Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

Optics Course

(Phys 311)
Wave Optics
The Superposition of Waves (1 of 2)
Lecturer:

Dr Zeina Hashim

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 1

Objectives covered in this lesson :


1.

The Principle of Superposition.

2.

The Addition of Waves of the Same Frequency Along the Same Direction:
a. algebraic method:

The resultant wave equation, its new (amplitude, phase, and flux density).

The Phase difference between two superimposed waves.

The resultant wave equation in the case where two identical waves are following each

other by .
-

The special cases of constructive and destructive interferences.

The superposition of many waves.

b. complex method.

c. phasors method.

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

The Principle of Superposition :


Why study this process?
Because it underlies
the three phenomena we will soon study:
Interference Diffraction Polarization
The Principle:
The resultant disturbance at any point in a medium is
the algebraic sum of the separate constituent waves

= 1 1 + 2 2 +

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 2

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 3

The Principle of Superposition :


How did we know this?
From the 3D differential equation:
All solutions of this equation are linear (i.e. to the first power).
This implies that any linear combination of these solutions is also a solution.
Therefore:

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 4

Are all EM waves linear ??


No ! We have non-linear waves, which we will not study.
They are solutions to non-linear partial differential wave equations.

These waves do not satisfy the Principle of Superposition.


A nonlinear wave is caused by a VERY LARGE force.
An example is: A focused beam of a high-intensity laser (Electric field = 1010 V/cm).
So, our differential equation should be called:
linear partial differential wave equation

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 5

Addition of Waves (travelling along the x-axis, with the same ):

Algebraic Method

Complex Method

Graphical Method
(Phasors)

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 6

Algebraic Method

= 1 sin + 1 + 1 sin( + 2 )

sin + = sin cos + cos sin

Let:

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 7

Algebraic Method
Using: sin + = sin cos + cos sin

= sin( + )

This is the new wave equation which resulted from the superposition of the two waves.
It:

is harmonic

and has:

the same frequency as its constituents,

but it has:

a new and a new .

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Algebraic Method

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 8

What is its new amplitude ( )?


,

Square each equation, and add them together

2 cos2 = 1 2 cos2 1 + 2 2 cos 2 2 + 21 2 cos 1 cos 2


2 sin2 = 1 2 sin2 1 + 2 2 sin2 2 + 21 2 sin 1 sin 2

sin2 + sin2 = 1

2 = 1 2 + 2 2 + 21 2 (cos 1 cos 2 + sin 1 sin 2 )


( )
= + + ( ) its new amplitude.
is called the phase difference

2 1
The resultants amplitude depends on what?

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Algebraic Method

The Phase Difference:

When the two wave equations are:

In-phase

= , , ,

Out-of-phase

= , ,

Homework: Q1:
Show that when the two wave equations
1 = 1 sin( + 1 ) and
2 = 2 sin( + 2 ) are in-phase, the resulting
amplitude squared is a maximum (and equals
(1 + 2 )2 ), and when they are out-of-phase it is
a minimum (and equals (1 2 )2 ).

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 9

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Algebraic Method

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 10

The Phase Difference:

= but
So,

= + +

= ( + + )
=

+
Distances
from
sources

Initial
phases

If 1 2 =
the waves are coherent

Phys
311

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 11

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Algebraic Method

The Phase Difference:

If the two waves were initially in phase (example: they came from the same source):


Optical path
difference ()

Optical Path:
=
d here is x

Q: How can two waves from the same source have different distances from the
source?

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Algebraic Method

Now, what is its new phase () ?

,
Divide the second equation by the first equation:
its new phase.

Q: When does and when does ?

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 12

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 13

Algebraic Method
Now if I gave you the amplitudes and phases of two waves, can you write down
the wave equation of their resultant superposition ?

Homework: Q2:
Determine the resultant of the superposition of the parallel waves:
1 = 1 sin( + 1 ) and 2 = 2 sin( + 2 )

when = 120 , 1 = 6 , 2 = 8 , 1 = 0 , and 2 = 2 .

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Algebraic Method

What is the flux density of the resultant wave?

=
( + + )
2
=

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 14

= 1 + 2 +

2
The flux density has an extra term.
is called: Interference Term

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 15

Algebraic Method
If we have two waves which have the same frequency & same amplitude & same initial
phase, but one is following the other by
Then,

And the resultant wave equation can be written as:

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 16

Algebraic Method
The special case of
Constructive Interference
Destructive Interference

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Algebraic Method

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 17

= + + ( ) the new amplitude.

The special case of


Constructive Interference
Destructive Interference
The peaks occur at the same time.
The resultants amplitude becomes
( = 1 + 2 ).
This happens when 1 2 = 0 , 2 ,

The peak and trough occur at the same time.


The resultants amplitude becomes
( = 1 2 ).
This happens when 1 2 = , 3 ,

Two waves with the same frequencies,


amplitudes, initial phases, and follow
each other by will interfere
constructively if

Two waves with the same frequencies,


amplitudes, initial phases, and follow each
other by will interfere destructively if

= 21

= 0

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Algebraic Method

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 18

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Algebraic Method

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 19

The Superposition of Many waves

The superposition of N number of:


a. coherent
b. harmonic waves
c. having a given frequency (i.e. the same )
d. travelling in the same direction

Leads to a harmonic wave of


that same frequency.

Its wave equation will be:

cos( )
=1

with a new amplitude:

and a new phase:

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 20

Addition of Waves (travelling along the x-axis, with the same ):

Algebraic Method

Complex Method

Graphical Method
(Phasors)

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 21

Complex Method
If we have N waves with the same frequency, travelling in the positive x-direction,
each having a wave equation of:

= (1 +)
The resultant wave of their superposition will be:

= (+)

with a new complex amplitude:

2 =


=1

and a new phase: Not given here

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 22

Addition of Waves (travelling along the x-axis, with the same ):

Algebraic Method

Complex Method

Graphical Method
(Phasors)

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Graphical Method
(Phasors)

Link to: Phasors and waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 23

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 24

Graphical Method
(Phasors)
It is a graphical method to obtain the new amplitude and new phase.
It is useful when we have more than two waves which we need to combine.
Each wave is described by a vector: its length = amplitude of wave.
its direction from the positive x-axis = its .

Steps: a. Draw each vector.

Phasors can be represented by:

b. Shift them so that they are head-to-tail, head-to tail.


c. Draw the resultant wave vector (from tail of first wave to head of last wave.
d. Resultant vector length = its amplitude. Its angle from + x-direction = its phase.

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Graphical Method
(Phasors)
Example:

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 25

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Graphical Method
(Phasors)

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 26

The resultant wave leads or lags the constituent waves ?

wave 1 leads wave 2 means: peak of 1 occurs at an earlier location than peak of 2.
wave 1 lags wave 2 means: peak of 1 occurs at a later location than peak of 2.

If it leads its phase is positive


(counter-clockwise from x-axis)

If it lags its phase is negative (clockwise)

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Homework :

Q3:

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 27

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Homework :
Q4:

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 28

Phys
311

Wave Optics: The Superposition of Waves

Summary:

Next lesson will cover:

Lesson 1 of 2
Slide 29 (last)

Any Questions?

Superposition of waves (2)


1. The Principle of Superposition.
2. The Addition of Waves of the Same Frequency Along the Same Direction:

a. algebraic method:
- The resultant wave equation, its new (amplitude, phase, and flux density).
- The Phase Difference between two superimposed waves.

- The resultant wave equation in the case where two identical waves are following each other
by .
- The special cases of constructive and destructive interferences.
- The superposition of many waves.

b. complex method.

c. phasors method.