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Sheet metal shop

Among the total parts of an aircraft most of them are of sheet metals
Mainly sheet metal works are carried out got jaguar, kiran. Exports projects and
other departmental requirements
Kiran is manufactured with mnemonic plates which can withstand higher pressure
Shearing machine
This machine is used to cut sheet metals to appropriate dimensions. A complete is
kept above the bunch of sheets and routing is done to cut the sheets.
Different methods of drt tools are used for cutting and finishing operations
Stamping section
In this section various sheet material structures are formed by different dyes and
stamping machines.
Generally these dyes are made from fine formed foundry.
Chemical etching
Chemical etching is done to remove certain portion of the material or to reduce the
thickness of the material during the processes, all the other portions are protected
except for the portion to be etched .
Hydraulic press
It is used for forming operations through various dyes
Punch press
On the sheets punches are formed with suitable dyes
Hot forming
Titanium sheets are very hard in cold condition, so hot forming technique is used for
making formations
Before hot forming the material should be
Cleaned and anodized
Everlube oil has to be applied
Suitable dyes are to be used in heated condition
Nibbling and pullmax nibbling machine
Nibbling is done to cut titanium sheets, follow procedures are used:

Shearing, drilling, filling, dressing, marking, precipitation, cooling, pickling, crack

detect, degrease, inspection.
Tool engineering department
The main function of tool engineering department is to provide various tools and
jigs, fixtures required for the manufacturing shops.
Activities in tool engineering department
Tool planning
Tool design
Tool progress
Tool room
Tool inspection

Tool planning
Activities carried out are:
Schedule jig and tool orders for production plan
Schedule and plan for inbound sub contract
Fabrication of tools
Maintenance of tool status
Prepare cost estimate
Tool design
Design of tools per planned schedule
Standardize tooling elements
Sub contract tool design through outside vendors to meet in house schedule.
Tool progress
Prepare materials and loading of job cards as per planned priority
Maintain tool status
Follow up of tools for completion and store crediting to production tool stores
Tool room
Fabrication, rework of tools, jig assembly as per tool drawing
Interact with manufacturing shops and inspection for details
Repair of gauges, instruments and tools.

Turning unit
In this turning unit different turning operations are carried out. Hmt lathe, doge
lathe, DSG lathe.
The main function of lathe is to remove material from a piece of work to get
required job

Sheet metal tool unit

It provide tools for sheet metal component

Jigs and fixtures unit

It is used to produce repetitive type of work by adopting carious work holding and
guiding devices
Jig is a device which hold and guides the workpiece
Fixture is a piece which holds and locates the work piece

Milling unit
A milling machine work by rotating multiple cutter. Different operations performed
are plain milling, face milling, slide milling, and straddle milling.

Drilling unit
It is used for drilling holes in metals. Other operations performed are counter boring
and reaming.

Grinding unit
It is used for sharpening tools and improves accuracy of the component by
removing little material
Accuracy up to 10 micron can be achieved.
HMT cylindrical grinder is used for grinding plain cylindrical parts, tapes, faces etc.
Internal grinding machines are used to produce internal cylindrical holes and tapers.

Electrode discharge machine

This is based on principle of erosion of metals by interrupted electrical spark
discharge between electrode and work
Tool inspection
After completion the tool is inspected weather it meets all the specifications with
instruments like
Measuring gauge
Dial indicator
Vernier caliper
Slip gauge
Sine table
Hardness testers etc.

Heat treatment shop

It is called as feeders shop, heat treatment is done on al and steel alloys. Direct
heating can be done on the mechanical properties of alloys.
It is a process of softening the materials. As heating is done, the material elongates
during cooling, the material hardens
Before forming the material undergoes annealing

