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^University

MANUAL

tutorial

OF

Series.

PSYCHOLOGY.

tttnivereitv)(Tutorial Seriea*

OF

MANUAL

PSYCHOLOGY,

BY

GK F.

FKLLOW

LATE
IN

M.A.

STOUT,
OF

IN
MENTAL

IN

PHILOSOPHY
AT

"MIND";

UNIVERSITY;

AUTHOR

PSYCHOLOGY

LONDON

13

W,

B.

BOOKSELLERS

OF

EDITOR

PRESS.

COLLEGE
NEW

YORK

"

HINDS
4

Row,

STRAND,

OXFORD

ETC.

CORRESPONDENCE
CLIVE,

READER

WILDE

OF

"ANALYTIC

OF
"

UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITY

THE

LONDON

COMPARATIVE

ON

ABERDEEN

OF

UNIVERSITY

LKCTURER

UNIVERSITY

AND
LECTURER

ANDERSON

ABERDEEN,

LL.D.

OXON.,

CAMBRIDGK,

LATE

THK

EXAMINER

M.A.

COLLEGE,

SCIENCK.s;

PSYCHOLOGY
IN

JOHN'S

ST.

MORAL

THE

GAME.,

"W.C.

1899.

NOBLE,

COOPER

INSTITUTE.

COPYRIGHT,
1899,

BY

W.

B.

CIvIVE.

91383

FEB

3\

1959

PREFACE.

THE
from

genetic

will

contents

successive

ideal

of

by

lower

of

races

The

is

this

sake

dreary

and

papers

by

on

r.nd

formulas

real

for

the

has

the

passed

condition

but

the

in

are

of

the

study

of

student

unless

he

is able

to

who

him.

of

has

is

ought

ming
skim-

An

effective

in

sake,

own

to

interest

with
to

genuine

essential

it
be

even

able

gift

in

the

when
to

do

more

read
books

crammed
a

the

for

than

done

most

real

and

is

evidently

flesh

living

Nothing
examiner

never

The

statements

clothed

be

the

psychological

avail.

no

acquire

to

as

on

dried

must

has

so

himself

of

are

dealing
He

problems,

and

who

to

the

for

to

anxious

most

examinations.

beginner

power

been

student's

thinking.

fail

which

through

that

cut

candidate

psychological
to

the

to

convinced
the

thinking

exasperating
a

the

earlier

reference

mental

of

of

The

world

have

am

to

use

success

Psychology,

imparted

questions

both

his

of

Psychology

to

blood,

the

to

purpose

important

and

the

table

is that

by

phases

psychological

of

introduction

followed

illustrated

which

no

into

For

the

at

mankind.

power

topics.

Psychology

development.

and

reference

is of

himself

real

Self

of

of

glance

order

The

sketchiness.

Psychology

mental

animals.

shortcoming

avoid

the

copiously

construction

illustrated

of

exposition

an

view.

that

been

life

of

point

stages

mental

contains

show

have

stages

live

work

present

bit
to

of
be

subject,
familiar
riders

in

PREFACE.

via

Psychology
there

who

students

are

riders

lie does

as

natural

endowment.

enough

to

be

But

and

over

feverishly the

day

that

they

slip

do

needs

much

learn

to

greatest debt

My

Professor
I have
Text-Book
on

found

Psychology

for

educational

to

leave

the

In

and

with

volume

much

help

in

the

Royee,

and

Mr.

Welton,

J.

Lloyd Morgan.

College,Victoria
of

the

M.

C.

in

Irvine,

Mental

In

Professor

invaluable,

owes

much

Mr.

J. F.
for

to

the

Stout,
the

and

in

has

press,

rendered

and

has

J. S.

Science
I

particularI

suggestions of
me

Mr.

the

Wales,

University Correspondence College.


services

I have

been

in

Moral

have

Welton.

the

1899.

Ladd,

by

Yorkshire

Mackenzie,

and

by

Tutor

My

Mr.

in the

found

great assistance

compiled

found

read

feel that

their

the

book

brother,
in

paring
pre-

Index.

GK
May,

Ebbing-

Baldwin,

Professor

and

Poster's

abbreviated

general

South

teacher,

my

are

Education

of

altogether

tions
special sensa-

proofs have

University,by

the

specialchapters

James,

My

University College
W.

of

writings

Lecturer

The

from

Grundziige der Psychologie.

order

purposes

Professor

Sound-Sensation

haus'

in

to

the

of

useful.

modifications

read

Certainly

is

treating

fourth

be

way.

elsewhere

as

full

to

subject alone

the

external

of Physiologyvery

adapted

have

examination

an

of

is better

mind.

here

Light-Sensation

and

before

Ward.

James

which

statements

merely

rememberable

so

out

lack

treatment

the

better
it in

far from

so

that

is true

of

not

may

who

would
than

dogmatic

It

them

for

even

interesting and

arid

Euclid.

advance

cannot

than

teacher

in

F.

STOUT.

CONTENTS

OF

VOL.

I.

INTBODUCTION.

CHAPTER

THE

SCOPE

I.

OP

PSYCHOLOGY.

PAGE

"

The

1.

Psychological

other

Point

of

View.

Sciences.

"

Presented

1.

of

II.

METHODS

AND

Objects

Data.

as

"

"

Mental

OF

Introspection.

2.

in

Process

PSYCHOLOGY.

Others.
"

and

Observation.

"5.

"

from
1

CHAPTER

DATA

Distinction

2.

Consciousness

"3.

"

THE

"

"

"

"

"

3.

festations
Mani-

Experiment

4.

Methods

Quantitative

10
..

CHAPTER

III.

BODY

1
.

Physiological
"

"

"

Xervous

Psycho-Physical

"

3.

MIND.

and

Consequents

of

the

Function

2.

Mechanism.
and

AND

Antecedents

"

"

4.

of

Metaphysical

Parallelism.
"

Mental

Sub-Cortical

"5.

cess.
ProNervous

of

Correlation

Immediate

Process.

..

Conscious

Explanation

of

Conclusion

34
..

..

CONTEXTS.

BOOK

GENERAL

I."

ANALYSIS.

CHAPTER

I.

MODES

ULTIMATE

OF

CONSCIOUS.

BEING

PAGK

1.

Cognition.
Introductory.
Attitude.
The
Conative
4.
"
" 2.

"

" 3. The

"

"

"

Feeling-Attitude.

Sentience

5.

or

"

sciousness
Sub-Con56

CHAPTER
LAWS

PRIMARY

"

1.

II.

OF

MENTAL

PROCESS.

Eelativity. " 2. General


Unity and
Continuity. " 3.
Conative
Unity and Continuity. " 4. Retentiveness.
Conative
Continuityand Retentiveness.
" 6. Primary
"5.
"

"

"

"

"

Meaning.
" 7. Association
Reproduction. J 8.
of
Modes
Acquirement of Meaning.
" 9. The Various
duction.
SpecificReproduction, (#)Complication,(i)Free Reproand
Arrest.
Habit
Facilitation
10.
11.
"
"
and

"

"

"

"

and

"

Automatism.

"

Dispositions
"12. Physiological

CHAPTER
THE

"

1.

III.

PSYCHOLOGY"

"FACULTY

71

..

AND

ASSOCIATIONISM.

Introductory. "2. /'The Faculty Psychology." " 3.


Associationism.
Criticised, Mental
" 4. Associationism
"

"

l'

"

103

Chemistry"

BOOK

II."

SENSATION.

CHAPTER
DEFINITION

Sensation
Mere

and

Sensation.
from

OF

Stimulus.
"

"

4.

I.

"

"

SENSATION.

2.

Sensation

Sensation

as

Sensory

Elements.

Cognitive
Cognised Object
as

"

State
.

"3.
tinguished
dis.

117

CONTENTS.

xi

CHAPTER
THE

II.

SENSATION-REFLEX.
PAGE

"

1.

distinguithedfrom

As

frcm

Conative

"

Perceptual

and

Hedonic

Relative

4.

PhysiologicalReflex."

Distin" 2. guished
Ideational-Reaction
" 3.

and

"

Aspect of

Purity of

Sensation-

the

OF

"

Reflex
..

CHAPTER
DIFFERENTIATION

Sensation-Reflex.

the

125

..

III.

SENSE-EXPERIENCE,

AND

ITS

PSYCHICAL

SIGNIFICANCE.

"

1.

Differentiation

and

Integration. "

2.

"

Differentiation

of

Sense-Organs

134

CHAPTER

IV.

LIGHT-SENSATION.

1.

Nature

Introductory. " 2.
"

of

Eye.

the

of the

Stimulus.

"

"

ture
Struc-

3.

Descriptive Analysis of LightSensatioiis.


Retina's
own
" 5. The
Light. " 6. Total
Colour- Blindness.
^ 7. Partial Colour- Blindness.
" 8.
Effects
of the Mixture
of Lights of Different
"WaveEffects
of
Contrast.
Lengths." " 9. The
" 10. The
image,
Negative After-Image, etc.
"11. The Positive Afterof
etc.
" 12. PhysiologicalTheories
Light4.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Sensation

141
.

CHAPTER
SO

"

1.

Nature

of

Noises

Intervals."
different

Stimulus.

the

and

Musical

"

sources.

"

"

SENSATION

"

2.

Sounds.

and

OTHER

Taste

and

Smell.

Sensations."

"

" 2.

Organ of Hearing. $ 3.
" 5. Musical
" 4. Pitch.
"

Sounds

Musical

Dissonance.

"

General

10.

from

ence-Tones."
"8. DifferTheory of

Sensation
..

..

CHAPTER

1.

of

"

..

"

"

"

"7. Beats
Timbre.

V.

Combination

6.

"9.
Sound-

tJND

..

..

..

171

VI.

SENSATIONS.

Cutaneous

Sensations."

-" 4. Organic Sensations

" 3.

Motor
182

..

..

..

CONTENTS.

arii

CHAPTER
THE

WEBER-

VII.
FECHNER

LAW.
PAGB

"

1. The

Experimental Facts.
" 2. Interpretation." 3.
Questions.
" 4. Limitations of Weber's Law
"

Further

"

199

"

..

..

CHAPTER
THE

"

1.

VIII.

FEELING-TONE

Common

OF

SENSATION.

Sensibility." 2. The Special Sensations.


" 3.
and
Surplus Excitation.
$ 4. Feeling-Tone
Organic
Welfare.
5.
and
Conative
Feeling-Tone
"
Tendency.
General
6.
"
Theory
"

"

"

"

"

BOOK

III."

PERCEPTION.

DIVISION.
PERCEPTUAL

I.

PROCESS

IN

"

1.

CHARACTERISTICS

Definition."

OF

GENERAL.

I.

CHAPTER
DISTINCTIVE

210

THE

PERCEPTUAL

CONSCIOUSNESS.

and

Continuity of Perceptual
Process.
" 3. Attention.
" 4. Persistencywith Varied
Effort.
" 5. Free Adaptation to Varying Conditions.
" 6. Learning by Experience. " 7. Reproduction by
"

2.

Unity

"

"

"

"

"

Perceptual Process.
Process.-

-"9.

"

"

8. Ideas

Impulsive

accompanying Perceptual

character

CHAPTER

of

Perceptual Process.

211

II.

IMITATION.

" 1. Introductory. " 2.


by Imitation
"

The

Imitative

Impulse. " 3. Learning


"

269

CHAPTER

III.

PLEASURE-PAIN.

" 1. Introductory. "2. Feeling-toneof Attention.


and
Defeat
and
as
Determining Pleasure
Feeling-tone as due to preformed Associations
"

"

Success

" 3.
Pain.
.

"

4.
.

276

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER

xiii
IV.

EMOTIONS.
PAGE

"

1.

General

Characteristics.
to Pleasure-Pain

Relation

6.

Analysis of

Emotional

"

"

Fear.

General

2.

and

Qualitative Differences.

"

"

"

Conation.

Dispositions.
"

" 7. Analysis of Anger.

"

"

"

8.

..

284

312

...

..321

..

GENERAL.

IN

" 2. Analysisof

Extension.

"

"

3.
330

Movement

IV.

CHAPTER
PERCEPTION

SPATIAL

III.

PERCEPTION

Active

..

..

..

CHAPTER

Extensity." " 4.

II.

Reality

"

..

..

CHAPTER

of the Problem.

I.

Categoriesof PerceptualConsciousness

SPATIAL

1L

CHAPTER

External

PEKCEPTS.

SPECIAL

Nature

"

Emotional

5.

DIVISION

" 1.

"

Gestures
.

Perceptionof

Theory. " 3.
" 4. Ultimate

BY

TOUCH.

" 2. Extension as Physically


" 1, SpatialPerceptionof the Blind.
Real."
" 3. The SpatialSignificanceof Free Movements.
isation
" 5. Local" 4. Perceptionof the Organism as extended.
and
Perception of the
Projection."" 6. Tactual
Third
Dimension.
" 7. Origin of SpatialPerception
"

"

"

"

" 1. Perception of
Dimension,

(") as

(b]as dependent on

BY

PERCEPTION

Surface.

"

"

2.

use

of two

SIGHT.

Perception of

Visual

conditioned
the

342

V.

CHAPTER
SPATIAL

by

Tactual

eyes,

Third

Experience,

(c]as monocular.

363

CONTENTS.

xiv

VI.

CHAPTER
TEMPORAL

PERCEPTION.
PAGE

"

1.

Experience of
Introductory. " 2. Immediate
" 3. Perception of Lapse of Time.
"

"

sience.
Time-Tran-

"

"

"

Organism

Time-keeper.

as

"

"

Past,

Present,

5.

4.

The
and
384

Future

IY."

BOOK

CONCEPTUAL

AND

IDEATIONAL
PKOCESS.

I.

CHAPTEE
IDEAS

1.

IMAGES.

AND

Introductory. " 2. Distinction and


Idea.
" 3. Likeness of Object as
"

Relation

Imaged.

Image

"

Relative

of

Independence

Object

Percept and

Aspect

and

"

"

Dreams

393
.

CHAPTER

II.
OF

TRAINS

to

Activity. " 5.
lucinations,
Image.
" 6. Hal-

to Motor

Percept

Illusions,and

Two-fold

of

and

(a)Intensity,(4) Distinctness, (c) Relation

SubjectiveActivity, (d]Relation

1.

and

Differences

" 4, Characteristic

Image

Perceived

"

as

of

of Ideational

IDEAS.

Process.

"

" 2.

Association

of

of the Association
of Ideas
" 3. Different Forms
(a)Contiguity(Continuityof Interest),
(V) Similarity.
" 4. Competition of Divergent Associations.
$ 5. Ideal
in the flow
Construction.
of Ideal
" 6. Obstructions
Activity

Ideas.

"

"

"

"

..

..

..

CHAPTER

..

..

..

418

..

III.

MEMORY.

1.

Definition

Decay

of

Memories.

of

Memory.

Memory
"

$ 6. Memory

"

5.

and

"

with

" 2.

Good

Lapse

Improvement
Past-Time

and
of

of

Bad

Memory.
$ 3.
Time.
" 4. Variety of
Memory by Practice.
"

"

"

435

CONTENTS.

xv

CHAPTER
IDEATION,

"

IV.

COMPARISON,

AND

CONCEPTION.

1. Ideal

Pre-arrangement distinguishedfrom
adjustment. " 2. Conceptual Analysis
" 3. Comparison.
"

..

..

"

1.

and

..

CHAPTER

LANGUAGE

Perceptual

Pre-

Synthesis.
"

..

..

447

..

V.

AND

CONCEPTION.

of Conceptual Analysis and


Language as an Instrument
in Ideal
Revival.
Synthesis. " 2 The Motor Element
" 3. Tendency of Motor Reproduction to pass into Actual
Movement.
Signs. " 5. Natural Signs as
" 4. Natural
Instruments
of Conceptual Thinking.
" 6. Conventional
in Gesture -Language.
Element
tional
" 7. Origin of Convenother
the
theories of
Language. " 8. Certain
Origin of Speech.
" 9. Advantages of Conventional
Language
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

CHAPTER

THE

"

EXTERNAL

1. Unification

of

as

3.

" 7.

"

Space

"

6.

as

"

AS

"

1. The

Personal
of

the
"

Many
" 5.

The

Series.

"

IDEAL

" 2.

"

External

" 4.
and

as

Ideal

Re-

"

"

as

4.

Ideal

Construction.

"

490
.

VII.
CONSTRUCTION.

The

Social Factor

in the

ment
develop-

" 3. The One Self and


Pathology of Self -Consciousness.

Self -Consciousness.
Selves.

Causality

" 6.

Process
Co-operative

CHAPTER
SELF

Construction.

Ideal

as

and

Verification

" 2.

Thinghood

Ideal Construction

CONSTRUCTION.

IDEAL

"

Construction

Ideal

Construction.

AS

Perceptual Data.
"

Time

VI.

WORLD

interpretation."

459

the

"

Internal

Self

517

xvi

CONTENTS,

CHAPTER

BELIEF

VIII.

AND

IMAGINATION.
PAOB

"

1.

Distinction

between

Conditions

Belief

of

and

Belief.

importance

of

Belief.

"

"

features

of

Primitive

the

"

"

Feeling

"

Some

5.

544

OF

of
of

-tone

IX.

Revived

2.

Feeling-tone

3.

"4.

"

"

"

of

Factors

Factor."

PEELING-TONE

Introductory.

relative

the

Belief

CHAPTER

1.

General

2.

Objective

Social

"

in

and

Subjective

Influence

4.

of

the

"

"

Variations

3.

"

"

Imagination.

IDEAS.

conditions

of

Feeling-tone.

Ideational

Activity

itself.

Ideational

Activity

itself

Belief.

nation.
Imagi.

"

"

5.

Sentiment

and

Emotion

562
.

CHAPTER

1.

Ascending
of

Aspect
"

"

the

Decision.
"

and
Ideas."

12.

in

"
the

Bodily
"
True

of

"

Fixity

Self

Freedom

"

"

line

of

of

greatest
"

Self.

the

Decision.

Activity.
10.

Development.

Conception

6.

DECISION.

Conative

Voluntary

4.

Action

of

levels

X.

VOLUNTARY

"

"

9.

-Control."

5.

"

ef

Decision.

"

"

8.

Action.

Voluntary

"

"

resistance.

11.

Conative

forming

Voluntary

"

2.

Deliberation.

3.

The

Involuntary

"

"

7.

Volition
Fixed
Attention.
581

MANUAL

PSYCHOLOGY.

OF

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER

THE

"

1.

that

The

Let
looks
the

is

he

it;

at

crackle

which

in

into

words

play

such

smelling,

and

he

far
will

he

is

of

his

aware

own

Psych.

man's

is

of

object.

cigar.

and

ear

he

smells

smoke

to

smelling and

procedure,

to

it before

by

these

it ; he

thus
Now

tasting.

have

we

He

listens

discouraged

not

proceed

functions

the

dryiiess

suppose

had

to

use

testing, looking,feeling, listening,

These

all

are

standing

terms

for

facts.
the

as

listening,

he

then

tasting.

think

not

if

examining,

as

of

of

quality
his

us

material

it to

puts

mark

may

the

psychological
So

he

"

examining
the

Let

View.

of

testing

smoke
he

describing

in

is

is

to

preliminaries,
brings

he

feel* it;

commencing

Point

engaged

that

say

PSYCHOLOGY.

OF

Psychological

man

us

SCOPE

I.

etc.

of

The

is

man

of

his

pre-occupied

qualities

throughout

sensations,

as

acts

own

of

the

the

of

sensations
1

the

object,

looking,

feeling,

cigar

process.

such;

with

He
are

itself
is

are

not

what
aware

qualifications
1

PSYCHOLOGY.

of his
as

he

consciousness,and

own

is

thinkingof

the

[CH. i.
not

of the

cigar,he

does

cigar; inasmuch
not

think

about

sensations.
On

the other

the

bystanderwho describes what the


is doing, naturallyuses
He
is
man
psychologicalterms.
in relation to
thinking,not only of the cigar,but the man
he has to describe
it. What
is just this relation in its
with either the
varying phases ; he is not concerned
the cigarindependentlyof each other.
thinks
He
man
or
of the cigarmerely as an objectto which
the man's activity
is directed

hand,

; and

in consequence

he thinks

of the

man

as

of the qualities
of this object,
aware
subjectwhich becomes
and adjustshis actions accordingly. But the man
himself
takes no
note
of the fact that the cigar is an object,and
that he is a subject; he could not take note of the one
fact
without
taking note of the other. But he is so wholly
absorbed
in the object,that he does not stop to consider its
relation to himself as subject; in other words, though it is
His
an
object to him, he does not think of it as such.
with
the same
that of the
point of view is essentially
The
physical sciences.
point of view of the spectator
is essentially
that
of psychology. Psychology is concerned
with the relation of what is perceived,
in any way
or
thought of,to the percipientor thinker.
It thus appears
that psychology must
take into account
not only the subjectbut also the object. This is necessary
because
be adequately
states and processes cannot
subjective
described
without
reference
to their objects. It is impossible
to name
a
thought without
naming it as the
But
thought of something or other.
psychology is only
concerned
with objects,
if and so far as they are necessarily
implied in the existence of correspondingstates and processes
in the subject. The
object with which it has. to
.

