. Basil

took so

to exculpate, had stealthily withdrawn

many

of the Bishops of Pontus, especially near Dazimon,''from


the

communion

of S. Basil.

S. Basil,'' by

the

judgment

of all the Bishops in Cappadocia,'^" wrote to the " Bi-

shops by the sea," entreating them to come to some


'' We are ready with upUfted hands to
explanation.
receive you,

if

you come, and

to offer ourselves to a

Or if you will
point out some place among you, where we may discharge our debt of visiting you, and let you make
" We," he reminds them,
trial of usbe this so."
" are the sons of those fathers, who laid down as a
law, that the symbols of communion should, by means
strict enquiry.

of

little

Only

let love preside.

marks, be carried from one end of the world

to the other,

kinsmen."

and that

"As

being ashamed to

all

should be fellow-citizens and

we have suppressed our griefs,


repeat to those afar, in communion

yet

with us, your alienation from us." He repeats to Elpidius the wish, that, " if he thought it good that he
'^

Ep. 217. Amphil. (Can. 3.)init.


Ep. 203. Episc. Marit. fin.

"

3.

Ep. 216.

Ep. 205.

264

Provi7ices with whose Bps. S. Basil ivas in communion.

should meet his other most reverend brethren, the

Bishops by the coast, he would

And write

fix

time and place.

to the brethren, that, at the time fixed,

each

we have in hand, may


building up of the Church of
griefs we now have from our

of us, leaving whatever business

do something

for the

God, and remove the

suspicions of one another, and stablish the love, with-

out which the Lord Himself has declared to us, that


the observance of any

meeting

S. Basil

command

is

imperfect."

requested might be,

when he

This

should,

in his visitation, come to the borders of Comana.^

was

It

successful.

To

the Clergy of Neo-Cgesarea he, in a touching

letter,

made the same

offers,

but unsuccessfully.

To

them he enumerates the number of provinces, with


which, through their Bishops, he was in communion.
"It^were more equitable that our case should be judged,
not from one or two

who do not walk

in the truth,

but

from the multitude of Bishops throughout the world,


who, by the grace of God, are joined with us. Let

made of thePisidians,Lycaonians,Isaurians,
both Phrygias, all the Armenians who are your neighenquiry be

bours, the Macedonians, Achaeans, Illyrians, Galileans,

Spaniards,

all Italy,

the Sicilians, Africans, the sound

part of Egypt, whatever remains of Syria,


letters to us

and receive them from

In the same

who send

us."

year, S. Basil wrote to S. Amphilochius,^

about some Bishops and priests of Lycia, who, he un

Ep. 206.

'

Ep. 204. Ncocres.

. 7.

Ep. 218.

Lycia restored

communion by Bishops and

priests.

265

derstood, wished to return to their communion.

S.

to

names

Basil sends the

of four Bishops,

and some

where apparently there were no Bishops,

them

before inviting

to

who

tion," as

it

first

to comfort those of

felt the'' torrent-blaze of

their unity.

King to keep

pi'ay

members
feet

deprived of

and the

of the

body

due care

its

subject to them.

while the eyes do their part, the hands work

and the

praises

day and night to the eternal

the people in integrity of faith,

clergy as a sound head over them, giving


to the

persecu-

He

was spreading into Cappadocia.


"I

sounded

meet him.

About the same time he wrote


Chalcis,

to be

priests

For

skilfully,

stumble not, and no part of the body


its

befitting care.

is

exhort you then, as

ye do and will do, to hold to one another

and you

that are entrusted with cure of souls, to hold together

and cherish them as beloved children, and


that the people should preserve to you the reverence

individuals,

and honor due

to fathers, so that, in the fair condition

of the Church, your strength and the firmness of faith


in Christ

may be

preserved, and the

name

of

God be

glorified."

Every Bishopric which now

fell

vacant became a

subject of anxiety, the Arian Bishops filling

an

Arian, if not forestalled

by the Church.

it

up with
S. Basil

complained A. D. 369. to Eusebius, that Tarsus was


in this way lost to the Church. "Tarsus too is lost
'

to us,

and

intolerable as this in itself

Ep. 222. Chalc.

'

Ep.

is, it is

3k

yet

more

266 What is done by Bishops

to

be received by the Church.

grievous, that so great a city, situated so as to unite

the Isaurians, Cihcians, Cappadocians

and Syrians,

should perish by a mere by-blow of two or three

phrenzied men, while you [the Bishops] linger and


consult and look at one another."

At

this time

Theodotus, Bishop of Nicopolis

fell

more importance, as
being the metropolis of Armenia. Poemenius then and
the other Bishops ^ of Armenia transferred Euphronius. Bishop of Colonia to it, yet leaving to him his
asleep.''

Nicopolis was of the

'

former See, so that he should have the charge of both."

The

clergy of Colonia were unduly vexed at the partial

loss of their

Bishop, and even threatened to appeal to


S. Basil

the courts of justice.


as

sought to soothe them,

being themselves best secured by this arrangement.

"Think not," he adds," "that this is human counsel, or


but
stirred by the thoughts of worldly-minded men
;

be persuaded that they on


churches hangs, have done
tinued union with the Sphit.

whom
this

the care of the

through their con-

Receive then peaceably

what has been done, being persuaded that they who


receive not from those chosen of God w^hat is framed
for the churches, resist the ordinance of

God."

Demosthenes, formerly superintendent of the kitchen


to Valens, and now vicar of Pontus, was resuming the
persecution against the Catholics, which had before
been turned away by God's Providence, when Valens
menaced them in person. Demosthenes," in the midst
"

Ep. 237. Eus.

"

Ep. 227

fill.

et not.

i.

'

Ep. 229. Cler. Nic.

Ed. Ben.

" Ep. 228. Col. Mag.


Ep. 227. Cler. Col.

"

Synod of Avian Bps. gathered agairist S.

Synod of the ungodly

of winter/ gathered a
cyra*^] in

267

Basil.

An-

[at

Galatia, ejected Hypsis [the Bishop] and

substituted Ecdicius.

He

bade another

collected at Nyssa of [Bishops of] Galatia

These coming
" Bishop/ one,

band went

and Pontus.

Churches," as

together;, sent to the

the

" The

slave of slaves."

to Sebastia, to join Eustathius,

Arians themselves had deposed

']

Synod be

'

same

[whom

the

and with him to

turn things at Nicopolis upside down."

Demosthenes then

first

"tried to persuade

them

to

receive Eustathius, and in him to receive a Bishop.

When

he saw that they would not give

in of their

own

he tried to institute the Bishop assigned to them


with a strong hand. " There are also," adds S. Basil,
" some rumours of a Synod, to which they purpose to
will,

call

me

me, to receive

use their wont,"

[i. e.

into their

communion,

or to

have him banished on his refusal

to join them.]

reconciliation of the Bishops

As an earnest of the

of Pontus, he invited them, A. D. 376, to resume their

ancient custom of visiting the Church at Caesarea annually at the festival of the Martyrs S. Eupsychius

and

S.

"Great

Damas.

before you,

among

gain,""" says

S. Basil, "is set

a people seeking to be edified by

you."

This was the


S. Basil

letter
P
=

"

was

last

Council at which

present.

S.

from a Council

Iconium, says,

Ep. 226. . 2. Monachis.


Ep. 237. Eus.
Ep. 237.
See ab. p. 255.
S. Amphiloch. Synod, in Coteler. Eccl. Gr. Men.
'

appears that

Amphilochius, in a Synodical

at

'1

it

"^

"
ii.

"We^

had

Ep. 239. Eus.


Ep. 252. Pont. Ep.
lOO. Cone.

ii.

1075.

268

Letter of Synod of Iconium explaining

to receive in person in our

hoped

why Creed

Synod that most

admirable Bishop, Basil, to be mentioned with all


reverence, and to have him as the partner or rather
as guide of the letter to you.

But

since

bodily illness has prevented his coming,

an exceeding
it

belongs to

your perfect love not to overlook our lowliness.

Nor

could we, by any neglect of ours, leave your holy


Church without share in his words but having his
;

work written especially on the subject, [the Divinity


of God the Holy Ghost] we have him too speaking
together with us in that writing." The epistle was
written apparently to a Synod.

which

letters

it

For

it

speaks of the

answers, as evidencing "the zeal of

good shepherds," who had met together from a distance, and consequently were not the presbyters of any
town or district. "The fact that ye made no account of the length of way, nor proposed your questions separately, but enquired in common by your
letters,

has

harmony,

made us very

hopeful, that as ye wrote in

so ye will also receive our answers in har-

and we have received your concord, as expressed by your letters, as the prelude of more perfect
concord." The question apparently was, why any

mony

was required on the Divinity of the


Holy Ghost, beyond that of the Nicene Creed. The
answer was, that the Council of Nice had only to meet

fuller confession

We

"
acknowledge/' they say,
the heresy of Arius.
" the holy Synod of the fathers at Nice, as a truly

Catholic and Apostohc Synod, and

we keep unshaken

the Creed set forth b}^ the Fathers there, and pray

hy Nicene fathers was

set forth

that

may

it

to

remain unmoved for ever.

came necessary

for the fathers to

269

he enlarged.

Then,

it

expound more

be-

fully

the glory of the Only Begotten, since they had then to

nip the heresy of Arius in

its

birth

the question

to the Spirit not being then mooted.

added no

For an

fuller statement.

So then they

intelligent reader

For

the teaching of that Creed on the Spirit sufficed.

they taught that


in the

same way

we must

as

believe in the

Holy

Spirit

as in the Father and the Son, neither

introducing any other nature into the Divine and


Blessed Trinity, nor cutting off aught from the Trinity.

But since

of late, Satan, essaying to shake the Churches,

has infused doubts on the Spirit into certain persons,

we must needs

recur to the fountain of Faith, whence

also the fathers at

position of Faith,

them
Holy

in the

Name

Ghost,'

Nice drew in setting forth the exe.

i.

our Lord's words,

'

baptising

of the Father and the Son and the

which exclude the

disease of Sabellius,

in that the three Persons are clearly delivered to us,

and shut the mouths of the Anomoeans and Arians,


and of the enemies of the Spirit, in that the three Persons are pointed out, and One Nature and Godhead
confessed."

The tone
writers

of the letter

had heard by

is

to equals, of

report only ; ^ so that

whom
it is

the

a pro-

bable conjecture, that those addressed were Bishops/


'

p. 101.

^ "

Even

round

endurance
y

before

we

received the letters from your love, reports had come


your faith and firmness in danger, and

to us, telling us of the purity of

and love towards God." lb. Init.


The Benedictine Editors of
Amphiloque Art. v. T. ix, 624.

in suffering for Christ,

Tillemont

S.

S. Basil think that they

were

priests.

Vit. S. Bas. xxxviii. p. clxix.

270

Marcellus' petition

to

Synod held by

S. Athanasius.

opposed to and persecuted by the Arians, but more or


less perplexecl by the rising heresy of Macedonius.

The

suspicion of favoring Sabellianism, under which

the Westerns lay/ was aggravated by the acquittal of

Marcellus, together with S. Athanasius, at the Council

of Sardica.

lus,

Marcel-

S. Basil's declaration against

communicated by him

to S. Athanasius

himself,

probably induced Marcellus, about A. D. 371. to


send a deacon to

The

a Synod held by

S. Athanasius.

by Eugenius a deacon, sets


^Clergy and the rest in Ancyra of Gala-

petition, delivered

forth,

"The

gathered together with our father Marcellus, sent


us to your Piety, having commendatory letters from
Marcellus,
the Bishops of Greece and Macedonia."

tia,

in this petition, treated the accusations as calumny,

anathematized the heresies of Arius and Sabellius,

Paul of Samosata and Photinus, but did not touch


on his own heresy, that the Manhood of our Lord would
not exist after the day of Judgement, or that His
In conclusion, he prays S. Athareign would end.
nasius, "

we^

entreat your Piety no longer to believe

said against us, but rather to signify this to

what

is

those

who

know

to be orthodox Bishops, that even

sent us, and to write to those


if

whom you
the calum-

ny against us has reached them, they, knowing


our confession, may condemn those who wish to
up odium against

us."

see ab. p. 246.

Montfauc. Coll. Nov.ii.

"

S.

Ath. Counc. Arim.

'^

1.

Ep. 69.

Conc.ii. 1049.

p. 110. n.r.

O. T.

. 2.

Athau.

this
stir

Seemingly not accepted by him,

The

exposition of faith

Egyptian Bishops, of

tlio'

is

whom

by Egyptian Bps. 271

countersigned by four
one, Plenes Bishop of

Hermothi, had been banished by the Arians A. D.


35Q. Ischyrion, Bishop of Leontopolis, had defended
;

S.

Athanasius in the Synod of Tyre

Isaac

had per-

haps been one of the Bishops of the Council of SarThe name of S. Athanasius himself does not
dica.
appear.

It

have been

can hardly have been

at the end, since

He had

first.

he would have signed the

written at length against Marcellus,

although without naming


ers, in this

may

lost, as others

Marcellus' disclaim-

him.*^

memorial, hardly touch on any point of

form of Sabellianism. It seems an evasive statement, framed to avoid condemning his own form of
The absence of S. Athanasius' name is unacheresy.
his

counted
it is

The memorial

for.

countersigned by others.

the acute

drawn

mind

of

S.

is

It

addressed to him

seems unlikely that

Athanasius, having been already

to consider this heresy, should

have accepted

can hardly be assumed, in the abPerhaps he was already with


sence of any proof.
God. Marcellus died about the same time, A. D. 372.^

this statement

it

After his death, some of his disciples applied to


eight Egyptian

Bishops,

Neo-C^esarea,*" presented to

nion from

S.

banished for the faith to

them

letters

of

d see Introd. to S. Ath. Orat. iv. ag. Arians.

commu-

Athanasius, (as they alleged,) and were

admitted to communion by the confessors.

. 2. p.

S. Basil,

504. sqq. 0. T.

Two years before S. Epiplianius wrote his adv. Haar. Ixxi. Init.
K Ep. 265. Eulog. fin.
S. Epiph. 1. c. . 10.

272 What affects all, sJiouIdbedonebymanyBjw.


in his letter of enquiry,

tells

tlie

in

common.

Bishops that they

were " not alone in the East, but had many [Bishops]
on the same side, who maintained the sound faith of
the Nicene Fathers, and

with us and you.

All

all

who

those in the
are in the

nion with you, ought to be fully


is

done

ment

may

West agree

same commu-

satisfied,

that so

what

be settled the more firmly by the agree-

of many,

and peace may not be disturbed,

on the reception of some, others stand apart.


So steadily and gently ought ye to counsel about
things which affect all the Churches throughout the

while,

world.

God

grant that

that, ordering all things

of the Churches of God,

we may

all

meet together,

with you to the well-being

we may, with you,

receive

the reward laid up by the righteous Judge for good

and wise stewards,"


In a second

Atha" Having^

letter to Peter, the successor of S.

nasius in the See of Alexandria,

he

says,

by the Galatians [MarcelHans],


I could not give them any answer, awaiting your
judgments. And now, if the Lord grant, and they
often been importuned

will bear

with

us,

we hope

to briDg the people to the

Church, so that we' should not be taunted with joining the MarceUians, but that they become members of
the body of the Church of God."

Pauhnus, who disputed the See of


S. Basil says,'

and admitted indiscriminately


h

S.

Meletius, was,

" inclined to the doctrines of Marcellus

Ep. 266. Pet.

. 1.

his followers to

'

Ep. 263. Occid.

. 3.

com-

Heretics received in ignorance in the West.

273

munion." Apollinaris had consecrated Vitalis, his disciple, as Bishop over a third section at Antioch,*" rejecting
Paulinus as a Sabellian.^

After S. Epiphanius had

cleared Paulinus, and at length brought Vitalis to dis-

Timothy,

close his heresy,

Athanasius commendatory

who had

letters to

obtained from

been received by him," and " obtained

Diodorus.^

" gave

He

S.

com-

letters of

mendation as to a Bishop," anathematized


of Alexandria, S. Basil, Paulinus,

iS.

Damasus, and had


Peter

S.

Epiphanius, and

himself out to be a Bishop,

work mischief with more impunity."


of the Bishops Avhom Apollinaris
divide the Churches governed by Orthodox

that he might

He was probably one


"sent'' to

Bishops," " wandering about without either people or

Yet Eustathius, Marcellus,

Vitalis, Timohad all imposed on Bishops of Rome and of


the West, where they were less known; as Pelagius,
afterwards, obtained an acquittal at the Synod of
Diospolis, after being condemned in Africa and at
Rome. S. Basil, therefore, applied to the Westerns
to undo their act, and use their influence with Pau-

clergy."

theus,

linus, at

least

with regard to Marcellus.

that "the wolves in sheep's clothing did


to the simple than the direct

"We

of the Arians."^

He

says

more injury

and unblushing heresy

beg then your Carefulness to

^ Soz. vi. 25.


S. Epiph. Hser. 77. . 20. S, Epiphanius had gone to
Antioch to reconcile Vitalis and Paulinus. He has presei-ved a confession of faith
against Sabellianisui and ApoUinarianism drawn up in S. Athanasius' own hand
'

and subscribed by Paidinus. . 21.


Fac. Def. 3. Capp. vii. 3. B. P. x.
p Ep. Pet. Alex,
fin. B. P. ix. 712.
"

S. Bas.

Ep. 265. Eulog.

55.
fi-agni.

"

22, 23.

ap. Fac. iv. 2. p. 31,


^

. 2.

lb.

Leontius adv. fraud. ApoUia.


i

Ep. 263. Occid.

