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CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF
SOLIDS
Analysis and
Design
of Beams for
Bending

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Analysis and Design of Beams for Bending
Introduction
Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams
Sample Problem 5.1
Sample Problem 5.2
Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment
Sample Problem 5.3
Sample Problem 5.5
Design of Prismatic Beams for Bending
Sample Problem 5.8

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Suggested Problems

5.3, 5.8, 5.16, 5.22, 5.23, 5.27, 5.28, 5.32,


5.33, 5.44, 5.45, 5.52, 5.67, 5.68, 5.69, 5.70,
5.79, 5.85, 5.90, 5.93

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Introduction
Objective - Analysis and design of beams
Beams - structural members supporting loads at
various points along the member
Transverse loadings of beams are classified as
concentrated loads or distributed loads
Applied loads result in internal forces consisting
of a shear force (from the shear stress
distribution) and a bending couple (from the
normal stress distribution)
Normal stress is often the critical design criteria
x

My
I

Mc M

I
S

Requires determination of the location and


magnitude of largest bending moment
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Introduction
Classification of Beam Supports

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams
Determination of maximum normal and
shearing stresses requires identification of
maximum internal shear force and bending
couple.
Shear force and bending couple at a point are
determined by passing a section through the
beam and applying an equilibrium analysis on
the beam portions on either side of the
section.
Sign conventions for shear forces V and V
and bending couples M and M

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.1
SOLUTION:
Treating the entire beam as a rigid
body, determine the reaction forces

For the timber beam and loading


shown, draw the shear and bendmoment diagrams and determine the
maximum normal stress due to
bending.

Section the beam at points near


supports and load application points.
Apply equilibrium analyses on
resulting free-bodies to determine
internal shear forces and bending
couples
Identify the maximum shear and
bending-moment from plots of their
distributions.

Apply the elastic flexure formulas to


determine the corresponding
maximum normal stress.
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.1
SOLUTION:
Treating the entire beam as a rigid body, determine
the reaction forces
from Fy 0 M B : RB 40 kN

RD 14 kN

Section the beam and apply equilibrium analyses


on resulting free-bodies
Fy 0

20 kN V1 0

V1 20 kN

M1 0

20 kN 0 m M1 0

M1 0

Fy 0

20 kN V2 0

V2 20 kN

M2 0

20 kN 2.5 m M 2 0

M 2 50 kN m

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V3 26 kN

M 3 50 kN m

V4 26 kN

M 4 28 kN m

V5 14 kN

M 5 28 kN m

V6 14 kN

M6 0
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.1
Identify the maximum shear and bendingmoment from plots of their distributions.
Vm 26 kN M m M B 50 kN m

Apply the elastic flexure formulas to


determine the corresponding
maximum normal stress.
S 16 b h 2 16 0.080 m 0.250 m 2
833.33 10 6 m3
MB
50 103 N m
m

S
833.33 10 6 m3

m 60.0 106 Pa

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.2
SOLUTION:
Replace the 10 kip load with an
equivalent force-couple system at D.
Find the reactions at B by considering
the beam as a rigid body.
Section the beam at points near the
support and load application points.
Apply equilibrium analyses on
The structure shown is constructed of a
resulting free-bodies to determine
W10x112 rolled-steel beam. (a) Draw
internal shear forces and bending
the shear and bending-moment diagrams
couples.
for the beam and the given loading. (b)
determine normal stress in sections just
Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
to the right and left of point D.
determine the maximum normal
stress to the left and right of point D.

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.2
SOLUTION:
Replace the 10 kip load with equivalent forcecouple system at D. Find reactions at B.
Section the beam and apply equilibrium
analyses on resulting free-bodies.
From A to C :
Fy 0 3x V 0
M1 0

3x 12 x M

From C to D :
Fy 0 24 V 0

V 3x kips
0 M 1.5 x 2 kip ft

V 24 kips

M 2 0 24 x 4 M 0 M 96 24x kip ft

From D to B :
V 34 kips

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M 226 34x kip ft

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.2
Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
determine the maximum normal stress to
the left and right of point D.

