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Mechanicalcharacterization

Fatiguetesting

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Whatisfatigue?
Aperiodicallychangingload(ordeformation)
onastructureisafatigueload
Duetonumerousrepetitions,thestructure
D t
titi
th t t
willfailat(significantly)lowerstressesor
deformationsthanwouldbethecaseunder
the(quasi)staticloading
understandingofthisbehaviourisimportant

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Whatisfatigue?

Normalstressinanairplanewingduringgroundairgroundmanouvre

Realisticloads(seeexample)arequiterandom,
althoughinmostcases(rotatingstructures)oneor
somefrequenciesaremoreimportantthanothers
Fatiguetestsusuallyconsistofimposinga
sinusoidalload(ordeformation)onthestructure
andobservingitsbehaviour
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Sinusoidalloading
Realisticloadingisoftennotpossiblewithaservohydraulic
testmachine
Realisticloadingisevenmoreexpensiveandtimeconsuming
g
p
g
thansinusoidalones
Often,therealisticloadingconditionsarenotknow.

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Sinusoidalloading
Someparameters
Meanstress

mean

Stressamplitude

amp

Stressratio

max min

2
min
max
2

min
max

Composites

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Parametersforfatigue
Sample
Material
Layup
y p
Dimensionsandgeometry

Loading

Typeofloading(uniaxial,biaxial,bending,)
Orientationoftheloadingwithrespecttothefibrelayup
Frequentieoftheloading
Stressesandstressratio

Environment
Temperature
humidity

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Sinusoidalblockloading Minersrule
Blockloading:
Tosimulaterealisticloading,testsare
conducted,consistingofdifferent
periods each with its own mean stress
periods,eachwithitsownmeanstress
andstressamplitude.
Topredictdamage,usuallyMinersrule is
applied:
Duringaconstantamplitudefatigue
loading,damageDincreaseslinearlywith
thelifetime,goingfrom0atstartto1at
failure:
N

Nf

Fordifferentloadingblocks:

D D1 D2 ... Di
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N
N1
N
2 ... i
Composites
N f ,1 N f ,2
N f ,i

IvesDeBaereandJorisDegrieck 20132014

Sinusoidalblockloading Minersrule
Theruleiscommonlyapplied,butthepredicted
lifetimeoftenexceedstheactuallifetime(unsafe!!!)
Minerassumeslineardamagegrowth,whichis(quite
Miner assumes linear damage growth which is (quite
often)notthecase
Minerdoesnottaketheorderoftheblocksinto
account,butforfibrereinforcedcomposites,the
fatiguelifeforlowhighamplitudesignificantlydiffers
fromhighlowamplitude
Minerassumesnointeractionbetweendamage
Mi
i t
ti b t
d
correspondingtodifferentloadlevels.Damagegrowth,
however,isdefinitelyinfluenced bythedamage,
alreadypresent
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IvesDeBaereandJorisDegrieck 20132014

Representation SNcurves

Typicalrepresentationoffatigueresults
Foragivenloadcase(e.g.maximumstressandRratio),the
b
f
l
f il
i l
d
numberofcyclestofailureisplotted.
Duetoinherentscatter(whichisevenlargerforcomposites
comparedtometals),alotofexperimentsarenecessaryfor1
SNcurve(meaning1loadcase)
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SNcurves:notsuitedforcomposites
SNcurveonlyvalidforonespecific
combinationofsample,loadingcase,
environmental conditions
environmentalconditions.
Resultsfromliteratureareoftennotcomparable

Damagemechanicsincomposites:
Eachlayerhasitsownstressstate,dependingon
itsonmechanicalproperties(andorientation)
Damage
lowermechanicalproperties
stress
redistribution damagedlayerissubjectedtoa
lowerloadingandotherlayerscarrytheload
damagewillfirstgrowinotherlayers
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Why composites for fatigue?

