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Organic Chemistry I: Reactions and Overview

Andrew Rosen

Editor: Raghav Malik

January 13, 2013

Contents

I Library of Synthetic Reactions

II Organic Trends and Essentials

1 The Basics: Bonding and Molecular Structure

1.1

Resonance Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Families of Carbon Compounds

2.1

Strength of London Dispersion Forces (Polarizability)

2.2

Degree of Unsaturation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 An Introduction to Organic Reactions and Their Mechanisms


3.1

Comparing Acid Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Nomenclature and Conformations of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes


4.1

Ring Flipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 Stereochemistry

4
4

5
5

5.1

Naming Enantiomers via the -R and -S System

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.2

Stereochemistry Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Ionic Reactions - Overview

6.1

General Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.2

Carbocation Stability

6.3

Factors Aecting the Rates of

6.4

Elimination Reactions

6.5

Summary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SN 1

and

SN 2

Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Alkenes and Alkynes I - Overview

7.1

The E-Z System

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.2

Relative Stabilities of Alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.3

Factors Aecting Elimination Reactions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.4

Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

III Reaction Mechanisms

8 Ionic Reactions - Mechanisms

8.1

The

8.2

The

8.3
8.4

SN 2
SN 1

Reaction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Reaction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

The E2 Reaction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

The E1 Reaction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

9 Alkenes and Alkynes I - Mechanisms

11

9.1

Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Secondary or Tertiary Alcohols: An E1 Reaction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

9.2

Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Primary Alcohols: An E2 Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

9.3

Synthesis of Alkynes from Vic-Dihalides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

9.4

Substitution of the Acetylenic Hydrogen Atom of a Terminal Alkyne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

9.5

Deprotonation Reagents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

9.6

Hydrogenation

13

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 Alkenes and Alkynes II - Mechanisms


10.1 Addition of

HX

to an Alkene

13

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.2 Acid-Catalyzed Hydration of an Alkene

13

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

10.3 Mercuration-Demercuration and Hydroboration-Oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

10.4 Summary of

HX

and

HOH

Additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.5 Electrophilic Addition of Bromine and Chlorine to Alkenes


10.6 Halohydrin Formation from an Alkene

14

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

10.7 Oxidative Cleavage of Alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


10.8

OsO4

Reaction

14

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

10.9 Summary for Dihalide, Dihydroxy, and Carbene Additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

10.10 Electrophilic Addition of Bromine and Chlorine to Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

10.11 Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

10.12 Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

11 Alcohols and Ethers - Mechanisms


11.1 Alcohols with

HX . . . . . .
PBr3 or SOCl2

16

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

11.3 Leaving Group Derivatives of Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

11.2 Alcohols with

11.4 Converting

OH

to

LG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

11.5 Synthesis of Ethers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Summary

17

11.6 Protecting Groups

18

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.7 Ether Reactions Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

11.8 Epoxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

11.9 Epoxide Reaction Summary with Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

12 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds - Mechanisms

19

12.1 Alcohols by Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

12.2 Oxidation of Alcohols

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

12.3 Alcohols from Grignard Reagents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

13 Radical Reactions - Mechanisms

20

13.1 Bromination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

13.2 Chlorination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

Part I

Library of Synthetic Reactions 1

Note that this is a partial list of reactions

1 Graphics

are obtained mostly from Stony Brook University CHE 327 PowerPoint slides and Organic Chemistry, 10th Edition by Solomons

and Fryhle.

Part II

Organic Trends and Essentials


1

The Basics: Bonding and Molecular Structure

1.1 Resonance Stability


1. The more covalent bonds a structure has, the more stable it is
2. Charge separation (formal charges) decreases stability
3. Negative charges on the more electronegative elements and positive charges on the more electropositive elements are

more favorable

Families of Carbon Compounds

2.1 Strength of London Dispersion Forces (Polarizability)


1. Large atoms are easily polarizable and small atoms are not
2. Atoms with unshared electron pairs are more polarizable than atoms with only bonding pairs
3. Molecules that are longer and atter (long chains) have more surface area and thus have larger dispersion forces when
other factors are similar

2.2 Degree of Unsaturation


A degree of unsaturation is either a
Formula:

2C + 2 + N H X
2

bond or a ring structure

where the variables are the number of carbons (C), nitrogens (N), hydrogens (H), and

halogens (X)

An Introduction to Organic Reactions and Their Mechanisms

3.1 Comparing Acid Strengths


3

Factors Aecting Acidity (in decreasing signicance) : ARIO


1. Atom
2. Resonance Stabilization
3. Induction Eect
4. Orbital (s character)

2 For

the purposes of drawing all resonance structures, it is not considered a violation of the octet rule if a second-row element, like carbon, has

fewer than an octet. It is less likely but still imperative to draw.