From Appendix C for a W10x112 rolled


steel shape, S = 126 in3 about the X-X axis.
To the left of D :
M 2016kip in

S
126in 3
To the right of D :

m 16.0 ksi

M 1776kip in

S
126in 3

m 14.1ksi

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment
Relationship between load and shear:
Fy 0 : V V V w x 0
V w x
dV
w
dx
xD

VD VC w dx
xC

Relationship between shear and bending


moment:
M C 0 :

M M M V x wx x 0

M V x 12 w x
dM
V
dx

M D MC

xD

V dx

xC

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.3
SOLUTION:

Taking the entire beam as a free body,


determine the reactions at A and D.
Apply the relationship between shear and
load to develop the shear diagram.
Draw the shear and bending
moment diagrams for the beam
and loading shown.

Apply the relationship between bending


moment and shear to develop the bending
moment diagram.

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.3
SOLUTION:

Taking the entire beam as a free body, determine the


reactions at A and D.
MA 0
0 D24 ft 20 kips 6 ft 12 kips 14 ft 12 kips 28 ft
D 26 kips
Fy 0
0 Ay 20 kips 12 kips 26 kips 12 kips
Ay 18 kips

Apply the relationship between shear and load to


develop the shear diagram.
dV
w
dx

dV w dx

- zero slope between concentrated loads


- linear variation over uniform load segment
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.3
Apply the relationship between bending
moment and shear to develop the bending
moment diagram.
dM
V
dx

dM V dx

- bending moment at A and E is zero


- bending moment variation between A, B,
C and D is linear
- bending moment variation between D
and E is quadratic
- net change in bending moment is equal to
areas under shear distribution segments
- total of all bending moment changes across
the beam should be zero
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.5
SOLUTION:
Taking the entire beam as a free body,
determine the reactions at C.
Apply the relationship between shear
and load to develop the shear diagram.

Draw the shear and bending moment


diagrams for the beam and loading
shown.

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Apply the relationship between


bending moment and shear to develop
the bending moment diagram.

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.5
SOLUTION:
Taking the entire beam as a free body,
determine the reactions at C.
Fy 0 12 w0 a RC
a

M C 0 12 w0 a L M C
3

RC 12 w0 a

M C 12 w0 a L
3

Results from integration of the load and shear


distributions should be equivalent.

Apply the relationship between shear and load


to develop the shear diagram.
a

2

x
x
VB V A w0 1 dx w0 x

a
2a

0
0
a

VB 12 w0 a area under load curve

- No change in shear between B and C.


- Compatible with free body analysis
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.5
Apply the relationship between bending moment
and shear to develop the bending moment
diagram.
a

x 2 x3
x

M B M A w0 x dx w0

2 6a

2a

M B 13 w0 a 2
L

M B M C 12 w0 a dx 12 w0 aL a
a

a w0
a
M C 16 w0 a3L a
L
2
3

Results at C are compatible with free-body


analysis

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Design of Prismatic Beams for Bending
The largest normal stress is found at the surface where the
maximum bending moment occurs.
M max c M max
m

I
S

A safe design requires that the maximum normal stress be


less than the allowable stress for the material used. This
criteria leads to the determination of the minimum
acceptable section modulus.
m all
S min

M max

all

Among beam section choices which have an acceptable


section modulus, the one with the smallest weight per unit
length or cross sectional area will be the least expensive
and the best choice.
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.8
SOLUTION:
Considering the entire beam as a freebody, determine the reactions at A and
D.

A simply supported steel beam is to


carry the distributed and concentrated
loads shown. Knowing that the
allowable normal stress for the grade
of steel to be used is 160 MPa, select
the wide-flange shape that should be
used.

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Develop the shear diagram for the


beam and load distribution. From the
diagram, determine the maximum
bending moment.
Determine the minimum acceptable
beam section modulus. Choose the
best standard section which meets this
criteria.

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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.8
Considering the entire beam as a free-body,
determine the reactions at A and D.

M A 0 D5 m 60 kN 1.5 m 50 kN 4 m
D 58.0 kN
Fy 0 Ay 58.0 kN 60 kN 50 kN
Ay 52.0 kN

Develop the shear diagram and determine the


maximum bending moment.
V A Ay 52.0 kN
VB V A area under load curve 60 kN
VB 8 kN

Maximum bending moment occurs at


V = 0 or x = 2.6 m.
M max area under shear curve, A to E
67.6 kN
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MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Sample Problem 5.8
Determine the minimum acceptable beam
section modulus.
M max 67.6 kN m
S min

all
160 MPa
422.5 10 6 m3 422.5 103 mm3

Choose the best standard section which meets


this criteria.
Shape

S , mm3

W410 38.8

637

W360 32.9

474

W310 38.7

549

W250 44.8

535

W200 46.1

448

W 360 32.9

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