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CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF
SOLIDS
Pure Bending

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Pure Bending
Pure Bending
Other Loading Types
Symmetric Member in Pure Bending
Bending Deformations
Strain Due to Bending
Beam Section Properties
Properties of American Standard Shapes
Deformations in a Transverse Cross Section
Sample Problem 4.2
Bending of Members Made of Several
Materials
Example 4.03

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Eccentric Axial Loading in a Plane of Symmetry


Example 4.07
Sample Problem 4.8
Unsymmetric Bending
Example 4.08
General Case of Eccentric Axial Loading

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Suggested Problem

Chapter 4
4.4, 4.8, 4.9, 4.15, 4.18, 4.19, 4.22, 4.26, 4.31,
4.33, 4.3, 4.39, 4.42, 4.55, 4.65, 4.66, 4.100,
4.102, 4.104, 4.106, 4.102, 4.127, 4.129,
4.140, 4.145, 4.146, 4.148, 4.149.

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Pure Bending

Pure Bending: Prismatic members


subjected to equal and opposite couples
acting in the same longitudinal plane
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Other Loading Types
Eccentric Loading: Axial loading which
does not pass through section centroid
produces internal forces equivalent to an
axial force and a couple
Transverse Loading: Concentrated or
distributed transverse load produces
internal forces equivalent to a shear
force and a couple
Principle of Superposition: The normal
stress due to pure bending may be
combined with the normal stress due to
axial loading and shear stress due to
shear loading to find the complete state
of stress.
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Symmetric Member in Pure Bending
Internal forces in any cross section are equivalent
to a couple. The moment of the couple is the
section bending moment.
From statics, a couple M consists of two equal
and opposite forces.

The sum of the components of the forces in any


direction is zero.
The moment is the same about any axis
perpendicular to the plane of the couple and
zero about any axis contained in the plane.
These requirements may be applied to the sums
of the components and moments of the statically
indeterminate elementary internal forces.
Fx x dA 0
M y z x dA 0
M z y x dA M
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Bending Deformations
Beam with a plane of symmetry in pure
bending:
member remains symmetric

bends uniformly to form a circular arc


cross-sectional plane passes through arc center
and remains planar
length of top decreases and length of bottom
increases
a neutral surface must exist that is parallel to the
upper and lower surfaces and for which the length
does not change
stresses and strains are negative (compressive)
above the neutral plane and positive (tension)
below it
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Strain Due to Bending
Consider a beam segment of length L.
After deformation, the length of the neutral
surface remains L. At other sections,
L y

L L y y
x
m

L
c

or

(strain va ries linearly)

y
c

x m

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Stress Due to Bending
For a linearly elastic material,
y
c

x E x E m
y
m (stress varies linearly)
c

For static equilibrium,


y
Fx 0 x dA m dA
c

0 m y dA
c

First moment with respect to neutral


plane is zero. Therefore, the neutral
surface must pass through the
section centroid.

For static equilibrium,


y

M y x dA y m dA
c

I
M m y 2 dA m
c
c
m

Mc M

I
S

y
Substituti ng x m
c

x
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My
I
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Beam Section Properties
The maximum normal stress due to bending,
Mc M

I
S
I section moment of inertia
I
S section modulus
c

A beam section with a larger section modulus


will have a lower maximum stress
Consider a rectangular beam cross section,
3
1
I 12 bh
S
16 bh3 16 Ah
c
h2

Between two beams with the same cross


sectional area, the beam with the greater depth
will be more effective in resisting bending.
Structural steel beams are designed to have a
large section modulus.
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Properties of American Standard Shapes

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Deformations in a Transverse Cross Section
Deformation due to bending moment M is
quantified by the curvature of the neutral surface

1 Mc
m m

c
Ec Ec I
M

EI
1

Although cross sectional planes remain planar


when subjected to bending moments, in-plane
deformations are nonzero,
y x

z x

Expansion above the neutral surface and


contraction below it cause an in-plane curvature,
1
anticlastic curvature

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 4.2
SOLUTION:
Based on the cross section geometry,
calculate the location of the section
centroid and moment of inertia.
Y

yA
A

I x I A d 2

Apply the elastic flexural formula to


find the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses.
m

A cast-iron machine part is acted upon


by a 3 kN-m couple. Knowing E = 165
GPa and neglecting the effects of
fillets, determine (a) the maximum
tensile and compressive stresses, (b)
the radius of curvature.
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Mc
I