SCOPE

$ 1.]
deal is
some

always an

individual

OF

PSYCHOLOGY.

objectas perceived or
at

time.

some

Of

thought

course,

a:i

about

by
object is

much
than this; the sensible qualities
more
always actually
of the cigarbelong to it both before and after the man
has

smelt,touched, and

tasted

it. Not

onlyis this true as


a
physical fact ; but it is also recognisedby the subject
himself
in perceivingor
thinking about the object. The
ing
man
onlyperceivesthe odour of the cigarin actuallysmellit ; but he regards it as a permanent quality,existing
and persisting
independentlyof his momentary perception.
The
him
unless
he
to
occurs
question never
begins
to philosophiseor
psychologise. But if anybody should
tell him
that
the odour, flavour,texture, dampness, or
he
in which
dryness of the cigar,only exist in the moment
thinks
of them
at
or
once
perceives them, he would
recognise,though perhaps dimly, that he had perceived
them
or
as
thought of them
being something different
had
He
from
what
said to
be.
now
they are
ceived
perthem
or
thought of them as having a permanence
irreconcilable with the
and independence which
is entirely
suppositionthat they exist only if and so far as he is
But psychology
actuallyperceivingor thinking of them.
is mainly concerned
with the perceiving
or
thinkingitself,
of the objectso far as
and it therefore only takes account
It is concerned,in
it is actuallyperceivedor thought of.
seen,

the

first

instance,not

with

what

is

known,

but

with

the

knowing, not with what is willed,but with the


is agreeable or disagreenot with what
able,
process of willing,
but with the process of being pleased or displeased.
of the object,except in so far
Hence
it takes no
account
as
somebody is supposed to be actually knowing it or
willingit,or being satisfied or dissatisfied with it. For the
physicalsciences the object is something that is to become
process

of

PSYCHOLOGY."

known;

for

in process
processes

psychologyit
of being known.

whereby

is

something which,
Psychologyis the

individual

an

[en. I.

becomes

aware

is

actually

science

of

of the

world

of

his actions accordingly.


and adjusts
objects
have
already
" 2. Distinction from oilier Sciences. We
The
all physical sciences.
off psychology from
marked
is the object of
facts and
of material
world
processes
this object
physicalscience; its whole aim is to know
trary,
more
completelyand precisely.Psychology,on the condoes not directlyand
primarilyaim at increasing
"

our

The

knowledge of the
cognitiveprocess

world

material
itself is

an

or

any

part

of it.

object of psychology.
the place or fulfil the

itself take
psychologycannot
it investigates. In
function of the cognitive
process which
turning its attention upon the function of knowing, it
its attention from the specialnature
necessarilywithdraws
It must
indeed constantlyrecognise
of the objectsknown.
of these objects; but this is only because
the existence
their existence is involved in the very conceptionof cognitive

But

process.
This
but

line of demarcation

also

other

separates not only psychology,

departments

of

the
philosophy, from
to
distinguish the

We
have
now
physicalsciences.
point of view from that which characterises
psychological
logic,theory of knowledge, ethics,and aesthetics. These
with
all concerned
are
knowledge, feeling,and will,
their attitude
with
their objects. But
is
than
rather
that of psychology. Logic is a normative
different from
the distinction between
science ; it is pre-occupiodwith
It has to show
truth and error.
how
thought must proceed
in order to represent its objectcorrectly. Psychology,
on

the

contrary, deals only with

cognitiveprocess

as

it

the laws

actuallytakes

that

govern

place.

It

is

the
no

SCOPE

"2.]

OF

PSYCHOLOGY.

psychology to inquire liow it ought to take


which
it lays down
account
equally
place. The principles
for correct thinking and for incorrect thinking. It deals
with objectsas they are
actuallypresentedto consciousness.
of the objectas it may
with the nature
It has no
concern
be apart from its actual presentation.It cannot, therefore,
inquirewhether or not the actual presentationcorresponds
of the object as it exists in the real
nature
to the true
business

of

world.

knowledge pushes the questionof truth and


truth
falsehood
further back
than logic. It inquireshow
and
falsehood
are
possible at all ; in other words, it
individual
the privatethought of an
how
can
investigates
individual
apprehend a realityindependent of his own
a
existence,either truly or falsely
; how, for instance, can
finite consciousness,
composed of a series of fleetingstates,
beginning to exist at a certain date and ending at a certain
date, connected with and dependent on a body which forms
of the
only a small fragment of the infinite extension
material
such
finite and
world, how
can
a
particular
being contain in itself the thought of the universe as a
whole ?
How
it becomo
can
a
spectatorof all time and
all existence?
far
Obviously, such questions are
very
removed
from the provinceof psychology. The possibility
of thought is assumed
by the psychologist. The relation
of subject and objectis pre-supposed by him as a datum.
He simply investigates
the actual laws which
regulatethe
in knowing,
the subject passes
processes through which
in relation to the object.
willing,
feeling,
Ontology may be regarded as an offshoot from theory of
knowledge. Theory of knowlege inquireshow the finite
individual can be aware
of the universe to which he belongs.
Theory

of

"

It appears

to

some

that
philosophers

this

questioncannot

bo

PSYCHOLOGY.

unless

answered
universe

well

give

we

an

account

of the individual.

[CH. I.
of
But

the

nature

of the

give
of the nature
of the universe, as such, is ontology.
account
an
from
Evidentlythis is very far removed
psychology,which
has
only to do with the natural history of subjective
as

as

processes

as

they

What

has

been

an

attempt

to

in time.

occur

said of

logic,theory of knowledge, and


ethics.
Ethics
inquires how we
actuallydo will. It may push

ontology appliesalso to
ought to will,not how we
its investigation
further, and inquire how the distinction
between
rightwillingand wrong willingis possibleat all ;
and
it may
this question by
finally,
attempt to answer
giving an account of the nature of the universe as a whole.
the
other
hand, deals only with the
Psychology, on
reference
process of volition as it actuallyoccurs, without
to the ultimate
conditions
to its Tightnessor wrongness,
or
make
which
rightnessand wrongness
possible.
Aesthetics
is precisely
analogous to ethics, except that
the distinction between
beauty and uglinessis substituted
between
for that
right and wrong.
Psychology has
It only
nothing to do with this distinction,as such.
beautiful
to appear
or
inquireshow things actuallycome
with
such
questionsas whether
ugly ; it has no concern
beautiful
what
really is beautiful,or how the
appears
between
distinction
beauty and ugliness is constituted.
beautiful
therefore
is beautiful ;
Perhaps what appears
then
if this be
psychology solves the problems of
so,
aesthetics ; but it does so only by accident.
It cannot
itself show
that it has solved these problems. In order to
do so, it would

have

realitycoincide
is certainly
beyond
the question.
and

to prove
; but

the

that in aesthetics

whether

this be

true

appearance
or

provinceof psychologyto

false,it
discuss

SCOPE

" 3.]

" 3.

OF

Consciousness.

PSYCHOLOGY.

If

analyse suck processes


as
those of looking, listening,
smelling,or tasting,we find
that they involve
distinct and
two
of
disparate groups
On
the one
facts.
of consciousness,
hand, they are modes
kinds of experience on the other,they imply
specific
;
occurrences
taking place in the bodily organs of sense
which do not, as such, enter into the conscious
experience
of the subject. For
in looking at an
instance,a man
his eyeballs; this involves the existence and
objectmoves
operationof a muscular
apparatus; but the operationof
this muscular
apparatus is not, as such, a constituent of his
"

conscious

state.

It

we

exists

for

the

consciousness

of

the

analysing the visual


part of the act of looking at
process ; but it does not form
an
objectso far as this is an experienceof the subjectwho
the object. The
sees
subjectiveexperienceis conditioned
We
by, but it does not contain the muscular
process.
cess
proexpress this by saying that though the muscular
may
that it is a fact
is a psychologicalfact,in the sense
that psychology must
take
account
of, yet it is not a
The
term
psychicalfact,viz., a fact of consciousness.
facts are
all psychical
is wider than psychical
:
psychological
facts are
psychologicalfacts,but not all psychological
or
psychicalfacts. A psychicalfact must be in some
way
other
an
experience of the subject whose processes the
psychologistis investigating.
is
A psychicalfact is a fact of consciousness
; but what
consciousness
? Properly speaking,definition is impossible.
Everybody knows what consciousness is because everybody
is conscious.
It is not, however, enough simply to say
psychologistor

this.

Confusion

question by

who
physiologist,

would

in this

has

be

sure

manner.

manifold

modes

is

The

passed the
is that consciousness
difficulty

and

degrees ;

to

arise if

we

and

there

is

PSYCHOLOGY.

[CH. I.

the term
so
as
always a danger of restricting
and
degrees and not
apply to certain modes
has been used by certain
the word
Historically,
the

which

awareness

experiences,as
a

inner

an

justas
perceptionof

the

views, we

only

not

of

awareness

he

though

does

that he is angry,

know

and

in which
of

wood,

As

division

between

contrasted
and

''

with

what

outside
come

crisis
"

we

are

more

tardilyarouses
out

"f

of the

Elements

not.
even

he

does

of

sciousness,
con-

sleep,

less and

sleep,or
us

"the

from

midnight

that
we

as

profound

it is to be

scious.
con-

sink

swoon

the noise

gradually
slowlyaway :
of the crowd

after-dinner

darkness

of the

The

fessor
Pro-

awake,

are

our

of Psychology,p
f Psychology,
Descriptiveand

point of

quote

sink into

we

log

and

as

more,

To
we

we

or

sense

common

...

less,as
as

table

it is the

when

in the

degree is present.

or

when

are

and

to

is

it

that is consciousness.
*

modification

not-mind."*

are

we

are

into dreamless

down

we

we

perfectlydreamless
we

states
or

If

is angry.

states

and

What

what

he

mode

some

says,

mind

What

and

in

of all mental

form

them

total unconsciousness

Baldwin

necessary

Ladd

that

of

these

of consciousness,

state

unconsciousness

consciousness

Professor

cognisance

includes

same.

is not

attribute

we

regarded as

consciousness

that is another

the

not

there

Wherever

is

know

not

own

our

consciousness

states, but

own

have

that

is angry,

man

of

we

our

we

for

writers

been

has

that
definitely

themselves, whether
If

and

others,

to

and

Indeed,

it

perceivethe mind and its


for
hearing are outer senses
facts.
In oppositionto all such

material

state

must

self.

sense,

by which
sight and

specialfunction

processes

of the

states

called

lias been

of ourselves

have

we

make

to

nap,

or

as

typhoid-fever
becoming conscious

57

Explanatory, p.

30.

SCOPE

" 3.]

and

becoming

the

gradations

unconscious
of

states

unconsciousness,

sleep,

become

If,

as

of

stage
of

stage

It

There

gradual

become

mav

some

the

suppose,

accompanied

by

some

dim

be

noted

that

are

not

into

is

that

dreamless
is

already
but

begin

to

dreamless

feeling,

feeling

vaguest

consciousness,

it

for

such

no

awakening,

fuller

consciousness,

between

are

sinking

dim

it

with.

itself

sleep

this

of

states

not

states

and

and

phases

are

transition

dimmest

very

their

They

they

last

first

consciousness.

cannot

The
the

the

or

all

unconsciousness.

states.

accompanying

in

are

are

and

transition

consciousness.

nor

consciousness

PSYCHOLOGY.

OF

feeling

is
dim

is

consciousness.
It

should

facts
is

which
derivative
of

account

in
in
into

the

them

proper

consciousness.

and

sense

if,

and

far

which

they

as,

of

explanation
psychical,

character
takes

psychologist

The

so

psychological

are

psychological

their

subsidiary.
only

formulation

the

psychical,

and

there

though

processes
in

some

are

necessary

which

way

are

enter

CHAPTEE

DATA

THE

1.

"

Presented

mental

and

such

the

sensation,*
conceived

of

individual

subject

then

occurring,
of

development

individual

to

the

mind.

also

are

of

the

are

Being

the

effects

of

world

and

psychological

starting-point

in

these

In

psychology

to

other

sciences

biology.
crust:

this
of

Geology
it

inquires

finds

by
*

This

what

respect

finds

actual

an

certain

this

exception

will

be

explained
10

that
are

previously.

The

this

same

time

the

to

that

development

that
for

data

as

formation

psychology.
form

the

nature
an

the

strata,

arrangement
ii.,Ch.

has
1.

an

of

analogy

geology
of

of

Book

presented

they

presents

such

in

at

any

possible presentation

arrangement

processes

to

which

investigating

development,

it

for

causes,

indispensable
causes.

attending

presented

from

important

be

attend,

or

possible
as

or

presented

the

as

its

It follows

essential

most

of

real

is at

world

limits

its consciousness.

objects

mind

pure

exist

processes

occurred

objective
The

limits

the

have

of

cannot

exists

subjective

individual

an

of

development

of

which

or

We

is

moment

any

virtue

in

only

moment

either

can

which

object

attention,

case

perceiving1, willing,

the
at

the

object.

presented

Now,

something.

in

except

discuss

to

perception,

processes

"will,without

or

has

Psychology

"

But

PSYCHOLOGY.

sensation,

as

these

from

OF

Data.

like.

none

apart

perceive,

METHODS

Objects as

processes,

volition,

to

AND

II.

and

earth's
and
arisen.

it

DATA

" 1.]

AND

METHODS.

Similarly,
psychology finds
let
nineteenth

us

to

say,

certain

it

to be

of

world

objectspresented,
Englishman of the

educated

an

century, and

11

inquires how this world has


geologistfinds different strata

presented. The
tion.
arranged accordingto the successive periodsof their formathe psychologist
finds different psycholoSimilarly,
gical
The
world
of the young
strata.
child,or the world
of the Australian
aborigine,are comparativelyprimitive
formations
the psychological
problem is to discover
; and
come

how

the transition
the

to

later

is disturbed

by

take

place in
insanity.
us

take

volcanic

the

is asked

mind,

A
he

would

look

man

sees.

in the
solid.

in

of

looks
He
same

He

earlier

adults

stages

are

now

of

geologicalstrata
similar upheavals also

arrangement

of

case

these

civilised

singleexample

what

from

conditions

cathedral,looking solid
cathedral

made
which

the

psychologicaldatum.
he

been

stages with

Sometimes

familiar.

Let

has

the

various

forms

presentedobjectas
into

manner

go

stereoscope,and

repliesthat
may

of

as

on

he
an

sees

actual

to describe

object in detail,and he need not at any point in


his description
He
will speak,
use
psychologicalterms.
and sensations,but of the spire,
not of perceptions,
feelings,
Now
the roof,the windows, etc.
spire,roof,and windows,
whether
of an
actual church, or of one
seen
through a
not
subjectiveprocesses ; nevertheless,
stereoscope,are
the

portant
through a stereoscopeis a most imdatum
for the psychological
theory of the processes
The
of space.
by which we perceivethe third dimension
is produced,not by a solid thing,but
of solidity
appearance
of
representations
by two flat surfaces on which are drawn
different
from
the
other object as
cathedral
seen
or
points of view ; we know, therefore that the perception
solid

figureas

seen

PSYCHOLOGY.

12

of

solid

involve
the

object depends
their

as

of

organ

find

by

which

processes

condition

of

that

solid

exclusion

of

process
which

on

necessary

vision

[en. n.

that

do

not

the

operation on
object itself. We
the

only

essential

tive
operativein producing the distinccertain
peculiar experiences
stereoscopiceffect are
of the two eyes.
These
connected
with the use
experiences
of course
not
are
part of the object; they only become
known
through the psychologicalinquiry which attempts
for the presentation
of the object. The
to account
special
importance of this case arises from the presentationof the
object taking place under experimentalconditions which
be preciselyanalysed.
can
is by no
confined
to
But
the general method
means
"Since
whole
the
it
world, as
experimental cases.
conditions

for

exists

an

be

can

individual

from

consciousness, whether

aesthetic point of view, has come


or
theoretical,
practical,
be said
to exist through piior mental
so
process, it may
is not capableof being
that there is no objective
fact which
utilised by the psychologist. From
this point of view we
may

and

furniture

of

far

earth,'so

as

choir of heaven

the whole

they

known,

are

data

are

'

jBritannwa,9th ed.,vol.

So too, are all works


p. 38).
Grimm's
Iliad or Hamlet
or
Fairy

xx.,

imagination,e.g., the

Tales,and

all rules of
four

the
ritual,

mental
far

as

is best
a

books

of Confucius

law,

and

man
the Brah-

Mencius.

We

examination
of
carefullynote that mere
products is valueless for psychology,except in so
it helps us to trace mental
This purpose
process.
served when
the productsas parts
we
can
arrange

historical

goal

conduct, e.g., Roman

however,

must,

of

psychology. (Article Psychology,' Encyclopaedia

for

of

that

with Dr. Ward,

say,

of

series,in

preceding,and

which
the

each

may

be

treated

as

the

of succeeding,
starting-point

" 1.]

DATA

AND

Thus

development.

METHODS.

13

the
profitablycompare
views
of the
world
it presented itself to Homer,
as
to
Socrates, and to Darwin
the
respectively.Hence
great importance of philology and anthropology to the
science
of
mind.
The
bodied
emproducts of thought are
in
language, so that the comparison of the
of the
vocabulary and
syntactic structure of different
of comparing different stages of
languages is a means
mental
and

evolution.

other

we

The

beliefs

of

comparative study

reference

any

object as
mind

to historical

under

which

space

as

it

different

the

religious
kind

same

of

may

different

conditions.

minds,
This

the

same

to the

same

compare
or

portant
yieldsim-

course

assign definite circumstances


the variation
depends. Thus, by comparing
exists for persons
possessedboth of sight and

touch, with
valuable

the

holds

same

order, we

presentedto

results,when
on

the

of

good as regards
artistic productions. Again, apart from

and

it is

has

primitiveraces

psychologicalvalue, and
their technical

may

as

space

data

experience in

for
the

of

we

can

it exists for the

blind,we

obtain

may

determining the part played by visual


development of this perception. A flood
the conditions of mental
on
development

lightis thrown
abnormal
of the cases
of such
in generalby examination
Under
individuals
Laura
as
Bridgman or Helen Keller.*
the same
the data suppliedby mental
head come
pathology,
includingcases of aphasia,psychicblindness,and so forth. "f
It should be borne in mind
that a presentedobject as a
in the
datum
of psychology need have no actual existence
*

Laura

of the
.mental

Mind,

Keller
were
Bridgman and Helen
of sight and hearing ; and
senses
yet
Bridgman
development. For Laura

O.S.

iv.,p.

adv.,p. 305, and


f

149.

For

Helen

Keller

i.,p. 574, ii.,


p. 280.
AnalyticPsychology,vol. i.,pp. 9-11.
N.S.

deprived
both
see
see

almost

reached

from

high degree

Hall's

Stanley
Mind, O.S.

birth
of

article in

xiii.,
p. 314,

PSYCHOLOGY.

14

real world.

