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PETE 411

Well Drilling

Lesson 32
Cementing - Salt Solutions
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Cementing - Salt Solutions


Use of salt in Cement Slurries
Unsaturated Salt Solutions
Saturated Salt Solutions
Types Cements
Cement Additives
Examples
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Read:
Applied Drilling Engineering, Ch. 3

HW #17
Cementing of Liner
due November 27, 2002

Salt in Cement Slurries


Salt Zones
 Salt-saturated cements were originally used for
cementing casing strings through salt zones.
 Fresh or unsaturated salt cement slurries will
not bond satisfactorily to salt formations
because the slurry tends to dissolve or leach
away the salt at the wall of the hole.
 Salt-saturated cements will not dissolve any
more salt so a good bond can be achieved
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Salt in Cement Slurries


Shale Zones
 Many shales are sensitive to fresh
water.
 Salt helps to protect these shales in
that they tend to prevent
excessive sloughing or heaving
of the shales.
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Salt in Cement Slurries


Accelerator
 In low concentrations salt tends to
accelerate the setting of cement.
Retarder
 In high concentrations ( >5% by wt. of
water) the salt will tend to retard the
setting of the cement.
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Salt in Cement Slurries

Salt in Cement Slurries


Expansion
 Salt results in a more expansive
cement.
Freezing
 Salt reduces the freezing
temperature of cement slurries.
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ppm or mg/L

mg/L

ppm

EXAMPLE:
200,000 mg of NaCl
800,000 mg of H2O
1,000,000 mg of solution
< 1 litre of solution

of solution

Volume of Sodium Chloride Solution

EXAMPLE:
Adding 30 lbs of NaCl
to 100 lbs of H2O
increases the volume of
solution by ~10.7%

30% by weight =
13.8% by volume
(SG = 2.17)

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Density of Sodium Chloride Solution

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14

15

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Example: Salt Solutions


30% NaCl (by weight of water) is added to
one gallon of fresh water.
Calculate the density of the mixture:
(i) Before the salt goes into solution
(ii) Using the solubility charts shown above.

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Problem : Salt Solutions


(i) Assuming that
1V1 + 2 V2 + ... = mix Vmix

mix

W VW + S VS = mix Vmix

w Vw + S VS
=
Vmix
8.33 * 1 + 0.30 * 8.33 x 1
=
1 + (0.30 * 8.33) / (2.17 * 8.33)

mix = 9.51 lb/gal


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Problem : Salt Solutions

(ii) From the chart,

mix = 9.8 lb/gal

{ 9.51 lb/gal vs. 9.8 lb/gal !! }

{ what if we had 60% salt? }

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Problem
Calculate the density and yield of a
cement slurry consisting of:
65% Class A cement
35% Pozmix cement,
6% bentonite BWOC and
10.9 gal/sk of water.
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Problem
(i) Initial tabulations and calculations:
Weight Specific
Density
lbs/sk Gravity
lbs/gal
Component
Class A
94
3.14
8.33*3.14 = 26.16
Pozmix
74
2.46
8.33*2.46 = 20.49
Bentonite
2.65
8.33*2.65 = 22.07
Water
1.00
8.33*1.00 = 8.33

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Problem
(ii) Determine the properties of one sack of dry
cement mixture; 65% Class A and 35%
Pozmix:
Cement
Class A, 0.65 sk

Pozmix, 0.35 sk

Weig ht (lbs)

Vol. (gal)

0.65 * 94 = 61.1

61.1
= 2.336
26.16

0.35 * 74 = 25.9

87.0

25.9
= 1.264
20.49

3.600
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Problem
(iii) Determine density and yield of final slurry:
Component

Weight

Cmt. mix, 1 sk

Bentonite,

6%

Water, 10.9 gal

(lbs)

87.0
0.06 * 87 = 5.22
10.9 * 8.33 = 90.80
183.02

Vol. (gal)
3.600
5.22
22.07

= 0 . 2365

10.9
14.7365
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Problem

mix

183 .02
=
= 12 .42 lb/gal
14 .74

14.74 gal/sk
Yield =
3
7.48 gal/ft

= 1.97 ft / sk
3

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