Calculate the curvature


1

M
EI

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 4.2
SOLUTION:
Based on the cross section geometry, calculate
the location of the section centroid and
moment of inertia.
Area, mm 2 y , mm
yA, mm3
1 20 90 1800
50
90 103
2 40 30 1200
20
24 103
3
A 3000
yA 114 10
3

yA 114 10
Y

38 mm
3000
A

1 bh3 A d 2
I x I A d 2 12

1 90 203 1800 122 1 30 403 1200 182


12
12

I 868103 mm 86810-9 m 4
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 4.2
Apply the elastic flexural formula to find the
maximum tensile and compressive stresses.
Mc
I
M c A 3 kN m 0.022 m
A

I
868109 mm 4
M cB
3 kN m 0.038 m
B

I
868109 mm 4

A 76.0 MPa

B 131.3 MPa

Calculate the curvature


1

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M
EI
3 kN m

165 GPa 86810-9 m 4

20.95 103 m -1

47.7 m

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Bending of Members Made of Several Materials
Consider a composite beam formed from
two materials with E1 and E2.
Normal strain varies linearly.
x

Piecewise linear normal stress variation.


1 E1 x

E1 y

2 E2 x

E2 y

Neutral axis does not pass through


section centroid of composite section.
Elemental forces on the section are
Ey
E y
dF1 1dA 1 dA dF2 2dA 2 dA

My
I

1 x

Define a transformed section such that


2 n x

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dF2

nE1 y dA E1 y n dA

E
n 2
E1
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 4.03
SOLUTION:
Transform the bar to an equivalent cross
section made entirely of brass
Evaluate the cross sectional properties of
the transformed section
Calculate the maximum stress in the
transformed section. This is the correct
maximum stress for the brass pieces of
the bar.
Bar is made from bonded pieces of
steel (Es = 29x106 psi) and brass
(Eb = 15x106 psi). Determine the
maximum stress in the steel and
brass when a moment of 40 kip*in
is applied.
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Determine the maximum stress in the


steel portion of the bar by multiplying
the maximum stress for the transformed
section by the ratio of the moduli of
elasticity.
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 4.03
SOLUTION:
Transform the bar to an equivalent cross section
made entirely of brass.
Es 29 106 psi
n

1.933
Eb 15 106 psi
bT 0.4 in 1.933 0.75 in 0.4 in 2.25 in

Evaluate the transformed cross sectional properties


1 b h3 1 2.25 in.3 in 3
I 12
T
12

5.063 in 4

Calculate the maximum stresses


m

Mc 40 kip in 1.5 in

11.85 ksi
4
I
5.063 in

b max m
s max n m 1.93311.85 ksi
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b max 11.85 ksi


s max 22.9 ksi
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Stress Concentrations

Stress concentrations may occur:


in the vicinity of points where the
loads are applied

m K

Mc
I

in the vicinity of abrupt changes


in cross section
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Eccentric Axial Loading in a Plane of Symmetry
Stress due to eccentric loading found by
superposing the uniform stress due to a centric
load and linear stress distribution due a pure
bending moment
x x centric x bending

Eccentric loading
FP
M Pd

P My

A I

Validity requires stresses below proportional


limit, deformations have negligible effect on
geometry, and stresses not evaluated near points
of load application.

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 4.07
SOLUTION:
Find the equivalent centric load and
bending moment

Superpose the uniform stress due to


the centric load and the linear stress
due to the bending moment.
Evaluate the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses at the inner
and outer edges, respectively, of the
superposed stress distribution.

An open-link chain is obtained by


bending low-carbon steel rods into the
shape shown. For 160 lb load, determine Find the neutral axis by determining
the location where the normal stress
(a) maximum tensile and compressive
is zero.
stresses, (b) distance between section
centroid and neutral axis
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 4.07
Normal stress due to a
centric load
A c 2 0.25 in 2
0.1963in 2
P
160 lb
0
A 0.1963in 2
815 psi