The

actuallypresent ;
is all with
presence

or

which

solid
but

[CH. ir.
in the

figureseen
it is

none

the less

psychologyhas
is

absence

matter

any

stereoscope is

and
perceived,
concern.

not

that

Its real

physical fact,not of
important for psychology
of

psychicalfact. Its absence is


only because it involves the absence of certain conditions
which
might otherwise be supposed to be essential to the
presentationof solidity.
" 2. Introspection.To introspectis to attend to the
instead of asking
mind.
When
workings of one's own
what
we
perceive or will,we inquirehow we perceive or
far
to perceiveor will,the answer,
so
will,or how we come
be obtained
it can
as
by direct observation,depends on
the case
of the
more
introspection.Thus, to take once
the solid object is not
physically
stereoscope. Because
is merely
that its presence
present, someone
say
may
From
inferred.
a
purely logicalpoint of view, this may
deceived
be true. If a man,
by the stereoscopic
appearance,
the
for believing
called upon
to define his reasons
were
doubt
solid object to be physicallypresent,he would
no
He
reallyso.
say that it looks solid,just as if it were
then be assigning a peculiarvisible appearance
would
as
But
if it is
for assuming a physical fact.
reason
a
is
that the actual visible presentationof solidity
meant
to introspection.
be made
itself an inference,appeal must
Inferringis a mental process with which we are familiar.
is mentally
In it we
proceed to a conclusion, which
distinguishedor distinguishablefrom its premises. But
in the
stereoscopicillusion there is no distinguishing
between
premises and conclusion,or transition between
of introspection,
On the evidence
them.
therefore,we say
that inference
a
as
psychologicalprocess is not present.
shows
Take
another
us
a
pretty chess
example. A man
"

DATA

" 2.]

problem

and

AND

its solution.

METHODS.

Neither

!5

his mental

attitude

nor

while
he
is tellingus
about
the
introspective
problem. But suppose that he goes on to describe how he
he came
to discover its
to invent the problem, or how
came
solution ; he will then be describingthe workings of his
will speak of his disappointment and
mind.
He
own
his renewed
hopes,his despairwhen all possible
perplexity,
appeared futile. He will perhaps tell us how the
ways
problem flashed upon him
understanding of the whole
is

ours

with

suddenly

key-move,

element

every

that

in

it then

his

subsequent mental
All this is introspection.
smooth
and easy.
activitybecame
Consider
next
an
example from the sphere of practice.
A general gives an
important order, or a responsible
scheme
of policy.
statesman
a
puts before the world
the
statesman's
Neither
the
nor
general's order
scheme
psychicalfacts ; but if the
directlyexpresses
led to give the
general begins to tell us how he was
describe the process of his
order,he will,in all probability,
assuming

its

the

right place, so

He

consciousness.

own

oscillated between

one

appearing better, and


that

the

of

state

an

end

to it

his mind

that

lines of conduct
the

other.

indecision, where

there

now

; and

unbearable

prompt action,became
put

us

alternative

time

us

tell

may

by fixingon

one

that

definite

He
was

he

for
;

now

may

tell

need

for

suddenly

decision,without

again,he may
describe
how
the decision emerged gradually out of his
previous hesitation,so that he awoke one morning with a
the rightone.
clear conviction that a certain course
was

any

real conviction

Much

has

worthiness

been
of

that it

written

was

about

the best.

the

far
in

as

an

and
difficulty

untrust-

urged that
basis,
it rests on
an
introspective
unsatisfactorycondition. But it

introspection. It

in so
ps}Tchology,
must
always be

Or

is

often

PSYCHOLOGY.

16

be remembered

must

he

command

his

that

from

receive

may

vast

[nun.

quite apart from any aid which


physiology,the psychologistlias at
of data

mass

which

due

not

are

to

have
This we
brought out in the preceding
introspection.
section on
presentedobjectsas data for psychology. It is
conceivable

that this class of data

alone

would

serve

as

the

hypotheses explanatory of the development of


mind.
Thus
we
might have a kind of psychology without
and
physiology.
yet quite distinct from
introspection,
What
introspectiondoes is to supply us with a direct
instead of a hypotheticalknowledge of mental
process.
is
It thus forms a source
of psychologicalmaterial
which
basis

of

invaluable
ultimate

and
test

explain how
mind.

unattainable
of

other

any

world

to

comes

ultimate

data

of

exist

the

But

the

power

to

means.

psychologicaltheories

the

The

by

is their
for the

science

individual
therefore

are

objectsas presentedto the individual mind, in successive


phases,and under varying conditions of its development.
to the alleged obscurities,fallacies,
and
Turning now
difficulties of introspection,
note
at the outset
that
we
may
do not
exist when
it has to
these
the questions which
made
broad
and simple. There
is
are
answer
sufficiently
that
no
fallacy,
obscurity,or ambiguity in the statement
I have

when

afraid

toothache

when

I dislike

it very

much,

or

that

white

figure in a churchyard.
There
is no
that
fallacyor ambiguity in the statement
that
or
feelingpleasedis different from feelingdispleased,
when
that an
action is totally
are
we
fully convinced
impossible,we cannot
voluntarilydetermine to perform it.

was

Facts

by

of this kind

everyone.

witli such

be

can

Now

simple and

of essential value.

saw

be observed
if

with

ease

could
introspection
obvious
It would

and

only supply

data, it would

supplyus

certainty

with

none

the

us

the less

general

DATA

" 2.]
which

in

terms

AND

METHODS.

describe

to

17

mental

The
more
process.
process in detail might be
other data as the ultimate

of such
precisedetermination
and dependent on
hypothetical,
To a largeextent
this is the
test of its correctness.
In this respect psychology is on
a
footingwith
If

sciences.

for

ask

we

the

actual

observations

case.

other

of the

theory
process of natural selection on which the Darwinian
find what
is based, we
very slender foundations
appear
of fact for a very
large superstructure. There are the
The real
experiencesof the breeder,and very little more.
data which
support the weight of the theoryconsist in the
of the actual productswhich the process is assumed
nature
to explain, the actual constitution of animal and vegetable
speciesin their higher and lower forms.
The deliverances of introspection
are
not, however, limited
obvious
issues as we
have
to such simple and
mentioned.
of observation,it is capableof being
Like all other modes
immensely improved by systematictrainingand practice.
The
plain man, as Dr. Sidgwickcalls him, has, as a rule,
no
permanent and absorbing interest in the workings of
His attention is mainly engrossed by other
his own
mind.
attitude is unfamiliar
to
objects. Thus, the introspective
is the chief reason
This unfamiliarity
him.
so
why he seems
"

called

helplesswhen
own

mental

illumination
discern
may

operations. Like a person passing from


at
he can
into a dimly-lightedroom,

little;

but

again, and
gradual progress.

the basis of

time

his

them

with

The
a

new

result

of

advance.

each

other, he

previous
This

peculiarto introspection.A man


beginningto observe in a systematicway

no

way

Psych.

full
first

of discrimination
power
repeatinghis observations again and
in

By
comparing

increase.

becomes

the finer details of his

to observe

on

makes

observation

is of
who

course

is

in

only

fine distinctions
2

PSYCHOLOGY.

18

tastes,smells,and

between

helplessness. Advance
of

series

It is indeed

it is

when

even

see

the

as

efforts of

notices

practisedobserver
to

colours,shows

is made

of successive

for the next.

the way

[CH. II.

at

cumulative

same

result

attention,each paving
a

But

pointed out.

that the

commonplace

what

once

at first tlie

fail

the untrained
besides

individual

of the
practicethere is yet another element in the training1
introspective
help from
psychologist.He derives immense
what
the work
of his predecessors. They teacli him
to
look

for,and

how

and

where

to look

for it. Thus

\vhat the

of one
introspection
generationhas achieved becomes the
of the
for f resli progress
in the introspection
starting-point
The
that has actuallybeen
made
in this
next.
advance
is immense,
at once
on
as
comparing from
way
appears
of Aristotle,
this point of view
the work, let us
say,
with

that of William

Nevertheless,it

James.

must

be admitted

that there

are

certain

drawbacks

attaching to the introspectiveprocess which


cannot
even
by sustained
wholly be overcome
practiceand
is that
systematictraining. The most important drawback
the mind
in watching its own
necessarily
workings must
have its attention divided between
two
objects, on the one
hand, the mental operationitself which is to be observed,
and on the other, the objectto which
this mental
operation
"

is directed.
attend
I

at

observe

attend

If I

once

what

observe

to what

takes

the

is seen,

place

process
and
in

of

to the

seeing, I
seeing of

attending, I

must

must

it.

If

first

something, and then to the process of attention.


if the introspective
and strenuous,
Thus
effort is sustained
it is examining.
it is apt to destroy the very object which
the mental
For by concentratingattention on
process, we
the objectof that process, and
it from
arrest
withdraw
so
when
it is directly
the process itself. Thus, introspection,
to

DATA

" 2.]
concerned

with

AND

METHODS.

19

mental

operationthat is in itself more


less absorbing, can
or
only proceed by taking a series
of transient
is, however,
side-glimpses.This difficulty
serious as it appears ; for, in the first place,retronot
spection
so
is to a large extent
free from it. By callingup a
immediatelyafter it is over we are often
process in memory
able to notice much
that escaped us when
it was
actually
In like manner
the astronomer
call up in
can
going on.
the
has
image of a star which
just passed
memory
before

his vision ; and

'escaped him
In

the

the

at

isolated observation

psychology,but

which

rather

is of

its actual

in mind

bear

must

details which

notice
of

moment

place,we

next

then

can

that

appearance.
the

it is not

importance in introspective
of

accumulation

the

had

vast

number

helping the others. Thus, what is


important is to acquire a general habit of alertness,a
perpetualreadiness to attend to the workings of our own
of

observations,each

minds
be

opportunitypresents itself ; and it must


constantlypresenting
opportunitiesare
have to observe
which we
subject-matter

whenever

noted

that

themselves

the

be set down
This may
as
a grand
perpetuallywith us.
compensatingin a high degree
advantage of introspection,
to be effective
for its drawbacks.
Finally,introspection,

is

for

the

advancement

carried

of

observation, be

in

co-operation.Each

own

results,for

an

essential

in

such

He

part

form

must

be

able

how

to

look

most

easy when

from

mere

for what

they
point out
he

the method

or

business

that
to

number

communicate

must

his

by

on

confirmation
of

modes

science, must, like other

of

can

of

the

experts
rest

rejection.Thus,
to

be

to others

himself

to

of

has

state

his

his

it is

results

by others.
exactlywhere and

tested

observed.

This

is

experiment,as distinguished

observation,is followed,and

constitutes

one

of

PSYCHOLOGY.

20

the main
of

true

advantages of that
one
individual,A, may

[en. n.
method.
not

Of course,

hold

good

what

of

is

another,

A by his own
to confirm
inability
experience
should
deter A from
settingdown as true for all men, or
holds good only for some
what
most
men,
persons, possibly
only for himself.
of Mental Process in Others. No one
" 3. Manifestations
observe what
is passing in the mind
of another.
can
directly
He can
only interpretexternal signs on the analogy of his
own
experience. These external signs always consist in
kind of bodily action or attitude.
Thus
when
some
a man
clenches his fist,stamps, etc., we
infer that he is angry.
When
its tail,
infer that it is pleased. The
a dog wags
we
guished
knowledge acquired in this way must be carefullydistinfrom
that which
is obtained
communicati
through interof language. When
tells
by means
a man
that he is or was
he is not directlyexpressing
us
angry,
his anger, but his knowledge of his anger.
He is conveying
to us the result of his own
of
introspection.This source
information
is in no way
peculiarto psychology. It does
B

but

B's

"

differ from

not

by

any

other

of words.

means

The

communication

of observed

facts

inference
peculiarly
psychological

signswhich may or may not be noticed or understood


On the other hand, comby the subjectwho displaysthem.
munication
of language necessarily
by means
pre-supposes
that the person communicating the information
is himself
of the meaning of the words
which
he uses.
He
aware
rests

must

on

first understand

understand
the

direct

him.

himself

It may

expressionof

in

happen
the

order
that the

mental

state

the

assertion about
it. He
own
subject's
unambiguous symptoms of anger, and
declare vehementlythat he is not angry.

make

others

inference

from

to

may

may
at

the

contradict

show
same

most

time

DATA

$3.]
In the

AXD

of the lower

case

METHODS.

animals

21

and

children,it
to
difficult,

young

and in the case


of savages
it is
impossible,
of their own
obtain verbal descriptions
mental
states and
This is partly because
they either do not use
processes.
language, or use a language inadequate for the purpose,
and partlybecause
Under
such
they are not introspective.
conditions
is to rely on
the interpretation
our
only course
of the appropriateexternal manifestations
of the processes
themselves.
difficult in
more
Interpretationbecomes
the mind
of the
proportionto the difference between
and the mind
which
he is investigating.The
psychologist
must
rest on
some
analogy between the two.
interpretation
But if the analogy is only partialand
accompanied by
It is in
a constructive
great diversity,
process is necessary.
mind
alone that the psychologist
has the constituent
his own
be framed.
elements
from
which
can
an
interpretation
of his own
"All depends on accurate
resolution
complex
and on
consciousness
into its constituents,
re -compounding
and in such proportionsas to explain
these in such a way
the nature
indicate to him the
and order of the signswhich
is

mental

savages
odds

and

of others."

processes

wide-spreadbelief
ends

to

For

in the
the

influence

finds among
of all kinds of

instancejhe
power

of

fortunes

the

person

This is a prevailingtendency of savage


possessingthem.
thought ; if the psychologistlooks for analogiesin his own
But they
he will find them few and far between.
mental life,
are

likelyto

not

which

he

inclined

either
to

be

be
has

There

wholly absent.
been

influenced

influenced,by

or

are

has

considerations

meaninglessas those on which the savage


fall of a picture,or the spillingof salt,or
as

of thirteen

at

table, may
*

make

him

uneasy

AnalyticPsychology,vol. i.,p.

15.

moments

felt

in

strongly

in themselves
relies.
the

The

presence
in spite of

PSYCHOLOGY.

22

If lie has

reason.

been

ever

[CH. II.

by the gambling
irresistibly
prompted
having an essential

carried

away

impulse,he must have been almost


to regard quite irrelevant
details as
bearing on his winning or losing. In
the

mental

of

state

he

savage,

analysethese transient and


he approximates to
in which
are

overborne

so

attitudes

He

then

must

tendencies,that,in him,

conditions

other

by

construct

mental

savagery.

in which

mind

to

carefullyobserve

must

occasional

and

attempt to representa

order

to be

as

transient

and

unchecked
are
occasional,
by opposing forces,and for that
reason
happens
prominent and permanent. It sometimes
that

is

man

tendency himself,

in condemnation
the criminal
The

of the
have

must

snare
besetting

to

assume

be

the

that
natural

act

an

be

never

been

mental

that

us

say

its
his

anything

crimes,except

that

eccentric.

very

is the tendency
psychologist

of the

of

manifestation

in himself

which

attitude

or

tells

brought to

atrocious

most

of

understand

to

Lamb

Thus, Charles

friend,George Dyer, could

kind

certain

is unable

he

that

in others.

presence

of

destitute

so

certain

mental

would
process

of
meaning in the case
The
another.
fallacylies in taking this or that isolated
action
apart from the totalityof the conditions under
the
seductive
when
It is particularly
which
it appears.
of a
is the object of inquiry. The
animal mind
economy
beehive
to ends, as to
displayssuch adaptation of means
faculty
previsionand political
suggest stronglyfar-reaching

therefore,have

must,

of

kind

human

to trust

the other

in the

this first
actions

examine

in detail

perform

the

constitute the

the

same

impression.

of bees
how

separate

and

it would

But

bees.

We

must

acts

orderlyscheme

first consider

similar insects ;

the individuals

which
of

in

be very

we

concerned
their

must

rash
all
also

severally

combination'

of bee society.
organization

DATA

$ 3.]
We

shall

then

AND

find

METHODS.

that

behaviour, especially
on

the

23

essential

most

the part of the

modes

queen-bee, are

of
due

congenitaltendencies,which operate independentlyof


previousexperience. We must further take into account
the physical organisationof the bees.
Their
nervous
from
the
system differs so widely and in such a manner
to

human,
very
human

to make

as

us

hesitate

before

large a share of processes


beings. Finally,we find

which

makes

the

ascribingto them
characteristic
especially
that the division

so

of

of labour

bee

community possible,is directly


determined
by congenitaldifferences of physicalorganisation.
The
queen-bee, the worker, and the drone,
differ not only in their actual
behaviour, but in their
The
bodily constitution.
bodily constitution is so prearranged
to be
as
by nature
adapted for certain special
functions.
Here all analogy with the political
organisation
of human
This is a typicalinstance.
beings breaks down.
The
lesson to be learnt from
it is that in investigating
the
mental
conditions
of persons
animals
or
widely
removed
in their general circumstances
conditions
and
from

our

can

must

assume

an

have

taken

into

we

until

suspense
which

own,

we

have

warning is the more


constructed
to
language is especially
states of human
beings,and this means
the

workings

the
are

to

so

human.
almost
go

on

introduce
often

are

as

to mislead

of minds

critical

everything

problem.
important because

This

constructed

account

of

the

bearing on

attitude

us

when

describe

we

that differ in any

the

that it is

attempt

human
mental

especially

to describe

great degree from

implicationsof the words we


compelled to use in describingwhat we suppose
in the mind
of a dog or a cat surreptitiously
wiiich may
be quite false, and
interpretations
all things necessary
It is,therefore,above
so.
The

very

PSYCHOLOGY.

24

[CH. n.

language, avoiding popular


phraseology,and substitutingtechnical terms with fixed
A horse, having had a feed
meanings carefullydefined.
accord at
at a certain place on
one
day, stops of his own
the second
that place on
journey. People say that it
remembers
being fed there before, and infers that it will
with
be fed there again. In all probabilitythese words
their human
implicationsare quite misleading. Suppose
in these

to criticise

cases

that the driver


a

drink

of the horse
of

matter

as

our

is

bibulous
whenever

course

he

takes

who

person,

to

comes

public-houseon the road. In order to do this he need not go


through the process of remembering that he has had a
drink at a public-housebefore,or of inferringthat he can
drink at a public-houseagain. He
have
a
simply has a
bias to stop at a public-house whenever
he comes
to one.
ing
Probably the horse's act impliesjustas little of rememberor
inferring.

" 4.
observe

under

conditions

The
the

issue

that

is to

is the introduction
such

as

are

may

of

observation

involves

be

more

of

experiment

have

we

ourselves

is intended

to

is to

arranged.
pre-

simplify

decided, by excluding irrelevant


sense

apparatus and

employed by
be

used
which

than

one

primary question may


under

To

"

psychologyhas always been


is especially
modern
experimental. What

extent

some

which

pre-arrangement

In this wide

conditions.
to

Observation.

and

Experiment

certain

the

of

have

with

any

described.

them,

be, what

measurement,

physical sciences.

in connexion
we

of exact

and

kind

often
of

periment
Ex-

of the modes
It

generally

all three.

objectwill

The

be presented

A
assignable conditions.
simple
illustration is afforded by the old Aristotelian experiment
of holding an
the second
objectbetween
finger and the
of the hand, not in their usual position,
but with
forefinger

"4.]

DATA

AND

METHODS.

25

second

the

fingercrossingbackwards
over
these circumstances,there
arises

the

forefinger.
a
perceptionof
doubleness, so that we appear to be touching two distinct
Here
the questionis,what
objectsinstead of one.
object
do we
perceiveunder the given conditions ? Is it singleor
double ?
We
also put a question to introspection
may
Under

and

proper,
that

which

ask

how

far

exists in

our

mental

attitude

in which

ordinarycases

resembles

objects

two

perceivedby touch, e.g., when two oppositesides of the


In my
same
own
fingerare touched.
case, for instance,
I find that when
two
oppositesides of the same
fingerare
are

touched, the
unmistakable.
of

sense

of doubleness

appearance
With

the crossed

strangeness and

is

definite and

more

is

fingersthere

hesitancy which

is absent

certain
in the

Another
in which
case
ordinaryperceptionof doubleness.
the primary questionrelates to the presentedobjectis that
of our
stock example
the stereoscope.Here the conditions
of perception are
of a special
pre-arranged by means
these conditions,
apparatus, and the question is, what, under
is the nature
of the objectapprehended ?
Here,
too, the introspective
inquirymay be also raised,if we ask
whether
our
apprehensionof the objectis direct or due to
of inference.
It is also possibleto make
a process
ments
experiin which
the primary issue is introspective.
Thus,
we
attempt to will something which we know to bo
may
do so or not.
in order to find out whether
can
we
impossible,
taneously
Or again, we
deliberately
attempt to attend simulmay
disconnected
to two
objects,with the view of
discoveringwhether attention can be so divided.
Finally,we may experiment on the connexion between a
"

mental
it is
of

state

and

possibleto

mental

its external

discover

process

many

which

manifestation.
subtle
evade

signs

In this way,
and

symptoms

ordinary observation.

PSYCHOLOGY.