Id. lb.
. 2.

274: S. Basil calls in

write publicly to

W. Bps. as unsuspected ofpartiality.

all

either in sincerity

the Bishops in the East, that they

walk aright with

us, or,

abiding in

their perversion, keep their mischief to themselves,


not,

through unguarded communion, imparting their

own

disease to their neighbours.

must mention

them by name, that ye may yourselves know those


who work confusion among us, and may make it
plain to our Churches. For what ive say, is suspected
by many, as though, from some private grudge, we indulged a petty feeling towards them. But ye, inasmuch as ye live far oif, have the more credit with the
people, besides that the grace of God will help you in
But if many of you with
succouring the distressed.
decree
the
same thing, plainly the
one accord together
multitude of those

who

make the reception


by any." Then hav-

decree, will

of the thing decreed irrefragable

ing spoken on each of the heretics, Eustathius, Apol-

and Marcellus, and that Paulinus received the


" These
Marcellians into communion, he concludes

linaris,

are the things for which

be

so

good

that they

we

ask your care,

as to write to all the

who

misatfirm these things,

should communicate

but

if

if

ye would

Churches in the East,


if

corrected,

they will contumaciously

abide in their innovations, should be separated from


the Churches.

We

are not indeed ignorant that

ought to undertake these things,

we

sitting in council

with your Prudence, and considering them together.

But

since time alloAvs not,

the hurt from

and delay

them would root

is

itself,

hurtful, in that

we were

obliged

to send the brethren to you, that they, informing you

Petei' of Alexandria seeks safety hi Italy.

from themselves of any thing which


us in writing,

may

stir

up your

Churches of God the aid we ask


S.

Peter of Alexandria was

may have

275

escaped

Pieties to give to the


for."

now

at

Rome.

S.

Atha-

nasius, at the close of his forty-eight years of toil

from

the Council of Nice, nominated him, as his successor,*

A. D. 373.

"The

All classes joined in his choice.

neighbouring Bishops hastened to meet," as did the

Monks, and

set

him

in the chair of Athanasius.

He

was immediately assaulted by the heathen governor


Palladius, with a hired band of Heathen and Jews,
and after a time " escaped by sea to Rome, probably
in the hope of averting

by

his retirement the horrible

had fallen on every age and sex


The persecutions were fomented and

persecution which

of his people.'^

continued by the Arian Lucius, whom Euzoius brought


with him " not^"" elected in a Synod of Orthodox Bishops, nor

by the vote of the true

Clergy, nor at the

request of the people, as the laws of the Church prescribe," and who had been " often condemned by the

Orthodox Bishops every where." Peter of Alexandria


then remained at Rome, until the death of Valens,''

and returned

to Egypt,

shortly before his

own

de-

parture, when the Alexandrians drove out Lucius and


tTheod. iv.21.
for the Deacon
" He must have remained in concealment for some time
who announced his election to Damasus, brought back from him "letters of
"
consolation and communion to Peter, as being still in Egypt. lb. 22.
"^
^ S. Jerome (Chron.) says that Valens
" lb. 21. 22.
Pet. Al. lb. c. 22.
;

recalled the

Orthodox from banishment, repenting when too

the war with the Goths in which he perished


tion did not take effect until after his death.

t2

late, just

before

Socrates says, that the restora-

Both may be

true.

276

Council at

replaced Peters

Rome

He

against Apollmaris.

exercised his office in his exile,

and wrote to the eleven Egjrptian Bishops, in exile in


Palestine, who had received the Marcellians to communion, exhorting ' them not to part with love, yet
to wait until "things could be amended by those who
could, according to Ecclesiastical rule, heal what was

He

amiss."
rity, in

The

willed

what

them not

affected the

whole Church.

S. Basil to the Westerns, probably

letter then of

occasioned the Synod which


naris

to use individual autho-

disciple Timotheus.

by name, and, with him, his

" Damasus

Bishop of

condemned Apolli-

first

Rome, and Peter Bishop

of

Alexandria, having learned that this heresy of Apollinaris

was stealing

called at

in

among many,

Synod being

from the CathoUc

Rome, first declared it


The Apollinarians "gave out
alien

that they

Church."

had been received by the Western Synod, by which


they were condemned." " Let them shew this," says
S. Gregory Naz.,^ " either by a Synodical tome, or by
letters of

communion.

Damasus held

For

this

is

the law of Synods."

yet another Council, A. D. 378, in

the case of Ursinus and other Bishops who, having

been condemned by the Church and banished by the


Emperors, retained

their Sees in despite of both.

The

Council applied for redress to the Emperors Valentinian

and Gratian,

after

the death of Valens and

The

before the elevation of Theodosius.


written by a Council of " almost

*=

Soz. vi. 25. Ruf.

Ep, Cone. Rom. ad Grat.

ii.

20.

add Theod,
et

''

v. 10.

Valent. Cone.

ii.

is

numberless Bishops
= S.

y Socr. iv. 37.


"

Epistle

Bas. Ep. 266. Pet.

Ep.

i.

ad.

Cledon.

1187. vo^i Cone. Aquil.

init.

Synodic al

of another C. of Rome

letter

to

Emperors. 277

gathered from far-distant parts of Italy." They thank


the Emperors, that they had nothing to ask, but what

they had abeady granted. "For from the beginning, in


order to re-unite the body of the Church, which the

rage of Ursinus, endeavouring to gain an honour not

due

to him,

had

divided,

you enacted

that,

when you

had condemned the author, and rent away from union


with that miscreant those whom he had associated with
the

himself in sedition,

Roman Bishop

should en-

quire as to the other Bishops of the Church,

neighbouring

e.

the

Bishops involved in this sedition of

Ur-

[i.

sinus,] so that the Pontiff of rehgion with his colleagues

should judge of religion, and no injury could seem to


be done to the Episcopate, if the Bishops should never

be subjected to the
readily happen.

wdll of a profane judge, as

For how many,

whom

civil

might
judg-

ments absolved, have been notoriously condemned by


Bishops, and those whom civil judgments condemned
have been absolved!

But

since

Ursinus, although

long ago [A. D. 374] banished by the judgment of

your Clemency, sohcits in secret the most worthless


persons, through those whom he unlawfully and sacrilegiously ordained ; and

who wrongly occupy


to acquiesce in the
so that even those

by

his

example certain Bishops,

their Sees

harass people, not

judgment of the Roman Bishop,

who know

that they have been or

should be deservedly condemned, hiring a mob, affright


their judges with terror of death,

Blondel de la Prima\ite

and despising or cha-

p. 1G3. too so

understands

it.

278
sing

Bishops

away

call in civil authority

an unlawful Episcopate;

their judges, retain

we ask not for any new enactments, but for the maintenance of the old. The Bishop of Parma, deposed by
our judgment, shamelessly retains his See.

In like

way, Florentius of Puteoli, who, after he had been deposed, upon appealing to your Serenity, received the

Rescript which he deserved, that,

if

he had been de-

posed by the judgment of Bishops in the city of Rome,

he ought not even to


courts

now,

he,

let his

voice be heard in

has stolen back

six years afterwards,

to the city, occupied the church

and lawlessly

many

Puteoli,

seditions in the

was deposed.

town of

In Africa

too,

but,

miscreants, escaped

Throughout

all

Africa, ye

stirred

up

from which he

your Clemency bade

Restitutus plead his cause before Bishops.


to have acquiesced

civil

He ought

by aid of a savage band of


need of pleading his cause.

commanded

the sacrilegious

Anabaptists [Donatists] to be expelled; but the ex-

and destined him, as a


of Rome.
He, against the

pelled have ordained Claudius,

Bishop, to disturb the city

commands

of Divine Scripture, against the laws of the

Gospel, says that

all

Bishops past or present were

own word, 'pagans.'


commanded to be expelled from

without sacraments, or in his

Whom your

Serenity

Rome, and return

to his country.

courts at nought, although

But

he, setting the

often apprehended,

resides, bribing ofttimes the poorer,

still

and shrinks not

from re-baptising them when bribed.

He

rather de-

them of what they had obtained [Baptism,] than


bestows on them what plainly cannot be bestowed
spoils

to enforce their judgments.

Lastly the faction of Ursinus

twice.

ceeded, that, suborning Isaac a Jew,

279
lias so far suc-

(who returning

Synagogue profaned the heavenly mysteries,)


our holy brother Damasus' life was aimed at, innocent

to the

blood was shed, a plot was laid (which the forethought


of your Piety

met with a truly divine

Church was nearly despoiled of


fraud was

judge of

no one

this, that

all,

while he

was pleading

all

instinct) the

His

mysteries.

who had been made

his cause, there should be"

to judge of the lapsed or of factious invaders of

the Episcopate.

Since then the innocence of our fore-

mentioned brother Damasus has been approved by the

judgment of your Serenity

and Isaac

himself,

when

he could not prove his allegations, has received his


deserts,^ we, that we may not trouble your Clemency

by bringing

so

many

causes before you, beseech your

Piety to vouchsafe to order, that whoever shall be

condemned either by the judgment of him [Damasus]


or of us who are Catholics, and will unjustly retain his
Church, or being summoned by Episcopal judgment
will,

through contumacy, not attend,

Rome

brought to

may

either

at the writ of the illustrious

be

men

by
or if such question should arise in more
the Vicars
distant parts, let it be referred to the Metropolitan by
the Prefects of the Praetorium of your Italy, or
;

the local civil judges, or,


let

him be enjoined
By

relate to a Metropolitan,

go forthwith to Rome, or to

the Emperor, as above p. 277. and shortly below p. 281.

relates to
-

to

if it

Rome

only.

Being banished into Spain by the Emperor.

The context

280 Charges agst. Damasus to he brought before Emperor.


those

whom the Bishop of Rome shall


who

But

let those

the

precincts of that

shall be deposed,
city only,

assign as judges.

be removed from

wherein they have

exercised the Episcopate, that they


lessly

may

not shame-

resume what has been lawfully taken from them.

In case that a Metropolitan or any other Bishop


should be suspected of undue favor or prejudice,

be lawful to appeal to the Bishop of

it

Rome
But

Council of fifteen neighbouring Bishops.

let

or to a

not

let

our forementioned brother Damasus, since in his

own

cause he bears the stamp of your acquittal, be inferior


to those,

whom

he, being equal in office, surpasses

by

the prerogative of an Apostolic See, nor let him be


subjected to public civil judgments, fi-om which your

law" has exempted Bishops.

In whose case, sentence

having been already given, he does not seem to decline the

judgment of the

honour bestowed by you.


of the state,

what

life

court, but to claim the

For, as relates to the laws

can be more guarded, than one

upon your Clemency ?"


The Council mentions further, that Damasus "had
subjected himself to the stricter judgments of Bishops,

which,''

having been

by whom not the


ter

is

tried, rests

single charge, but the

weighed," and they request the Emperor that

he would himself have any charge

abandoned

or infamous persons

power of accusing the


B

whole charac-

Passed A.D. 376.

" Thus, no

would have any lawless

chief Priest

^ I

sifted.

or bearing witness

have read quae

for qua.

Summus Sacerdos is the title of every Bishop. See Tert. de Bapt.


and many others in Blondel Primaut^ sect, iv, p. 34. Isidore of Seville
*

c.

17,

A. D.

Proposals of Council granted hy Gratian.


against him."

In

this,

281

"he does not ask any thing

new, but follows the example of our ancestors, that


the Roman Bishop, if his cause is not entrusted to a
Council, should defend himself before the Imperial
Council.

For Silvester too the Pope, being accused by

sacrilegious persons, maintained his

And

your father Constantine.


like instances, as

when

own

cause before

Scripture furnishes

the holy Apostle was oppressed

by the Governor, he appealed

to Caesar

and was sent

to Ctesar."

The " rescript ^

of Gratian to Aquilinus, Vicar of

Rome," echoes and enforces what the Council had reThe Emperor directs that those whom " the
quested.
Councils of the holy Bishops should shew by consent,
to be fomenting disturbance, like" those which had
happened, should "be banished one hundred miles from
He extends the operation of the law to
the spot."

Gaul alone, beyond the provinces of Italy and allows


the judgment of Damasus to have the civil sanction
;

proposed, but only

if

"given together with

five

or

Cases in the provinces were to be


determined by the Metropolitan unless the Metropolitan were suspected of partiahty, in which case the
seven Bishops."

accused was allowed to appeal to fifteen Bishops of a


neighbouring province or to the Bishop of Rome.
cause of Metropolitans alone was to be referred diBishop.
rectly to Rome, or to judges appointed by its

The

595,

still

gives

shops. Etymol.

of Carthage,

"

Summus

vii. 12. 13.

c. 26.

Sacerdos" and Pontifex Maximus as titles of all BiCouncil


title was forbidden in Africa by the third

The

"

Cone.

ii.

1190.

282

Ecclesiastical causes to he heard by Synods.

The law has, throughout, reference to Damasus


who was then in the eleventh year of his Episcopate,
and was

still

The law

Roman
tinian

harassed by the adherents of Ursinus.

of the elder Valentinian, referred to by the

Council, was pleaded to the younger Valen-

by

S.

Ambrose.^

law of Gratian was directed [A. D. 376] to a

Synod, four of whose Bishops are named, "and to the


other Bishops" generally.
in civil causes

is

It

runs

"

The

practice

to be retained in ecclesiastical also.

If anything should arise, relating to the observance of


religion, of dissensions or slight offences, let

heard

in their

own

them be

places and by the Synods of their

Criminal causes were to be reserved to

diocese."

"the ordinary or extraordinary judges or the

illus-

trious Powers."
It

remains to mention some detached Councils of

this period,

at

all,

in the

which have been omitted,

as less, or

not

connected with the line of events which ended


Council of Constantinople.

The Council

of Valence

Bishops present at
first in its

it.

S.

is

celebrated for the great

Phoebadius

is

mentioned

Synodical letter, as having presided proba-

bly on account of his eminence, as Hosius had, and


S. Basil says of

Mysonius, Bishop of Neo-Caesarea

" in" the conventions of those of

like

power [Bishops]

he was counted worthy of precedence, not according


'

'"

"

Ep. xxi.

. 2.

Cod. Theod.

see Ancient Precedents, p. 18.


leg. 23.

Ep. 28. Neo-CES.

dc Episc. Cone.

ii.

1073.

Council of Valence

to his age, but as above

eminent Bishops there.

all in

283

the ancientness of wis-

dom, receiving by common consent the meed of preBesides him were S. Florentius, perhaps S.
sidency."
Paul of Tricastin,

Lyons,

Justus of

S.

S.

Eortius,

Britton of Treves, a Confessor, and S. Concordius.

The names

of twenty-two Bishops

having been present

to the Synodical letters

The

are preserved, as

first

are prefixed

nineteen subscriptions only

remain, but these contain the


so prefixed.

twenty-one names

name

Epistle

is

of a Bishop, not

addressed "to our

most beloved brethren, the Bishops throughout the


Gauls and the
still

five provinces."

dissension, and, this

some

It

was assembled

to

effected, the Bishops

took occasion of their meeting to frame four Canons.


" All things being transacted at Valence, and what

had been commenced on account of the division, being


in the name of God composed, and in an improved
state, some of the brethren suggested piously and
profitably, that

we should consider the

following things

which we can neither admit, for the hohness of the


Church, nor yet, on account of the received custom,

On

condemn."

had

one remarkable Canon the Council

to act, while yet sitting.

Many in

order to avoid

being ordained Bishops, Priests, or Deacons, accused


The Council
themselves falsely of some deadly sin.
enacted that no one
See Tillemont
P

Cone.

ii.

so accused himself could

be

S. Just. viii. 554-7.

1067-9.

ThenameofS.

who

One

MS. mentions that there were thirty Bishops.


among the subscriptions, although

old

Phcebadius does not appear

prefixed to both letters,

and

author of the Canons.

lb.

in

an Index of Synods he

Not.

1.

is

said to have been chief

284

First Council of Carthage under S. Gratus.

ordained, as having borne false witness against himself,

and

for fear of scandal.

The Council wrote a

second letter to the Clergy and people of Frejus, that


they could make no exception in their favor, although
Concordius, a Bishop at the Council, gave testimony
to the person of Acceptus

(whom

they

all

desired to

have as a Bishop) as being ''a wise and Christian man."


In Africa, a Council of Carthage, the first whose Canons were inserted in the Code of the African Church,
and afterwards received by the whole Church, was
held under

S. Gratus, shortly after the

Sardica, and in the reign of Constans.

sequel of

many

Council of
It

was the

Councils held to heal the distractions

of the Donatists, soon after Paulus and Macarius^ had

been sent by Constans to bring back the Donatists.


Peace was for the time restored, although the kind-

employed was mixed with


severity, after the attack on the Roman soldiery by
the Circumcelliones, instigated by Donatus of Bagai.

ness and liberality at

first

The Council was thankful for the restored unity.


The preface of the Council runs, " when Gratus
Bishop of Carthage, had sat down in Council, together
with his colleagues, and those who came from different
'

provinces of Africa to Carthage" [Bishops, of

whom

ten ' are named], and the rest, whose hands are here
contained. The same Bishop, Gratus said, Thanks be
to Almighty God, and Christ Jesus Who put an end
'

to the evils of schism,


1
=

and looked upon His Church,

Cone. ii. 757.


Opt. de Schism. Don. iii. 4-.
Nine more names occur in the Canons which they proposed.