3 This

general trend is not always perfectly applicable. However, it is usually a fairly good indicator.

ARIO Explained:

Atom: Look at what atom the charge is on for the conjugate base.

For atoms in the same row, we consider electronegativity. The further to the right on the periodic table an atom
is, the more electronegative it is. If a conjugate base's negative charge is on a more electronegative atom, it is
more stable, and thus the parent acid is stronger.

For atoms in the same column, we consider an atom's ability to stabilize a charge.

The further down on the

periodic table an atom is, the better it is at stabilizing a charge. If a conjugate base's negative charge is more
stabilized on an atom further down a group, it is a more stable molecule, and thus the parent acid is stronger.

Resonance Stabilization: Look at resonance structures. The more distributed the charge of the conjugate base is, the
stronger the parent acid is.

Inductive Eect: Look for inductive eect. If there are many electronegative atoms near the conjugate base's negative
charge, electron density is pulled toward these atoms. This creates more stable anions and thus more acidic parent
molecules. However, if there are many alkyl groups, this is a process called hyperconjugation, and the parent acid is
actually less stable.

Orbital: Look at the orbital where the negative charge for the conjugate base is. More

character of a bond with

hydrogen makes it more acidic.

Nomenclature and Conformations of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

4.1 Ring Flipping


The axial groups become equatorial and vice versa

When doing a ring ip, whether a group is up or down does not change

Chair Conformation 1:

Chair Conformation 2 (after ring ip):

When performing a chair ip, each atom is rotated one spot in the clockwise direction
A molecule is more stable when steric hindrance is minimized and bulky substituents are equatorial as opposed to axial

Stereochemistry

5.1 Naming Enantiomers via the -R and -S System


1. Each of the four groups attached to the chirality center is assigned a priority of 1, 2, 3, or 4. Priority is assigned on the
basis of the atomic number of the atom that is directly attached to the chirality center. The group with the highest
atomic number gets the highest priority and vice versa.
2. When a priority cannot be assigned on the basis of atomic number of the atoms, then the next set of atoms in the
unassigned groups is examined. This process is continued until a decision can be made at the rst point of dierence.

(a) Step 1:

Step 2:

3. If the 4th atom is a dashed wedge (downward): Analyze if the numbers (1

2 3 4)

go clockwise or counterclock-

wise. Clockwise indicates that the molecule is R, while counterclockwise indicates the molecule is S.
4. If the 4th atom is a solid wedge (upward): Analyze this intermediate molecule to see if the numbers go clockwise or
counterclockwise. Clockwise indicates that the original molecule is S, while counterclockwise indicates the molecule
is R.

5.2 Stereochemistry Examples

Ionic Reactions - Overview

6.1 General Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions


A deprotonation step is required to complete the reaction when the nucelophile was a neutral atom that bore a proton
4

Example showing deprotonation :

6.2 Carbocation Stability


Order of Carbocation Stability:

3 > 2 > 1 > Methyl

6.3 Factors Aecting the Rates of SN 1 and SN 2 Reactions


Simple

alkyl halides

Methyl

4 Deprotonation

show the following trend for order of reactivity in

SN 2

reactions:

> primary > secondary  (tertiary-unreactive)

is normally seen as

H3 O+

in water, but when there is a dierent solvent in excess it will be dierent

The rates of

SN 2

reactions (not

SN 1)

depend on both the concentration and identity of the attacking nucleophile

In a selection of nucleophiles in which the nucleophilic atom is the same, nucleophilicities parallel basicities:

 RO > HO  RCO
2 > ROH > H2 O
Nucleophiles parallel basicity when comparing atoms in the same period
Nucleophiles do not parallel basicity and, instead, parallel size when comparing atoms of the same group
The best leaving groups are weak bases after they depart
Polar aprotic solvents favor

SN 2

and polar protic solvents favor

SN 1

Most of the solvents with abbreviated names are polar aprotic

6.4 Elimination Reactions


Higher temperatures increase the rates of elimination reactions
A product with a more substituted double bond is more stable and thus more favorable
If

tert-butoxide

is used, sterics must be considered to nd out which hydrogen it takes through the

6.5 Summary
Note: It is debatable, but secondary molecules can have

SN 1

or

E1

in polar protic solvents

E2

reaction

Alkenes and Alkynes I - Overview

7.1 The E-Z System


To determine

or

Z , look at the two groups attached to one carbon atom of the double bond.