26

instance, variations

For

in

[CH.ir.
circulation

the

of the

blood,

and in muscular
accompanying
respiration,
power,
be accuratelymeasured
various
phases of emotion, may
this kind
of experiment
by physical apparatus. In principle,
Whenever
in ordinary life.
often
occurs
we
in order
do a thing to a person,
to see
say a thing or
he will take
how
are
it,we
performing a psychological
experiment.
It is clear that the experimentalmethod
does not disclose
of psychologicaldata.
It is
new
source
essentially
any
under
test conditions,deliberately
only observation
prearranged
of settlinga definite question.
for the purpose
It is not quite accurate
to define it merely as observation
and

in

Helen

or

deliberate
things, without
any
preour
come
part. All pathologicalcases
In such cases
as those of Laura
Bridgman
have
we
an
opportunity of observing,

on

this head.

under

under

Keller

test

of

But the test conditions

are

the

blind

the

conditions,what

effect,in the absence

by

psychologist. He
and

arise in the

may

of

ordinary course
arrangement

test conditions

For

test conditions.

under

deaf

from

of touch

sense

alone

can

sight,hearing, smell, and taste.


such as could not be pre-arranged
is not permittedto make
people

their

birth

in

order

to

watch

the

consequences.
The
but

experimental method

it has

which

we

also
wish

in the normal

by
the

artificial

certain
to

course

are
investigate

of mental

arrangements.
of ideas

which

interests

is determined

subjectsthe

in
mind

often

drawbacks.

association

question

has

labour
us

The
often

and
life,
For

is how

great advantages;
such

conditions

as

conditions
occur

interfered

are

only
with

instance,experiments on
under
the

this

which

defect.

succession

ordinary thinking.
to

very

But
are

The

of ideas

experiment
quite remote

DATA

" 4.]
those

from

of

the

isolated

presentedto
idea which

AND

normal

words

which
interest,

as

this is to cultivate

27

of

thought. In experiment,
objects are
successively

other

and

of them

of

flow

or

person,

each

METHODS.

he is called

on

to

suggeststo him.

the first

name

Thus, continuity

is

all-importantin ordinarythinking,is
excluded.
Another
the experimental
question in which
method
is seriously
defective is that relating
to the mental
of words.
When
we
imagery accompanying the use
select a word, and ask ourselves what imagery
deliberately
it calls up in our
minds, we are by the very process of our
inquiryinterferingwith the result. We are looking for
mental
imagery, and we have no right to affirm that the
imagery which we find would be present if we had not
been
in such a case
looking for it. The only safe course
frequentlycatch

may
a

natural

in

manner

perpetual readiness
minds,

own

that

or

the habit

most

The
been

without

Titchener.

at

of

it

the

possiblefor

exact

observer

If

we

say

investigatorscan
judge whether our

we

so

enthusiastic

to

out

get

ditions
specialconbeing (1) to render

performed,and (2)to
disturbinginfluences during
first

at the desired

preciselyhow
go through
conclusions

trial,test,or

repeat the test,in the

will to
was

advocates,

certain

conditions

it

psychologist.
introspective
has
experimentalmethod

under

who

to rule

his observation,and
form.

the

difficult and

most

experiment is

An

in which

manner

help the

one

any

of its most
"

objectof

once

the

observation, carefullymade
:

that

in the act of

of the

equipment

specialfunction
well stated by one

Professor

watchfulness,so

using words in
the ordinarycourse
of thought. This
is taking place in our
to notice what
deliberatelyresolvingto do so, on this
ourselves

specialoccasion, is

necessary

of

we

the
are

have
same

rightor

result in

worked,

pure

other

processes, and
j and if
wrong

PSYCHOLOGY.

28

in

do the work

[CH. n.

instruments,
lilting
place,with, fitting
without
hurry or interruption,guarding against any
influence
which
is foreign to the matter
in hand, and
which
might conceivablyalter our observation,we may be
of obtaining pure
follow
sure
results,results which
from the conditions
laid down
directly
by us, and are not
due
to the
or
operation of any unforeseen
unregulated
of observation,
causes.
Experiment thus secures
accuracy
we

'

'

and

the connection

while it enables

of every

observers

result with

its

own

conditions

in all parts of the world

to work

togetherupon one and the same


psychological
problem."*
A
science
becomes
more
" 5. Quantitative Methods.
it deals
in proportion as
with
exact
exactly measured
effort has been made
quantities.Of late years, a strenuous
the duration
and intensity
of psychicalprocess.
to measure
called reaction-time
What
are
experimentsare intended to
of simple mental
the duration
measure
operations. "It is
two
the
agreed between
experimenter and
persons,
"

'

the

'

'
reactor, that

on

the

of

occurrence

certain

sensory

stimulusf(givenby the experimenter)a certain movement


shall be made
(by the reactor).
"J The time elapsing
between

the

execution

of the

measured.

"be

or

formed

responsivemovement
of the
becoming aware
in

until

An

"fSuch
acting on

' '

sensory.
Outline
as
an

the

In

the

the

of Psychology,p
sound

organ

Op. cit.,
p. 319.

of

of
sense

In

two

"

and

follow

former

the

accurately

it is

effect of the

at

once

stimulus,

have
case,

been
we

compound, reaction.""

forms,

the

muscular
the

muscular,

reactor

and

is

35

falling body.
such

may

the

latter,of

has

to

connections

certain

consciousness.

speak of a simple,in
The
simple reaction
the

in response

movement

restrained

stimulus

sensory

The

the

upon

of the

occurrence

as

the eye

Ibid,p. 320.

sensory
or

the

stimulus
ear.

is a stimulus

" 5.
directed

to

hold

AND

METHODS.

his

attention

from

which

movement

stimulus."*

is

In the

his attention
and

DATA

sensor

from

to withhold

the

stimulus."!One

the

muscular
than

reactor

waits

outset

of these
in

occurs

When
sensory.
is fixed in preparationfor
he

upon
to

response

the

sensory

stimulus,
sensed

experiments is that
distinctlyshorter

the
a

the

is directed to hold

until he has

movement

the

until

the

upon

result

outset

in

the reactor

"

reaction

the

made

y,

the reaction

that

time

be

to

29

attention

of

the

coming sensation,he

is

of the presence
of the
aware
distinctly
before
sensation
reacting. On the other hand, in the
muscular
reaction, the reactor, being pre-occupiedwith
making ready for his own
reaction,need not wait tillhe is
of the presence
of the sensation.
Hence
he
fullyaware
becomes
with
practiceable to react before he has any
distinct consciousness
of it. The
it
as
stimulus, as soon
begins to operate, produces simultaneouslysensation and
The
reaction.
time taken
by the simple reaction varies
sensorial
The
of the stimulus.
according to the nature
reaction to light lasts about
270-thousandths
of a second.
letter
of a second is symbolisedby the Greek
A thousandth
The
muscular
The
reaction
to light lasts 180"r.
a.

sensorial
1200-.

reaction

The

sensorial

the muscular

sound

lasts 225

reaction

to

a,

and

pressure

the

muscular

lasts 210"r

and

llOo-.

Accuracy of
An

to

measurement

electric clock

is secured

apparatus.
by special
it is called,marks

chronoscope,as
thousandths
of a second.
The
productionof the stimulus
sets this clock going. The
finger of the reactor all the
he makes
time rests lightlyon the button.
The movement
by way of reaction consists in a slightpressure on this
button, which immediately stops the clock.
*

or

Op. cit.,
p. 325,

f Ibid.,
p. 323,

PSYCHOLOGY.

30

In

the

The

between
them.

the black

of the

white

either white

when

white

as

he has
; but

he

of

one

either

cognised
does

not

two

black

or

be further

may

although he
only. "Thus

is

looked

that he has

which

react

for.

on

knowledge

when

of the

him,

to

them,

and

be told that he will be shown

that he is to react

measurement

of

one

one

light
has cognisedthis
colour ;
particular

he

particularbrightnessor
is said."f
nothing more
explicit

The

conditions

submitted

as

The

definite

no

be

to

are

expected to
he may

stimulus,and
stimulus

is to be

varied,so

alternatives

the

but

to

brightnessqualitiesto expect in
particular
experiment."* In this case, he knows that

each

of

the

or

nate
discrimi-

to

on

he will be shown

that he is to react

black

which

called

be told "that

he may

as

be

may

complicationsare

sensations,reacting only

white, and

or

know

reactor

two

Thus

black

reaction,various

compound

introduced.

[CH. ir.

of psychicalstates
intensity

is

attended
of the
of

due to the intrinsic nature


by peculiardifficulties,
The
quantityto be measured.
degree of loudness

sound

be

can

direct

be broken

cannot

marked

off from

comparison

quarter, or
sounds

which

be

with
can

between

of

be

inches

difference

them.

In

between

long,is
between
*

that

loud
so

as
as

one

is

half,

the other.
to

make

The

the

or

two

fainter

part of the louder, leaving a remainder


regarded as the quantitativedifference
this

quantity. The
quantities is itself

ten

as

superposed

extensive

difference

sounds

two

third, or twice

cannot

coincide

up into fractional parts which


each
other.
We
cannot
say by

two

respect intensive
difference
an

lines,one

itself

Op, cit.,
p.

328.

two

from
sive
exten-

quantity. The
foot long and the other
the
inches long. But

extensive
a

line two

the loudness

between

differs

of two

sounds

f Ibid.,p.

329.

is not

itself

DATA

$ 5.]
sound

having

each,

from

differs from

the

as

one

desperateas it
intensive quantityas

but

we

interval

take

in loudness
difference
a

we

of measurement

between
in loudness

of others ;

the difference

able
A

to

and

between

and

/3. Thus, if

we
increasinggradationsof intensity,
pointof departure any given intensityin

our

We

then

can

arrange

or

are
Suppose that we
sounds, two pairs of sounds.
and 11,the other by
and /3.
judge whether the difference
B
is or is not equal to the

scale of

as

take

cannot

intensities.

two

are

Clearlywe

magnitude

the unit of measurement

unit

as

between

find that

horses

two

intensive

measure

appears.

instead of two
considering,
Symbolise the one pair by

We

between

horse."*

so

may

"The

quantities,in fact,differs

difference

Nevertheless,the attempt to
is not

31

assignable loudness.

intensive

two

much

as

METHODS.

certain

between

difference

AND

other

intensities

have

we

take

may

the scale.

in relation

this,

to

proceedingby intervals which we judge to be equal. By


counting these equal intervals we can assign a numerical
value to any intensity
is of
in the scale.
The
unit which
ence
is the least perceptible
viz. that differmost
use
difference,
between
makes
it justpossible
two
intensities which
for

to be

us

aware

that

there

is

difference

class
perceptibledifferences in the same
are
regarded as equal to each other,because
equal when compared.
Instead of measuring psychicalprocess, we

least

its external

to the

Ti.,p.

conditions,and

of intensities

they
may
we

measurement

Russell
334.

"On

of variations
the Relations

of Number

in the
and

appear

measure

also

may

objectswhich are presentedby means


example of the first kind of procedure,we may

an

*B.

or

All

all.

the

measure

As

manifestations

at

circulation

of it.
refer
of the

Quantity,"Mind,

N. S.

PSYCHOLOGY.

32

[CH. n.

of the

lungs,under varyingphases
and pleasantor painfulfeeling. The
of emotion
ment
measureit can
be
of the presentedobject is of value when
brought into definite relation with varying conditions of
presentation.The best example is supplied by recent
certain geometricalillusions of visual
attempts to measure
perception. The following is a good illustration. Two
each intersected
lines in realityparallelare
by slanting
cross-lines,the cross-lines of the one
being opposed
The
in direction to the cross-lines of the other.
parallel
but as diverging
then not perceived
lines are
as
parallel,
blood, and

in
if

in the

direction

the

action

in

X
X

XX

X
X

XXX
XXX

the

cross-lines

converging in

produced, and

XXXX

which

the

X X XXXX
\ \
X X X

XX
X X

X
XX

XX

meet

oppositedirection.

X
X

XXX

XX

would

XXX

rig. i.

Now,

the

of

have
we
illusion,
only
substitute for parallellines lines reallyconvergent
to
in such
and
a
manner
degree that they appear parallel
under
the same
conditions.
The
degree of convergence
the
of
amount
required for this purpose
measures
the illusion. By this means
it is possibleto trace the
to

measure

variations which

take

amount

placein

the

amount

of the illusion

DATA

" 5.]
with

variations

in

AND

the

accordingto the number


It exists in

fainter

METHODS.

conditions.
and

33

It

is

obliquityof

degree when

the

found
the

to

vary

cross-lines.

cross-lines

merely
when
the parallelswithout
meet
or
intersecting,
they
definite
approach them without meeting. By establishing
values for these varying cases
valuable data
quantitative
sion
the process on which
the illuare
suppliedfor discovering
depends. Actual experiments of this kind of course
be
contrived apparatus. The lines may
requirea specially
be readily
threads, which can
representedby moveable
adjustedat will so as to be parallelor to deviate from
in varying degrees,the deviation being accurately
parallelism
measured
by a scale. In this particular
case, the
solution of the problem has not been
reached,
definitely
has far
method
but there is no doubt that the quantitative
a

the best chance

Psych.

of

success.

III.

CHAPTEE

1.

"

It

is

"

mind,

the

without

see

without

But

satisfactory

no

reference

the

to

they

reference

the

to

objects.

determining

the

mind

when

we

psychological
of

of

best

make

This

have

is not

this

point

of

easy
this

on

and

chapter

returning

to

on

student

the

first

having
34

side

as

arise

re.ad. the

but

book

the

For
a

all

relation
cations
modifi-

produce
only

recommended

reading,

in

and

only

volitions

is

to

body

produce

ear

or

act

we

motion.

difficulties

The

it after

eye

without

difficulty

regarded

conscious

Serious
subject.

be

must

Impressions

an

and

the

relations

no

bodily

sensation

of

contractions.

the

on

or

between

relation

without

which

spatial

our

practically

the

view

in

consciousness,

understand

to

of

agencies,

can

and

sense

by

the

We

life
of

move

motion

mental

movement

is

cannot

and

organs

change

There

purposes

interaction.

muscular

and

nature

the

external
of

cannot

impossible.

the

of
from

instruments

peripheral

of

account

world

surrounding

be

We

we

This

regards

as

motion.

sensation

would

receive

far

so

ears

without

mechanism

external

and

of

organ

it woiks.

true

without

construction

impressions

the

hear

consciousness

of

give

on

or

eyes,

evidently

sensation

of

organs

muscles.

process

is

Mental

of

is the

body

which

through

matter

peripheral

Consequents

the

that

saying

instrument

the

of

account

the

the

"

old

an

and

Antecedents

Physiological

Process.

HIND.*

AND

BODY

to

should

when
do

his

certainly

through.

BODY

" 1.]
\we

push

"of

nervous

.traction follows

"

MIND.

is excited
of

disturbance

conscious

to

the

of

matter

grey

transmitted

to

the

system,may

Consciousness

either

which

the

is
which

occurrences

are

brain.

take

the

from

Tegarded, like

impulse

which

nervous

and

in consciousness

inversely. The
mediating function

the
The

process.

as

senses,

relation

change
nervous

produces change

which

the intervention

immediately,without
This

occurrences.

conscious

in the

of

one

in the

"

Viewed

nuclei
sheet

broadly,the

of grey

matter

mainly, if

is found

cortex, which

is the

brain

of any

nervous

is

of grey matter, .about

one-fifth of

in
a

tions.
sensa-

those

and

in
exclusively,

of white

deeply imbedded

sense,

neural

highestpart of
mass

set up

other material
of

not

action.
inter-

consciousness

with

connexion

unmediated

occurrences

the cerebral

connected

are

be

may

organs

is

sequences
con-

mediate
inter-

constitute

and

processes

of

directly

and

or

volition

is

mechanism,
change in the nervous
in the first instance by impressionson the organs of
produces changes experiencedin consciousness as
for
different
is essentially
the case
But

:mechanism,

is

parts

some

that

change
They thus

change

the muscles

Conscious

produce

sense

consciousness,or

with

fulfil this

."service of mental

of

this process

consciousness.

which

system.

nervous

an

up

nervous

peripheral organs,

mechanisms

the

organs

In

directlyconnected

stages between
in

con-

regarded as intermediate links.


with
the
immediately connected
These
occurrences
placein them.
conditions
of the nervous
changes

antecedent

with

Muscular

be

not

ensuing
connected

the relation

the
change in consciousness
only when
by an impulse which has its originin a

nervous

examine

process.

.Similarly,
impressions on the
sensations
only when
they set

are

35

inquiryfurther back, and

our

process

muscle

AND

the brain.

matter, with

it,and
square

with
meter

in

PSYCHOLOGY.

36

between

and

area

folds,fissures,and

overlyingsheet

and

two

For

of

present

our

far

so

they

as

Before

cortex.

are

convenient

give

to

causes

or

conscious

lie beneath

of nuclei

called
of

nuclei

The

matter.

the

of grey
of

sub-cortical

nerve-fibres,serving to
and

cortex

cortical

the

conduct

sub-cortical

the relation
it will

which

f
Mechanism.

"

lies below

cranium.

the

This

imbedded

tion
por-

in white

constitute
white

be

parts of the

Nervous

what

are

consists

matter

impulses between

centres, and

themselves.

centres

The

centres.

in the

processes

those

matter
matter

grey

only

the cortex.

" 2. Function of the Sub- Cortical


The
portion of the nervous
system
is partlycontained
within
cortex
the
consists

consciousness

process,

of

serious

parts

questionof

account

which

structure

nervous

and

cess.
pro-

other

effects of

to the vital

some

without

may

with

of the

conscious

taking place in

connected

This

cortex

or

with

we

as

cortical process

between

connexion

purposes,

coming

its surface."*

is the rind

processes

system

nervous

of

matter

grey

thick,coveringthe

mm.

convolutions

inaccuracy regard all


of the

three

is in immediate

brain, and

[CH. in.

between

Running through

the

the subthe

trunk

body, behind the viscera,there is another important


the spinal cord.
At its
portion of the nervous
system

of the

"

end

upper
receives

it enters

separate name,

simply, the

or

and

the

strands

bulb.

surface

Dr.

f The

of

of nerve-fibre

the sub-cortical
*

the

Waller,

should
in

and

and

this

portion

is called the medulla

Nerve-fibres

connect

of it

oblongata,

the

muscles

the

body with the spinal cord, and


pass upwards along the cord itself to

centres.

Human

student

cranium,

Physiology,
p.
make

518.

point

of

reading the chapters

good Physiology. Lessons I. and


Elementary Physiology(Macmillan " Co.,price 4s. 6d.),

on

the

nervous

system

Davis's

Elementary Physiology(Blackie'sScience Text-Books, price 2s.),

some

XI.
and

in

Huxley's

Ch.

IX.

in

AND

BODY

$ 2.]

MIND.

37

portions of the nervous


system
and
to
serve
modify impulses passing between
convey
peripheralorgans and the cortex ; but they also discharge
which
functions
are
independent of their connexion with
the cortex.
They are organs of what is called reflex action.
such
take
actions
Reflex
are
as
place in a fixed and
in response
to an
uniform
manner
appropriate external
sub-cortical

These

the

Without

stimulus.
stimulus

they

do

not

operates they
they are interfered

on
seen

in

the

interference

when

excluded, which

be

the

external

whenever

invariably,

by the simultaneous
tions
operastimulus,or by processes going
typicalcharacteristics are best

the part of the cerebral

on

may

external

with

Their

cortex.

of the

inevitably and

occur

external

of another

presence

and

occur,

stimulus
unless

actual

effected

cortex

by simply removing

is
the

"We
hemispheres from the brain of an animal.
perhaps broadly describe the behaviour of a frog,from
may
which
the cerebral
hemispheres only have been removed,
by saying that such an animal, though exhibiting no
of appropriate
spontaneous movements, can, by the application
stimuli,be induced to perform all or nearly all the
entire frog is capable of executing.
which
movements
an
Left to
to crawl.
It can
be made
to swim, to leap, and
be called the natural posture of
what may
it assumes
itself,
the fore limbs erect,and the hind limbs flexed,
a frog,with
cerebral

an
angle
body makes
it is resting. When
surface on which
placed on
it immediately regainsthis natural posture. When
so

will

that

put

the

him

in

line

of

the

possessionof

the

most

essential facts.

deeply into the matter, Dr. "Waller's


be safelyrecommended.
Green, " Co.),may

more

Parts
"

III. and

IY.

of Dr.