Equivalent centric load


and bending moment
P 160 lb
M Pd 160 lb0.6 in
104 lb in

Normal stress due to


bending moment
I 14 c 4 14 0.254
3.068103 in 4
Mc 104 lb in 0.25 in
m

I
.068103 in 4
8475psi

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 4.07

Maximum tensile and compressive


stresses
t 0 m
815 8475
c 0 m
815 8475

t 9260psi

c 7660psi

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Neutral axis location


0

P My0

A
I

P I
3.068103 in 4
y0
815 psi
AM
105lb in
y0 0.0240in

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 4.8
The largest allowable stresses for the cast
iron link are 30 MPa in tension and 120
MPa in compression. Determine the largest
force P which can be applied to the link.
SOLUTION:
Determine an equivalent centric load and
bending moment.
Superpose the stress due to a centric
load and the stress due to bending.
From Sample Problem 2.4,
A 3 103 m 2
Y 0.038 m
I 868109 m 4
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Evaluate the critical loads for the allowable


tensile and compressive stresses.
The largest allowable load is the smallest
of the two critical loads.
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 4.8
Determine an equivalent centric and bending loads.
d 0.038 0.010 0.028 m
P centric load
M Pd 0.028 P bending moment

Superpose stresses due to centric and bending loads

0.028 P 0.022 377 P


P Mc A
P

A
I
3 103
868109
0.028 P 0.022 1559 P
P Mc
P
B A

A
I
3 103
868109
A

Evaluate critical loads for allowable stresses.


A 377 P 30 MPa

P 79.6 kN

B 1559 P 120 MPa P 79.6 kN

The largest allowable load


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P 77.0 kN

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Unsymmetric Bending
Analysis of pure bending has been limited
to members subjected to bending couples
acting in a plane of symmetry.
Members remain symmetric and bend in
the plane of symmetry.
The neutral axis of the cross section
coincides with the axis of the couple
Will now consider situations in which the
bending couples do not act in a plane of
symmetry.
Cannot assume that the member will bend
in the plane of the couples.
In general, the neutral axis of the section will
not coincide with the axis of the couple.
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Unsymmetric Bending
0 Fx x dA m dA
y
c

or 0 y dA

neutral axis passes through centroid

Wish to determine the conditions under


which the neutral axis of a cross section
of arbitrary shape coincides with the
axis of the couple as shown.
The resultant force and moment
from the distribution of
elementary forces in the section
must satisfy
Fx 0 M y M z M applied couple

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y
m dA

z
c

I
or M m
I I z moment of inertia
c

defines stress distribution


0 M y z x dA z m dA

y
c

or 0 yz dA I yz product of inertia

couple vector must be directed along


a principal centroidal axis
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Unsymmetric Bending
Superposition is applied to determine stresses in
the most general case of unsymmetric bending.
Resolve the couple vector into components along
the principle centroidal axes.
M z M cos

M y M sin

Superpose the component stress distributions


x

Mzy Myy

Iz
Iy

Along the neutral axis,


x 0
tan

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M cos y M sin y
Mzy Myy

Iz
Iy
Iz
Iy

y Iz

tan
z Iy

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 4.08
SOLUTION:
Resolve the couple vector into
components along the principle
centroidal axes and calculate the
corresponding maximum stresses.
M z M cos

M y M sin

Combine the stresses from the


component stress distributions.
x

Mzy Myy

Iz
Iy

A 1600 lb-in couple is applied to a


rectangular wooden beam in a plane
Determine the angle of the neutral
forming an angle of 30 deg. with the
axis.
vertical. Determine (a) the maximum
y Iz
tan

tan
stress in the beam, (b) the angle that the
z Iy
neutral axis forms with the horizontal
plane.
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 4.08
Resolve the couple vector into components and calculate
the corresponding maximum stresses.
M z 1600lb in cos 30 1386lb in
M y 1600lb in sin 30 800 lb in
1 1.5 in 3.5 in 3 5.359in 4
I z 12
1 3.5 in 1.5 in 3 0.9844in 4
I y 12
The largest tensile stress due to M z occurs along AB

M z y 1386lb in 1.75 in

452.6 psi
4
Iz
5.359in

The largest tensile stress due to M z occurs along AD

M yz
Iy

800 lb in 0.75 in 609.5 psi


0.9844in 4

The largest tensile stress due to the combined loading


occurs at A.
max 1 2 452.6 609.5
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max 1062psi
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Example 4.08
Determine the angle of the neutral axis.
Iz
5.359in 4
tan tan
tan 30
4
Iy
0.9844in
3.143

72.4o

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
General Case of Eccentric Axial Loading
Consider a straight member subject to equal
and opposite eccentric forces.
The eccentric force is equivalent to the system
of a centric force and two couples.
P centric force
M y Pa
M z Pb

By the principle of superposition, the


combined stress distribution is
P Mz y M yz
x

A
Iz
Iy

If the neutral axis lies on the section, it may


be found from
My
Mz
P
y
z
Iz
Iy
A
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

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