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Differentdamagebehaviourincomposites
Stressconcentrationspresentbetweenfibreand
matrix,resultinginmicrocracks
Otheranomaliespresent(voids,foreignparticles,
Other anomalies present (voids foreign particles
thermalcracks,)
Atthebeginningofthefatigue,damageis
alreadypresent
However,microcrackswilllowerthelocalstress
concentrations,sodamagewillgrowvery
gradually
Metals:mostofthefatiguelifeisspentonthe
initiationofcracks.Crackgrowthtillfinalfailureis
onlyasmallpart.
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Differentdamagebehaviourincomposites
Duetothelocalcracks,themechanicalpropertiesdeteriorate
Usually,thisresultsinadecreaseinstiffnesspropertiesandan
increase in permanent deformation
increaseinpermanentdeformation

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Differentdamagebehaviourincomposites

Assuch,fatiguelifeforcompositeswillbeafunctionof
thedesiredapplicationforexample:
maintainingstiffnessforacompositespring
maintainingstrength
Limitationinpermanentdeformation(geometricalstability)
Composites
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Avoidingsurfacecracks(corrosionrelated)

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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersspecimen
Material
Mostfibreshaveagood
(glass) to very good (carbon,
(glass)toverygood(carbon,
aramid)fatigueresistance.
UDcarbonorUDaramid have
anextraincreaseinfatigue
resistanceintension
comparedtoglass,sincethey
carrymoreloadduetotheir
higherstiffness
Thefibrevolumefraction

Composites

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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersspecimen
Material
Matriceswithhigherfailurestrain
(typicallythermoplastics)tendto
have fewer crack initiation
havefewercrackinitiation,
resultinginlongerfatiguelife
Crackdensity=numberofcracks
persurfacearea
ForPEEK(thermoplastic)

Cyclesx105

For EPOXY
ForEPOXY
(usuallycountedbyhandundera
microscope quitetime
consumingandinherenthuman
error/scatter
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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersspecimen
Geometry
Withincreasingdimensions,the
change of having areasswith
changeofhavingarea
with
defectsincreases,soalower
fatiguelifeisusuallytheresult
Toosmallwidth,however,
resultsinthefactthatcracks
growtofastfromonesidetothe
other
DumbbellshapeforCETEX:only
p
y
asmallarea(middleofthe
curvature)seesthehighest
stress,solesschancesof
defects,whilewidthisstill
sufficient
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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersenvironment
Temperature
similartothestatic
properties,alsothe
f i
fatiguebehaviouris
b h i
i
influenced

Humidity
Moisture absorption
usuallyresultsinsoftening
andswellingofthematrix
andadegradationofthe
fibrematrixinterface
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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersloading
Loadingdirection
Directionofloading
compared to the orthotropic
comparedtotheorthotropic
directionsdetermines
whetherthebehaviouris
fibredominatedormatrix
dominated.
Smalldeviationsfromthe
(intended)fibredirections
resultinsignificantreduction
ofproperties
Choppedfibrecomposites
mainlyshowamatrix
dominatedbehaviour

Composites

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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersloading
Loadingtype:
tensionversuscompression
Types
Tensiontension:
Tensioncompression:
Compressioncompression:

max 0
max 0
max 0

min
max

and

0 R 1

and

R0

and

1 R

Duetolowertensilestrengthofthematrix(comparedto
itscompressivestrength),fatiguelifewithtensionloading
ismostlylowerthanwhenonlycompressionisapplied
Duetotension,quiteoftendebrisisformedwithinthe
matrixcracks,causingincreaseinpermanentdeformation,
increaseintemperatureandincreaseindegradation
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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersloading
Loadingtype:
tensionversuscompression
Becarefulwheninterpretingfatiguelife:tensiontension
fatiguemayyieldhighfatiguelife,evenwhenthespecimenis
completelydamaged.Residualcompressivestrength,
however,willbenegligible.
Mostreallifecomponentsareloadedbothintensionand
compression

