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# PETE 411

Well Drilling

Lesson 32
Cementing - Salt Solutions
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## Cementing - Salt Solutions

Use of salt in Cement Slurries
Unsaturated Salt Solutions
Saturated Salt Solutions
Types Cements
Cement Additives
Examples
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Read:
Applied Drilling Engineering, Ch. 3

HW #17
Cementing of Liner
due November 27, 2002

## Salt in Cement Slurries

Salt Zones
 Salt-saturated cements were originally used for
cementing casing strings through salt zones.
 Fresh or unsaturated salt cement slurries will
not bond satisfactorily to salt formations
because the slurry tends to dissolve or leach
away the salt at the wall of the hole.
 Salt-saturated cements will not dissolve any
more salt so a good bond can be achieved
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## Salt in Cement Slurries

Shale Zones
 Many shales are sensitive to fresh
water.
 Salt helps to protect these shales in
that they tend to prevent
excessive sloughing or heaving
of the shales.
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## Salt in Cement Slurries

Accelerator
 In low concentrations salt tends to
accelerate the setting of cement.
Retarder
 In high concentrations ( >5% by wt. of
water) the salt will tend to retard the
setting of the cement.
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## Salt in Cement Slurries

Expansion
 Salt results in a more expansive
cement.
Freezing
 Salt reduces the freezing
temperature of cement slurries.
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ppm or mg/L

mg/L

ppm

EXAMPLE:
200,000 mg of NaCl
800,000 mg of H2O
1,000,000 mg of solution
< 1 litre of solution

of solution

## Volume of Sodium Chloride Solution

EXAMPLE:
Adding 30 lbs of NaCl
to 100 lbs of H2O
increases the volume of
solution by ~10.7%

30% by weight =
13.8% by volume
(SG = 2.17)

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## Example: Salt Solutions

30% NaCl (by weight of water) is added to
one gallon of fresh water.
Calculate the density of the mixture:
(i) Before the salt goes into solution
(ii) Using the solubility charts shown above.

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## Problem : Salt Solutions

(i) Assuming that
1V1 + 2 V2 + ... = mix Vmix

mix

W VW + S VS = mix Vmix

w Vw + S VS
=
Vmix
8.33 * 1 + 0.30 * 8.33 x 1
=
1 + (0.30 * 8.33) / (2.17 * 8.33)

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## { what if we had 60% salt? }

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Problem
Calculate the density and yield of a
cement slurry consisting of:
65% Class A cement
35% Pozmix cement,
6% bentonite BWOC and
10.9 gal/sk of water.
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Problem
(i) Initial tabulations and calculations:
Weight Specific
Density
lbs/sk Gravity
lbs/gal
Component
Class A
94
3.14
8.33*3.14 = 26.16
Pozmix
74
2.46
8.33*2.46 = 20.49
Bentonite
2.65
8.33*2.65 = 22.07
Water
1.00
8.33*1.00 = 8.33

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Problem
(ii) Determine the properties of one sack of dry
cement mixture; 65% Class A and 35%
Pozmix:
Cement
Class A, 0.65 sk

Pozmix, 0.35 sk

Weig ht (lbs)

Vol. (gal)

0.65 * 94 = 61.1

61.1
= 2.336
26.16

0.35 * 74 = 25.9

87.0

25.9
= 1.264
20.49

3.600
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Problem
(iii) Determine density and yield of final slurry:
Component

Weight

Cmt. mix, 1 sk

Bentonite,

6%

## Water, 10.9 gal

(lbs)

87.0
0.06 * 87 = 5.22
10.9 * 8.33 = 90.80
183.02

Vol. (gal)
3.600
5.22
22.07

= 0 . 2365

10.9
14.7365
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Problem

mix

183 .02
=
= 12 .42 lb/gal
14 .74

14.74 gal/sk
Yield =
3
7.48 gal/ft

= 1.97 ft / sk
3

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