Co.) are necessary.


and can
possiblesketch,

M.

Foster's

What

have

only serve,

at

said

For

most,

in
as

its

the

back,

placed

wishes

to go

Physiology(Longmans,

Human

Text-Book

If he

with

the

advanced

student,

of Physiology(Macmillan
is the roughest
the text
a

reminder.

PSYCHOLOGY.

38

on

board, it does

[en. in.

fall from

not

the board

displacethe animal's
up the board until it gains a new
of gravity is restored to its

is tilted up
it crawls
its centre

so

movements

exactly those

are

they need

to

as

the latter
of

gravity;
positionin which
place. Its
proper
entire frog,except that
call them
forth.
They

an

stimulus

external

an

of

when

to

centre

fundamentally from those of an entire


frog in the followingimportant feature : they inevitably
end
the stimulus is applied; they come
follow when
to an
the stimulus
when
to act.
ceases
By continuallyvarying
which
it is placed,the frog
the inclination of a board
on
be made
to continue
crawling almost indefinitely
; but
may
such a positionthat
to assume
directlythe board is made
the crawling ceases
the body of the frog is in equilibrium,
;
the animal
will remain
be not disturbed
and if the position
differ,moreover,

impassiveand

for

into water, the

thrown

in the

about
swim

quiet

which

it

to

placedon

the water

with

wood,

the

begins

creature

there

exhausted, if

come

can

indefinite time.

If

rest.

swim

will continue

nothing present
small piece of wood

it,and

upon

to

once

When

be

frog will,when

the

crawl

at

and

regular manner,

most

until it is

almost

an

it
so

on

be

in contact

comes

come

to

to

rest.

If

by being placed on
its back, it immediately strugglesto regain that posture ;
only by the applicationof continued force can it be kept
Such
a
frog, if its flanks be gently
lying on its back.
stroked,will croak ; and the croaks follow so regularlyand
disturbed

from

its natural

surely upon

the

strokes

played upon

like

posture, as

that

the

musical, or

movements

if it be

have

not

of the animal

urged to

move

at least

an

may

almost

acoustic

be

ment.
instru-

and their
opticnerves
the
been injuredby the operation,
to be influenced by light;
appear

Moreover, provided that


arrangements

animal

in any

the

it seems
direction,
particular

BODY

" 2.]
in its progress

to

strong shadow
sometimes
careful

AND

avoid

obstacle.

cast

as

left

right or

In

fact, even

between

such

a
or

to

frog and

frog,which was
slightand
appear

would
the

least such,

to the

course

differences

observer, the

entire

an

its
the

over

39

obstacles,at

; it turns

leaps

MIND.

animal

without

its

stimulus, and

every

movement,
to

result,will
The

simply very stupidor very inert,


unimportant except in this,that
cerebral hemispheres is obedient to
each

that

stimulus

with

whereas

evokes

an

appropriate
possible
entire animal, it is im-

the

predictwhether any result at all,and if so what


of this or that stimulus."*
follow the application

characteristic

of reflex action which

Foster

Professor

going
emphasises is its lack of spontaneity its thoroughdependence on the actual present operation of a
stimulus
external
to the
nervous
Experiments
system.
of the kind he describes have been performedon birds and
well as
rabbits
on
as
frogs. The results are, broadly,

here

"

similar, except
of

appearance
time

to

that

in

the

spontaneitywhen
from

recover

the shock

spontaneityis too small


invalidate

in
the

of the

degree and
general

to

function

of the sub-cortical centres

characteristic
the

same

way

the results of

sort

of

in., "The

conclusion

sufficient
this
in its

that

working by

the

selves
them-

Closelyconnected with lack


and
is another
equally important
in
It takes place invariably
action.

of reflex

without

being

past actions.

modified

Whether

accordance

in

it is

with

accompanied by

at least affirm

that it

process of learningby

of Physiology. By Dr. M. Foster.


Central Nervous
System," pp. 1000, 1001.

Text-Boole

some

operation.But
too ambiguous

when

experienceor not, we may


is characterised
by the absence of the
experience.
any

is

wholly reflex.

spontaneity there

of

there

has had

the animal

nature,

is almost

birds

of

case

Sixth

Edition.

Part

PSYCHOLOGY.

40

[CH. in.

and lack of the


spontaneity,
by experience,do not necessarily
imply
Lack

of

in the widest

consciousness

of

power

the absence

of the word.

sense

learning
of

It would

all
be

dogmaticallythat the frog


without
its hemispheres is entirelydevoid
of any kind of
has
it is so or not is a questionwhich
feeling. Whether
been
much
shall not
here
disputed, and we
attempt to
decide
it. But
there is one
point which emerges
clearly
from
the experiment: this is that the working of the
sub-cortical mechanism, togetherwith whatever
ness
consciousit,is capableof takingplaceseparately
may
accompany
from, and independentlyof,processes in the cortex. If this
the hemispheres are
removed, it may also
happens when
happen when they are present. In so far as the sub -cortical
ness
centres
operate independentlyof the cortex, any consciousvery

which
from
the

affirm

rash, therefore,to

their action will be disconnected

accompany

may

the

consciousness

cortex.

But

which

the

accompanies

the

which

consciousness

action

of

accompanies

cortical process.
with
intelligentaction is associated
Now
intelligentconsciousness, capable of learning by
in all but
the lowest
grades of
experience,constitutes,
animal
of consciousness.
stream
Thus,
life,the main
though the independent action of the sub-cortical centres
it
be wholly unconscious,whatever
consciousness
not
may
involves
life in

does

and

man

sub-cortical

form

not

the

centres

part of the main

higher animals.
ceases

to be

Only

and

form

part

This

is borne

injuryto
lower

of the conscious

the

and

out

by

when

separate and

manner
brings into play in a marked
cortex, is it accompanied by conscious

of mental

current

spinalcord, the
higher parts of

the action of the


modifications

experience.

functional
the

cord

in

independent,

life of the individual


human

process

as

In

connection
may

be

which
a

whole.

cases

of

between

destroyed.

BODY

"2.]
If
are

under

conditions
will

tickled,they

himself
he

these

is in

no

be

aware

might

AND

the

be

41

soles of

jerked
of

aware

way

MIND.

patient'sfeet
but

away;

what

of the movement

the

the

man

takes
of

place,except as
foreignbody. Quite

apart from

this sort,reflex actions

are

involve in any

conditions of
pathological
constantly
going on, which do not
way

the

The

pupil of

and

similar

consciousness

of the

individual

as

able
apprecia

whole.

the eye is

constantlycontracted and expanded


in accordance
with
varying degrees of illumination. In
eating,morsels of food are swallowed
by reflex action. We
reflex way.
These
are
constantlybreathing in the same
processes
of
matters.

On

and

can

the

individual

the

other

do
is

hand,

go

on

while

the

pre-occupiedwith
there

are

certain

sciousness
con-

other
reflex

such as sneezing,coughing, and withdrawal


of the
actions,
hand, when
or
scalded, which usually
suddenly burned
involve
consciousness.
A
for instance,produced
sneeze,
by Cayenne pepper, can hardly take place unconsciously.
But whenever
such actions are
unmistakably accompanied
by consciousness, it is evident that the stimulus which
produces them excites in a conspicuous way the cortex
wrell as
the sub-cortical centres.
as
Intelligentattention
is either
it is
the situation,or
on
brought to bear
disturbed
and
deranged by the violence of the shock.
When
a
pin is suddenly plunged into a man's leg, he
But
at the
same
time, there
jumps, by reflex action.
is a marked
consciousness.
disturbance
of his intelligent
been
The
have
train of thought, with
which
he
may
his
off and
is broken
pre-occupied at the moment,
whole
attitude
mental
changed. The sensation which
violent disturbing
has not the same
introduces a sneeze

effect ;

by

but

so

far

as

consciousness, it

it is
tends

conspicuouslyaccompanied
to

attract

attention

and

to

PSYCHOLOGY.

42

[CH. in.

The
produce intelligentadaptation to circumstances.
man
pulls out his handkerchief,or the like. When
the main
of consciousness
stream
is very
intentlypreoccupied,
external
excite

cortical

reflex

action

Thus,

when

stimulants
fail to

process,

which

of

the

which
do

would
and

so

otherwise

merely produce

individual

is

unconscious.

much

some
pre-occupied with
without being
absorbing object,we may cough or yawn
the facts we
of it. From
have stated,
aware
clude
conwe
may
that the cortex
is pre-eminently,
if not exclusively,
the seat of those processes which are immediatelycorrelated

with

individual

Besides
cortical
which

consciousness.

being
cortex

mechanism

complex
The

centres.

mechanism

constitute

centres

the

The
of

are

we

is

complex

playingupon
simple constituent
and

action,the

by

apparatus

an

subof

means

of the organism.
produces movements
for the
relativelysimple constituents

activities

cortex

reflex

of

contained

activities

the lower

co-ordination

of movements

Simultaneous

co-ordination

It

are

in

which
a

sub-cortical

produced by

the

evoke

the

to

as

taneous
order, simul-

certain

is, above
of

the

centres, so

movements

successive.

in

all, the

is due

complex

to

successive
the

cortex.

is involved

kind

cortex

purely reflex actions.


a
biologicalpoint of view, the function of the
is adaptation to
irregularlyvarying conditions.

Reflex

action will suffice to maintain

which

has

in many
From

way

on

the

the life of

merely to perform simple actions


recurrence

of uniform

external

in

an
a

animal
uniform

conditions.

But

fluctuatingadaptation to fluctuatingconditions is
inadequate, and often
required,reflex action becomes
Action must
be varied in correspondence
actuallyharmful.
not be
with the results of previousaction,so that it may

where

BODY

" 3.]

circumstances

repeated in
For

with

Bhuns

fire,and

the moth

so

3.

and

In

"

the

between

nervous

brought

face

cortex

least

at

fact,and

to

at all certain

The

be

can

of

as

process
cortex

are

life.

To

that there

connected

with

It

also

removal

loss
than

any

other.

of mental
when

before

as

definite
mass

of

other

direct relation

this is

extent

question
there

But

be

cannot

he has

that

tion
general correla-

whole

as

and

cortical

specialparts

of

mental
among

function,"

specialmental
result

Just

as

was
a

man

not

involve

process

the

rather

general impairment
still breathes

as

only one lung, except that he does so


was
supposed that a part of the brain
be

substituted for the

side, the phrenologistsmaintained

theory of

the

of

dischargedeach
that injurydone to

substance,did

only

power.

only

whole, so

it
so
efficiently,
manner
might in the same
the

Nervous

and

that the cortex

of any

The

less

On

action is reflex,

this "localisation

of part of its

impairment

or

candle-name,

specialconstituents of the
the prevailingdoctrine

held

was

of its separate functions

it,or

have

some

process

but

whole,

it is called.

the

Conscious

we

is not

generation ago
was
opposed to
physiologists
as

; but

by specialevidence.
in which we
speculation,

conscious
a

burns

conclusions.

our

facts show
between

future

settled

field for

wide

child

so
process and conscious process, and are
the question of the ultimate
face with

of their connexion.

nature

burnt

moth's

of

jurious.
in-

The

.againinto

Correlation

proved

organization

nervous

required.

singed every time. The


child is intelligent.

Immediate

Process.

is also

the

it has

itself from

saves

again

43

which

it is

that of the

of

are
intelligence

will dash

though

"

nnder

and
this,intelligence,

correlated
the

MIND.

AND

localisation.

and
psychological

But

their

doctrine

crudities.
physiological

whole.
a

very

was

They

PSYCHOLOGY.

4*

[en.m.

mapped out the brain into organs


corresponding-to
complex faculties,such as
acquisitiveness,combativeand
the like.
orderliness,constructiveness,
ness, ideality,
Such
scheme
is a
of
a
psychologicalabsurdity. Each
these faculties involves
the cooperationof a vast number
of fundamental

varying
of

Thus

the

who

man

alphabet for
obvious

enter

processes

constitution

assume

piecesfor

every

word.

every

same

different

game

Besides

of

board

chess,or

this

in

of the different

procedure of phrenology is like

should

different set of

the

into the

combination

faculties.

and

processes,

there

that

and

separate

is

very

anatomical

objection against the


supposed
evidence adduced
by the phrenologist. This consisted in
the reading of character by the feelingof bumps ; but as
of fact,the external
conformation
of the skull is
a matter
far from
accuratelycorrespondingto the development of
the

brain.

But

the

most

supplied by
about

the

localised.

what

modes
So

far

good evidence, it
among

crushing
has

been

in which
as

the

is found

different parts

refutation

of

ascertained
cerebral

cortex

that

has
the

not
corresponds,

phrenology
in

recent

is

years

functions
been

actuallyare
mapped out on

division
to

of

function

complex faculties,

One
bodilyorgans of sensation and movement.
portionof the cortex, anatomicallyconnected with the eye,
correlated with visual consciousness,
in the way
is specially
mental
of sensation
or
imagery. Another, anatomically
connected
with the ear, has a similar relation to auditory
touchconnected
with
is specially
experience. Another
The
of
the
limbs.
with
movements
sensations, and
based
is partly
these conclusions
which
evidence
are
on
gathered from experiments on animals, and partly from
is most
The
pathologicalevidence
pathologicaldata.
but

to the

BODY

" 3.]

important

and

AND

MIND.

45

Diseases

unambiguous.
ideas by means

munication
affectingcomof
of language have
been
the general name
aphasia are
especiallyuseful. Under
defects of varying kinds.
embraced
The patientmay
many
to articulate words, although he
be simply unable
can

understand

he

when

them

hears

them.

This

is motor

connected
with lesion of
aphasia,and it has been definitely
volution.*
a
specialpart of the brain called the third frontal conand yet
Again, a man
maybe able to articulate,
words
such when
he hears
lack the power
to distinguish
as
them.

hears

He

sound,

but

they

indeed

them
not

are

as

for him

confused

words.

of

stream

is sensory,

This

perceptualaphasia,and it is connected
accurately,
with lesion of a special
portionof the auditoryarea of the
to
cortex.
recognise written words
Similarly,inability
with lesion of a special
for what
they are is connected
or,

more

portion of

visual

the

indications

These

area.

serve

may

by localisation!of cerebral
functions, and the methods
by which it is determined.
that our
But
be remembered
it must
ignorance is still
incomparably greater than our knowledge. The student
also be warned
must
againstsupposing that localisation is
various activities
"The
definite and precisein its nature.
making up the business of the brain do not take placeall
show

to

what

its

over

the

are

Of

of

country without

industry go

different

the

left

hemisphere

hemisphere in left-handed
t In localisation what
brain

and

the material

conscious
its connexion

process

with

the

in

in

on

activities

spots, as if in walled

certain
*

meant

in

surface,as

all kinds

where
nor

is

towns

and

villages,

every

hut

or

tent

absolutely restricted
brain

The

towns.

right-handed

persons,

the

to

is

cortex
of

and

right

persons.
is

locallymarked

off is

certain

place in it.
is not, strictlyspeaking, localised.
localised
brain-processremains to

processes

which

take

portionof

The

the

ing
correspondThe

nature

be discussed.

of

PSYCHOLOGY.

46

[cir.irr.

its
comparable with either of these extreme
cases;
Avith
be recognised as
possessing towns
territorymust
with
lapping
stragglingand overspecialindustries,but towns
not

and

suburbs,

predominant

each

of

industries

all other

other

that

in

centre,

industries

other

described

kind

of the

that

given centre,

in which

centres

Data

in

industries

indeed,

are,

but

exclusive

not

excluded

nor

from

predominate."*
efficient help
us
no

afford

how
cortical process
is
precisely
related to the correspondingconscious process.
There
are,
in the main, three alternative
interaction,
possibilities,
On the interaction
one-sided
action, and simple concomitance.
hypothesis,a cerebral process may produce a state of
produce a
consciousness,just as a nervous
may
process
muscular
or
as
contraction,
change in one part of the cortex
produce change in another part; and, inversely,a
may
when

we

to consider

come

"

conscious

process,

the cortex

justas

such
acts

volition,
may

as

on

the cortex,

centres, and

sub-cortical

on

act

these

on

the muscles.
The

objectionto this view is that the


pre-supposed is utterlyincongruous

main

interaction

kind
with

of
the

conceptionof causation on which the whole system of our


knowledge both of physicaland psychicalprocess is based.
take
of science to explain how
It is the function
events
their
occurrence
place, or, in other words, to make
far as we
can
intelligible
; but this is only possiblein so
discover
enable
cause;
as

such
to

us

connexion

of

explain is

and

one

ideal
*

how

words,

to exhibit

is the

between

understand

or, in other

parts

This

of

the

the

same
as

cause

continuous
the

effect

effect follows

resultant

science,and

Waller's

and

exhibit

must

we

fact

cause

Physiology,
pp.

it is

never

534-535.

will

as

from
and

process.

the

effect
To

of its factors.

completely

BODY

I 3.]
But

attained.
is felt to be
Now

we

of

and

process

total

and

the

nothing

of

and
be

of

connexion

the

on

molecules
the

have

processes

The
and

space,

laws

which

of their

ponent
com-

evidently have

between
No

occurrence.

assigned why

find

we

entirelyoutside
the one
on
hand,

bodies

relation

conscious

lies

other.

in

between

process,

two

physicalnature

positionof

with
a

conscious

continuity.The

Their

and
do

to

occurrence

knowledge

the direct connexion

process

change

atoms

world

of

knowledge

of conscious

govern

47

unattained,our

correlated

factor.

common
our

it is

as

to

come

complete solution

no

far

so

MIND.

incomplete.

when

nervous

in

AND

material

in the

reason

the

change produced in the


of the cortex
pulpy substance
by lightof a certain
grey
wave-length should be accompanied by the sensation red,
and why that produced by lightof a different wave-length
should
be
It is
accompanied by the sensation green.
that a state of volition should
be
equally unintelligible
followed
by a change in the substance of the cortex and so
mediatelyby the contraction of a muscle.
The same
is felt from a practical
well as from
as
difficulty
theoretical
The
in his
a
point of view.
physiologist,
endeavour
to make
necting
organic processes intelligible,
by conthem
with
the general order of physicalnature,
does not
but regard the presence
of a factor which
cannot
serious stumbling-block,
into this order as
most
enter
a
which

can

upset all his calculations.

may

puttingthe objectionfrom
the intervention
would
This

is not

is

law

this

of conscious

contradict

the

process

law

expresslyfor

factor is introduced

which

favourite

point of view, is to
of

in

conservation

is not

material

of

way
say

that

physiological
cess
proof energy.

the conservation

strictly
true, because

framed

system

of energy
; when

material,though

the law

PSYCHOLOGY.

48

be

not

may

it
applicable,

conditions
interfering
is not

violated

when

[CH. in.

is not

violated.

Apart

from

will fall to the earth ; this law

stones

I lift a stone

in my

hand.

Similarly
no
change in the material world, as such, produces loss or
ferred
gain'of power to do work; the power being merely transfrom one
portionof matter to another.
Nevertheless,
it is quite conceivable
that loss or gain of energy
might
from the operationof a factor w^hich does not belong
ensue
world at all. But, though no contradiction
to the material
is involved in such a supposition,
it is clear that the fresh
creation of material
would
by conscious
energy
process
introduce
incalculable
and disturbingfactor,seriously
an
scientific discovery and
of
interferingwith the work
explanation. Nor is this objectionlimited to the law of
conservation
of energy ; it applies to all the ultimate
which
our
on
principles
knowledge of the physicalworld is
based.
So far as the conservation
of energy
is concerned,
it might be supposed that there is a transfer of energy
material
from
to conscious
Physical
process
process.
into intensity
and complexity
might be transformed
energy
and vice versa.
of consciousness,
But there is no
sufficient
evidence
of this,and
all that we
know
trary
pointsin the condirection.
calculable

in

Intensive

such

quantity is
to make

not

measurable

and

it

comparable with
of energy.
other forms
The hypothesisof interaction,
it
is clear,labours under very serious difficulties,
and though
be pronounced impossible,
it cannot
yet it will be well to
avoid it,if we
find some
alternative which
is on
the
can
whole

more

To

the

matter

on

way

as

tolerable.
second

mind,

one-sided
alternative,
or

of mind

on

action, either

matter, the

of

theoretical

have
been
objectionswhich
brought against interaction
apply with equal force. It also involves the additional

BODY

" 3.]
that
difficulty

Yet

MIND.