Composites

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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersloading
Typeofloading
Duetotheorthotropic
nature, the type of loading
nature,thetypeofloading
(uniaxial,bending,shear,)
willhaveanimportant
influence.
E.g.abendingtestwillresult
inacombinationofnormal
stressesandshearstresses
(bothinter andintralaminar).
Therefore,thereisnosuch
thingasbendingfatiguelife

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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersloading
Loadingfrequency
Generalpreference: keeptheloadingfrequencyashighaspossible,
to shorten the duration of the test
toshortenthedurationofthetest.
However,thefatiguebehaviourof(especially,butnotlimitedto)
matrixdominatedcomposites ishighlyfrequencydependent,dueto
theviscoelasticityofthematrix.
Higher frequencieswillresultinheating ofthespecimen(especially
withshearloads)
Lower frequenciesgiveexistingcracks moretimetogrow withinone
cycle reducing fatigue life
cycle,reducingfatiguelife

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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersloading
Heatingofthecompositeduetoshearload:threerailsheartestonCETEX

TG ofPPS
of PPS
is90C!

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Influenceofsomeimportantparametersloading
Heatingofthecompositeduetoshearload,[45]4s (CETEX)
Temperature exceeds
TG,allowingthefibres
allowing the fibres
toalignthemselves
morealongthe
loadingdirection.
Thus,anewloading
regimewithlessshear
ispresent.
Temperature drops
Temperaturedrops
andfatiguecontinues
underdifferent
conditions

Composites

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Ultrahighcyclefatigue
Lowcyclefatigue upto106 cycles
1Hz 11.6days

Highcyclefatigue
High cycle fatigue 106 tot10
tot 108 cycles
1Hz 1157days!!!

Very(orultra)highcyclefatigue morethan108
cycles
Applicationinaircraft,automobile,railway
Gasturbinedisk:1010 cycles
Highspeedtrains:109 cycles

Nolongerachievablewithstandardtensile
machines
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Ultrahighcyclefatigue
Usuallydoneultrasonic(f=20kHz)tolimittesttime
Number ofcycles

Ulstrasonic (20kHz)

107

Conventional (100Hz)

9minutes

1day

109

14hours

4months

1010

6days

3years

Composites

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Ultrahighcyclefatigue
Forcomposites:specimenisusuallylarger(anumberofunit
cellsnecessarytohaveanaccuraterepresentation
Usuallydonewithashaker,inbending
Mainproblems
Highestloadoccuratthe
clamping clamping
failureduetostress
concentration
Mechanical properties(E
properties (Eii,
Gij,)changesignificantly
comparedtostaticvalues
Interpretation/modelling/
predictionisdifficult
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Thermalfatigue
Insteadofapplyingcyclic
loading(forcesor
deformationg),the
temperature has a cyclic
temperaturehasacyclic
evolution.
Verytimeconsuming
MostlydoneforCeramic
matrixcompositesand
metalmatrixcomposites
Isalsoimportantfor
fibre reinforced
fibrereinforced
polymers,duetothe
degradationofthe
polymer.
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Lifetime expectancy for real structures

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Fullscaletesting:Windturbineblade
BeforeanewdesignofWindturbinebladecan
besold,itneedstobecertified provethatit
willsurvive
Dataoncertificationtests:casedependent
Besidesstaticfailureloads,afatiguelifeof108
cyclesisdesired(lifetimeabout20years).
Toshortentesttime,stressesareusuallyhigher,
butgiventhelowtestfrequency,certification
may take up at least 1 year
maytakeupatleast1year
Twotestmethodsavailable
Usinghydraulicactuators
Usingtheeigenfrequencyoftheblade
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Fullscaletesting:Windturbineblade
Usinghydraulicactuators

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8ePrX1GKck

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Fullscaletesting:Windturbineblade
Usingtheeigenfrequencyoftheblade

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XdsC73QE2s after1min

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FullscalefatiguetestonBoeing747

moredetails:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TH9k9fWaFrs
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Fullscaletestingonbicycleframes
Fatiguetestsimulatingpedalforces:
goornogotestaccordingtothestandard

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