Subjects of Cations and

so as to raise

up

all

of projposing them. 285

zi)ay

her dispersed members into her

bosom, and commanded the most religious Emperor


Constans to have a care for unity, and send as ministers of the

holy work, the servants of God, Paulus

We

and Macarius.

have then been gathered into

unity by the will of God, that through divers provinces we might hold Councils, and to-day a Council
of the whole Province of Africa might,

of God, meet at Carthage.

with

sider,

my

poor

by the grace

Wherefore do ye conthose necessary

self,

subjects,

whereof we, mindful of the Divine commands and


the authority of Holy Scripture, and having regard

must needs

of unity,

to this season

each, that Carthage

may

so enact as to

not infringe the vigor of the

and yet may

not, at the time of unity, prescribe

any thing harsh."

Gratus himself proposed the four

law,

first

Canons and the

last

the nine remaining were

suggested by nine other Bishops, but are supported by


The other Bishops expressed their consent
Gratus.
to each

Canon

separately;

"All the Bishops said;"

The first Canon was directed against


the Donatist Anabaptism the second against their
the third and fourth against the
false martyrs
The fifth forbade that laymulieres subintroducta?.
men from another diocese should be ordained by the
"they

all said."

Bishop without leave of his own, or the clerk of

The seventh Canon foror layman should communicate

another Bishop be received.

bade that
in

either clerk

any other diocese without

Bishop.

Gratus

letters

said, 'unless this

from his own

be observed, com-

286

Notices ofprevious Councils.

munion

will

become indiscriminate.

For

be re-

if lie

harmony will be maintained among


Bishops and no deceitful person, leaving the communion of one, can come stealthily to another.' All said,
'Thou providest for all, and consultest for clergy and
laity.'" The other Canons relate to the clergy. Canon
ceived with

letters,

xi.

directed that in causes of Clerks against Clerks,

whether

in faults of pride or

any other offences, a

Deacon should be heard before three neighbouring


shops, a Presbyter before six

Bi-

a Bishop before twelve

of his fellow-Bishops.

In the Council

itself allusion is

vious Councils, whether of

Bishop of Adrumetum

more

said, " It

made

to other pre-

The

or less extent.
*

was enacted

in

our

Council [one at Adrumetum] that clerks should not


exact

money on

Bishops

said,

On

usury."

the second Canon, the

"This too was enacted

in the

several

Gratus recommended the third on the

Councils."

ground; "This then both the law commands, and


your holiness commands, as has been enacted in the

summing up, Gratus states


that Anabaptism had already been con"I believe that you
several Councils.

several Councils."

incidentally

In

demned in
remember that in many Councils our fathers both
condemned the rash tradition, and enacted that the

impiety of Anabaptism was to be punished, which


things I believe have now by our Council been brought
to a close."

one who

The Bishops

set these or the


t

finally enacted, that

" any

former Canons at nought,

Can.

13.

Donatist Councils and heresy.


if

a layman, should be deprived of communion,

clerk, of his rank."

"

287

It

Gratus the

remains that what we have

writing, ye should confirm with your

They

all

said,

attest our consent,

down

and our consent

this

shall also be de-

they subscribed."

who had not returned

to the

after the repeated acquittals of Cfecilian,'^

lected Bishops at

Council

African Councils of this period were

The remaining
Donatist. Those

And

in

subscription

'The minutes of

clared by our subscription.'

up,

agreed upon, and

all

what, upon your consent, has been set

also.

if

Bishop summed

Rome, by

Church,

by the

the Council of Aries,

se-

and

on the final appeal to Constantine, had no plea for


themselves, unless they

condemned the Church. They

adopted, accordingly, their peculiar heresy, that the

Sacraments are invalid,

if ^ministered

by

evil

men,"

and maintained consequently that they were invalid


as administered by Cscilian, or by those who communicated with him, and hence denied the existence
of the Church except within their own body, and
maintained that Scripture too spoke of the Church,
as existing (as they said) only in the South.

re-baptised those

who came

to them, as

They

Heathen, so

that in order to receive Donatist Baptism, those who


went over to them had to deny that they were
Christians.

The

Donatists were uniform only in

their hatred of the Church.

As

early as A. D. 333,

Tychonius, a distinguished Bishop among them, relates that, in consequence of the repugnance of many
" see ab. p. 97. sqq.

''

Art. xxvi.

288 Anahaptism made open

question hy Donatist Council.

to be re-baptised^ a Council was held of two hundred


in which, "the''' ques-

and seventy Donatist Bishops,

tion having been discussed for seventy-five days, to

the exclusion of

those

all

other matters,

who who had given up

sin,

should,

if

communion,

to be baptised, be admitted to

In consequence of

was decreed that

the Scriptures, guilty, as

they were, of an exceeding

cent."

it

this,

unwilling
as inno-

"he [Tychonius] says

that Deuterius, Donatist Bishop of Macrian, gathered

a multitude of Traditors, and united them with the

Church, and, according to the decrees of that Council,

held by your two hundred and seventy Bishops,

made

unity with the Traditors

so done,

and

that, after

he had

Donatus communicated with that Deuterius,

and not with him alone, but with all the Bishops of
the Moors for forty years, who, he said, down to the
persecution

made by Macarius, communicated with

Traditors without baptising them."

About A. D. 348, Constans, probably


S. Gratus, sent

Paul and Macarius into Africa, to ap-

They brought with

possible, the Donatists.

pease,

if

them

very large alms,

"'^

relief of the poor, called

almost treasures," for the

them over one by

them

one, and

Donatus, Bishop at Car-

exhorted them to unity/


thage, refused

at the wish of

angrily.^

Donatus of Bagai hired


These Cir-

troops of Circumcelliones against them.

cumcelliones infested the ways, hindered the payment


of creditors,

made masters

slaves

S. Aug. Ep. 93. ad Vincent.


^ Opt.

iii.

4.

lb. init.

and

slaves

43.
^

3.

mas-

289

Donatist excesses.
"

ters.

The Donatist Bishops, when brought


'^

odium about them, are


Taurinus,

such

""that

said to have written to

men

into

Count

could not be corrected in

the Church, and bade that they should receive discipline from the Count.'" Xozi), this

them.

Donatus employed

Some of the
The rest
Donatists.

Macarius asked for an escort.

by the
Donatus and Marculus (a presbyter,
avenged them.
some say a Bishop^) perished. The Donatists said
escort were maltreated

that Marculus was cast headlong from a rock.

Augustine had " heard

"^

S.

that he cast himself down,

which," he says, "is more probable, than that any

Roman
Roman

command this, too foreign from


whereas, among so many heresies afloat

officer

laws

could

under the Christian name,

this

is

peculiar to yours."

The Donatists represented Marculus as a martyr, sent


from a Donatist Council. " Macarius, the worst of
these two beasts," says a contemporary Donatist,*^^
" having long, in other provinces, attempted through
subtlety this work of blood, exhibited, in Numidia
and towards the glorious Marculus, open tokens of

barbarian cruelty and unheard-of ferocity.


the most holy band of most

For when

ancient fathers

and the

united Council of Bishops, sent ten approved Bishops

number on an embassy, either by healthful


warnings, to recall them from such great sin, or (as
of their

* c. 4.

''

The author of the Passio Marculi speaks


;" commonly the Episcopate.

of him, as, " gleaming

with Sacerdotal honor


<=

80. and note d. O. T.


c. Cresc. iii. 49. see Horn. xi. in S. Joh. fin. p. 179,
Passio Marculi in Mabillon Vett. Anal. p. 182. quoted by Mansi Sui)pl.

Cone.

p. 218.

290

Donatist Councils.

happened) themselves to be the


faith,

first

in the field of

the care of our noble Pastors was so guided by

God, that the cruelty which threatened our sheep,


first

mangled

their frames."

A. D. 349. After the Council under Gratus had

whom, having

prohibited those

fallen

amid

their

ex-

cesses, the Donatists accounted martyrs, from being


buried with the true Martyrs, the Donatists enacted

that

their

burying

places

should be marked by

"whitened^ altars or tables."


A. D. 363. The Donatist Bishops sought with
tery their restoration from the Apostate Julian.

flat-

They

recovered the Basihcas amid bloodshed, which in one


" Primosus,
place two Donatist Bishops urged on.
the Cathohc Bishop of the place, complained of this
at

your Council at Thense," says the historian,^ ''and

ye heard his complaint unheeding."

Tychonius, a Donatist, was brought by the force of

Holy Scripture

to acknowledge that the

to be spread throughout the world,

Church was

and so attacked

the very central heresy of Donatism, that the sins of


individuals

could destroy the Church.

Parmenian

and the more consistent Donatists attempted first to


bring him back, and "afterwards," S. Augustine says,
"[Parmenian, or 'they'] ^report that he was con-

demned by their Council."


The Donatist Bishops were ashamed

Opt.

c.

pevhibet

iii.4.

Ep. Parmen.
:

i.

the n being

1.

lb.

ii.

of the

self-

18.

Tillemont (Notes 31,32.) suggests "perhibent" for

marked

in

MSS.

only by a line.

Novatian Councils.

291

murders of the Circumcelliones, and endeavoured in


vain to check them. "What profits it," S. Augustine
asks Cresconius,'' "that, as you have mentioned, your

Bishops boast that in their Councils they have prohibited and condemned this, whereas so many rocks

and precipices are daily


that teaching of Marculus

The Novatian Bishops

by slaughter,

defiled

after

?"

too held a

Synod

in the time

"A

of Valens, about the keeping of Easter.

Bishops of the Novatians in Phrygia and but

^few
little

known, having gathered a Synod


made a rule, to keep Easter when the Jews keep the
" But neither Agellius, Bishop of the
Passover."
Pazus a

at

village,

'^

Novatians at Constantinople, nor the Bishops of Nice,


Nicomedia or Cotyaeium, whom the Novatians look

upon

and

as lords

rulers of the things

done in their

heresy and Churches, took part herein."


Sabbatius, a converted Jew, ordained Presbyter

by Marcian, the Novatian Bishop

at Constantinople,

took occasion of this decree, to promote his o^vn ob" Marject of gaining the Episcopate among them.
^

cian convened a

garum.

bade him

nod

When

Synod of Novatian Bishops


met, they send for

at San-

Sabbatius,

and

explain the causes of his grief to the Sy-

They

in the

Synod, suspecting that

a pretext, out of a desire for the

see,

it

was but

bind him by an

When he had
oath never to accept the Episcopate.
about Easter,
Canon
taken it, they promulgate a
'

c.

Cresc.

iii.

49.

'

Socr. iv. 28.

u2

"

Soz.

vi. 2i.

'

lb. vii. 12.

Origin of PriscilUanism.

292

the indifferent,' sayhig that

which they

call

no

ground

sufficient

'

it

was

for the division of the Church."

was, "that each should keep Easter accord-

The Canon

ing to the custom which he preferred

but that there

should be no difference as to communion, those

who

kept the feast differently being in the harmony of the

Church."
Sabbatius, subsequently, broke his oath, inducing

some obscure persons

to lay

hands upon him.^'

In Spain, about A. D. 379, the

of the

heresies

Gnostics and Manichees were revived and spread by


''
The" defilement of other heresies were
Priscillian.

poured

upon them,

in

They denied

confusion."

carnation

as into a drain, in horrible

the

dissolved marriage

Trinity and the In-

when they could

were

outwardly ascetics, in secret unboundedly licentious.


" Marc/ a native of Memphis first brought it from
Egypt into Spain. His hearers were one Agape, of

good family, and Elpidius a rhetorician. By these


PrisciUian was instructed, in family noble, in wealth
most

rich, acute, restless, eloquent, learned

much

reading, most ready in disputing

through

happy, had

he not by perverse will spoiled a most excellent


Manifold goods had he of body and mind
mind
!

he could watch long, endure hunger and thirst desireBut he was


less of having, most sparing in using.
most vain, puffed up unduly with profane knowledge.
;

">

Socr.

V.

21,

S.Aug. Hcer.

"

Snip.

ii.

4C, 7.

70. T.

viii.

22. see

Cone. Brae.

i.

S.

Leo Ep.

15.

ad Turib.

293

Council of Saragossa.

He

was even believed

his youth.

When

to

have practised magic from

he had entered on

doctrine, he enticed

many

nobles and others of his

countrymen by persuasion and

air

him

Women

flattery.

longing for novelty, with unsteady


rious minds, flocked to

this pernicious

faith,

and over-cuFor with an

in crowds.

and shew of humility, he had inspired

The

verence for him.

too

all

with re-

contagion of his faithlessness

had gradually pervaded most of Spain some even of


among whom Instanthe Bishops had been seduced
tius and Salvian had not only received Priscillian, but
;

joined in conspiracy with him, until Hyginus, Bishop


of Cordova, being in the vicinity, referred what he had
discovered to Idacius, Bishop of Merida.

He, harass-

ing Instantius and his companions unduly and unmeasuredly, added fuel to the rising fire, exasperating
the bad rather than checking them.

many memorable

conflicts, a

gossa [A. D. 380

were present.
the

trial;

So then,

Synod was held

after

at Sara-

where the Bishops of Aquitaine too

The

heretics did not venture to stand

sentence was passed on the absent; Instantius

and Salvian Bishops, Elpidius and Priscillian laymen,


were condemned. It was added, that if any received
into communion those condemned, the same sentence
should

lie

against them.

Ithacius,

Bishop of [EstoyP]

was commissioned to make known to all the decree of


the Bishops, and especially to excommunicate Hyginus, who, having been the

1'

(.>ssi)boneusi, a

first

to proceed against the

conjecture for Sossubcusi.

"

294

Canons of Council of Saragossa.

heretics^ afterwards, being foully perverted,

had

receiv-

ed them into communion.

The names of twelve Bishops only


"

On

"1

October

the Bishops, Fitadius [S. Phoebadi-

4,

us] [S.] Delphin [of

Bourdeaux] &c.

cristy at Saragossa, all said,

cited

;'

The Canons

all

re-

bear

The Bishops anathematise

Priscillianists.'^

women, who, on pretence

sitting in the Sa-

Let the sentence be

'

Lucius, Bishop, read."

upon the

are mentioned.

of learning or teaching, assem-

bled with the husbands of others

those

who

fasted

on

the Lord's day and in the Christmas season, as deny-

ing the Incarnation, and on the Lord's Day, reverencing the sun
immoralities

private assemblies, on account of the

and those who took the Holy Eucharist

without really receiving

It.

They

become mere monks out of

to

persons to take the

name

also forbad clerks

vanity, or unauthorised

of Doctor, or virgins to take

the veil before forty, or Bishops to receive those ex-

Lucius, having re-

communicated by other Bishops.


cited each canon,
sent.

all

the Bishops expressed their as-

" All the Bishops said

'

We

agree.'"

The memory of a small Council held by

S.

Ambrose

A. D. 380 to clear one maliciously accused, has been


preserved by his letter, in which he expostulates with
a Bishop
Indicia,

who had

listened too readily to the calumny.

'"approved by the judgment of Zeno of holy

memory and

consecrated

by

offence to her brother-in-law,


'1

Cone.

ii.

1195.

S.

Leo Ep.

had given
one Maximus, by not

his blessing,"

15. c. 4.

'

S.

Ambv. Ep.

5.

Syagr.

1.

S.

Ambrose holds Council in behalf of one

going to his country house

from house to house and


vile

by not going
Some

to others,

visiting their wives."

women were procured

of child-murder.^

;*

traduced. 295

to spread abroad a report

The brother-in-law

"the'''

author of

the whole scene," spread the charge abroad orally and

by

letter,

and brought

to Syagrius, the Bishop of

it

Verona, but would not appear as accuser, "mistrust-

Some

ing the evidence."

told Syagrius, that

"they^

would not communicate with him, if he received


"Of what sort
her [to communion] unexamined."
"
who would prescribe to
are they," asks S. Ambrose,
Bishops the course we are to take ?"

In compliance

with those requisitions, Syagrius had decided on requiring a proof of her innocence, unfit and shocking

Ambrose wrote indignantly and summoned before him the accusers.


S. Ambrose joined in his judgment " his ^ brethren
which

to be reqiiired^; against

S.

and

fellow- Bishops."

It

appeared that two of the

ori-

more
detestable wickedness," had been purposely removed
out of the way a third had fled, to avoid the proof
of her own guilt. Those who circulated th.Q story on
such alleged authority, when examined by S. Ambrose,
contradicted each other ^; on the day of the trial
"they ^withdrew themselves from the Synod of Biginal accusers, "persons

of vilest condition and

shops."

No

witnesses appearing, S. Ambrose's

sister S. Marcellina,

a testimony," and
'.17.

" 16

=^.1.

.20.

Paterna,
Indicia's

M-

19-

". H.

"whose

'^

aiFection

nurse, bore
"'4-

'.20.

".15.
'

own

.22.

was

witness
''2.

to

296

State of the faith in Co7istantiiioj)1e

Indicia's

holy and unblemished

"she

said,

S.

life.

MarcelHna

wished that the Lord Jesus might reserve

"

a part of the kingdom of

Moved by

God

for her

with Indicia."

Ambrose/ "we pronounced Indicia a blameless virgin, and condemned


Maximus, and [the two accusers,] Renatus and Leontius
allowing to Maximus a hope of restoration [to
communion] on amending his error the accusers were
*'

these things/' says S.

"to remain excommunicate, unless they should shew


themselves

fit

for

mercy, by proof of penitence, and

lasting sorrow for their deed."

These were

all

the Councils of this period, up to

the date of the Council of Constantinople.

sudden death

the Church free

left

Valens'

and the second

general Council for the maintenance of the faith was

held in the Capital, whence successive Arian


rors

had

especially labored to eradicate

Just before the

death of

Empe-

it.