49

all other action with which

is interaction.
to

AND

One-sided

action

would

general experienceof

our

we

are

acquainted,

therefore

the

order

be

trary
con-

of nature.

the

hypothesisthat matter
sciousness,
causallydetermines conwithout being itselfdetermined
by consciousness,
is one
which has so much
that it requiresspecial
currency
criticism.
This
doctrine of materialism,as
it is called,
seems
incapable of any precise statement; whatever
it possesses, arises from the use, or rather from
plausibility
the misuse, of the word function. Digestionis a function
of the alimentarycanal ; breathing is a function
of the
lungs ; why cannot we simply affirm that consciousness is
of the brain?
The objectionis,that we
do not
a function
make
two
word
to
things the same
by applying the same
in their own
nature
them, when
they are radicallyand
different.
When
we
essentially
say that digestionis a
function
of the stomach, we
that digestionis the
mean
stomach
that
we
engaged in digesting. When
say
that
mean
breathing is a function of the lungs, we
In describing
the process
breathingis the lungs at work.
of digestion,
itself as
ipsofacto,describe the stomach
we,
engaged in the process. In describingthe process of
breathing,we, ipso facto, describe the lungs as filling
themselves
and expelling
with air by a certain movement,
if we
describe the
it by an
alternate
But
movement.
consciousness at
brain at work, there is no need to mention
all ; and
in naming and
describingconscious processes,
there
the

is

need

no

brain

as

the contraction

to

mention

the

physiological
organ
of muscles

in

process

of consciousness

Psych,

is to

function

The

cannot

to

mention

of

the

move

is the result of neural

have
describingit we
system, includingthe cortex, as

and

brain.

body ;
impulses;

the

engaged in it.
be analysedor

nervous

But

the

resolved
4

PSYCHOLOGY.

50

[CH. m.

physicalchanges in
is supposed to be produced by
nerve-cells.
If consciousness
the nervous
process, the productionis simplycreation out of
nothing. An objectionof an equallyserious kind is that
of agency
the materialistic theorydestroysall possibility
on
the part of conscious beings. According to it,the appearance
into

such, processes

connexion

of causal
itself is
of

illusion ;

an

reasoning;

sole

in

cause

view,
lifted

consequence

of emotion.

interfere

only
makes

that

man

that

but

by

with

We
from

now

the
as

is called

what

to

do
This

of

train

The

motives.

can,

No

of the
this

on

ever

man

No

so.

tears

were

questionis
materialism

times
some-

would

free-will;in truth, it

of
operationof consciousness
is not only
whatever.
The
logicalconsequence
does anything freely,
conscious being never
as
a
does anything at all.
no
man
ever
to the third hypothesis. This differs both
come
much
theory of interaction and from materialism,inasit

separates the

real

The

formula

which

it

uses

of

consciousness

the facts without


and
one

emerge

conscious

creates

for this purpose

which
psycho-physical
parallelism,

modifications

theoretical

of facts from

statement

explanation.Its first problem is to state


nervous
implying direct interaction between
change, and without
implying that the
other.

to

modification

action.
to

due

process

suppositionthat

the

impossible any
kind

any

due

Similarlyconscious
external

of consciousness

ever

certain

he willed

confused

was

ever

fingerbecause

the

ever

was

was

determine

never

the process

judgment

no

case

every

and

within

volition

no

system.

nervous

chemical

as

the

is that

simply states that


contemporaneously

of
nervous
corresponding modifications
process.
The
nervous
changes are
supposed to be
parts of
the total continuous
of the physicaluniverse, so
process
conditions to
but material
that science will require none

with

" 4.]

the

other

the

moving
process

concomitant

muscles

in

When

the external

what

and

volition

with

the

the

movement.

regarded as

which

appropriatemuscles

of the

account

; but

us

it is not

an

do not

matter

contain

of the

their

own

conscious

it is simply a
principle,
sets

in motion

facts

with

if it were

cause

of the cortical

Similarly, the
of the

cause

the

ment,
move-

cortical process
This

in contraction.

facts

they are
formulating these

merely a way of
explanatorytheory. On

of cortical and

which

the

covers

it is

formulation

true

if it were

it is correlated

as

the

the

the sensation.

cause

sensation.

volition may
be
inasmuch

to

sets

produces

so

but does not

with

correlated

sets

such.

which

impressionmaybe regarded as
it.is a cause
as
sensation,inasmuch

process

nexion
con-

as
itself,

external

of the

is causal

impression is followed by a sensation,


impressionproduces is a cortical process,

"which is concomitant
The

the

with

contraction
external

an

there

hand,

parallelwith the material,


When
a bodily action,such
as
volition,it is the cortical
upon

finger,follows

51

runs

itself material.

is not

MIND.

of consciousness

process

psychicalcausation

This
but

AND

On

explain tliem.
within

BODY

as

known
facts ;

the contrary, if it is

it is evident

that these

facts

explanation. If the concomitance


process is regarded as an ultimate
miracle.

the muscles

That

the cortical process

moving

the

fingershould

accompanied by the conscious volition to


the fingerwithout
causal connexion
between
move
them,
is in itself utterlyunintelligible.
If we
to find an
are
explanation,we must frame some
hypothesis to account
for psycho-physicalparallelism,
and in so
are
doing we
compelled to plunge into ontology.
ism.
Parallel" 4. MetaphysicalExplanation of Psycho-Physical
If the doctrine of psycho-physical
parallelismis true,
happen

to

be

"

the

reason

of the connexion

between

conscious

process

and

52

PSYCHOLOGY.

the

correlated
and

nervous

be

nervous

the

and

it is within

of their

reason

the individual

in

Both

the

must

comprehensive system

more

this

connexion

found

be

to

themselves.

processes

regarded as belonging to
;

is not

process

conscious

of conditions

[en. in.

system

is to

be

consciousness,as

as

whole

that

In

cular,
parti-

sought.
know

we

be

it,must

regarded as a fragment of a wider wTholo,by which its


As
the
determined.
brain
origin and its changes are
forms
only a fragmentary portionof the total system of
material
the stream
of
must
assume
phenomena, so we
individual

consciousness

immaterial

system.

immaterial

system

world

in

related

its

to

world

individual

in
with

correlated

total

sphere of

process

acts

have
as

the

is
of

cortex

system the individual


:

within

this

interaction
and

is
the

system

virtually
material

which

to

system

this relation

within

yet
whole
be

in the cortex.

occurrences

nervous

its own

system

consciousness

process

immaterial

this

the

belongs is correlated with material


general,as the individual consciousness is

volition sets the

We

conscious

that

consciousness

phenomena
a

the

individual

this

an

the material

to

taking place in

But

part of

assume

related

immaterial

on.

manner

further

determining factor

between

for

is

in like

is
totality
the

the

is acted

interaction

its

processes

Within

and

be

must

totalityas

consciousness
it acts

We

in

nervous

the brain.

to

When

fingermoving, the volition acts within


influence,and the correspondingcortical
its

own

sphere of

to consider

to

the

relation

the material

regarded

influence.
of the immaterial

system
of

as

whole.

If

parallelismor
far from being
so
concomitance,the fundamental
difficulty,
removed, is aggravated. To obtain lighton this ultimate
point of departure.
question,we must take an entirelynew
consider the problem of the ultimate
of
nature
must
We
as

one

mere

BODY

" 4.]

but

wo

do

To

matter.

The

53

length,is of course
impossible;
explanationof psycho-physical
lelism
paralon

an

idealistic view

of material

sensible

exist only
qualitiesof matter
which, have certain experiencesin the way
of
The extension,configuration,
and other qualities

for minds
sensation.
of material

bodies

of conscious
constituents

scientific theories
mind.

MIXD.

at

ultimatelybased

phenomena.

modes

here

say that the

may

is

so

AXD

In

are

abstract
that

consciousness

Matter, as perceivedand

constructions
makes

of the

which

presupposes
cognisanceof it.

takes

conceived

science, is essentiallya

simply

or

appearance

human

material

matter

by common
phenomenon ; and

means

of certain

the ultimate
experience. In like manner,
of matter
as
they are recognised by

general,all

some

the existence

all pre-suppose

sense

and

phenomenon

presentation.There

can

be

presentationapart from a subject to


the nature
which an objectappears
or is presented. Hence
of matter
known
is constituted by its being known, or at
as
On the other hand, it is equallycertain
least knowable.
no

appearance

or

that the existence of what

is known

to

us

as

matter

depend on our knowledge of it. ^Ve do not


material
as
Only its appearance
phenomenon

make

does

not

matter.

is

dependent
it follows that, so far as it exists independHence
us.
on
ently
of its presentationto a cognitivesubject,it cannot
have
material
properties,such as extension, hardness,
which
It is an
colour, weight, and the like.
agency
is an essential condition of material
phenomena, but is not
led by a quite
Thus
itself a material phenomenon.
we
are
conclusion
which
different line of investigation
to the same
was
suggested by the relation of conscious process to
The
world
of material
nervous
phenomena presupposes
process.
a

system of immaterial

system

the

individual

agency.

consciousness

In

terial
this imma-

originates.To

PSYCHOLOGY.

54

the sensational

it,in

some

form

the basis of

is

it the

on

way,

changes in
the

of

individual

as

of the material

consciousness

the material

matter, in

world.

as

produces
is possiblebecause

of immaterial

Some

agency.

what

we

exists

independently
perceiving subject.

matter

possible presentation to a
theory has been purposely stated in
are
varying views as to the nature

There

It

it

is identical with

its

This

which

world.

when

acts

All this

agency
far

so

due

experiencesare

knowledge

our

system of immaterial

know

[CH. in.

say that it is

vague
the

of

form.

system

will,others that

thought, others that it is unknowable


; in any
guard againstthe assumption that
case, the student should
immaterial
the
system is a sort of repetitionof the
material
sort of interactions,
system, involvingthe same
it is absolute

and

similar distinctions

thing seems
speaking of

clear,
"

it

and

that

relations

we

are

its

in

parts.

One

truth

the

nearer

consciousness,than

as

of

speaking

of it

in
as

matter.

" 5.
the

Conclusion.

immediate
Of

process.

"

We

have

connexion

these,what

discussed

between
we

have

three

conscious
described

theories
and

as

of

nervous

materialism

and
other
two, interaction
rejected. The
advocates
the
best psyeach
have
parallelism,
chologist
among
and metaphysicians of the present day. The
to avoid hastilydeciding between
student is recommended
The
them.
hypothesisof parallelismis that to which we
the known
inclined.
It certainlycovers
ourselves
are
convenient
working hypothesis.
facts,and forms the most
attach to the theory of
the difficulties which
It escapes
that it does so only
be admitted
But it must
interaction.
bold speculation.
by somewhat
of psychothe doctrine
For
psychologicalpurposes
good
is,as we have said,a sufficiently
physicalparallelism
must

be

BODY

hypothesis,

working

in

validity

the

student

forward

in

Hence

writers.
is

facts

one

other

or

it
take

note

general

profoundly

is

to

be

these

of

we

indication

important

theories.
be

to

necessary
that

interpreted

do

not

of

as

pretend
the

topic.

main

to

lines

in

put

popular

thought

for
of

favour
stood
misundershould

reader

given
of

place,

formula

the

have

of

are

being

But

explicit.

rest

by

give

avoid

To

rule,

and

decision

the

second

fashion
to

attempt

in

concomitance

air

dogmatic

mere

as

the

the

to

the

interest

simple

in

upon

because

cannot,

In

are

less

or

apt

the

processes.

more

of

subject

the

on

and

mind,

passed

advisable

first,

keen

planation
ex-

entered

thought
:

feels

statement

mental

and

theories

the

the

been

its

have

and

reasons

and

body

with

nervous

two

always

between

satisfied

has

of

theoretical

we

proper,

mode

assume

the

indicating

It

for

course

as

accordingly

psychology

of

merely

parallelism

speculation.

intelligent
relation

In

55

it

shall

psycho-physical

this

adopt

We

limits

ontological

MIND.

take

we

work.

this
of

beyond

if

facts.

formulating"

AND

than

more

on

this

BOOK

I,

GENERAL

ANALYSIS.

CHAPTEE

ULTIMATE

"

1.

Introductory.
with
and

thinking

about

which

towards
way

more

fully
say

that

They
time

"
very

are

2.

not

they

are

in

distinct

of

sense.

or

knowing,

total

same

states

which

word

The
It

cognisant

state

of

an

object.
56

of

and

we

being

conative

probability

consciousness.
each

here

in

other

whole.

concrete

used

degrees
word

it

striving;

the

all

succeed

The

in

Thus,

and
in

and

feel

we

bringing

by

and

is

We

tendency

modes

one

in

emotionally

feeling,

of

or

(1)

(2)

reverse.

cognition
all modes

covers

of

object

either

normally

are

ways

object.

feeling attitude,

are

three

are

ultimate

cerned
con-

something

its

the

or

partial constituents
"

life, we

otherwise

or

it,

three

the

the

waking

experience

we

are

three

Cognition.

wide

it,

(3)

object:

an

united

always

aware

there

These

attitude.

the

transform

or

cognitive attitude,

the

of

consciousness,

into

of

conscious

it ;

alter

to

some

to

with

normally

there

related

cognisance

is

perceiving

Now

is

displeased

or

affected

may

of

In

always,

something.

kind

some

CONSCIOUS.

other.

or

perhaps

BEING

consciousness

Human

"

consciousness

our

pleased

OF

object

some

usually,

have

MODES

I.

of

in

being

object must

MODES

" 2.]
be taken

not
we

can

to

in any
before

see

mean

way
me

on

to

me,

I think

whenever

CONSCIOUS.

57

merely material object,but


be aware
of or cognisantof.
the table is an object to me,
The
immortalityof the soul

perceiveit.
objectto me whenever
as

BEING

OF

word

the

use

of it.

Nothing

nothing

whatever
The

book

inasmuch
is also

is

and

an

an

object

attach

To
meaning to it ; so is a Centaur when I imagine one.
perceiveor think at all is to perceiveor think of something,
it is perceived
and this something,justbecause
or
thought
of, is an objectpresentedto consciousness.
The use
of the words
presentedand presentationrequires
to be
we
perceiveor think of an
explained. Whenever
the objectmust
have its specific
nature
by which it
object,
the specific
is distinguishable
from
other objects. Now
nature
of the object as
perceived or thought of presupposes
of the
a
correspondinglyspecificmodification
individual
consciousness
which
perceivesor thinks of it.
of consciousness
As the stream
successivelytakes cognisance
itself pass
of various
through
objects,it must
correspondinglyvarying states. The distinctive nature of
the object is apprehended only in so far as the object is
of consciousness
qualifiedby the specificmodifications
which
exist in the moment
of cognition. This leads up to
the

definition

of

word

the

presentation. Whatever

stituents
con-

directly
experienceat any moment
determine
the nature
of the object as
it is perceivedor
thought of at that moment, belong to the cognitiveside of
of

our

total

our

nature, and

called

are

Suppose that what


sensible quality,such
the sensation
red.

The

the sensible

red

as

presentations.

perceive at

I could

sensation

Here

given

is therefore
a

moment

is

will
difficulty

having
sensible quality
presentationof

Without

red.

perceivethe

not

of red

quality.

colour

the

no

doubt

occur

PSYCHOLOGY.

58

r.

the
distinguishbetween
not say
and
the sensible quality? "Why do we
sensation
is itself the
is one
sensation
that the
object? There
which
makes
consideration
obvious
plain the need for this
distinction.
I can
perceivethe sensible qualityagain and
again on different occasions,and identifyit as the same.

student.

the

to

do

[BK. I., CH.

"Why

separate occasion

But

on

each

The

sensations

are

so

we

I have

separate sensation.

distinct events

many

or

occurrences

historyof my individual experience. The sensible


qualityis not an event in the historyof my experienceat
be perceivedand identified
It is an objectwhich
aH.
may
different phases of my
the same
in many
as
life-history
The
distinction becomes
same
widely separated in time.
if we
take other instances.
If I perceive
still more
obvious
a
triangle,my
perception is not triangular, it is not
made
angles. On the other hand, the
up of lines and
I see it is not an occurrence
triangleas it appears to me when
in the historyof my
individual
consciousness
; it is a
geometricalfigure,which is a very different thing. Again,
in a moment
think of eternity
of time I may
: it is obvious
modifications
of consciousness
that the specific
which
exist
wThile I am
and disappearafter I have
thinkingof eternity,
in the

"

ceased

to think

of

it,are

not

themselves

eternityor

eternal.

I may
think of non-existence
Similarly,
actually
; this is an
modes
of consciousness
existingthought ; and the specific
which
nature
must
give it its specific
actuallyexist. They
therefore be identified writh the objectof the thought,
cannot
is non-existence.*
The
be
which
object itself can never
identified with

It may
and

twice.
purposes

the

nevertheless

present modifications
be

true

presented object we
they form

Doubtless
the

distinction

must

are
an

that

in

of the

individual

distinguishing between
tion
presentain a sense
counting the same
thing over
inseparableunity ; but for psychological
be made.
If we
are
counting the same

MODES

" 2.]
consciousness
when

even

by
we

are

consciousness.
think

of another

partiallydistinct
think.

we

OF

which

BEING

it is

CONSCIOUS.

cognised.

thinking about
The

"Whenever

This

modifications

holds

true

of

own

our

conscious

conscious
from

59

the
we

we
experience in which
experience is always at least
conscious
experienceof which

try

to

think

of

an

immediate

do so
as
such, we can
experience of our
only by
own,
investingit with attributes and relations which are not
themselves
For
immediately experiencedat the moment.
in consciousness
example, I may think of a momentary
appearance
in my
mental
as
an
occurrence
history,an
incident in my
experience. But neither my experience,as
a
whole, nor the positionsand relations of any part within
that whole
be given as a transient phase of individual
can
consciousness.
The
consciousness
is only one
momentary
link in the series which
constitutes my
experience."*
and its objectare
not to
Though cognitiveconsciousness
be identified,
the less intimatelycorrelated.
they are none
Differences
in the nature
of the object as presented presuppose
modifications
of
correspondingly differentiated
consciousness.
These special
modes
of subjective
experience
the direction of thought or perwhich define and determine
ception
to this or that specialobject
are
presentations. We
choose, that the object itself is presented,
say, if we
may
but we
must
not
say that it is a presentation
; and when
we
say that it is presented,it is better to say that it is
presented to consciousness,than that it is presentedin
consciousness.
In the perceptionof a tree the reference
"

thing over twice,we are at least regarding it from two essentiallydifferent


In the one
case
points of view.
we
are
regarding it as qualifying the
of
which
individual
the
is cognisant ; in the other,
consciousness
object
we
are
regarding it as qualifying the stream of individual consciousness
itself.
*

vol. i.,
Analytic Psychology,
p.

44.

PSYCHOLOGY.

60

objectis

circumscribed

I., en.
[BE:.

and

1.

directed

by a plexus of
visual and other presentations.The
objectthought of is
It is a material thing and not
thereby made determinate.
to

an

mental

occurrence,

tree

and

not

oak

stone, an

and

not

elm."*4

an

Besides having cognisanceof


-Attitude.
" 3. The Feeling
pleased,
object,we are usually,if not always, pleased or dis"

an

satisfied

partiallythe

one

or

and

dissatisfied

with

partiallythe

it, and

other.

sometimes

This

feeling-

not
cognition. We canhave no
we
a thingwhen
cognisanceof it. Even when we have no cognisanceof it,
it may
produce an agreeableor disagreeablefeelingin us ;
but this causal relation is quitedifferent from that between
subjectand object.We may feel displeasedwith a glaring
our
displeasureis caused by vibrations
light. Doubtless
know
in the luminiferous
ether; but if we
nothing of
the objectof
cannot
these vibrations,
we
say that they are
in the psychological
our
meaning of the word
displeasuref,
object.Therefore,from a psychologicalpointof view, we
feel displeased
with them.
cannot
say that we
total consciousness
be entirely
at any moment
Can
our
?
This is a question
of pleasure and
devoid
displeasure
be
first sight tempted to answer
at
which
we
may
I may,
it would
decidedly in the affirmative.
seem,
perceive a stone, or a clod of earth, or a geometrical
diagram, without feelingeither agreeablyor disagreeably
the
towards
these
affected
objects. But
apparent
look
of
this answer
we
disappears when
plausibility
do we
notice these
more
closelyinto the case.
Why

the existence
attitude pre-supposes
with
feel pleasedor displeased

of

Analytic Psychology,vol. i.,p 47.


is ordinarilyused to signifyresentment.
+ The
term
displeasure
make
it signifysimply the opposite of being pleased.
work we
shall
see
later,is ambiguous.
pain,as we

In
The

this
term

" 3.]