Salt bath treatment

It is done at 750c, for hardening and tempering of steel, neutral salt nc 660 is used
At the high temperature the salt melts and it will be in solid state below that
Surface hardening
It is used for hardening the surface hardness of the material depends on the
percentage of the carbon content. More the carbon content more is the hardness of
the material. Surface hardening is done by induction hardening and flame hardening
In this process the material is covered with some electric coil.
Heat treatment for aluminum
Aluminum is heated by taking copper as a solvent which has solubility of 45% at
500c. at this temperature the structure is fully immersed in the solution. It is
quenched and now that it is the super saturated solution the properties of the
material is changed.
Then it is kept at cold storage and precipitated at elevated temperature. This give
the required mechanical strength
Zinc gets hardened at 120c in 24 hours all tools are fabricated in tool room and hear
treatment is done.
Furnace test piece
It is similar to that of original material. Solutionising is done and it is tested.
Conductivity test
Copper standard is used. Conductivity with copper at this condition is 100% then it
is tested with reference to copper

Vertical heat treatment furnace:

Aluminum alloys which is to be heat treated is kept on the basket and inserted into
the furnace. After heating it is immersed in water which contains 20%og glycine.
Then it is put in cold storage.
The main objective of this department is to support manufacturing department by
off-loading components to outside agencies for manufacture. Fabricate and supply if
tools it runs in parallel with the other machine shops.
External sourcing can be done due to following reasons
Better delivery schedule
Cast saving by giving at lower cost to outside agencies
To cut down the total cycle time
Non availability of certain associates with other manufacturing shops and tool
rooms to meet the annual production plan.
Production engineering department test the components to be outsourced in the
form of msr(material sub contact)
Which indicates the following details like
Number of items
List of items
Schedule time
MPR (material purchase request) indicates
Repeated items of the project
Cast and fabrication
Inspection details
Then the enquires are given on limited tender basis. Sealed quotations are
compared with hal estimates.
Raw materials are collect from respective shops along with route card and loaded to
the vendor with necessary jigs and fixtures after completion the part is sent to
inspection purpose.
Based on the inspection report this supplier will be asked to proceed.

Plastics department

There are 2 different types of plastic

Thermoplastic: plastic which can be used again
Thermosetting plastic: which cannot be used again for modification

Plastics are mainly required for canopys, windscreen, jaguar, IJT, kiran, etc.
They are available in the form of acrylic sheets, each side is covered with plastic
sheet for protection
Plastic materials are of:
Cast acrylic
Stretched acrylic
Poly cast
Varieties of glasses:
Class A 100% clarity
Class B slight distortion
Class C normally used for fuel tanks

Forming process
Grease forming
The tool is wooden type which is covered with cloth, grease and female clamps.
Then it is kept in a furnace with a temperature above 160 to 180c depending on
Vacuum forming
Vacuum forming tool is costlier and it is made of fiber reinforced plastic.
Any number of forming can be done with this tool.
In this process after attaining the required temperature, due to vacuum the plastic
between the rollers takes the required shape

Stretch forming
It is done for plastic have small thickness

The main purpose of annealing is to retrieve the stress in the material.
It is done from 8mm to 16mm thickness for 16 mm the temperature should be 85c
for 5 hours
It is done to remove hair line scratches and dirt.
Usually rubber solution with grains are used. Polish1 is with bigger grains and polish
2 is with smaller grains.
Pressure test
This test is done at 4.5psi it is done for half an hour and strength is also tested.
Edge member
In order to make the drillings for fixing on the structure edge members are used.
Edge member is a separate plastic piece with glass cloth attached to the original
Bonding of the material is checked by applying pressure simultaneously cracks are

Export machine shop

Export machine shop mainly concentrates on the enhancing and production of
components for export project like air bus, Boeing components.
The shop consists of different units:
Cnc unit
Turning unit
Drilling unit
Milling unit
Bench unit
Sub assembly unit
This shop consists of machines like cnc lather. Spinner cnc machine, universal
grinding machine, thread rolling etc.
Cnc lathe performs both turning and milling operations, this machine has got 3axis
Z y z and 12 tools.

The department provides design support and engineering documentation support

to manufacturing/production shgops/assembly shops of aircraft division.
Design support

Preparation of drawings for indegnisation

Type test schedule
Liaisioning with crp and cre
Sakvage board
Repair schemes
Deflect investigations
Companys serving instruction
Indigenous project
The indigenously designed aero planes by aircraft division are usually governed by
design specification and approval processes. If snags are connected in details, they
are retrieved or rejected as it is or given repair scheme in view the requirements.
The designs of department are members if salary board which consist of
representatives of ministry of defense and quality contact
The nature of defect part to assembly, safety are studied and parts are reworked.