A. D. 379, S.

S. Basil,

Gregory of Nazianzum was invited by " many,s both

pastors and people," to Constantinople.

Synod of

Bishops'' (probably those of Thrace) called him.

was according to the mind of

S. Basil,'

earth, he did not see the event.

It

although, on

Constantinople was,

at this time, through the forty-years

banishment of

its

orthodox Bishops and the persecution or even murder of

its clergy,''

<. ult.

21.

<=

'

de Episc.

^ e. g. the

i.

1.

81.

Carm. de

it

25.

should be set on

tire

Vit.l. 595, 6.

Or. 43. 2. p. 771.

massacre of eighty Presliytcrs,

directing that

add Ruf.

almost abandoned to every heresy.

whom

Valens had put into a vessel,

at sea. Socr. iv. 16. Soz.

vi. 14.

Thcod,

iv.

24.

just before the second General Council.

297

Arianism was entlironed there yet no small part of the


;

people in Constantinople, Bithynia, Thrace, the Hellespont, had been attracted by the
life

and monastic

strict

Macedo-

of the kindred and rival heresy of the

nians.'

The

sect.'"

Constantinople was the head quarters also of

best of the heretical Bishops were of this

who

the Eunomians,

Lesbos, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, An-

dia, Ionia,

In Constantinople" itself, "no


number joined them from Eudoxius, and some
*"

tioch in Coelesyria.

small

There were rumours, that Apollina-

other heresies."
rian Bishops

bring in a
just seen,

were going to hold a Council there, to

"

new
had

parison, but a

its

The

heresy.

Bishop there.

little

flock

who had

it

were by

the sight of God, to tend

He

secretly,

There was, in compreserved the faith,

glad to

where the

stealth, but precious in

whom

S.

Gregory was

amid persecutions

still

in the private

assembled the Catholics


lation /i

we have

of a flock, poor, scattered,

salvation as

vited.

Novatians, as

their

nay, the remains


gain

thence sent out Bishops" to Ly-

faith,

which had

all

in-

imminent,

house of a

re-

but died out,

was called thence the Church of the


S. Gregory brought the
Resurrection,
faith to Constantinople, and " received," in return,

rose again, and

it

Anastasia.'

The

"stones."

people, brought up in entire igno-

rance of the Trinity in Unity, and Unity in Trinity,

"

Soz. iv. 27.

P Or. 42,

2.

""

Or. 42.

16.

de vitK gen.

de
de
1.

Ruf. H. E.
vit.

vit.

47.

i.

25.

" Philg. viii. 2.

587. sqq.

de

"i

1079. Soiun. de Anastas.


vit.

665.

sq({.

de

Or. 26.

vit.
.

1.

17.

609. sqq.

298 Maximiis

the Cynic, his irregular consecration

thought him a Polytheist.


for their

They were zealous

also

So they stoned

Arian Bishop, Demophilus.

him, without yet killing him; then, they brought him


civil court.

before the

the word spoken for

" Christ," 'he says, "who aideth

Him,

glorified

me

in the stran-

ger tribunal."
Yet, by* simplicity, piety, clear and forcible state-

ments of the truth, zeal for the salvation of souls, and


holiness of life he won numbers to the faith, while the
hatred of those

who hated

the truth

fell

on him.

S. Gregory and the Church had, however, more


lasting trouble from one, Maximus the Cynic, who

imposed upon him with accounts of


Christ,

when he had

his sufferings for

suffered only for his sins." Maxi-

mus put on

the semblance of holiness, and zeal for

the

With

faith.''

this

he deceived Peter Bishop of

Alexandria, so that he even took part against


gory.
to S.

who had

He,

Gregory, and "by his letters set "him in his

and honored him with the symbols of


tion,"

of

Gre-

S.

at first ^'in guilelessness, written"

turned against him.

whom

He

out of respect for Peter,

by

his confirma-

even senf" the Bishops,

not speak more, and who, while


secretly

S.

Gregory would
Gregory was sick,
S.

night, without notice to the people or the

Bishops, set the Cynic in his chair,^ and

vered at

see,

dawn by

the

neighbouring

when

disco-

clergy,

they

finished the consecration in a flute-player's hut, in

'

"

" lb.

de Vit. 674-8.
Or. 25.

" lb. 851.

. 2. 3.

11. 13.

1!'. cTe vit.

960. sqq.

976. sqq. Or. 25.

" iyKaOia-Ta de
'

lb. 881. sqq.

vit.

. 3.

859.

Sf expulsion.

Damasiis objects hothtohim 8^ S.Gregory. 299

the presence of some of the lowest and most worthless

Expelled from Constantinople,

rabble."^

with the Bishops

who

consecrated him, betook him-

then engaged in the Gothic war.

self to Theodosius,

Theodosius rejected him.^

was cancelled by

Maximus,

"What had

been

to gain

from Peter

either the see of Constantinople, or his own,

Italy,

and

for a

by the

done

Maximus betook

civil authority.''"

himself to Alexandria, endeavoured

expelled thence

ill

and was

Thence he went

Prefect.''

time gained the support of S.

Damasus, although well-informed

and a Synod.

to

Ambrose
as

Maximus, and approving of the act of Theodosius,


was unhappily no less prejudiced against S. Gregory.
To Acholius Bishop of Thessalonica, and five other
to

who had informed him

Bishops

of the uncanonical

consecration of the Cynic, and his rejection by Theodosius,

he writes, " For

linesses, that since, as I

'^

the rest

know,

it

is

exhort your ho-

arranged that a

Council should be held at Constantinople, your sincerity will give diligence, that one blameless be elected

Bishop of that

God, peace

when, by the favor of


be completely established between

city

shall

so that

Catholic Bishops, no dissensions

may

thenceforth arise

in the Church but (as we had long wished) perpetual


peace may endure among the Catholic Bishops. This
;

moreover

exhort you, beloved, not to allow any one

against the statutes of our forefathers, to be transferred


2

898-912.

<^

1013-23.

1001-1012.

i^

''

Damas. Ep. ad Achol.


in Holstein p. 40, 1.

in Holsteiu p. 10.

300

Edicts of Theodosius in behalf of the fallli^

from one

city to another^

and leave the people commit-

ted to him and out of ambition pass over to another."

Nothing could
stances of the
rance,

aimed

Soon

less describe the

meek

S.

Gregory

character or circmn-

yet

was, in igno-

it

at him.

after this,

(Nov. 24. A. D. 380) Theodosius,

having anew defeated the Goths, entered Constantino-

By birth

ple.
rents.''

a Spaniard,

he was born of orthodox pa-

After Gratian had raised him to the Eastern

Empire, for his decisive victory over the Goths by

whom

Valens had been defeated and

slain,

he

fell sick

Having ascertained that Acholius,


Bishop of that city, was orthodox, he was baptized by
him and recovered.^
He joyed more to become a
member of the Church than to reign on earth." On
at Thessalonica.

^"^^^

his Baptism,^ he issued an edict in behalf of the faith.


It

"

was addressed

We will,

that

mency be of

''to^

all

the people of Constantinople."

people under the rule of our Cle-

that religion which the divine Peter the

Apostle delivered to the Romans, as


its

day

continuance from the Apostle's

which

faith

moreover,

it

by
now,

attested

is

until

evident that the Pontiff

is

Damasus, and Peter Bishop of Alexandria, a man


of Apostolic holiness, do follow; viz "that, according

and Evangelic

to the Apostolic discipline

we should

believe the

One Godhead

doctrine,

of the Father,

Son, and Holy Ghost, of equal Majesty in the Holy


n.

Socr. V. 6.

>

S,

Cod. Thcod. L. xvi. Tit.

Awg. de

c.

Civ. Dei. v. ult.


1.

Soz.
'

de tide

Catli.

Soz.
1.

2.

vii. 4,
1.

c.

and against

Those who follow

Trinity.

the

of CathoHc Christians.

title

30

heretics.

this

law we bid to take

Judging the

rest to

be phrenzied and mad, [we bid that] they should bear


the disgrace of heresy

and that

their conventicles

should not receive the name of churches

they them-

by the vengeance of
God, and then by our motion which we have received
selves being to be punished first

from the

will of

Heaven."

Constantinople had at

Antioch had two

two great

sees,

this

time formally no Bishop

Ar-

about which there was no dispute.

rived at Constantinople, Theodosius honored and

tened to

S.

so that Theodosius appeals to the

Gregory'

lis-

he was present in person, to put

the Bishop in possession of the Cathedral, and would


have assigned to him the see at the request of the
w^hole

multitude, had not S. Gregory turned

thoughts off from

himself to thanksgiving to

their

God.

In the beginning of the next year (A. D. 381. Jan.


10.)

Theodosius forbade"

all

heretics against the foith

of Nice, especially the Arians, Photinians,and Eunomians, from assembling congregations within the towns

he annulled any special rescripts to the contrary,


which had been fraudulently obtained enjoined that
the Catholic churches throughout the world should
be given back to all the Orthodox Bishops who hold
;

the faith of Nice

and threatened to expel the heretics

themselves from the

To
1

cities, if

they

made

disturbances.

Demophilus,P the Arian Bishop, Theodosius gave

dcvit. 1305. sqq.

Cod. Thcod.

xv'i. 5. (.Ic

"^

1330. sqq.

hseiet.) 6.

"
''

l;37

1-1395.

Socr. v. 7.

302

S. Meletiiis' offer to Pmilinus as to see of Antioch.

the choice of accepting the Nicene faith and


peace, or leaving the

making

Demophilus retired to

city.

the suburbs.

who was

Sapor,^ the General

entrusted with the ex-

ecution of the edicts, found S. Meletius


tioch.

ted

On

this occasion, S.

common,

whole charge

at

still

made

An-

the celebra-

he and Paulinus should feed the flock of

offer, that

the Lord in

Meletius

the survivor succeeding to the

and that meantime the Gospels should

be placed in the Episcopal chair, as the represen-

and the two Bishops

tative

of Christ,

side.

This, Paulinus refused

on either

and Sapor, (whether

on the ground of the peacefulness of


because Paulinus

sit

S. Meletius, or

stood out in maintaining that

still

there was only one Divine Hypostasis,'') awarded the

Churches to

S. Meletius.

The Council

of Constantinople then probably did

not begin sitting before Easter A. D. 481.


letius,

who was

present at

its

For

S.

Me-

opening, had the long

land-journey to make, after this conference with Sa-

The assembling of the Council had, from the

por.

" As^ soon

first, lain near the heart of Theodosius.

as

he received the Empire, he made the harmony of

the Churches his chief care, and convoked the Bishops

of his

own sovereignty

part alone was

the

full

to

Constantinople.

For

of the infection of Arianism.

West had remained

free

from

this disease.

this

For
For

Constantine, the eldest son of Constantine, and Con-

'I

Thcod.v.

3.

above

p. 215.

"

Theod.

v. G.

Conduct of Theodosius

to S.

Meletius and Bishops. 303

stans the youngest, kept their father's faith un defiled

and Valentinian

again, the

Emperor of

the

West,

maintained to the end religion undefiled."


Theodosius, after his great defeat of the Goths, had
his elevation

saw

S.

foreshewn to him in a dream, wherein he

Meletius placing the royal purple around him,

and the crown upon

When

'^

his head.*

the Bishops arrived, one hundred and

fifty

in number, he charged that no one should shew him


which was the great Meletius. For he wished to recognise him from his dream.
And when the whole

assembly of Bishops had entered the Palace, passing

by all the

rest,

after a

And

he ran up to the great Meletius,

as an afi*ectionate son,

who

obtained sight of his father

long interval, he embraced him and kissed his

eyes and lips and cheek and head, and the right hand
which cro^vned him. He related too the vision wdiich
he had seen. The rest also he entreated courteously
;

and begged them,

as fathers, to consult

about the

matters before them."

Theodosius hoped also

Eleusius

to regain

Macedonian Bishops to the

^'

faith Avhich they

and the

had pro-

fessed in their embassy to the West.^ He, accordingly,

"invited the Bishops of their heresy


thirty-six in

all,

also.

They came,

most of w^hom were from the

cities

of the Hellespont."

Among

the Orthodox Bishops, were

able for piety or wisdom.


t

lb.

" c.

"

many

remark-

Besides S. Meletius and

Socr. V. 8.

* above p. 231--6.

304 Eminent Bps. ;


S.

S.

Meletms President; Macedonians

Gregory of Nazianzum, there were

brothers, S. Gregory of Nyssa

Helladius,
lochius,

(who had

and

""

S. Basil's

two

Peter of Sebaste,

S.

Amphi-

succeeded S. Basil) S.

Cyril of Jerusalem, Optimus of Pisidia,

S.

Diodorus of

Chrysostom's master]

Cilicia, [S.

gius of Laodicea,

S.

Pela-

Eulogius of Edessa, Acacius [of

S.

and Gelasius of Csesarea,


adorned in hfe and doctrine ;" all of w^hom Theodoret
calls "men w^orthy of all admiration and full of DiIsidore of Tyre

Beroea]

vine

zeal

Among

and wisdom."

the

subscriptions

names eminent for zeal and holiness


S. Antiochus of Samosata, nephew and successor of S.
Eusebius, S. Vitus of Carrhee, and Abraham of Batnge,

there are also

(whose names have occurred already) Acholius, Bos-

phorus of Colonia and Otreius of Melitine,


tyrius of Marcianopolis.

S. ]\Ieletius

was

S.

Mar-

President.''

S. Gregory of Nyssa in his funeral oration before the


The Bishops were
Council, calls him "our ^father."

collected

from the whole East, except

summon

that, at first, the

the Bishops from Egypt.

Emperor did not


The Macedonian Bishops

at

once refused

to accept

the faith of Nice, to which they had before assented,

and

left

"They wrote to their adherents


exhorting them not to assent to

the Council.^

in different cities,

what had been decreed at Nice."


The Bishops of the Council
expulsion of
neither
"

Theoa.

^ <le vit.

Maximus

the Cynic.

ratified at

They decreed "^that

had he ever been, or was, a Bishop


>'de

V. 8.

1509.

sq(j.

vit.
''

1514. sqq.

'

Soz.

"

vii. 7.

once the

nor were

de Mclet. init. iii. 587.


Can. 4. Cone. ii. 1125.

aS*.

who had been

those

305

election unanimous.

Gregorys

ordained by him, in any rank

whatever of the Clergy,

[really ordained] every thing

done about him or by him being annulled."


Gregory, being a Bishop without

S.

see,

had

and guarded and enlarged the little


flock which he had received, until it became a great
multitude. The Arians had taunted him that " his peotaken

ple

care

of,

would not

fill

even the porches "of the churches,


All were filled

which they had evacuated.

and the

The people had themselves,


in their eager zeal, enthroned him/ He had virtually
been Bishop of the whole Orthodox people. *' The laws

harvest was increasing/

;"

and

from them."^

He

against translations were long dead


also

was

*'

objection,

"clumsy

clearly free

grounded on

S.

Gregory

treats the

supposed translation, as a
He had not been
enemies.

his

^'fiction" of his

translated from any see, for he had never occupied


any.
for

The

it,

see of Sasima, although

he was consecrated

At Nazianzum, he had only


Meletius seeing him, and know-

he had declined.

aided his father.

"'S.

ing the object of those

who wrote the Canons,

that

they hindered translations, in order to cut off occasions


of ambition, confirmed to the divine Gregory the EpisAll the Bishops at the

copate of Constantinople."

Council joined in electing him.

ced to accept
"

de

vit.

1495-8.

by one ground

it

Ib. 1499. Orat.

He

himself was indu-

alone,'' the

xlii. 16. 5. 6. 11. 12.

hope that the


f

Orat.xxxvi.2.

"After I came, leaving Cappadocia, (which seems to all


de vit. 1810,
a bulwark of faith) but not leaving a people, or ought to which I was bound.
These are fictions of enemies, falsehoods, veils of envy, clumsily devised." de
8

1.

se ipso et Episc. 93-7.

'

Theod.

v. 8.

de

vit. 1.52G-71.

306

Grounds of E. Bishops

in rejecting

Paulinus

would enable him to end the schism

influence of his see

For

between the East and West.

S. Meletius,

even

while President of this second General Council, was


still

out of

communion with

"\t was not

the West.

yet clear," says S. Gregory after the decease of S. Meletius,' " whether they of the West would receive the

man, being up to

this point exasperated."

The death of S. Meletius, soon afterwards, destroyed


The Easterns were unwilling that Pauli-

this hope.

nus,

whose orthodoxy they suspected, and with

whom

the Westerns had sided, in opposition to their S. Meletius,

should have the authority of the great see of

The Westerns were persuaded,

Antioch.

one time, that

S.

Meletius and Paulinus had agreed that

the survivor should be the sole Bishop

Council under
381, was silent
in

at least at

although the

Ambrose, which asserted this A. D.


about it A. D. 382, and admitted that

S.

"^

some things they had been imposed upon.

The

by Theocloret, was

refusal of Paulinus, as related

in

A. D. 381, and could hardly have been earUer than

March, just before

S.

Meletius

left

Antioch for the

last time, to attend the Council of Constantinople.


It leaves

then no room for any subsequent compact.

Theodoret was well acquainted with the


tioch.

S.

Gregory,

who

affairs of

An-

resigned his see rather than

take part in nominating a successor to S. Meletius,

and who mentions the grounds which he urged upon


the Bishops at Constantinople," against appointing a
1

1G12, 3.

" lb.

Ep.

14. 2.

"

in S.

de

Ambr. Ep.

vit.

13.

1591-1679.

. 2.

and of S. Gregory s

307

resignation.