Decide which has higher

priority. Then, repeat this at the other carbon atom.




If the two groups of higher priority are on the same side of the double bond, the alkene is designated

Z.

If the two groups of higher priority are on opposite sides of the double bond, the alkene is designated

E.

7.2 Relative Stabilities of Alkenes


The trans isomer is generally more stable than the cis isomer
The greater number of attached alkyl groups, the greater the stability of an alkene

7.3 Factors Aecting Elimination Reactions


A non-bulky base favors the more substituted double bond while a bulky base favors in making the less substituted
double bond

7.4 Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Alcohols


Rearrangements, also known as 1,2 shifts, can occur in primary and secondary alcohol dehydration

The more favored product is dictated by the stability of the alkene being formed

For dehydration of secondary alcohols, the positive charge is shifted through a hydride shift or alkyl shift
For the dehydration of primary alcohols, a carbocation is not formed as an intermediate. However, rearrangements can
still occur after dehydration. The resulting alkene's

bond is broken when a hydrogen atom from the acid bonds to

the carbon to form a carbocation. Rearrangement then occurs as usual.

A ring can change in size due to a methyl shift, especially to reduce ring strain. An example is shown below:

Note: Never do two migrations

Part III

Reaction Mechanisms
8

Ionic Reactions - Mechanisms

8.1 The SN 2 Reaction

Occurs with inversion of conguration


If the bond to a chirality center is broken, there is an inversion of stereochemistry

8.2 The SN 1 Reaction

An

SN 1

reaction will cause racemization if enantiomers are possible products

8.3 The E2 Reaction

There must be an anti-coplanar nature

10

8.4 The E1 Reaction

E1 reactions almost always accompany

SN 1

reactions to some extent

Alkenes and Alkynes I - Mechanisms

9.1 Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Secondary or Tertiary Alcohols: An E1 Reaction

11

9.2 Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Primary Alcohols: An E2 Reaction

9.3 Synthesis of Alkynes from Vic-Dihalides


Alkynes can be synthesized from alkanes via compounds called vicinal dihalides, which are compounds bearing the
halogens on adjacent carbons

It requires the use of

NH
2,

which can frequently be found as

NaNH2

with

NH4 Cl

9.4 Substitution of the Acetylenic Hydrogen Atom of a Terminal Alkyne

A primary halide and a strong base must be used

9.5 Deprotonation Reagents


There are two good reactant choices:
1.

NaNH2

and liquid

NH3

2. LDA

12

9.6 Hydrogenation
Metal catalyzed

H2

addition to an alkyne (eg:

H2 addition to an
for H2 /Ni2 B(P2)

Controlled metal catalyzed


addition (cis). This is also

H2 /Pd-C)

produces an alkane

alkyne (eg:

H2

and Lindlar's Catalyst ) produces an alkene with syn-

Chemical reduction of an alkyne produces an alkene with anti-addition (trans). Sodium metal and liquid
example. Another is

10

Li, C2 H5

with

NH4 Cl

Alkenes and Alkynes II - Mechanisms

10.1 Addition of HX to an Alkene

Markovnikov, not stereospecic, and rearrangements are possible

10.2 Acid-Catalyzed Hydration of an Alkene

Markovnikov, not stereospecic, and rearrangements are possible

10.3 Mercuration-Demercuration and Hydroboration-Oxidation


Mercuration-Demercuration: Markovnikov addition, anti stereochemistry, and no rearrangements

Uses

Hg(OAc)2 , H2 O

and then

NaBH4 , NaOH

Hydroboration-Oxidation: Anti-Markovnikov addition, syn stereochemistry, and no rearrangements

Uses

5 Lindlar's

BH3

Catalyst is

and then

H2 O2 , NaOH

Pd/CaCO3 /Pb
13

NH3

is one

10.4 Summary of HX and HOH Additions

10.5 Electrophilic Addition of Bromine and Chlorine to Alkenes

14

10.6 Halohydrin Formation from an Alkene


A halohydrin is produced when the halogenation of an alkene is carried out in an aqueous solution as opposed to a
non-nucleophilic solvent

If the alkene is unsymmetrical, there is anti-Markovnikov addition

10.7 Oxidative Cleavage of Alkenes

O3

or

KMnO4

Hot, basic

can perform oxidative cleavage of alkenes with syn additions (useful for adding multiple hydroxyl groups)

KMnO4

cleaves the double bond of an alkene.