MODES

OF

BEING

CONSCIOUS.

61

objectsat all ? Perhaps \ve do so merely with the view of


settling
by experiment the questionwe are now
discussing.
But if that be so, the issue of the experiment itself is more
less satisfactoryor
in some
are
or
unsatisfactory. We
own
firmed,
degree pleased that our
pre-conceivedview is conor
displeasedbecause it is apparently upset. If
have
pleased
no
are
we
pre-conceivedview, we
pleased or disdo
because
do riot succeed
in obtaining
we
or
the questionproposed. Thus, the affirmative
to
an
answer
under
these
turns
out
answer
special conditions
due
have
taken
to
into
to be
not
an
oversight. We
in relation to the object,
total consciousness
account
our
but only a small and unimportant part of it. Now, suppose
motive
for noticing
that, instead of having a pre-existing
the object, we
simply take cognisance of it because it
Here
it may
be said
happens to pass before our
eyes.
that we
are
purely neutral in regard to it. But there are
tilings
presentedto our bodilyvision of which we take
many
no
cognisance. The more
pre-occupiedwe are, the more
If this or
that object so
entirelythey escape notice.
itself when
obtrudes
minds
our
are
pre-engaged on some
other topicas to divert the current
of our
thoughts,it must
have
interest of a pleasantor unpleasant character.
some
If it does not
divert the current
of our
thoughts, the
cognisancewe take of it will be slightand transient,and
will form
only a small and insignificant
portionof our total
consciousness.

Thus

our

total consciousness

may

involve

pleasantor painfulinterest,
although this small portionof
it does not
contribute
in any
appreciabledegree to its
pleasantnessor unpleasantness. Again, our minds may be
comparativelydisengaged,so that they are free to attend
to surrounding things but it is the characteristic
of these
;
idle moods
bored by
that we
less amused
or
are
more
or

PSYCHOLOGY.

C2

[BK. I., en.

I.

objectswhich obtrude themselves on our senses.


to be that .our
total
On the whole, the presumption appears
The
student
is never
consciousness
must
entirelyneutral.
here be warned
fallacy: we are apt to
againsta common
when
that we
are
we
only pleased or displeased,
suppose
expresslynotice,at the time, that we are, or remember
afterwards
that we have been, pleasedor displeased.But in
when
the pleasantness
fact we
or
only notice or remember
is a
or
unpleasantness is speciallyconspicuous. There
customary level of agreeableor disagreeablefeelingwhich

the trivial

apt to

treat

we

are

not

notice that

cold

hot

are

state.

In like manner,

cold,unless

or

we

feel

do

we

hot

more

or

usual.

is shown

when

we

to appear

ceases

fact,sound

of

to

us

sort

some

what

from

pass

complete absence

stillmore
then

neutral

Similarly,what we call silence is not


silence,but only a comparative absence of sound.

than

absolute
This

we

as

of sound.
as

is

call silence to

The

previous state

of silence. As

one
never

we

wholly absent
probabilitythe

matter

from

of
our

is in all
with
case
experience. The same
pleasure or displeasure. One or the other or both, are
always in some
degree present, although we by no means

always

notice their

When

belongs

wish

we

this

to

presence.
to

or

say

that

that
mental

pleasure
process,

displeasure

or
we

say

that

is

Feelingpleasantlyor unpleasantlytoned.
is a generic word
for pleasure and
tone
pain. It is
less
not
only
ambiguous than
feeling alone, which
other
has
applicationsin ordinary language, but
many
in psychology is to some
extent
even
required for other
shall
Hence, as a technical expression,we
purposes.
henceforward
the reference
is
when
speak of feeling-tone
the process

to

pleasure-pain.
Are

there

other

kinds

of

feeling-attitudebesides

?
displeasure

and

pleasure

It is difficult to

are.

would

It

that

such

as

there

anger

and

and

love

as

63

seem

bring emotions,

sentiments, such

fear, and

CONSCIOUS.

BEING

OF

MODES

$4.]

hate, completely
emotion, like anger,

head.

an
Certainly,
be said that
kind of cognition
involves some
; but it cannot
the
the specific
qualifies
experienceof being angry directly
ob ject ; in other words, this experience
of the presented
nature
is not a presentation.So, too, anger has feeling-tone,
mostly
But its specific
of an
qualitycannot be
unpleasant kind.
resolved
into pleasureor displeasure.Again, it involves

under

other

any

active tendencies

certain characteristic

peculiarand unanalysablemode
be

cannot

resolved

these.

into

; but

is in it

there

of

being conscious,which

We

clude
must, therefore,con-

complex emotion of anger there is included


distinct from
being pleased or
feeling-attitude
specific
that in the

the

The

reverse.

" 4.

said of the other


The

emotions.

designatedby
craving,longing,yearning,endeavour, effort,

as

desire,wish, and
In all of them

be

may
Attitude.

Conative

The

words

such

same

will,have

there

is

"

characteristic

one

inherent

an

states

in

common.

pass beyond
This tendency

tendency to

something different.
mode
is not only a fact but an experience; and the peculiar
constitutes the experience,is
of being conscious, which
and

themselves

called

conation.

become

The

process

is

of consciousness

process

change ; the changes are partlydue to the play


and to other conditions extraneous
external impressions,
if ever,
itself. But this is rarely,
consciousness
entirely

of incessant
of
to

part self-determining. The successive


phases have, by their very nature, a tendency to pass into
so.

other
and

The

process

phases.
its

in relation

The

stream

is determined

course

but

is in

by

its

to the

own

of consciousness
not

drift at

merely by
any

has

current

external

ditions,
con-

Considered

moment.

presentedobject,conation

is

tendency

PSYCHOLOGY.

64

to alter

make

it,or

consciousness,or
before

difference

some

to

[BK. I.,

bring

it

more

en.

i.

in

it,to expel it from


vividlyand completely

consciousness.

also produces or tends to produce changes


activity
in the body and in the external world.
But we
must
fully
careconation.
separate these changes from
They are
The end to which
it
by which it may work.
merely means
is directed is always some
itself.
change in consciousness
If I will to blow a candle out, the mental
does not
activity
of my
lie in the contraction
muscles, nor yet in the effect
It is the
produced on the candle as a physicaloccurrence.
of it,which
is
resultingdarkness, in so far as I am aware
the end attained by my
volition.
In other words, it is a
which I strive to attain in
change in the object,as presented,
It is not necessary
that I
willingto blow out the candle.
have
should
actual experienceof the physicalresult.
I
make
a
will, leaving property to a certain person.
may
Here, what I am
aiming at or endeavouring after is that
this person shall enjoy my
dead.
property after I am
By
of the case, I can
have
the nature
direct experienceof
no
Mental

the

result.

volitional

What

satisfies
is

process

the

and

me

terminates

so

that
"belief

my

property

the
wrill

into the hands


of the legatee. Before
I
actuallycome
the will, this was
made
only a floatingpossibility.In
making the will,I transform it into a practical
certainty.
It may
happen that the end to which conation is directed
is,from the nature of the case, unattainable.
Thus, I may
wish

to recall

cannot

much

or

realise itself.
as

if it could

consciousness,it
to blow

undo

out

Conation

is

the
But

This

past.
none

is

the less

realise itself.

tendency which
it is a tendency as
a

Considered

as

mode

of

just as much a conation as the desire


a candle
standingbefore my eyes.
attain its end by merely mental
may
process,

MODES

"4.]
without

BEING

OF

CONSCIOUS.

6.3

bodily action. In part or whole, it may bo


satisfied by fuller knowledge of its object;and this may
be brought about merely by a train of thought or observation,
without altering
the nature
of the objectas it actually
exists apart from
its being presented to consciousness.
From
this point of view we
can
bring under conation all
that is covered by the word
attention. Attention
is simply
overt

conation

in

far

so

as

it finds

satisfaction

in

tho

fuller

presentationof its object,without actual clianjoi:i tho


object. This may bo possibleonly in part. Thus, wo may
for tlio sake of
end in view, and we
have a practical
may,
of its attainment.
this end, attend to the conditions and means
I may
wish to climb a rock, and I first observe it
So far,
carefullyto determine the best mode of ascent.
all I have gained is more
completeknowlodgo. This is a
It carries
partialsatisfaction of my
original desire.
end ; but it does so only because
to my
me
a stage nearer
it makes
further steps possible. On tho other hand, my
I may
interest may
be purely theoretical.
simply desire
In this case,
the geological
of the rock.
structure
to know
will be

observation

mere

sufficient.

If it is necessary

to

of
climbing will be merely a means
just as in the previouscase
making observation possible,
of making climbingpossible.
observation
is merely a means
climb

the

Sometimes

rock,

the

it would

appear

as

if attention

were

not

directed

presentationof an object,but merely to the


"Perhaps
keeping of it unchanged before consciousness.
attitude is found
the closest approximation to this mental
in the case
of attention to a simple object of sense
or
of the immediate
imagination,on account
pleasureit
allow here that the end of attention
we
yields."* Now
is not
the less,its end
is in a SCTLJQ
cognitive
; none
to the

fuller

Psych,

AnalyticPsychology,vol. i.,pp.

126-7.

66

PSYCHOLOGY.

the

fuller

presentationof
pleasuregiving capacityof
makes
be

difference

presented

consciousness
We

the
the

It

not.

or

is

i.

whether

it continues

to

when

only fully presented

is satiated.

repeatedlyused
tendency of a state

itself into

en.

object. So long as the


objectis not exhausted, it

to consciousness

have

intrinsic

[BK. i.,

different

realised,it ceases

to

the word

Conation

end.

of consciousness
Just in

state.

far

so

in other

exist,or

is the

beyond
tendency is

to pass
as

the

words,

finds its end.

completely realised its end is completely


attained,and it completelydisappears. Hunger disappears
after a full meal ; intellectual curiosity
disappearswhen a
Thus
the word end, used in
problem is solved,and so on.
else it may
reference to conative tendencies,whatever
imply,
implies also its ordinary literal meaning. The end after
When

which

it is

is,when
strives,

consciousness
of the

striving. This

to refer later.

is

It is obscured

first is,that there

are

some

attained,the

tion
termina-

point to which we shall


by two circumstances.

ends, such

as

the

moral

have
The

ideal,

second
The
is,
completely attained.
that while we
are
actuallystrivingafter the end, we think
about its own
logical
positivenature, and not about the psychowould
result which
follow its complete achievement.
We
do not consciously
strive after the cessation of our
own
in
we
activity,except when
try to go to sleep or when

which

any

other

means

directed

we

way

less,it remains
end

be

never

can

the
towards

endeavour

after

repose.

None

the

of any
complete achievement
complete cessation of the specialactivity
fact that the

that

specialend.
has two phases,pleasureand displeasure,
As feeling-tone
and the second negative,so conation has a
the first positive
and
a
negative phase, aversion.
positivephase, appetition,
and
It is either directed
to maintain
further develop a

MODES

" 4.]

OF

the

presented object,or
Hobbes,

it is either

BEING-

CONSCIOUS.

To

reverse.

endeavour

an

67

use

towards

or

an

phrase

of

endeavour

coincides with pleasure,


by no means
Appetition
frontwards.
feel a very keen
aversion with displeasure. We
or
may
desire for an
object,and yet feel nothing but displeasure
if we
I may
are
delayed or obstructed in its attainment.
But
desire food, and this is a positiveconation.
if no
food
is to be
had, the feeling-toneof consciousness
will be
have
aversion
an
disagreeable. So we
may
of a person ; and this is very
to the presence
unpleasant
if

cannot

wo

pleasant,if
him

we

of

throw

can

downstairs.

because

rid

get
It

him

him

out

made

disposesof
to identify
conation
have
finallyto

after

an

but

certain

it may

of the

while

is worth

it

to

bo

window,
note

attempts which

very

or

this
have

kick

point,
been

with

feeling-tone.
deal with
Wo
the question whether
conation in some
form or degree is invariablya constituent
of consciousness.
The
problem is beset with the same
difficulties as
and
in the case
similar
of feeling-tone,
remarks
that
are
apply here also. We
apt to assume
consciousness
is absolutelyinactive,when
it is only comparatively
Wo
so.
only notice that we are endeavouring
end,

when

endeavour

our

pitchof intensity.Thus
consciousness

object and
Xone

the

this

case,

The

is active
attend

to

less,conation
as

best mode

well
of

as

rises above

certain

generallysay that our


when
we
happen to catch sightof an
it in a slightand
transient way.
be, and probably is,present in
may
wo

in the

do not

most

intense

mental

effort.

approaching the question introspectively


is by comparing different degrees of conative
tendency; a
state of consciousness
would appear
which, taken by itself,
it
to be purelypassiveand inert,ceases
when
to appear
so
is compared with one
which
is stillmore
passiveand inert.

PSYCHOLOGY.

68

[UK. i.,

cu.

i.

example, tlie followingseries: (1)In a state of


delicious languor I enjoy the organic sensations produced
bath.
by a warm
(2)In an indolent mood, I let my eye
from objectto object,and amuse
wander
myself with what
I see, without any definite plan or purpose.
(3) Without
plan or purpose, I give the rein to my own ideas,following
less casual associations.
the train of more
or
(4) I repeat
metical
the multiplication
out
some
table, or work
simple arithquestion of a familiar kind.
(5) I work out an
arithmetical questionwhich
is more
it is
of a task because
more
complex,though it is of a familiar type, and presents
of a puzzle. (6) I attempt an
nothing in the nature
for a time baffles me, because
arithmetical questionwhich
which
it contains
a
difficulty
requiresto be overcome
by
I
repeated trials. (7) In a critical point of my career
for

"Take,

endeavour
whole

to decide

of my

course

decision.

Of

between
future

these,(7)is

two

life
mental

of

courses

action,
"

being dependent
state

on

the
the

characterized

by a
(2),(3),

intense

feelingof activitythan (1); and


(4),(5),(6) constitute an ascending scale of transitions
mediating between them."*
must
between
and the feelingof
We
distinguish
activity
can
sider
conactivity.The only question which introspection
is whether
immediate
we
always have some
experience
of striving,
end.
Even
if this
or
an
tendency towards
in the negative,it may
still remain
questionis answered
that conscious
true
of fact, always
process, as a matter
involves tendency towards
an
end, though the tendency is
of being conscious.
not always a mode
far

more

" 5.

Sentience

considered

or

Sub- Consciousness.

consciousness
if

objects. But
*

we

only

analyse

"

"We

in its relation
our

total

AnalyticPsychology,vol. i.,
pp.

have

so

far

presented
experienceat any
160-1.

to

MODES

"5.]
moment,
the

OF

'BEING

CONSCIOUS.

shall find in it much

we

69

material

which

is not

at

the

contributingto

of
cognitive function
without
consciousness, and is to that extent
objective
reference.
It is the specialfunction
of presentationto
of consciousness
present objects; but those modifications
this function may
which
exist even
are
capable of fulfilling
of cognisingobjects. They
when
they are not the means
for discriminative
exist as possiblematerial
thinking
may
without
being actuallyutilised to the full extent in which
I am
they are capable of being utilised. At this moment
thinking about psychological
topics. I receive at the same
multitude
time
of diversified
rounding
sura
impressions from
total
into
things which
certainly enter
my
experience. But if I refer them to an object at all,I do
in a very
indeterminate
so
My thought-discrimination
way.
is very far from keeping pace with the differentiation
of the sensory data as immediately experienced. To quote
the
Tucker
Abraham
"We may
leaves fallingfrom
see
:
trees, birds flyingin the air,or cattle grazing upon the
ground, without affirming,or denying, or thinking,anything
being
concerningthem ; and yet, perhaps,
upon
moment

"

'

....

asked
had

seen.

window
it

minute

were

exhibited

afterwards
man

hundred

square

times

single sweep

of the

of

But

which

beheld

without

every

to

time

takes

eye

make

for thought
significant
successive

remember

in

looked

an

each

would

acts of attention.

he

field

what
from

we

his

observing whether
yet the figure was

ever

pentangular, and

to his view

details.

have

may

or

could

wTe

indefinite
these

of

require

Of course,

upon

long

.A

it '
...

multitude

severally
series

of

impression
in
as
significant,
begin to observe

the total

constitute may
be
they collectively
first glance at a landscape before we
our
its component parts. The essential point is the antithesis

PSYCHOLOGY

70

between

perhaps

even

arising

from

constantly

perhaps
of

trains

in

the

tired,'
most

our

'I

or

we

point,

judgment

are

'I

feel

not

Analytic

as

do

well,'

that

so,

the

created

Psychology,

rule

'I

'I

or

we

are

it,
vol.

"

dull.'

which

48-49,

prior

all.

at

for

of
if

determino

to

'I

or

But

aware,

are

our

ill,'

always

i., pp.

life

if

note

but

to

enter

definite

sensations

by

waking

feel

feel

any

is

appear

way,

or

and

sensations

they

vaguest

take

not

of

the

bright,'

do

we

the

in

feel

When

on

only
say

part

condition.
reflect

we

But

the

These

state.

i.

presentation
by

moment

every

sleep.

thought

Occasionally
feel

in

present

even

bodily

general

our

CH.

discriminative

of

illustrated

strikingly

more

I.,

presentation
of

independence

relative

The

thinking.

of

indeterniinateness

comparative

the

be

dcterminateness

detailed

the

[BE.

it."*

our

we

CHAPTER
PRIMARY

1.

"

LAWS

Relativity. "By

H.

OF

PROCESS.

HEXTAL

principleof relativity. .it is


that any psychic factor,or complex psychosis,*can
denied
exist without
definite quality,quantity,tone
having its own
value in combination, and influence upon
taneous
simulof feeling,
"

successive

or

the relation in which

the

factors

psychoses,determined

and

it stands

by

factors and

to other

psychoses
entire mental
Or
in the
life.
stated positively every
is what
it is
individual element,or state,or form of mental life
only as relative to other elements,states,and forms of the same
mental life"f More
brieflywe may say : Mental development
"

"

beingdetermined ly their psychological


relations and subject
to modification
accordingly This
ately
comprehensive,is proportionstatement, though sufficiently
lies mainly in the phrase
The
vagueness
vague.

depends on

modes

of consciousness

What
"psychological relations."
relations through which
psychological
enabled

are

to

interact ?

To

is the
modes

understand

of

nature

the

of consciousness
this

we

must

sider
con-

This topic
unity and continuityof consciousness.
under
two
heads, (1) general unity and continuity,
(2) the specialunity and continuity constituted by
the

falls
and

conation.
*

Psychosis

total

state

of consciousness

and
f Ladd, Psychology,Descriptive

as

existing at

Explanatory, pp.
7i

any
6G1-2.

one

moment.

PSYCHOLOGY.

72

"

General

2.

of

Unity

disjoinedfrom

"

life are,

Dr.

as

n.

tuents
partialconsti-

Continuity. The

and

conscious

our

[BK. i., en.

Ward

puts it,not

by something which is disparate


in nature
from consciousness.
They are not separated"as
island is separatedfrom another by the interveningsea,
one
in a melody from
note
the next
one
or
by an interval of
silence."*1
The
ceived
unity and continuityof consciousness conin this most
abstract and generalform, enables us to
recognisewhat we may call relations of immediate contiguity.
into the
Whatever
enter
components of any given moment
diately
immeare
compositionof a single state of consciousness
contiguous. Similarly,successive states are in
immediate
of
contiguityif and so far as the termination
coincides

one

another

one

with

the

of

commencement

"At

another.

given moment," says Dr. Ward, we have "a 'field of


and continuous
one
consciousness,psychologically
; at the
field but a partial
new
next, we have not an entirely
change
Inasmuch
within this field."f
of the new
as the emergence
of the old, they are continuous
and so far
is a modification
have
not
contiguous. We
merely A and
psychologically
any

'

then

such

as

but

also the passage

is

modification

B,

is itself

of consciousness.

this passage

The

transition

an

itself constitutes

from

between

they may

be.

givenby

Dr. Ward

in another

the scent

from

"the

case

Article

part

relation

unlike

however

into B ; and

experience. It is the more


obviously so the
abrupt it is. The interruption,
being a feltinterruption,

more

of A

of

bee."J
of

so

to the

rose

Professor

abrupt

"Psychology,"

Take

in

the

context

of
well

transition

"

the

gong

an

tration
illus-

"passing
a
or
sting

remarks,
in the

states,

that

content

in

and

EncyclopaediaBritannica, 9th edition,

xx., p. 45.