Bishop of Antioch during the Ufe-time of Pauhnus,

knew

Socrates destroys his

of no such compact.

credibihty,

by accusing

S.

own

Flavian of perjury/ in which

is

unsupported, and which

S.

Gregory threw the whole weight, which he de-

he

is

utterly incredible.

rived from his character, his eloquence, his see, his

presidency of the Council, into the scale of peace.

He

urged that

" joining
the

'^

opportunity should be seized of

with them what

West now

the see " a

this

is

alien)"

little

longer

"

is

alien

(for, as

see,

that Paulinus should hold


his

till

decease

and that

harmony of the whole people and


of the wise Bishops, we should, with the Holy Ghost,
S. Gregory proposed
assign some other to the see."

then,

"amid

the

'

resign his see, rather than remain, "unable^ to

to

draw others

to his mind, or to assent to others, against

He

reason."

objected also to the too easy terms,


heretics,* allowing

on which the Council had received

probably Arian Bishops to retain their sees, upon subWhen S. Athanasius and
scribing the Nicene Creed.
the Council of Alexandria offered easy terms to the
Arians under Julian,'^ every thing was adverse ; the
faith

and the

faithful

were despised

the avenue to Imperial favor.

now

He himself had

faith

was

presided

over the very sessions, where, (as he said,) " the^


Moabite and Ammonite had found entrance to the

Church
P V. 5.
'

"

";

but he had had no weight.

Sozonien

1624-34.

above

p. 214.

(vii. 11.)

simply copies Socrates.

1675, 6.

1737, 8.

'

x2

"^

1724-44.

(le vit.

1636, 7.

308 Bps. ofMacedonia tj' Egyj)t decide S. Greg, to resign.

The
faith

love of his people

still

and the

retained him/'

fear of

mjury

to the

solved his doubts by

God

the arrival of the Egyptian and Macedonian Bishops.

These arrived
been

''called''

the midst of the debates, having

in

on a sudden by Theodosius." Probably

they had not been invited at

first,

as

being adverse to

The Egyptians had just


been involved in the affair of Maximus the MacedoNow,
nians were likely to take part with the West.
the election of S. Gregory.

under the plea of an obsolete


appointment of S.Gregory,

they opposed the

''in^ order to

''Envy

had appointed him."

rule,

some began to oppose, and

vex those

who

following on his glory,

employ against him

to

unsound proscriptions in order that he might return


to his own, and another be ordained Bishop." S. Gregory gained the consent of the Emperor, of his people,
;

and of those of the Bishops who were grieved at his


He willingly "gave ^ back to the Bishops the
loss.^

had "unwillingly received from

deposit," which he

Nectarius, of Tarsus, a Senator and as yet a

them."

Catechumen, was chosen by the Emperor


gestion,

said, of

it is

at the sug-

Diodorus ultimately, but being


""

in great favour with the people.*^

The question

of the Episcopate of Antioch followed.

"-Paulinus wished to have

But the body of Bishops

did not admit the counsels of

who

replied that he,

it.

Meletius, ought not after his death, to take his throne;

but he

who had become

1781-96.
i"

Soz.

vii. 7.

"^

1798.
=

Ih.

glorious through his

1812-15.

c. 8.

Ruf. H. E.

Socr.

v. 8.

ii.

9.
^

many

1879-1918.

Thcod.

v.

23.

309

Early history of S. Flavian.


and had incurred the greatest

labors,

flock." S. Flavian,

whom

the Bishops of the Diocese of

Antioch chose to succeed


guished birth

the

peril for

S.

Meletius, was of distin-

he inherited, when young, large wealth,

had from his earliest years


and austere life/ While quite young,

but, unseduced by either,

followed a strict

he had A. D. 331 followed

"

S. Eustathius,

About A. D. 350

of Antioch, into banishment.

Diodorus, were, as monks

whom

truded. "Night'' and day they stirred

To

he, with

but laymen, the chief oppo-

nents of Leontius, the Bishop

the faith."

then Bishop

the Arians in-

men

to zeal for

the same end, they revived antiphonal

chanting of the Psalms, which spread from Antioch


throughout the world. They kept vigils with devout
persons at the tombs of the Martyrs, singing

hymns

to

all

night

A. D. 350, they induced Leontius to

God.

depose his fellow-Arian Aetius,

whom

he had ordained

A. D. 376, they conjointly,' as Presbyters,


governed the Church during the banishment of S.
deacon.

Meletius

its

Bishop, and refuted the adversaries

S.

Flavian supplying the arguments and proofs from Scripture,

Driven from one place to

Diodorus using them.

another, they, at

last,

ercise-ground of the

had joy

in the

held their assemblies in the ex-

Roman

soldiery.

Antioch at least

appointment of S. Flavian. ''When we

former father, who was for us the parent of


our present," says S. Chrysostom,^' "we knew not what
mourned pitiably, not looking that another
to do.
lost that

We

Chiys. Serm.

S.

Theod.

"

S. Chrys.

cum

ii.24.
1.

c. . v.

Presbyt.

f.

ovdinat.
'

i.

Id. iv.

440.

Philost.

iii.

18.

ii.

.522.

2(i.

see also in the Panegyric of S. Meletiius fin.

310 Efforts of Bps. of Rome against


such would receive
vian] appeared

this

among

grief,

but

But when he

see.

he caused

us,

Not

to disperse like a cloud.

away our

S. Flavian fail.
[S. Fla-

dejection

all this

insensibly did he do

as suddenly as if that blessed

one

had arisen from his cofRn, and again ascended to that


S. Chrysostom calls him "the 'imitator of
throne."

common

martyrs, the

Yet

teacher."

for seventeen

communion
Three successive Bishops of Rome, Dawith him.
masus, Siricius, and Anastasius tried to move Theodosius against him."' The Western Bishops " renounced
communion with Diodorus of Tarsus also, and Acacius
of Beroea, who had consecrated him. Syria, Palestine,

years, neither the

West nor Egypt were

in

and most of the Armenians, Cappadocians,


Galatians, and those of Pontus, took his part. Arabia

Phoenicia,

and Cyprus joined the communion of Paulinus.

The

division lasted at Antioch, to the injury of discipline

and of

faithful teaching," until

the seventeenth year

of the Episcopate of S. Flavian, ten years after the

death of Paulinus, and beyond even the death

Evagrius

whom

of

Paulinus uncanonically consecrated as

his successor.

The

see of Antioch

was not

people.

It

was

until after the

For the election lay with

enactments of the Council.


the Bishops, but

filled

to be

made

in presence of the

could not take place then, until the Bi-

shops should return from the Council to Antioch.


The Council, however, disapproved of Paulinus, reI

II

ill ill.

Soz.

Vidi Dom. Horn.

vii. 11.

3. iiiit. vi.
"

112.
S. Chiys. Hcmi. xi. in

Theod.

'"

Eph.

p. 230.

v. 23.

T.

Principles of election of Bishops by Bishops.

commended
accepted

311

when elected, formally


The Council, when reassembled in the

S. Flavian,

liim.

and,

following year, justified to the Italian


election of Nectarius

and

S.

Synod, the

Flavian, and the recogni''As to the ordering of

tion of S. Cyril of Jerusalem.

Churches, the law was of old in


force, and the holy fathers at Nice ruled, that in each
details in the several

Eparchy, the Bishops of the Eparchy and, if these


pleased, the neighbouring Bishops with them, should
the

common

good.

In conformity hereto

elect

for

know

ye that the other Churches in our parts are or-

dered, and that the Bishops of the most distinguished

Whence, with common


the Emperor Theodosius,

Churches have been received.


consent, in the presence of

most beloved of God, and of the whole Clergy, and the


whole city concurring, we have made the most reverend
and most beloved of God, Nectarius, Bishop of the

Church of Constantinople, which, through


the mercy of God, we have lately snatched out of the
jaw of the lion, and blasphemy of the heretics. And
Antioch in
of the eldest and truly Apostolic Church at
re-erected

Syria, in

which

first

the honored

name

of Christian

was heard, those of the Eparchy and of the Eastern


the
Diocese having met together, canonically ordained
FlaBishop most reverend and most beloved of God,
him as
the whole Church in harmony honoring
vian,

the whole body


with one voice which lawful ordination
Moreover of the Mother
of the Synod also accepted.
make known to
of all Churches, that at Jerusalem, we
;

of God,
you that the most reverend and most beloved

312

Creed of Nice enlarged

Cyril,

is

at Constantinople

Bishop, having been of old ordained canoni-

by the Bishops of the Eparchy, and having

cally

divers places

in

engaged very often with the Arians."

In matters of faith, the growth of the

heresies of

Apollinarius, Marcellus, and Macedonius, which

had

sprung up since the Council of Nice, made the fathers

judge right to enlarge the Nicene

at Constantinople

Creed, in order to meet these heresies.

added to the Creed actually adopted


out of ancient Creeds.

which

will

side, as

of Chalcedon

was taken

Verbal alterations were made,


they were recited in the Coun-

-.^

CONST ANTINOPLE.1

NICE.

We

at Nice,

they

be seen more clearly by setting the two

Creeds side by
cil

What

One God, the


Father Almighty, Maker of*
believe in

heaven and earth and

'

of all things visible and invisible.

And
the^

One Lord Jesus Christ


Son of God begotten of the
in

Only begotten Son of God, be-

Father.

gotten of the Father before

Only begotten, that is of the Sub-

worlds,

stance of the Father

God
God

of God, Lightof Light, Very


of Very God, Begotten, not

made
with

One Substance

being of

tlie

Father

by

Whom

things were made,

heaven and things

in earth.

Who for us men


vation

and

all

transposed to the beginning

the things in

for

our sal-

came down and was

carnate

in-

from heaven
of the Holy Ghost and the

Virgin
P

all

Act.

ii.

init. p. 120f), 12.

The

Mary

present Creed, except the Filiocjue,

'

313

out of existing Creeds.


and made

Man *

and was crucified

for us

under

Pontius Pilate

and was buried

and suffered

and rose again on the third day

according to the Scriptures

Who ascended into heaven

"

and

"

sitteth

Hand

on the Right

of the Father

and Cometh again

'"

"

to judge

glory

in

" ofWhosekingdom there

quick and dead"

shall

be no end

And

in the

Holy Ghost **

'^

the

Lord and Giver of

Life,

Who proceedeth from the Father, Who with the Father and
the Son together

and

the Prophets
tholic

is

worshipped

Who

glorified;

in

One

spake by
holy Ca-

and Apostolic Church;

we acknowledge one Baptism


for the remission of sins

we

and

look for the Resurrection of

the dead, and the

of the

life

world to come.

not explained why, in the Creed framed at Nice,


such words as " of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin MaIt is

many

of the

and West/

Yet

ry" were omitted, since they existed in so


traditional Creeds both in the East

they are a corrective of


resy,

which denied

all

the different forms of he-

(as did Apollinaris,) that our

Lord

was Very Man, born of the Virgin, in all things like


unto us, yet without sin. The words "of whose kingthere shall be no end" were directed against the
The enlargement of the Creed
heresy of Marcellus.

dom

as to the Person

and

office

sec oil Tort.

Note P.

of

God

p. 503, 4.

the

Oxf. Tr.

Holy Ghost

314 Canons enjoin Bps. not

to interfere

with each other.

was occasioned by the heresy of the Macedonians. In


all these additions, the Council used the language of

The last

Creeds already existing.

clauses of the

Creed

occur verbatim in a work, written seven years before


by S. Epiphanius, as a Creed to be learned by Catechumens.

*^

This ^ Creed," he says, "was delivered down

from the holy Apostles, and [was


Church, the holy City, by

all

laid

down]

in the

the holy Bishops toge-

ther, being above three hundred and ten in number."


The Bishops of the Council of Chalcedon say to the

Emperor Marcian

"* Those in these parts having de-

tected the pestilence of ApoUinarius

made known

their

decree to those in the West, under the guidance of

Nectarius and Gregory."

The first
confirmed the faith of Nice, and condemned by name
of the
the heresies of the Eunomians or Anomoeans

The Council framed

seven Canons'" only.

Arians or Eudoxians

of the Semi-Arians or adversaries

of the Holy Ghost; of the SabeUians, Marcellians, PhoThe second assigned the
tinians, and ApoUinarians.

and

limits of the jurisdiction of the several Bishops,

guarded against such interference as had recently


been exercised in the case of Maximus by the Bishop
of Alexandria.

"Let not Bishops out of a Diocese

enter upon Churches beyond their hmits, nor confuse

the Churches

but according to the Canons,

Bishop of Alexandria order the affairs of

and the Bishops of the East govern the East


=

Ancor.

"

Cone.

c.

ii.

120.

1123 sqq.

'

AUocut. ad Marcian. P.

let

Egypt

iii.

the

only,

only, the
T.

iv.

1765.

Constantinople, as

new Rome, placed next

to

Rome. 315

preeminences contained in the Nicene Canons being


preserved to the Church at Antioch

and

shops of the Diocese of Asia order the


only

let

the Bi-

affairs of

Asia

the Bishops of Pontus, those of Pontus only

the Bishops of Thrace, those of Thrace only.

Bi-

shops uninvited are not to go out of their Province to


ordinations, or any other ecclesiastical ministrations.

This Canon as to Dioceses being observed,


that the

Synod

Eparchy

of each

in the

plain

will order the affairs

of each Eparchy, as was defined at Nice.

Churches of God

it is

But the

barbarous nations ought to be

ruled according to the custom which has prevailed

from the

The

fathers."

third Canon, in words, secured only to the see

of Constantinople what

it

already had.

After en-

joining non-interference between the Bishops of the


several Dioceses,
to the

Royal

it

city.

assigned a preeminence of dignity

"Let however the Bishop of Con-

stantinople have the preeminence of honor after the

Bishop of Rome, because


already the

first

had thought

it

see in the

new Rome." It was


East. The Arian Eudoxius
it is

to be above Antioch, since

the see of Antioch for

it.

Both

S.

he quitted

Gregory and Necta-

rius presided over the Council of Constantinople as its


Bishops. S. Meletius, Bishop of Antioch, came before

the appointment of S. Gregory.


dria, if

must have presided in the


Gregory had resigned, and must have

he presided at

interval after S.

Timothy of Alexan-

all,

way to Nectarius.
The Bishops, however,

given

of the Council of Chalcedon

316

Expansion of Canon

Hi. at

Chalcedon.

understood the Canon to confer some thing more than

They enlarged

dignity.

it

twenty-eighth Ca-

in their

non, adding a Patriarchal authority over the Dioceses


of Thrace, Asia and Pontus

had
ple.

yet as

authority

if this

been given by the fathers at Constantino-

really

"We,

every where following the decrees of the

holy fathers, and acknowledging the Canon, just read,


of the one hundred and

God, who,

fifty

Bishops most beloved of

time of the great Theodosius of

in the

holy memory, w^ere assembled

at

the Royal Constan-

new Rome, do

likewise decree and vote the


same things concerning the privileges of the same
most holy Church of Constantinople, new Rome. For

tinople,

to the throne of the elder

Rome, because

that city

was the seat of Empire, the fathers reasonably gave

And

privileges.

the one hundred and

fifty

Bishops,

most beloved of God, moved by the same consideration,

of

gave the

like privileges to the

new Rome, reasonably judging

most holy throne


that the city, ho-

nored with Empire and a Senate, and enjoying the

same

privileges as the elder Imperial

be made of
also,

much account

being second after

it.

in

Rome, should

Ecclesiastical matters

[They

ruled] too that in

the Diocese of Pontus, Asia, and Thrace, the Metropolitans only, but in the barbarous parts the Bishops

of the aforesaid dioceses should be ordained by the


aforesaid

most holy throne of the most holy Church

at Constantinople

to wit, each Metropolitan of the

aforesaid Dioceses with the Bishops of the Eparchy

ordaining the Bishops of the Eparchy, as

is

prescribed

"

Tome

of the Westerns^''

by the holy Canons

317

meaning.

its

but that the Metropolitans of the

by the Archbi-

aforesaid Dioceses should be ordained

the election shall have

shop of Constantinople, when


been agreed upon, according to custom, and referred
to him."

The

jurisdiction of the

''Suburbicary

''

Bishop of

Rome

over the

Churches" (whether those within an

hundred miles from Rome,

or those of the ten pro-

vinces of the Italic Dioceses under the Vicar of the


City)

would form an analogy

assigning

for

these

neighbouring Provinces to the see of Constantinople.

The

The

fourth Canon'' related only to Maximus.

fifth is briefly

"Of the tome of the Westerns we reAntioch also who confess one Godhead
;

ceive those in

of the Father and the Son and the

tome mentioned

is

probably the confession of faith

transmitted from the


S. Basil,

Holy Ghost." The

West through

S.

Athanasius and

to S. Meletius

and by him sent on

and then

communion with
probably is,
Canon
the

signed by him and the Bishops in

And

him.'"

the

meaning of

that the Bishops at Constantinople received into

Antioch too, who held the same faith;


that they, on their part, willed to end the schism

munion those
i.

e.

Com-

at

at Antioch.

The

sixth

Canon guarded against wanton accusa-

tions of Bishops.

In any case in which the accuser

had a personal complaint against a Bishop, the Canon


allows him to prefer it, "without examination as to
the person or faith of the accuser. For the conscience
'

see

Bingham

9. 19.

" see ab.

p.

298.

" see ab. p.

242-8.

318 Bps. not

to be

accused hy the accused or deposed.

who

of the Bishop ought to be wholly free, and one


alleges that he has
faith, to
it

been injured, ought, whatever

his

obtain justice." But heretics and schismatics

does not allow to " accuse orthodox Bishops for

Ecclesiastical matters."