License project
In this project all the technical and documentation line manufacturing drawings of
each and every part
And other technical data will be available.
Expamples of this project is jaguar

Export projects
This project is done under the agreement of foreign customers
Eg: airbus doors, Boeing up locks, cargo doors Etc.
Design and liaison department is not involved in providing design support for export
The engineering drawings, material schedules, technical
Manuals are supplied by export customers and maintained and supplied by

In house projects
The documents for the in house are proved by the design center. Example for in
house projects are kiran , lca.

Defect investigation:
Design and liaison investigates and analyses the defects and reasons for failure

Export assembly shop

Export assembly shop mainly deals with export projects like
Air bus doors
Up lock box of main landing gear
Main dock cargo doors.
Airbus doors:
In this unit, forward door assembly of airbus 320 is produced. The detailed items are
made of aluminum sheets
The total weight of the door is 80 kg. the cycle time to produce this is 42 days.
There are many sub-assemblies
Edge member sub assembly
Generally 15 sets of doors are made per month.
Up lock box of main landing gear:
In this unit the main landing gear the up lock box is made. Up lock box is provided
mainly to lift the landing gears and to maintain the required speed.
This up lock box will fold the landing gear while flying to avoid air resistance and to
avoid air resistance and to protect from external sources. In up lock box is detailed
items are made of aluminum alloys.
The parts are obtained from NC ship, machine shop, sheet metal shop etc.
Certain parts like nuts and bolts are provided by crew in Boeing.
Main deck cargo door:
The size of the door os 118 x143 and its weight is 850 lbs.clico is a temporary which
is used for holding purpose.
The parts are obtained from machine shop sheet metal shop, cnc shop, pipe
assemblies etc.
Location of detailed parts on the kits are done as per drawing from client. Tenant are
used between tge derailed parts,
While joining the flat surfaces sealant is applied and then riveted. Carous operations
are involved

Drilling, reaming, deboring, sealant application, riveting etc.

Plug gauge is used for measuring holes.

Computer numeric control shop

All the machines are computerized numerically controlled.
Two numbers of 5 axis machines are available. Honey comb structure are cut using
5axis cnc machines.cnc machine are mainly used to machine complicated
components which cannot be done by conventional machines,
These have greater accuracy and oerfecr surface finish
Working of cnc machine:
In this machine, programming is punched on tape by passing it through tape
punching machine.
This punched tpae is fed throught tape reader which perfroms functions presently
dnc system is available.
The difference between nc and cnc is that in nc machine, program cannot be saved,
it can be used only once numeric control is the term used to control of machine
movement various other functions nu instruction expressed as a series of numbers
initiated in electronic control system
Different motion control system in NC machine are
PTP- point to point control
Straight cut system
Continuous path system
In PTP tool moves from a point to point, mainky used fot drilliung operations
In nc shop operations are carried out for jaguar projects,lca alt and export
The following PLC;s are used in cnc
Siemens- bridge type propeller
Alloy bradly 7320
Okv mcv s20( Fanuc system)
Various machining centers available are:

V2 1250 machining center:

This is a 3 axis machinery axis up to 1250mm, vertical up to 2000mm and
maximum speed of 800rpm
Coordinate measuring system:
This is used for measuring dimensions and inspection as per drawings

Automatic tool change:

The machine chooses the required cutter itself on the workpiece program.
Orders are received from internal and external customers
They are documented and studied for feasibility
Catia software is used for cad and cam.
For each and every component 3D model is generated using cad and cam.
In the programs spread sheet it selectors the operation to perfrom.eg suppose it
selcers tool number T1
It looks for program change and performs the operation on the required job.
Likewise step by step various operations are performed one by one
Catia programs are converted into apt programs for feeding in nc machines this is
though floppy discs
If the program requires special tools JTO is raised
It runs on unix platform.