Disubstituted alkene carbons are oxidatively cleaved to

ketones, monosubstituted alkene carbons are cleaved to carboxylic acids, and unsubstituted alkene carbons are oxidized
to carbon dioxide.

Using ozone - ozonolysis - is the best method to cleave alkenes and can open up cycloalkenes, as in the following
example. The reagents are

10.8

OsO4

O3 , CH2 Cl2

and then

Me2 S

Reaction

For details of this reaction, see the table below


It is important to keep the backbone the same to ensure proper stereochemistry. An example is shown below:

15

10.9 Summary for Dihalide, Dihydroxy, and Carbene Additions

10.10

Electrophilic Addition of Bromine and Chlorine to Alkynes

Alkynes show the same kind of halo-addition as alkenes (anti-addition)


Addition may occur once or twice depending upon the molar equivalents of the halogen reagent

10.11

Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Alkynes

Alkynes react with one molar equivalent of

HX

to form haloalkenes and with two molar equivalents to form geminal

dihalides via Markovnikov's Rule

Anti-Markovnikov addition occurs when peroxides are present

10.12

Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes

Oxidative cleavage of alkynes with ozone will yield two carboxylic acids

11

Alcohols and Ethers - Mechanisms

11.1 Alcohols with HX


Racemic mixtures are produced if enantiomers are possible
Rearrangements are present
Methanol and

alcohols go through an

SN 2

mechanism.

16

and

alcohols go through an

SN 1

mechanism

11.2 Alcohols with PBr3 or SOCl2


Converts a

or

alcohol to a leaving group without rearrangements

Inversion of conguration occurs since the reaction is

SN 2

11.3 Leaving Group Derivatives of Alcohols


Using either pyridine or DMAP, sulfonate esters can be prepared from combining an alcohol with a chlorinated sulfonate
derivative

There is retention of conguration with this reaction

11.4 Converting OH to LG Summary

11.5 Synthesis of Ethers


Alcohols can dehydrate to form alkenes, as mentioned in

Section 7.

Also,

alcohols can dehydrate to form ethers by

the following mechanism:

Acid-catalyzed dehydration is not useful for preparing unsymmetrical ethers from dierent
reaction leads to a mixture of products (ROR,

ROR ,

and

alcohols because the

R OR )

Alkoxymercuration-demercuration is a method for synthesizing ethers directly from alkenes, like in the example below,
and parallels oxymercuration-demercuration

17

11.6 Protecting Groups


To add a protecting group to an alcohol, use TBDMS in pyridine
To remove a protecting group, a uorine anion can be used

11.7 Ether Reactions Summary

11.8 Epoxides
Epoxidation is a syn addition that is stereospecic

RCO3 H

can be used to make an epoxide from an alkene:

There are two types of reactions that epoxides go through: Acid-Catalyzed and Base-Catalyzed (both ring-opening and
anti-conguration)

Use the acronym BLAM

Basic = Less Substituted

Acidic = More Substituted

18

11.9 Epoxide Reaction Summary with Example

Example of BLAM:

12

Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds - Mechanisms

12.1 Alcohols by Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds


Reduction converts a carboxylic acid to a primary alcohol by taking o an oxygen from
Reduction converts an ester into two

C O

alcohols, one derived from the carbonyl part of the ester group and the other

from the alkoxyl part of the ester

Reduction converts a ketone to a

alcohol and an aldehyde to a

Aldehydes and ketones are easily reduced by

NaBH4 . LAH

alcohol

is another reducing agent:

12.2 Oxidation of Alcohols


1

PCC

KMnO4

or

H2 CrO4

can oxidize a

will convert a

H2 CrO4

alcohol to an aldehyde and oxidize a

(Jones Reagent) can oxidize a

alcohol to a ketone (not useful for

3 )

alcohol to a carboxylic acid

alcohol to a ketone

12.3 Alcohols from Grignard Reagents


Grignard Reagents react with any compound that has a hydrogen attached to an atom of high electronegativity (eg:
oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, etc.) and react well with compounds that have carbonyl groups

19

Sodium alkynides react with aldehydes and ketones to yield alcohols:

13

Radical Reactions - Mechanisms

13.1 Bromination

Br2

HBr

and heat/light can perform the following halogen addition to the more substituted carbon of an alkane:

with a peroxide (ROOR) will have the bromine added to the least substituted carbon of an alkene

13.2 Chlorination

Cl2

and heat/light adds a chlorine atom to an alkane; however, it is only useful synthetically when all possible replace-

ments yield the same compound (e.g. neopentane and

Cl2 )

20