Nor was any one allowed to


who was himself accused

prefer any such accusation,

of any crime or

who had been condemned

or deposed, or excommunicated, and

himself

If the accuser

qualification,

was

free

formerly,

had not cleared

from any such

dis-

he was admitted to make the accusation

on the following conditions

the Bishops of the Eparchy

that
;

if

it

should be before

these sufficed not,

then he should go to a larger Synod of the Bishops

The

of that Province, convened for this cause.


sers,

accu-

before bringing the charge, were in writing to

subject themselves to the

same penalty,

if their

sation should be proved to be vexatious.

"But

accuif

any,

despising this rule, shall venture to trouble the Imperial

ears, or civil court, or

an Oecumenical Synod,

putting dishonor on the Bishops of the Diocese, such

an one was not to be admitted as an accuser, as insulting the Canons and destroying Ecclesiastical order."

The

seventh

heretics.

The

Canon regulated the mode

The ground

of the distinction

of receiving
is

not clear.

Arians, Macedonians, Sabbatians [probably a sec-

tion of No vatians, being also Quarto-decimans,followers

of one Sabbatius, an ex-Jew], Novatians, Quarto-deci-

mans, and ApoUinarians were received on "anathematising every heresy,

which thinketh not as thinketh the

holy Catholic and Apostolic Church of God." "These

Mode of receiving
we

heretics;

why

only 150 Bishops.

319

receive, being first sealed or anointed with the holy

ointment on forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, and ears, and

Spirit.'

But

we

say,

'The seal of the Gift of the Holy

as for the

Eunomians who baptise with one

sealing them,

immersion, and the Montanists, here called Phrygians,

and the Sabellians who teach that the Son


ther,

and do many other grievous things, and

other heresies, (since there are

those

the Fa-

is

who come from

Galatia,)

the

all

many here, especially


all who wish to come

we receive as heathen and


on the first day, we make them Christians on the
second. Catechumens
on the third we receive them,
breathing thrice on their face and ears; and so we catechise them, and make them long abide in the Church
and hear the Scriptures, and then we baptise them."
from them to sound

faith,

These Canons, together with the Creed, were subThe


scribed by the one hundred and fifty Bishops.
fewness of the Bishops
letter, written

is

explained in the Synodical

from Constantinople in the following

year by such of the Bishops, as then re-assembled.

They were the representatives of other Bishops who,


amid the continual inroads of the Arians, could not,
without risk to their flocks, leave their dioceses.
so the

Council

Communion
ceived

its

itself

And

represented the whole Orthodox

of the East, whose absent Bishops

re-

Creed and Canons.

Theodosius, being Emperor in the East only,

as-

sembled only Eastern Bishops, Acholius, Bishop of


Thessalonica, being present on special invitation, not

deputed by any Western Bishops.

320 CreedqfCouncilreceived; Canonm,in W., hut slowly.

The

being one, there can be no doubt that

faith

the Creed set forth at Constantinople, was at once


received by the
'^'that

Roman

Hence Photius says,


chiefs, Timothy Bishop

Synod.

the Council had, as

its

of Alexandria, the wonderful Meletius of Antioch,


Cyril of Jerusalem, directing those holy thrones,

Nectarius

and

with whom was Gregory of Nyssa, and he

who from his works was called 'the Theologian,' with


whom, not long after, Damasus too. Bishop of Rome,
confirming the same, was known to be in harmony,
joining himself to those who had been beforehand.
This sacred band condemned Macedonius &c.^"

The few Canons

of the Council were, for a long

time, received in the East only, for which alone they

were framed.

The

Canon was pointedly reRome, Leo,^ Gelasius,''

third

jected by successive Bishops of

Gregory

I.,

Nicholas

man Church

Gregory

S.

I.^

says, "the'^

Ro-

hitherto hath not, nor receiveth those

same Canons, or the acts of the Synod.

It receives

by it
and the

that same Synod, as to that which was defined


asrainst

Macedonius."

At

last

Innocent

III.

fourth Lateran Council*^ formally accepted the order of


the Patriarchal sees, founded

The Emperors, from

the

upon

first,

it.

assumed the prece-

dence of the see of Constantinople.^

Nectarius took

precedence of Theophilus of Alexandria and the rest


at the Council of Constantinople A. D. 394^; Sisinnius,
y
^

1. ad Michael. Bulg. de 7 Synodis . 9. p. 5.


^ Ep 13. ad Episc. Dard. Cone. v. 333.
Ep. 106. Anatol. . 5.
" L. vii. Ep. 34. Eulog.
Ep. 8. ad Michael. Imp. Cone. ix. 1321.
f
^ Cod. Theod. 16. 1. 3. and 11. 24. G.
can. 5.
Cone. ii. p. 1377.

Ep.

Actual precedence of Bishop of Constantinojjle. 32


took place of Theodotus of Antioch A. D. 426.S In the
Council of Antioch, whose Acts were read at Chalcedon,

Domnus

mention

of Antioch, and

and

S. Proclus

all

S. Cyril,

mention

S. Proclus

In the Council of Chalcedon, Anatolius

first.^

ways next

after the

Roman

who

the Bishops

legates

is

al-

and when, on

the recitation of the Acts of the Robber-Council' of

Ephesus, the name of

S.

Flavian was read after those

of Dioscorus of Alexandria, Julian, (S. Leo's legate,)

Juvenal of Jerusalem and

Domnus

of Antioch, *'the

Easterns and the most reverend Bishops with them


this

was

in his

own

cried out, 'Flavian entered, as a criminal;

evident calumny.
place

Why

nople

fifth

[the senior

my

have

Why

The most reverend Bishop Paschasinus


Roman Legate] said 'See, we, God willing,

fifth.

first.

These placed the

legates of S.

bless-

Diogenes, the most reverend Bishop

know

of Cyzicus said, 'Because you

The

sit

did they place the Bishop of Constanti-

lord Anatolius

ed Flavian

did not Flavian

Leo conceded, thus

the Canons.'"
far,

the force of

the Canon of Constantinople, and agreed to the order

which

it

proved,""

Leo subsequently disapand which the Western Church finally ac-

involved, which S.

knowledged.

The Council of Constantinople wrote no circular


letter in this year, but returned home, having addressed a Synodical letter to Theodosius.

the Council, after thanking


s Tb.
'

iii.

Act.

1.

549.

*
"^

God

Who

In

Act. xiv. Sozomen observes the same order

Ep. 106. Anatol.

. 5.

this,

had raised up
viii. 1.

Council asJcs Emperor

322

Emperor,

the

''^for

to

cmijirm

its

peace of the

tlie

strengthening of the faith," gave a

Acts.

Church and

summary account

of their proceedings, and asked for a civil sanction of

*^'We necessarily refer to your Piety what

them.

took place

in the

Holy Synod, and

that,

having met

at Constantinople, according to the letter of your

we first renewed harmony among ourselves


then we agreed on brief statements of faith, having
Piety,

both confirmed the faith of the fathers at Nice, and

anathematised the heresies which have sprung up

Moreover we have made certain Canons


the good order of the Churches, all which we have

against
for

it.

appended

We

to this letter.

pray then your Piety,

that the decision of the Council


that, as

may be confirmed

you honored the Church by the

convoked

it,

so also

you may

letters

which

set the seal to the con-

we have decreed."
The Emperor immediately ratified

clusion which

his celebrated decree of

the Council ^ by

July 30. A. D. 384, in which

he named certain Bishops as centres of communion


in the several civil Dioceses.

'^We command that

the Churches be presently given to Bishops


fess

who

all

con-

the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, of one Majesty

and Power

of the same Glory, of one Brightness

introducing nothing discordant, through profane division,

but confessing the order of the Trinity, the as-

sertion of the Persons,

The Bishops
1

Soz.

vii. 9.

of

whom
"

and the Unity of the Godhead.


it

shall

be certain that they

Cod. Theod. xvi,

1.

(de

fid.

Cath.)

3.

Emperor names Bishops,


are associated in the

323

as centi'es of communion.

communion

of Nectarius, Bishop

of the Chm'ch of Constantinople, and, within Egypt,


of Timothy Bishop of Alexandria

in the East, with

Pelagius Bishop of Laodicea, and Diodorus Bishop of

Tarsus

in

Proconsular Asia and the diocese of Asia,

with Amphilochius Bishop of Iconium and Optimus Bishop of Antioch [in Pisidia] in the diocese of Pontus,
;

with Helladius Bishop of Csesarea and Otreius of


litine

and Gregory Bishop of Nyssa

[in

Me-

Thrace "]

with Terennius [Terentius] Bishop of Scythia, Mar-

marius [Martyrius^^] Bishop of Marcianopolis

such

Bishop must, through the communion and fellowship


of approved Bishops, be admitted to possession of the

But

Catholic Churches.

communion of

all

who

dissent from the

faith of those thus

must be expelled from the Churches,

as

open

heretics,

to retain the Episco-

and not be allowed henceforth

pate of such Churches, so that the Bishops


purely in the true faith of Nice

named,

specially

may

abide

nor, after our plain

command, must any place be given to evil-minded


Sozomen says that Theodosius " praised
cunning."
these Bishops, having seen and conversed with them;

and a good opinion prevailed about them, as guiding


This done, the Bishops rethe Churches piously."
turned home.
Contemporarily with the great Council of Constantinople, the

Synod

of Aquileia was, at the petition of

Palladius, an Arian Bishop in the West,

by Gratian.
"

The Emperor

from Sozomen

intended, at
"

1. c.

y2

lb. fin.

summoned

first,

to

have

324 Emperor

calls first general, tJienparticd, Council.

convened a General Council, and Palladius,

the

in

presence of the Synod, stated that he had promised


that the Eastern Bishops would come.

Probably he

looked to be supported by the Macedonian Bishops.

The Emperor, in his Imperial Rescript, states that S.


Ambrose had suggested to him, that it was needless,
in such a cause, to bring

tance, to

make

may

it

whom

Bishops from a great dis-

age or weak health or poverty might

burdensome.

^'^^Wishing to essay, as soon as

be, that the priests should not disagree, with a

doubtful reverence for doctrines,

we had commanded

that the Bishops should meet in the city of Aquileia,


in the diocese intrusted to the merits of th}^ excel-

For controversies of doubtful meaning could


not be more rightly cleared, than by our making the
lency.

Bishops themselves the interpreters of the dispute

which had arisen

so that

by those from

whom

the

instruction in doctrine emanateth, the contradiction

of an inharmonious teaching should be ended.

command otherwise than we


command, nor do we change the tenor of the

"And now we do
did

not

directions, but reconsider the superfluous

number

of

Ambrose, by the merits of


his life and the vouchsafement of God, the eminent
Bishop of Milan, suggests that there is no need of a
those congregated.

For

multitude there, where,

with a few,
that he

it

as

if

truth should be deposited

would not be hampered by many, and

and the

priests of the

neighbouring

cities

of

Italy would abundantly suffice against the declaraP in

Act. Cone. Aq. ap.

S.

Anibr.

ii.

787. sqq.

Council of Bishops of Italy and legates of Synods. 325


tions of those
it

who oppose themselves, we have thought

right to abstain from wearying venerable

any, either weighed

down by matm-e

men,

lest

age, or unequal

thereto through a praiseworthy poverty, have to seek

an unaccustomed land,

The plea of
not a "

full

Palladius, throughout, was that

Council," " general Council,"

reserved himself.

"He

of his companions."

much

etc."

for

it

was

which he

could not answer in the absence


" InasS. Ambrose answered

as aforetime the Council

was

so held, that the

Easterns should have a Council in the East, the Westerns in the West, we, being in the West, have met in

the city of Aquileia, according to the

Emperor.

Yet

command

Easterns should have the power of coming,


willed.
cil

of the

the prefect of Italy wrote, that the

But knowing the custom

to be, that the

if

they

Coun-

of the Easterns should be in the East, that of the

West, they thought best not to come."


The larger part of the Bishops were from the ViValerian, as Bishop of Aquileia,
cariate of Italy.

Westerns

in the

S.Ambrose took the chief part in


examining Palladius. There were other Bishops how-

presided, although

from the Synods of their Province or


Felix and Numidius, African Bishops and
country.
legates, came as representatives of all Africa Conever, legates

stantius. Bishop of Orange, and Proculus, Bishop of


Marseilles, represented the provinces of Vienne and

Lyons probably represented the


Anemius, Biprovinces of Gallia Lugdunensis.

Narbon.
five

S. Justus of

shop of Sirmium, speaks in the name of Illyricum,

326 Sy nodical letter

to Bisho2)s

Evantius, a Presbyter,

is

who had sent deputies.

designated also as a legate,

probably of some single Bishop.


said

'

let

" Ambrose, Bishop,

the African legates also speak,

hither the judgment of

Bishop and legate,

all

said,

who brought

the Bishops of Africa.' Felix,


if

any one deny the Son of

God

to

do

the legate of the whole Province of Africa, con-

I,

be both Everlasting and Co-eternal, not only

demn him, but

me

the whole band of Bishops, which have

most holy assembly, have also before


condemned him.' Anemius Bishop of Sirmium spake as
**the head of Illyricum." *' Anemius Bishop said, *The
sent

to this

no other than the city of Sirmium.


I am the Bishop of that city. I call him anathema, who
head of Illyricum

is

confesses not &c."'

The Synodical

letter

is

preserved,

containing the thanks of the Council "^to their be-

loved brethren the Bishops of the Province of Vienne

and the

first

and second Narbon."

"We

thank your

holy unanimity, that in our Lords and brethren, Con-

and Proculus, ye have bestowed upon us the


presence of you all and at the same time, following
the injunctions of our forefathers, ye added no slight
stantius

weight to our sentence, with which the profession of


your holiness also agrees, most beloved Lords and
brethren.

So then

said holy

men from

as

we wiUingly

received the afore-

our mutual communion, so

we

let

them go with abundant thanksgiving."


Palladius had himself hastened by a day the sitting
of the Council, professing that he would come "as a

<

S. Auibr. Ep. 9.

Laymen

not

to judge

No

Christian to Christians,"

taken at

first,

327

Bishops.

notes were, accordingly,

the Bishops expecting a simple and sa-

Ambrose

tisfactory explanation.

discussed without minutes.

And

''

said,

Long have we

since such blasphe-

mies are poured into our ears by Palladius and Secundian, that it would be difficult for any to believe
that they could blaspheme so openly, and lest they

should deceitfully attempt afterwards to deny their


own words, although there could be no doubt of what
is

attested by so

shops think

one

may be

many

good,

it

Bishops, yet since

let

all

the Bi-

minutes be taken, that no

able to deny what he had professed.

Ye

All the

must then, holy men, declare your mind."


Bishops said, "it seems good." Palladius was allowed,
on

his side, to

have his own notaries.

employment of the Synod was to detect


When this had been done
the evasions of Palladius.
to some extent, ''Palladius said, 'Allow of hearers
and notaries on both sides. Ye canlet them come
not be judges, if we have not hearers and unless
some on both sides come to hear, we answer you not.'

The

chief

Ambrose Bishop
ers V

Pall.

said,

'Whom

seekest thou, as hear-

'There are many honorable

men

here.'

Sabinus Bishop said, 'After so many blasphemies, askest thou for hearers Y Ambrose Bishop said, 'Bishops
should judge laymen, not laymen Bishops but say
whom thou askest for as judges V Pall. 'Let hearers
come.' Chromatins Presbyter 'saving the Episcopal
;

condemnation,
Council.'

let Palladius' friends

Pall.

too speak in full

'Let them not be allowed to speak

Bishops, one by one, condemn PaUadius.

328
let

come and

hearers

shall

shop

answer you
*

said,

notaries on both sides,

and these

Ambrose

in a general Council.'

Although he has been detected

in

Bi-

many

ashamed that he who claims to himimpieties, we


self the priesthood, should seem to be condemned by
are

laymen.

And

this too, that

therefore he

is

to

be condemned for

he awaits the sentence of laymen, whereas

According to

Bishops ought rather to judge laymen.

what we have this day heard Palladius profess, and


according to what he refused to condemn, I pronounce
him unworthy of the Episcopate, and to be deprived,
that a Catholic

Bishops said,
shop

said,

may be ordained in his room.' All the


Anathema to Palladius.' Ambrose Bi-

*The most gracious and Christian Emperor

committed the cause to the judgment of Bishops, and


appointed us to be arbiters of the

Since then the

trial.

judgment seems to have been deferred to


terpreters of Scripture, let us

refused to

condemn

condemn the opinion

us, to

be

Palladius,

in-

who

of Arius; and because

he denied that the Son of God was eternal, and the


rest

which

is

contained in the minutes.

Let him be

then accounted Anathema.' All the Bishops say,

'We

condemn him. Let him be accounted Anathema.'"


Ambrose then asked the Bishops to pronounce
" Since all here are
their judgment individually.

all

S.

Christian

and

men and approved by God,

our brethren

fellow-Bishops, let each say what he thinks."

Twenty-five judgments only are preserved, besides


that of S. Ambrose.

The two

vered their judgment in one.

African legates deli-

Presbyter subscribes, as submitting

to decision.

329

After him, Secimdian used the same evasions, and


(as appears

from the Epistle of the Synod to the Em-

peror,) Avas

aUke condemned.

With them was condemned Attahis a presbyter,


who had been present at the Council of Nice, and had
subscribed its Creed, but was now involved in the heAttains the pres*' Ambrose said,
resy of Palladius.
byter, although among the Arians, has liberty to
*

Let him profess

speak.

whether he subscribed

freely,

the statement of the Nicene Council, under (sub) his

Sabinus the Bishop

Bishop Agrippinus or no V
*

We

said,

are witnesses that Attains subscribed in the

now

Council of Nice, and

will

not answer.'"