Material planning department

Material planning and control department mainly aims at reduction in material cost
buy effective planning, monitoring control of issues and inventory which in turn
substantially reduces the cos of final product to minimum.
The inventory should he maintained in such a manner that right materials are
available at right
Time. They should be produced at right time. They should be produced at lowest
price without any stock outs which intern affects the production. This department is
a part of integrated material management as it follows the activates of planning,
storage, control and delivery of materials.

Department functions:
To carry out procurement issue and control of materials for projects which are:
Raw materials in the form of sheets, plates pipes extrusions, rods etc.
Castings and forgings
Hardware items
The end part products are:Aircraft components to be delivered to navy coast guard etc.
Public/private sectors as nal, isro, ada
Projects such as doors for Boeing airbus, bulk cargo doors etc.

The department head has to ensure that all activities are carried out in time, has to
ensure that all materials for carious projects by methods planning department and
scheduling department. The department should coordinate with methods, design
and liaison, purchase etc.

Material summary or consolidated bill of materials:

Methods engineering department forward this bill of materials to material planning
department bill of materials indicates
Raw materials
Standard parts
Brought out items
Items supplied from other dimension indicating specification like size properties etc

Material analysis card or material control card:

It is generated by both material for the purpose of planning control, procurement,
receipt and issue details various form sin material planning.
Procurement review form:
This is to assess the material requirements to be processed based on task planned
for the current year and succeeding year taking the existing stock in to account
This is sent along with mrp to purchase request.
Material purchase request:
This is an authority for the purchase department to initiate procurement activates it
indicates project specification, description, quantity.
Approximate cost, sources of supply, delivery schedule

Purchase order:
This in normally with mpr and used for future reference after verifying all details
which are relevant in mpr
Receiving report:

It is generated by stores department after receipt of stores department after receipt

of goods against purchase orders.

Purchase department
Purchase objective :
To buy competitive and authorized supplies of desired specifications from approved
sources. These are done under reasonable prices within the time schedule to
support production plans.
To maintain good relationship with the suppliers
To ensure supply is done within the time and commitment of purchase budget
To serve as a information center on material knowledge like prices, sources of
supply, specifications etc.
Training of purchase personnel in the latest technique
To ensure that investment made on inventory is at optimum level

Function of purchase department

Maintenance of updated register of vendors
Record of vendor evaluation and rating records analyzing decision making authority
Issue of purchase orders
Follow up of purchase orders
Process of work
MPR, RFQ, QTN, CS, draft pa, fo, rr, payment

Material purchase request (MRP)

It is given by various departments for all revenue items. It is sent to purchase

Request for quotation (RFQ)

All purchase requests are centrally registered in the purchase department in
purchase register
Purchase requisitions contains,
Description of part number, Code number etc.
Catalogue number is given against each item required
Drawings are enclosed wherever required
In case of report purchase, purchase price and source of supply is mentioned
Delivery requested and price estimate are confirmed.
CPR should make reference to item serial number in capital budget.

It is a statement of price, teems of sale and description of goods or services offered
by vendor of goods or services offered by vendor to purchase given in response to
an inquiry from departments. RFQ is done for consumable materials, raw materials,
brought out, capital items, and export project welfare.
Comparative statement:
It is based on delivery, price, payment etc.
Then draft of purchase order is prepared it is done based on t=delegation of power.
Customer clearance permit ccp is a prerequisite for placement of purchase orders
obtained from cci Hal is exempted from submission of import licenses in respect of
raw materials, components, parts and jigs
Required to be imported for defense purpose
Purchase order (PO)
a purchase order when given to a vendor should contain statements as
quality,description, price of goods,payent,discounts, transportation terms

A purchase order register should contain

Serial number

payment details

Purchase order number


dispatch and receipt

Value of purchase order

Name of supplier
Number of items
Reliving report:
It is a report by receiving department of company to inform the receipt of goods
It is distributed to purchase and accounting departments and stores room

All purchase transactions require payment for goods/services received, payment is
made negotiable funds between buyer and seller.
Those are three basic payment terms-cash, open account and secured account.