Attalus could have had no voice at the Council of

Nice

as he signed, not for his Bishop, but under him.

His signature then declared his personal assent. But


it was the subscription of one, submitting to a Creed,
(like our

claring

modern

it.

EmpeValentinian, and Theodosius, thank them

The Bishops
rors, Gratian,

that,

subscriptions) not confirming or de-

"4n

in their Synodical letter to the

order to remove altercations, they had been

at pains to

gather a sacerdotal Council, and had

vouchsafed to shew such honor to the Bishops, that

no one who
his will,

willed,

need be absent

no one, against

Therefore, according to the

be constrained.

precept of your Clemency

we met, without

the invi-

diousness of a multitude, and with the purpose of dis-

S.

Ambr. Ep.

10.

330 Council ash E?nperors


cussing

to

remove those condemned,

nor did any Bishops appear from the here-

men

of in-

these were they, for

whom

save two, Palladius and Secundian,

tics,

grained faithlessness.

Lo

!.

they asked that a Council should be gathered from


How grievous
the utmost parts of the Roman world

had

it

been, that, for two men, decaying amid faith-

lessness, the

Churches throughout the world should

be deprived of their Bishops

Who, though

for the

length of the way they could not come, yet well-nigh

were present from

all

by the

legates

whom

all

the Provinces of the West,

they sent, and through plain at-

testations that they hold

what we maintain."

After a condensed account of the Council, they

mention that they had deposed the two Arian Bishops.


"We entreat your faith, your glory, that ye would shew
reverence to the Author of your empire, and decree,
by letters of your Clemency given to competent authorities,

that these asserters of impiety and adulterers

of truth be removed from the precincts of the Church


so that holy Bishops may, by the legates of our poor
selves,

Let

be set in the place of those condemned.

the like sentence include Attains the Presbyter,

who

admits his faithlessness, and holds to the sacrilege of


What shall we say of his master Juhan
Palladius.

Valens? who, being close at hand, declined the Council

of Bishops

and

Let him

at least return to his

home,

who now, by
himself men like

not contaminate the cities of Italy,

illicit

ordinations,

is

associating to

and by aid of abandoned persons, would fain


leave a seed-plot of his own impiety and faithlessness
himself,

and to assemble Council at A lexandria.


he,

who

is

not even a Bishop.

For

first

at

331

Padua

he was placed to supersede holy Mark, a Bishop of


admirable memory
and having been disgracefully
;

expelled by the people, he,


in

who could

find

no place

Padua, now, after the destruction or rather the be-

trayal of his country, overrides Milan."

After the Council of Aquileia had completed the


judgment for which its Bishops were assembled, an
imperfect account of the course of events at Constantinople induced S. Ambrose and the other Bishops
there assembled, to write to Theodosius and request
him to assemble a Council at Alexandria. They speak,

not of Paulinus only, but of Timothy of Alexandria,


as if they

had been aggrieved.

"We

'

learn that there

have been many innovations, and that they are now


aggrieved who ought to have been helped, who ever
continued in our Communion. Timothy, Bishop of
the Church of Alexandria, and Paulinus of that of
Antioch, who always maintained communion with us

unimpaired, are reported to be harassed by the discussions of some, whose faith in times past wavered.

Whom,

if it

may be and

if

desire to be united to our

their faith be perfect,

communion, yet

we

so that, to

communion, their prerogative be


Long
preserved. Nor is our care for them gratuitous
of those
since we had the letters of both parties, and
at
Church
the
especially, who were at variance in
Indeed, unless the irruption of the enemy
Antioch.

those of old in our

Ep.

2.

Cone. Aquil.

332

Proposed Cou?icil to settle disputes at Antioch.

had hindered, we had


ber,

who might,
But

peace.

settled to send

by reason of the public

could not then do what


petition of our's

we asked

that,

parties, the

umpires in restoring

if possible, act as

since,

some of our numdisquiet,

we wished, we think

was presented

we

that a

your Piety, wherein

to

according to the agreement of the

Churches should on the decease of the

one remain with the other, and no one be consecrated


over the head [of the survivor].

So then we pray

you, most gracious and Christian Princes, that ye


will decide

that a Council of

should be held at Alexandria,


consider and define, to
given, to

whom

all

Catholic Bishops

who may more

whom communion

continued. For although

fully

should be

we have

ever

held to the order and arrangement of the Alexandrian

Church, and, after the custom of our forefathers, maintain

its

communion

inviolable, yet lest

seem to be disregarded, who asked


nion,

on the ground of the

to stand, or lest

any should

commuagreement which we wish


for

our

any method of maintaining the peace

and communion of the

faithful should

seem to have

been neglected, we entreat that when they

shall

have

among themselves in a fuller assembly,


of your Piety may conspire with the decrees

considered
the aid

of the Bishops, and that you would have the result

brought to our knowledge, that we


in our affections, but, in

joy and

may

not waver

security,

render

thanks to your Piety before Almighty God, that not


only has faithlessness been excluded, but faith and

harmony been restored

to

Catholics.

This,

the

FuUpoivers of Legates

second letter of Council. 333

Churches of Africa and Gaul


then* legates, that

also beseech of

that you would

is,

make

you by
all

the

Bishops in the world your debtors."

The

who

legates mentioned in this Epistle were those

then have come with very

full

powers, not for the

gle case of the two Arian Bishops.

the Emperors

is,

The

sin-

petition to

not only that they w^ould convene a

Synod, but that they w^ould enforce


civil

They must

attended at the Synod of Aquileia.

its

decision

by

The Council intimates clearly what that


would be, if their mind prevailed, viz. that

authority.

decision

the see of Antioch should be preserved to Paulinus.


The arrival of Maximus the Cynic in the Council,

and

his misrepresentations of his

own

ordination and

of Nectarius occasioned the same Council to write a

yet stronger letter to Theodosius.


the

name

"We*

of "Ambrose

wrote long

The

letter is in

and the other Bishops of Italy."

since, that since the city of

had two Bishops, Paulinus and


supposed to have one

faith,

Meletius,

Antioch

whom we

peace and concord should

between them, preserving ecclesiastical order, or at least, on the death of either, the
place of the one should not be filled up, while the
But now, Meletius having deceased,
other survived.
Paulinus surviving, who ever remained in our comeither be restored

munion, one

is

asserted to be, not so

much

set in the

And

this is
place of Meletius, as set over [Paulinus].
of
said to have been done by the consent and advice

'

Ep.

2.

Concil. Ital. ad Theodos.

Council claims, as condition of communion,

334

how it was in order


we see not. For lately in Council, when Maximus,
Bishop, shewed by letters of Peter of blessed memory
Nectarius, whose

own

ordination,

Church of Alexandria continued with him, and proved clearly that he had been
ordained as enjoined, by three Bishops within a pri-

that the

commmiion

of the

vate house, because the Arians

we had no

possible ground,

still

held the Churches,

most blessed prince, to

doubt of his Episcopate, inasmuch as he


very

many

attests that

of the Clergy and people constrained him,

resisting, [to take the office].

Yet lest we should seem

to have defined any thing out of presumption, in the

absence of the parties, we thought right to write and


inform your clemency, that the case
for, as shall

seem best

mony.

in truth

For

may be

for the public

we observed

provided

peace and har-

that Gregory claimed

the Episcopate of the Church of Constantinople, not

We

according to the tradition of the fathers.

then, in

that Synod which seemed to be intended for the Bi-

shops of the whole world, thought that nothing was to

be done hastily.

But

at that very time, they

clined a general Council,

done

at Constantinople

Maximus had come

what are they

who

de-

said to have

For when they knew that

to these parts, to maintain his

cause in a Synod (which, even

if

no Council had been

manner of
memory, and

appointed, [he might have done] after the

our forefathers, as Athanasius too of holy

Peter, Bishops of the Alexandrian Church, and

many

seemed, to the

of the Easterns have done, fleeing, as

it

judgment of the Church of Rome, of

Italy,

and of the

that Maximus' cause be heardhy Bps. ofE.(^'

whole West") when, as we

meant

said,

they knew that he

who had denied

to try his cause against those

his Episcopate,

nion upon him.

W. together. 335

they ought to have awaited our opi-

We

claim no prerogative to examine;

but there ought to have been a common and united


judgment.

Lastly,

it

ought to have been made clear,

that his [Maximus'] Sacerdotal office was to be abrogated, before


rius]

it

especially

was bestowed upon another, [Necta-

whom Maximus com-

by those, by

plained that he had been wronged and deprived.


then, since those in our

communion had

So

received into

communion the Bishop Maximus, it being clear that


he was ordained by Catholic Bishops, we did not
think that he was to be debarred from his claim to

We

the see of Constantinople.

thought that his

alle-

gation ought to be weighed in presence of the parties.

But when we, poor as we are, learnt that Nectarius


had been ordained at Constantinople, we do not see
how our communion with the East can subsist. Especially since Nectarius is said
left

out of

communion by

zanship

Nor does our

the very persons by

disquiet arise

or ambition, but

communion.
unless either

have been forthwith

whom

So we have herein no slight

he had been ordained.


scruple.

to

Nor do we
he who was

from any

parti-

from the interruption of

see

how

first

it

can be restored,

ordained, be restored

to Constantinople, or at least a Council of us and the

Easterns should be held at


"

They took refuge

as to the ordination

West, not as appealing from any


was not) but from the persecution of the

in the

authority, (which there

Rome

ecclesiastical

Civil

power.

336 Appeals

to

Bps. of the whole West, but as equalsonly.

Nor does

of the two.

it

seem

unfitting,

Augustus,

that they should abide the discussion of the Bishop of

the

Roman Church and

Itahan Bishops,

of the neighbouring

who thought

it

and the

right so to await the

judgment of the one Bishop Achohus, as to wish

summoned from

to be

What was
be

for

the

reserved for one,

him

West to Constantinople.
how much more should it

many."

This

remarkable, as written by

letter is very

Ambrose,
West, in

name

S.

and with. Bishops of the


a case where one, whom they supposed to
in the

of,

have been canonically ordained Bishop of Constantinople and uncanonically deposed, sought the succour
of the West.

Maximus was seemingly supported by

the important see of Alexandria, second in rank to

Rome, until it gave way to the new Imperial city.


S. Ambrose was sitting in a Council, intended to have
been general, although Damasus was not represented,
probably because occupied by the faction opposed to

him

at

Rome.

S.

Ambrose regards

this

appeal, as

well as those of S. Athanasius and Peter, as appeals

not to Rome, but to the whole West

he claimed

for

Rome and

for the

but an equal share in judging.

and even thus,

West not authority,


Even this would be

inconsistent with his plea against Palladius,'' that the

matters of East and


tively

where they

meant

to

make an

West should be settled


we suppose

arose, unless

respecthat he

exception in behalf of the chief


"

see ab. p. 325.

Explanatory
sees,

letter

who had no

Theoclosius,

of Cowic. of Italy

to

Emj)eror. 337

superiors, except a general Council.

upon the

receipt of these letters, re-as-

sembled the Eastern Bishops at Constantinople, and,


perhaps on their advice, wrote a letter, to which S.

Ambrose and the Italian Bishops sent an apologetic


As far as we can judge from the answer of

answer.

the Council, the grounds of objection taken by Theodosius were, that this was a needless interference on

the part of the Western Bishops, that they were going

beyond

upon by

their

bounds, that

idle tales, that

they had been imposed

they had, in

prejudged

fact,

the cause which they asked to be admitted to judge,

together with the Eastern Bishops.


the topics on which S.

Such, at

least, are

Ambrose and the Council

dwell.

The letter does not express, as those from Aquileia


had done, from what Synod it was written. The title
simply runs; '^^Ambrose and the other Bishops of Italy
to the

most blessed Emperor and most gracious prince,

Theodosius." Perhaps, as S. Ambrose was at this date

Rome, and Emperors' letters are not kept waiting,


he, with the Bishops who had written the former letter,
wrote this explanation. Damasus and the other Bishops assembled at Rome, who had taken no part in
at

the former letter, could hardly join in

intended to explain
S.

Ambrose and

their letter, they

1.

which was

it.

the other Bishops set forth that, in

had sought the glory

himself, in applying to
Ep.

this,

Cone.

Ital.

him

Emperor

to help in restoring unity

ad Theodos. Cone.

of the

ii.

1192.

Council of allfor good of all.

338

between the Eastern and Western Churches, and


forming him by

we grieved

letter as to ecclesiastical matters.

that the intercom^se of sacred

in-

"For

communion

between the Easterns and Westerns was interrupted.

We will not now say, by whose error or


lest

we

be blamed for leaving untried.

blamed

fault,

should seem to string fables and idle state-

Nor do we repent that we

ments.

by whose

for

tried

what we should

For we were often

seeming to disregard the society of the

Easterns and to reject their kindness.

We were ready

too to undertake labor, not for Italy, which has long

been quiet and

and

is

free

from anxiety about the Arians,

harassed by no disturbance of the heretics

for ourselves, because

the good of

all

not

we do not seek our own, but

not for Gaul and Africa, which enjoy

the harmonious intercourse of

that what disturbs our

East might be considered, and

They then mention

all

Bishops, but in order

communion on
all

the part of the

scruple be removed."

that they had a further object in

the Synod, the condemnation of Apollinarius and his


doctrine, in the presence of the parties. "For whoso

has not been convicted in the presence of the parties,


as your

Clemency

down

laid

and princely response,

will

in

your truly august

always be able to seize

some occasion of reviving the question. We therefore


besought of you an Episcopal Council, that no one
might be able to frame falsehood against the absent,
and that the truth might be sifted in Council. So
then, no suspicion of wrong intentions or favor lights on
those

who did everything

in the presence of the parties.

Bishops at Constaniinojple decline

to

go

to the

West.

We did indeed put together what was alleged, in


to inform, not to settle

ment, did not prejudge.

any derogation

to them,

Covmcil, whose absence

when

and we who asked

order

judg-

Nor should it be accounted


when Bishops are invited to
often

is

more present

[the Council] consulted for the

it

for

339

For neither did we esteem

it

[to us]

common

good.

any derogation, when

one presbyter of the Church of Constantinople, Paul,


asked for a Council of Easterns and Westerns within

Your Clemency

Achaia.

observes, that

it

was no un-

reasonable request, which the Easterns too asked.

But because lUyricum seemed hazardous, we looked


out for what was near the sea, and safer. Nor did we
devise any thing new but adhering to what Athanasius of holy memory, (who was as a pillar of the faith,)
;

and our holy fathers of old have ruled in Councils,


we do not remove the boundaries which our fathers
'

have

set,'

nor violate the laws of hereditary

commu-

nion, but reserving the due respect for your Empire,

shew ourselves studious of peace and quietness."


Most of the Bishops who had formed the Council
of Constantinople,

met again

lowing summer (A. D. 482)

Church

called

them together

in that City in the fol''for

^sorne needs of the

again.

There they

re-

ceived a Sy nodical letter from the Bishops of the

West, exhorting them to come to Rome, because a


very large Synod was convened there. But they deand they
clined the journey, as promising no good
;

" Tlicod. V. 9.

z2

34

Bishojys p) 'ovided with pi'oxies for definite objects.

wrote them a

describing the great tempest

letter,

which had arisen against the Chm'ches, and hinting


at their [the Westerns'] former neglect."
is

The

Epistle

addressed, " To the most honored Lords, and most

reverend brethren and fellow-ministers Damasus,

Am-

brose, Britton, Valerian, Ascholins, Anemiiis, Basil,

and the other holy Bishops, met together

at the great

Rome, the holy Synod of orthodox Bishops, met


the great city Constantinople, in the Lord greet-

city

in

In answer to the invitation, they say

ing."

"Since

ye, shewing brotherly love towards us, assembling

God

by

Rome, have, through the

Synod at
most beloved of God, invited us
too as your own members, that since we then were
alone condemned to endure the inflictions, now, when
the Emperors are united in the truth, ye may not

the will of

letters of the king,

reign without us, but ^we too may,' as the Apostle


reign with you'

we should have longed, had

says,

been

possible, all collectively

it

leaving our Churches,

met your wishes, or the need. ^O that we


had wings, like a dove, that we could fly' and rest
with you. But this would have left our Churches
wholly exposed, which had just begun to recover; and
to have

to

most of us

it

was wholly impossible.

sequence of your honored

For in con-

letters, sent last

year after

the Synod of Aquileia to the Emperor Theodosius,

most beloved of God, we had met

at Constantinople,

having prepared for an absence only as


stantinople,

far as

Con-

and bringing with us the consent of the

Bishops remaining in the provinces, for

this

Council

341

C. of Aniiocli confirmed by C. of Constantinople.

only

and neither anticipating nor hearing at

all

be-

forehand of any longer journey, before we met at Constantinople. Moreover, the narrowness of the time allows neither of preparation for a longer absence, nor
all

in the provinces

and receiving

these and

many

communion

the Bishops of our

of our informing

their assents.

Since

other things hindered the coming of

the more part [of the Eastern Bishops to the West,]

we have done what was next

best, in order

both to

and shew our love towards you


begging our most reverend and honored brethren and
fellow-ministers the Bishops, Cyriacus, Eusebius, and
set matters

right,

Priscian, gladly to exert themselves to

come

to you.

Through these we shew you that our intention is


peaceful, and directed to unity, and we explain our
zeal for the faith."

To

this statement,

they subjoin a succinct profes-

sion of faith, directed against the Arians, Sabellians,

Eunomians, Macedonians, Apollinarians.


subject ye

may be

''On which

refreshed, if ye will vouchsafe to

read the tome composed at Antioch by the Synod


which met there, and which was set forth last year by
the CEcumenical Synod at Constantinople, wherein we
have confessed the faith more at large, and have committed

to

writing

anathemas against the heresies

which have been recently devised."


The Council then briefly alluded

to

some

of their

Canons, and stated how the sees of Constantinople


and Antioch had been filled up in conformity with the

Nicene Canons, and that they had received

S. Cyril

of

Sy nodical

342

letter

mid confession offaith

The

Jerusalem, as having been canonically elected.

framers of the letter seem, in their praise of the sees


of Antioch and Jerusalem, to intend gently to hint to
the Western Bishops, that the sees of the East are as

good as those of the West/

They conclude with


" In

monition against interference.

which hold among


canons,

der the influence of spiritual love

human

all

these things

us, in conformity to the laws

we exhort your Reverences

repressing

all

partialities,

and

to sympathise, un-

the fear of the

Lord

and making the build-

ing-up of the Churches of more account than individual

For these matters of

likings or favor.

faith

agreed upon, and christian love established

we
*I

among

us,

what the Apostles condemned,


of ApoUos, and I of Cephas.' But

shall cease to say

am

we

being

of Paul,

all

and

being manifestly of Christ,

us, shall,

who

is

not divided in

by the vouchsafement of God, keep the Body

Church unrent, and shall stand with boldness


at the judgment seat of Christ."
Theodoret inserts in this place,^ a letter entitled "a
Synodical letter of Damasus, Bishop of Rome, written

of the

against Apollinaris and Timotheus."

written in answer to some persons

The

who had

letter

is

applied

to depose Timotheus, and whom he addresses


"
Together with this, Theodoret adds " a
sons."
as
confession of faith, which the Pope Damasus sent to
the Bishop Paulinus in Macedonia, when he was at

to

him

Thessalonica."

In this

SCO ah. p. 311.

last,

Theodoret

'

V. 10.

is

clearly mis-

from Damasiis
For

taken.

faith"

appears from the fuller form, published

it

Roman

from the

was

343

aga'mst A]}ollinaria7is.

Archives, that this " confession of

sent, shortly after Vitalis left

Damasus had been


Paulinus was
him.

Rome, when
awakened

the suspicions of

fully

with regard to

at that time at

Antioch

whereas his journey to Thessalonica would


the Council of

fall after

The " confession


himself

of

faith "

A. D. 382.

was written by Damasus

says, that the

Theodoret

Rome

Rome

Bishops " assem-

Rome, not ConstanIf so, it was written by Damasus


tinople] wrote it."
In this Epistle Damasus writes to Pauin a Synod.
linus, as an equal, and mentions his own mistake,

bled

at the

great

'

'

[i. e.

"^ Damasus to his most beloved brother, Paulinus.

had directed
leaving

all

letters to

you by

son Vitalis himself,

things to your will and judgment

Petronius the presbyter,


at the very

my

moment

had

and by

briefly indicated that,

of his departure,

Whence,

degree disquieted.

was

in

some

lest any scruple should

remain with you, and lest your commendable caution


should defer some who wish to be united to the Church,

we have

sent

you our

faith,

are united with us in the

much to you, who


communion of the same
not so

who, by subscribing it, wish to be


united in it with thee, i.e. with me through thee, most
beloved brother." He concludes; "Whoever would

faith, as for those

subscribe this Epistle, yet so that he shall have before

subscribed the Ecclesiastical Canons, which you very


a lb. fin.

'*

in Holstein p. 180. sqq. In Theodoret

beginning and end are omitted, as personal to Paulinus.

(v. 11.)

the

344

Sy nodical letter against Timotheus

well know, and the Nicene faith, him you will have
to receive, without any questioning.

Not that you

could not propose for the reception of converts those

very things which

may

we

write, but that our

agreement

give you an independant example in receiving

them." In the hint about "the Ecclesiastical Canons,"


there

is

probably an indirect censure of

S.

Meletius,

whose appointment to the see of Antioch, after he


had occupied that of Sebaste, Damasus probably held
to be uncanonical.
tion

It was not however, a translahad given up the see of Sebaste,

for S. Meletius

three years before, "

'^

wearied by the refractoriness of

those he governed."

The Synodical letter, (if such it be) was written


some time after A. D. 373; for it speaks of the condemnation of ApoUinaris and Timotheus,'^
taken place of

old.

having

as

'*Know that we have condemned

that profane Timotheus,

who was

of old, the disciple

of the heretic ApoUinaris, with his impious doctrine,

and we do not believe that what remains of him


ever be strong again.

But

if

been once or twice crushed, revive to


ment, he who

is

will

that old serpent, having


his

own

punish-

out of the Church and ceases not to

essay to ruin some faithless ones by his deadly poisons,

avoid

him, like a plague.

And remembering

the Apostolic faith, especially that set forth in writing

by the fathers

at Nice, abide in

it

unmoved and

firmly

planted, and endure not henceforth that your clerks or

<=

Theod.

ii.

31.

-i

see ah. p. 276.

and AjwIUnaris

to

laymen should hear vain

luhom,

345

ivritten.

anglings, or questions al-

ready closed. For we have already once given a form,


that whoso knoweth himself to be a Christian

may

keep that which was delivered by the Apostles, since


the blessed Paul saith,

if

any man preach to you

any other Gospel than that ye have received,

let

him

be accursed.'"
It is
is

not clear to

whom

this letter is addressed.

written to Bishops, since

your clerks or laymen &c."

It

says " endure not, that

it

It is

no answer to the

Council of Constantinople, after whose letter Theo-

had made no request about

doret places

it \^

Timotheus.

It

that in which

Damasus addressed

for they
is

written in a different tone from


all

other Bishops.

For Paulinus and other Bishops he addresses as


"brothers"; these, as "most honoured sons."

It

was a

time of misunderstanding between the East and West.


S. Basil complains of the " ^Western superciliousness,"

The Epistle may then have


very probably been written, when Damasus wished to
extol his own see, and repress the Easterns, in this
especially of

Damasus.

matter which concerned the whole Church.

The Council

of

Rome,

as far as

we know, took no

^ Theodoret is probably observing an order of connection, not of time. After


mentioning that the Council of Constantinople condemned the doctrines of
Apollinaris, he adds " Damasus too, the all-celebrated, having learned that
;

had shot up, deposed not Apollinaris only, but Timothy too his
disciple, and signified this to the Bishops, governing the Eastern Church, by
(v. 9. fin.)
letters, which I have thought it useful to insert in the history."
this heresy

The

supposition that

Damasus

"
called the Bishops at Constantinople his " sons

has been used of old in Roman controversy.


^ Ep. 239. Euscb. add Ep. 215. Doroth.

Bishops meet at Rome, on ApoUinarius.

346

notice of the letter of the Council of Constantinople.

The Council of Italy told Theodosius, ""many things


moved us, which ought to be analyzed in the presence
parties, not only as to

of the

what your Serenity

deigned to write to us upon, but as to those

who

are

endeavouring to bring into the Church some doctrine

which

asserted to be that of ApoUinarius."

is

rome had "''been brought

to

Rome by some

Church, together with Paulinus and

S. Je-

need of the

Epiphanius

S.

"
;

"the' Imperial letter bringing together Bishops of the

East and West, on account of dissensions of Churches."


appears from a story of Rufinus (which S. Jerome

It

confirms ^ as coming from himself, while he ridicules

on

as bearing

it

his controversy with Rufinus) that

not only was the reconciliation of the Apollinarians

was drawn up, which they

discussed, but a statement

and which was shewn to them, and

were to sign,

objections

their

heard.

"

When

'

the

reception

of

ApoUinarius into the Church was discussed, Damasus

committed

man,

to a certain Presbyter, a

his friend, the office of writing a

most eloquent

statement of the

of the Church, which the Apollinarians were

faith

to subscribe,

if

they wished to be received into the

Church." "He, as was his wont, discharged


for

him [Damasus].

the term

'Homo

He

thought

it

necessary to use

Dominicus' of the Incarnation. The

Apollinarians were offended at the word


to

blame the novelty of the term.

Ep.

c.

"

i.

Ruf.

ii.

20.

this office

Ep. 127. Princip.


'

de adult,

. 7.

libb. Orig.

they began

The author
*

[S. Je-

Ep. 108. Eustoch..

app. Orig.

iv. p. .53.

6.


Seco7id Council of Constantinople.

rome] stood

347

and refuted the objectors by

his ground,

the authority of ancient Catholic writers.

It

chanced

that to one objector he shewed the phrase in a treatise

He,

of Bishop Athanasius.

though convinced,

as

asked for the loan of the volume, that he might satisfy


others

ceived

He

who
it,

contradicted in ignorance.

Having

he devised an unheard-of mode of

re-

falsifying.

erased the w^ord, and then re-wrote the word

which he had erased.


out any questions.

The volume was

returned with-

The question was again raised


word in question
;

the volume was brought in proof; the

upon an erasure the honesty of one


who produced such a copy was impugned, because
the erasure seemed an indication of corruption and
falsifying.
But since this fraud was practised by
one living person upon another, he took diligent meawas found

in it

sures forthwith to detect

it,

so that the brand should

not attach to the innocent party who had done nothing of the kind, but to the author of the deed, to
the increase of his infamy."

Another Council of Constantinople was held A. D.


383, as a sort of sequel of the
could not endure, as far as in

should be
time,

filled

first.

him

with confusion

had a Synod held, thinking

''"'

Theodosius

lay, that the cities

but, after a short


that,

by the discus-

among themselves, one harmonious


behef would prevail among all. Not long after, the
sion of the Bishops

Bishops of every creed were present from


">

Socr.

V.

10.

all sides.

348

Heretical Bisliojps at

strife as to authority

The king then sent for Nectarius the Bishop, and communicated with him as to the means whereby Christ-

endom might no more


Church be

united.

utter different voices, but the

He

said that the question

which

divided the Churches must be discussed, that so, re-

moving the disagreement, he might bring about agreement in the Churches." The plan suggested was, that
the Emperor should "ask the heresiarchs, whether

who

they made account of the teachers


the

Church before the

jected

them

as aliens

division, or

flourished in

whether they

from Christianity?"

re-

The king

and "not mentioning the object, asked


only whether they made account of and received the

adopted

this,

teachers before the division of the Churches.

When

but said that they honored

they did not deny

this,

them exceedingly

as guides, the king again asked,

whether they accepted these


Christian doctrine.

When

as faithful witnesses of the

the Bishops of the sects,

and the logicians among each of them, heard this,


(for there were many among them equipped for a
strife

of logic) they

among them, some

knew not what

to do.

Discord

fell

saying, that the proposal of the

king was good; others, that it did not answer their end.

For they were differently disposed as to the books of


the ancients and they no longer held together, but
;

were at variance, not only the sects with one another,


but even those of the same heresy among themselves.
One-tongued wickedness then, like the language of
the mighty of old, was confused

wickedness was overthrown.

The

and
king,

their tower of

knowing

their

of the fathers ; give

in, eacli their

Creedfor

349

their sect.

confused dispersion, and that they trusted in logic


only, not in the exposition of the ancients, turned to a

second device, and bade each sect make known their

Then the

creed in writing.

able

men

of each party,

own

carefully weighing their words, wrote each his

doctrine.

day was fixed, and the Bishops of each

body, being summoned to the palace, met together.


Nectarius and Agelius [the Novatian Bishop] were
there, as Bishops of the faith of the

mophilus, of the Arians

Homoousion

De-

of the Eunomians, Eunomius

himself; of the Macedonians, Eleusius

of Cyzicus.

The king received them, and having taken from each


his confession of faith, retired apart,

nestly to

God

to help

him

and prayed ear-

to choose the truth.

Then

having read the several confessions, he, censuring


the rest, as involving a division

all

of the Trinity, tore

them and extolled and accepted the confession of


the Homoousion alone."
Socrates, who gives this account in order to gain
credit to the Novatians, and Sozomen," who copies
;

him, mix up with

it

an improbable statement that

Nectarius took advice with Agelius and Sisinnius, Novatians,

and that

his suggestion to

in fact, from Sisinnius a Reader

Theodosius came,

among the

Novatians.

It is the more unlikely, because Sozomen himself


relates, that with consent of Diodorus, he retained

office

Bishop of Adan, and from him learnt the


of the Episcopate," and that he also " induced

many

other Cilicians to continue with him."

"Cyriacus

"

vii. 12.

c. 10.

350 Separate Councils

Exf W. fail,

in

because separate.

Gregory of Nazianzum was disappointed with


The hope which he and S. Basil had so
Councils.
S.

long cherished, and with a view to which he had accepted the see of Constantinople, had

The

failed.

separate Councils in the East and West, even be-

cause they were separate, had rather aggravated the

For the

misunderstanding which already existed.


Bishops debated apart what they ought,
cussed at

"

I*

all

I, if I

dis-

Hence

common.

to have debated in

all,

Gregory declined

they

if

S.

future participation in Councils.

all

must write the

meetings of Bishops

am

truth,
;

for

disposed to

never saw

flee

a Council

issue,

nor remedying, (but rather

increasing) existing evils.

For there are always con-

brought to a useful

tentions

and

love

of preeminence

troublesome for so writing) beyond

himself incur the charge of guilt, than


I

words

may more

one who would set others right

Wherefore

me

(think
all

amend

my

their's.

soul."

East and West were mutually angered, and


gory, in attempting to mediate, had lost
friends in the East, and

by the West.

It

wrote to high

was a

happy

Gre-

of his

in

Yet

S.

Gregory

do what in them

issue

but as influencing

S.

sort of prelude to the subse-

officers of state, to

to bring matters to a

many

had been personally opposed

quent divisions of East and West.

it,

readily

have retired within myself, and thought

quietness the only safety for

voice in

not

and

lay,

not as having any

some way those who

Ep. 130. Procop.

S. Gregory asks high state officers to help

had. Thus to Saturninus,


"

"J

bij

influence.

who was Consul

in

351

A.D.383;

All things around us are well, by the goodness of

God, except that we are anxious about the Churches,


so miserably distracted.

In whatever

by word or deed, be zealous

help,

mony

for the

be feared

Bishops are meeting again, and

now

lest

too

this Council too shall

mer."

And

again there

way you can

in establishing

we should be put
have a poor

har-

it is

to

to shame,

if

close, like the for-

to Victor, Master-General-at-war,''

*'

Since

a Synod, and a conflict, and that, in the

is

midst of enemies diligently watching

all

our

affairs,

lend a hand to the general peace, as being thyself not

the meanest part of the Church, and let

sumed

and exhort others

fire,

be well with thee, in the

to

do the

common

like,

"Do you now


diligence

ciously apart,

at least, (even if

quench

to

that

it

And

weal."

phronius,^ a Prefect, after speaking of his

all

not be con-

But bring any engine you can,

the Church.

the

it

which now encompasseth

in the conflagration

own

may

to So-

repose.

you did not before) use

that the sections of the world, perni-

may

unite

and

especially,

if

you learn

that they are at variance, not on any matter of faith,

but about their private petty

For

served.

may
we

be

this will

have

and our retirement

feelings, as I
its

reward

will

be

shall appear not to have chosen

have ob-

for you, if it

less sorrowful, if
it

in vain,

but to

have cast ourselves of our own accord into the sea,


like Jonah, that the tempest may be stayed, and those

Ep. 132.

'

Ep. 133.

Ep. 135.

Ground offailure of Councils

352

in this respect.

on board be saved." To the otlier Master-General


Modar/ a Goth, in hke way "Would that many of
;

our countrymen imitated your nobleness


fairs,

public and private,

would go

well.

our

all

af-

beseech

you, that as, by your wisdom and valour nobly stand-

ing by us, you end foreign war, so you will also end

our

own

at least, striving, as far as in

you

now meeting may have

lies,

that

the Bishops

who

able issue.

For frequent meetings, without any close

to our

ills,

are

a peace-

but adding confusion to confusion, bring

but increase of shame, as you too know."

S.

Gregory

expresses the same hope in a letter written to Pos-

thumian, who was made Praetorian Prefect A. D. 383.

""Be assured that nothing can


a Council of Bishops

is

held, I

so befit your rule (since

know

not

why

or

how

convened) than that, while you are Prefect, and by

your pains, the Churches should be brought into concord."

The Eastern Councils could not

after the election

of S. Flavian, effect the peace which S. Gregory desired

was no fresh step to take, nothing


do. S. Gregory, then, longed from the

for there

them to
could be done only conjointly by East and
what
East,
West. Neither could abandon their own Bishops
had they united in Council, each might have recog-

left for

nised the other's Bishop, as S. Meletius had proposed.

But although the healing of the breach was reserved


for a later Council, this great Council did give rest to

Ep. 136.

"

Ep. 183.

Council of Constantinople gives rest to the Church. 353


the East for nearly seventy years, until the heresy of

Nestorius suddenly burst out.

The

fifty-six years be-

tween the Councils of Nice and Constantinople had


been occupied by a succession of

undermine the

fortress of the

efforts to

storm or

Nicene Council and

Creed, or to set up another over against and as a


rival to

it.

But the Arians, although upheld by

the power of Emperors,

themselves against

it.

broke,

all

not the rock, but

The Church was not only im-

pregnable, but was encircled with a second bulwark


against heresy

for the time laid

the heretical spirit in the East

was

the mists were cleared away

and

the Church was seen the

more

to be founded on the

firm Rock.

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