Ibid.

two

instance

for

sound

Ladd

the

\ Op. cit.,
p.

50.

MENTAL

"3.]

feeling-toneof

the

would

rose

the sound

be

not

The

illustrated.

successive

two

relativitywould

PROCESS.

mental

states, the

violated, but
of

amount

influence

of the gong,

73

and

redistribution

of

amply

more

absorptionin

our

the

the

law

the scent

of

of attention

to

the

sting of the bee ;


succeeding sensations of

to

even

the
pain which
sounds
would
be
enhanced
or
smarting gave
by the
results of
preceding pleasure; the control of the motor
sensation
would
bo
[movements prompted by] the new
determined
the sensation
by the perceptions,
etc.,into which
abruptlybroke ; and so on, and so on."*
Thus there are relations arising
out of the unity of a single
the

of

degree

state
are

of consciousness
also

relations

to

another.

state

contiguityin
existence
kind
in

it exists at any

as

These

time

psychicalconnexion
time, and arisingout

consciousness

" 3. Conative
playing chess
critical

between
and

that

between

has

been

of

of the

flow of

Continuity. Suppose that,while


"

am

to

suddenly
meet

called

visitor

consciousness

interruptsit.
disparate and

that

on

immediate

discussed.

about

there is another

phases

the

move

If,

on

which

on

But

matter

of

relation

interrupted

relation

exists

disconnected

processes,
contiguityin time which

the

of

the

at

chess,or

contrary,

process

and
Psychology,Descriptive

this

is

at

away

as
such, constitutes
interruption,

state

successive

But

is characteristic

game

otherwise

depends

mind

whist, I

or

which

and

the

Unity and

The
the

simultaneous

of

way

immediate

general.

stage of the

business.

the

one

independentof direct proximity


of a more
specialand intimate

that which

in

in

there

from

involve

succession.

of

continuitythan

transition

relations

either

of continuous

or

of the

arisingout

and

moment,

of

we

of

consider

making
settlingthe

Explanatory,p.

663.

up

the

matter

PSYCHOLOGY.

74

of

find

business,we

[BK. i..
and

different

called conative
be
continuity,which
may
or
continuity of interest. From
continuity,
view, my state of mind when I have finished

with

my

state

returned

and

visitor

the

with

when

of mind

to
was

my

kind

intimate

more

game

cir.

n.

of

appetitive
this point of

or

business

my

is continuous

rather
interrupted,

than

The very word


flow of consciousness.
intervening
of
impliesthis. It is clear,then,that continuity
interruption
less independent of direct proximityin
interest is more
or
is essentially
with
connected
time.
This kind of continuity
mental
activityin the strict sense, with the striving,
Its generalcondition
side of our nature.
conative,appetitive
is that the successive
phases of a conscious process shall
end.
towards
constitute a movement
an
By an end is
with

the

meant

natural

state

of consciousness

termination

"

in which

the termination

the process

finds its
it by its

prescribedto

conditions.

Each

phase
is incomplete,and
of the process before the end is reached
inherent
constitution to pass beyond itself.
tends by its own
is displacedby a disparateand disconnected
If the activity
process before it has attained its goal,it tends spontaneously
itself out, starting
and work
after the interruption
to recur
short.
it was
cut
the stage at which
from
If, while it
its progress
is in any way
to occupy
continues
consciousness,
checked
pleasantness
or
arrested,an experienceof dissatisfaction or unSo long and so far as its progress
is
arises.
unchecked, but not yet completed,consciousness is unsatisfied,
and
ceteris paribus the experienceis
but not dissatisfied,
pleasant.
Conative
unity depends upon conative continuity. If we
take any momentary
phase in the flow of conative process,
own

we

nature, and

find

not

total state
are

by

extraneous

of consciousness

irrelevant

to

the

main

in

which

direction

some

of

stituents
con-

thought,

MENTAL

" 3.]
and

others
in

Thus

PliOCESS.

75

essentiallyconcerned

are

playing
due

of

game

chess

in
the

its

progress.

modifications

of

surrounding objects
irrelevant to the main
of consciousness.
current
are
Only
the experiencesconnected
with the position
of the pieceson
the board
are
relevant, and only these experiencesare
embraced
This
in the conative
unity of consciousness.
distinction correspondsbroadly to that between
thought
consciousness

and

of

impressionsfrom

sentience.*

mere

The

to

total process
succession

of consciousness

of processes,

is,in general,composed

each

has

of which

certain

appetitive
continuity.Some of these may be very transient
and involve only a slightand evanescent
But in
interest.
far as they involve interest or attention at all they are
so
rambles
conative.
from
Even
when
the mind
essentially
objectto objectin a desultoryway, its slightand transient
degree of
occupation with each in turn involves some
attention
without
conative

and

interest.

conative

another.

one

In

process
the

itself constitutes
old process
is

and

the
as

sort
new.
an

part of it,an

But

of

transitions

which

are

transitions

from

one

these

even

in

are

sense

of
interruption
the interruption
of interruption,
the
conative
continuitybetween
as

occurs

moment
a

experienced

constituent

the

continuity are
to another.

process

conative,if

Thus

Just in

so

marked

far

interruptionof
incident

as

the
the

new

process

old, it

is

in its progress.

conative unity and


development of the mental life,
continuityis of altogetherpredominant importance. Such
psychicalrelations as depend on mere
proximity in time
in a
of mental
broad
view
are
subsidiary,and
may,
evolution,be neglected. Thus, in what follows,we shall
almost
mental
attention
to those
entirely confine our
In the

Discussed

in

"

5 of last

chapter.

PSYCHOLOGY.

76

connexions
elements

arise

which
as

constituent

from

[UK. i., CH.


the

combination

parts of the

of

conative

same

mental

process.

in some
form
" 4. Retentiveness. Hetentiveness
indispensablecondition of development or progress

is

"

kind.

Advance

would

n.

an

of any

be

impossibleunless the results of


of
priorprocess persistedas the basis and starting-point
In marching, each step has its point
subsequent process.
of departurefrom the new
positionsecured by the previous
step. In marking time there is continual reversion to the
No house
could be built if
same
positionand no advance.
it was
laid and had to be replaced
each brick vanished
as
A
be formed
of dry sand, which
cannot
anew.
rope
it is put together. Similarly,mental
crumbles
as
away
development would be impossibleunless previousexperience
left behind
it persistentafter-effects to determine
the
and course
of subsequent experience. These
effects
afternature
are
dispositions,
called, in psychology, traces or
and the psychological
bo stated
law of retentiveness
may
follows : when
and
so
as
far as mental developmenttakes
because specific
it does so
place through mental conditions,
modes
of consciousness leave behind them specifictraces or
sequent
ivhich determine
and
the nature
course
of subdispositions,
process, so that ivhen they are modifiedit is modified.
of dispositions
The persistence
is not absolute ; they tend
to decay, and
perhaps disappear altogetherif they
may
maintained
of the
not
are
corresponding
by renewal
mental

processes,

these.

In this

different
others.
to fade

of mental

or

respect there is

individuals.
But

away

even
:

processes

"so

Some

in the most
that if

a
are

great
more

retentive

they be

not

connected

difference

between

retentive

minds,
sometimes

with

traces

than
tend

renewed

by repeated exercise of the senses, or reflection on those


kinds of objectswhich
at first occasioned
them, the print

"

MENTAL

PROCESS.

at last there

remains

5.]

out, and

wears

Thus

the

experiences,"as

often

die

before

tombs

to

the

which

brass

effaced

in

marble

the

least,

at

be

remarks,

sand."

than

difference

in

represent

seen."

youth,

our

to

those

us

approaching, where, though


are
remain, yet the inscriptions
imagery moulders
away."* The

differences

others

to be

children,of

as

minds

our

retentive

minds

some

marble,"

better

the

explainedon

nothing

fast

are

by time, and

cannot

"like

we

and

differences

part

; and

us

well

77

of

power

individuals

are,

in

in

original endowment, and


psychologicalgrounds. As Locke

retain
"like
The

the

characters

drawn

freestone,"and
ultimate

originalendowment

others

them

on

"little

explanation of this
take a physiological

must

form.

" 5. Conative Continuityand Rctentiveness. The kind of


called conative
have
involves
in a
continuitywhich we
All
characteristic
the
principle of retentiveness.
way
end depends on
the persistence
of the
an
progress towards
the basis
of succeeding
results of previous process
as
change. So in this case, continuityof interest is only
possible if and so far as each succeeding stage of the
"

movement

of consciousness

towards

an

end

is determined

left behind
qualified
disposition
by the cumulative
by
time this cumulative
position
dispreceding stages. At the same
is itself subjectto modification
mode
by each new
Dr. Ward
of consciousness
it emerges.
has given an
as
illustrates this point.
example which partially
of a few minutes
take
we
"Suppose that in the course
half a dozen glancesat a strange and curious flower.
We
have
which
not
as
we
complex presentations
might
many
symbolise as F^ J?^ F3. But rather, at first,only the
general outline is noted, next the dispositionof petals,

and

Locke, Essay Concerning

Human

Understanding, ii.x., 5.

PSYCHOLOGY.

78

r.,
[r.i:.

stamen, etc.,tlien the attachment


the ovary,

and

persistthat
and

an

addition

It is because

on

so

to

of tho

the

later

are

n.

of

anthers, form

the earlier apprehensions

advance

an

en.

them

upon

them."*

excellentlyillustrates the working of


But it
where
there is continuityof interest.
retentiveness
The
does so only partiallyand
for a specialcase.
case
in which
adduced
"earlier apprehensions" recur
is one
as
This

part

example

of the

simultaneous

same

whole

with

the

The

later.

the
"earlier
by which
apprehensions" were
formed
is not itself repeated,inasmuch
the
as
originally
left behind
by previousexperience
preparatory dispositions
render
it unnecessary.
for further
Hence, there is room
advance, for growing distinction and definition within the
total presentation. But with the new
distinctions the old
combined
in the same
This is
also are
complex whole.
of the ways
in which
one
preformed dispositionsmay
the only way.
The
operate. But it is by no means
sistent
perof
traces
modify present
past experience may
of
experienceand be modified by it,without reappearance
of the past experiencein the actual moment
the content
of
process

"

present consciousness.
The effect of rhythmic repetition
of the
because the external
instructive,
peculiarly

same

is

stimulus

occasion

of each

successive

fications
impressionis throughout the same, so that modiof consciousness
of the
arising in the course
be due to the working of retentiveness,
process must
the cumulative
to
dispositionleft behind
by previous
impressions.The sequence of physicalstimuli is a, a, a,
"

the
fact

sequence
that

the

as
repetition,

of mental
second

states
a

another
*

Article

comes

of
"

the

is a^

a.^ a3,

before
same

The

Psychology,"p.

47.

mere

consciousness

kind,

constitutes

as

a
an

MENTAL

"5.]

importantdifference
be

PROCESS.

it and

between

79

the first a.

But, besides

gradual modification of consciousness


in which
the series advances, until a point is reached
as
each new
so
small,
impressionproduces an effect relatively
result of previous
the accumulated
in comparison with
is well brought
to be inappreciable.This
as
impressions,
what is called the "span of
in certain experiments on
out
The
of these experiments is to
consciousness."
purpose
ascertain how
objectsof a certain kind can be appremany
hended
this,there

may

at

once.

It is found

that,after hearingas

many

as

regular intervals of
from 0-2 to 0- 3 seconds,the subjectcan
or
distinguish
identify
whole
another
from
this series as
a
equal or unequal
to it. Counting is not admitted, and the successive sounds
at
all simultaneouslydiscriminated
of
not
course
are
fifteen

the

sixteen

or

the

of

close

sounds

successive

series.

at

"

sensation-mass

"

alone

distinctly
perceived. This is evidentlya cumulative
effect. Apart from
specialexperimentsin the laboratory,
successive
that
can
easilyverify the statement
anyone
close be
at their
series of a
can
rhythmic character
without
mentally reproducing
apprehended as a whole
of
and
apprehension
discriminatingin the moment

is

the
in

sequent parts which

several

walking,

we

mentally

may

steps into distinct groups,

and

when

another

even

series ends

one

know

the

within

walking

and

number

of

divide
aware

We

of paces

our

without

begins.

steps which

single series.

certain number

be

them.

compose

We

Thus,
successive

counting
need

not

nected
mentally consimply begin by
may
without
countingthem,
are

the
the pointsat which
proceed mark
initial series has repeateditself.
We
have so far considered
only the regular sequence of
identical impressions.
But the most
important
physically
and

then

as

we

PSYCHOLOGY.

80

of

cases

of

rhythm

uniform

in which

of

long
syllables,
may

line from

hearing a

have

moment

than

Yet
and

Milton

more

in
diversity
depends on a

and

short

serve

as

or

one

is

That

from

heaven,

of

true

music.

ruin

Yet

ear.

in the

we

it

to

and
In
any
sciousness.
con-

present

acquiresin

it,

unpremeditatedart."

"unpremeditated,"
in place of another.

more

of
are

word

at

aware

consciousness

melody
as

the

the

part of

On

the
the

What

is

case

of

often is the
it strikes

moment

is in

and

ness
is for conscious-

rhythmic structure.
obviously true in
melody may be and

in it the entire

before

comes

whole

last note

the

near

of the wrong

of the

of which

of

word

one

is still

The

or

for

occurrence

only note
It

thy

profusestrains

merely

verse

at

less

full heart

"unstudied"

contrary, the
the

or

this

Pourest
In

result is not

more

Vergil we need not


word
actuallypresent

quitedifferent value for consciousness


in a dictionary
that which
from
sentence
or
Shelley'slines :

Substitute

respects.

illustration.

an

"

other

of accented

or

ir.

singleword appears as part of the


qualifiedin a quite specific
by its place
way
sound
The
of the word
"unpremeditated"

in the whole.
has

en.

similarityin

recurrent

with

which

verse,

recurrence

unaccented

whole

those

are

respectsis combined

certain
The

rhythm

[BE. i.,

present.
quite specific

sense

a
a

its place in
character
from
specific
The cumulative
that whole.
generated by the
disposition
of previous notes
ordered
cooperates with the
sequence
stimulus to the organ of hearing,and the ensuing state
new
is the jointproductof both factors mutually
of consciousness
modifying each other. If a wrong note be struck,the whole
The same
happens if a note is
melody is at once marred.
unduly prolonged. Throughout the process the part is

whole

and

derives

MENTAL

" 6.]
determined

reading a
final

the

by

whole, and

sentence

the

word,

TliOCESS.

or

81

the whole

paragraph,when

of the sentence

meaning

by
we

the

part.

In

to the

come

paragraph as a
consciousness.
whole is present to our
But it is only as a
cumulative
effect of previousprocess. What
is directly
given
datum
is the last word itself and its meaning.
as
a
special
In a similar way, the cumulative
effect of one
paragraph or
and determines
the meaning of
chapterof a book qualifies
another.
set by the side of this highly complex
We
may
Pronounce
the words
case
a very
simpleone.
successively
terminate
identify,
fructify,
mystify,
simplify
; all these words
sound.
in the same
When
we
are
just finishingor have
item of
of each word, the special
justfinished the utterance
sensation before consciousness
is the final sound they have
in common.
The
preceding sounds in which they differ
have
"case

vanished
we

are

This

only be
the

when

by

the

have

said

one

and
fructify

not

we

said

have

we

can

is modified

consciousness;nevertheless,in
that

aware

another,that
on.

from

or

in each

because
final

sound

cumulative

word

each

and

not

mystify,and

instance

so

sciousness,
con-

our

is

being pronounced,
effect of the
preceding

sounds.

This

cumulative

precedingphases of a
conative process on the succeeding,
be called primary
may
in order to distinguish
it from the retentiveretentiveness,
which
is involved
in reproductionand association,
ness
effect of

the

"

processes to be discussed later on.


" 6. Primary meaning. Primary retentiveness
"

with
sum

up

what

call primary
may
the result of the last section

all processes

we

or
having appetitive

meaning.
as

conative

is

lated
corre-

We

may

(1) In
and
continuity,

follows

cumulative
of a series of distinct steps, a
consisting
is gradually formed
is the productof
which
disposition
Psych.

PSYCHOLOGY.

82

antecedent

mental

change,
change.

[BK. i.,

and

en.

cooperativefactor

n.

in

(2) The after-effect of preceding


mental
is not
reproduced, but simply
process
persistsor is retained.
(3) Its persistencein no way
involves
the
the
resuscitation
of
the
persistenceor
items of sensation
mental
or
specific
imagery which have
contributed
it. These
do not
to form
persist,but only
denote
the sequences
of specific
their effects. If we
items
of sense-experience,
be, of ideal imagery, by
or, it may
means
adequately symbolises
#, 5,0, d, then a, J, c, d, by no
the process as a whole.
b occurs, the resulting
For when
is the jointproduct of b and
the
state of consciousness
after-effect left behind
larly,
or
disposition
persistent
by a. Simid occurs,
the resultingstate of consciousness
when
is
left
due to d in cooperationwith the persistent
disposition
behind
by a, 5, and c. We may denote the after-effect of
b by w2, and so on.
The
a by niij the after-effect of a and
then
series may
be represented by a, bmlt cm.,,
whole
succeeding mental

dm-A.
Now

does

what

stand

for ?

What

change or
does it represent?
modification
of consciousness
Clearly,
items 5, c, d, to the
it representsthe relation of the specific
of which
whole
they are part, a peculiarcharacter which
belongs to them in virtue of their being part of this whole.
the only generalword
which
is at all appropriatefor
Now
is the word
meaning
expressingthis kind of consciousness
or
significance
m, then, stands for meaning or significance.
The meaning which
is essentially
involved
in all conative
be designatedprimary meaning, to distinguish
continuitymay
it from
that which
depends on association and
m

"

reproduction.
" 7. Association
am

told that

and

it has

Reproduction.
"

certain

name,

On

seeinga flower,I
Afterwards, I hear

MENTAL

" 7.]
this

pictureof
It

is

it may

again :

name

the

clear

PROCESS.

then

flower,though
that

if I

S3

call up to my mind
a mental
flower is actually
no
present.

had

never

the

seen

flower,the

mental

pictureof the flower would not have arisen.


the originalperceptionof the flower had
suppose
trace behind
it after itself ceasing to exist, that
"

flitted

the surface

over

surface

of

result.

The

without

stream,

mind

of my

would

like

shadow

producing
have

left

no

it had
the

over

permanent

as
justthe same
if I had never
the flower.
The
seen
mere
hearing of the
would
be inoperativeunless there were
name
something
for it to act on,
an
appropriatetrace of past experience
for future experience.
a preparatory disposition
constituting
13ut primary retentiveness
is not in this case
sufficient.
More
is implied than
the mere
effect of the
cumulative
previous phases of a continuous
determining
process
in this instance
works
succeedingphases. Retentiveness
The
of reproduction and
association.
by way
specific
nature
call the perof the originalexperience which
we
ception
case

then

any

Now

been

"

of the

image

of the flower.

mental

image. It
perceptionof

actual

continuous

in the

reinstated
flower,is partially
The

as

name,

this

does

we

through

the flower occurred

reproducesthe

association.
as

part of

the

The
same

the

hearing of the name.


the name
occurs
Hence, when
again,it may re-excite the
mental
by the perception,and
dispositionleft behind
that the mental
re-excite it in such a way
image of the
flower rises before the mind
although no actual flower is
present to

conscious

say,

mental

the

process

In

senses.

certain modification
constitutes

the

so

as

far

as

of consciousness

mere

has

already occurred

general possibilityof

retentiveness takes

the form

of recurrence
possibility

of

fact that

the

its

recurrence,

reproduction.The general

is for the most

part actualised

in

PSYCHOLOGY.

84

[BK. i., en.

n.

The
by association.
dispositionleft
specialcase
be re-excited
behind
if
by the previous experiencemust
the experienceitself is to be reproduced. The
ment
re-exciteis mostly, though not always, effected by a presentation
similar to some
presentationwhich has formed part
total process
with
the
of the
same
experience which
is to be reproduced. This is expressedby saying that the
takes place by the previous association of
re-instatement
the reproduced and
reproducing presentation. In the
example given,the association is between the perceptionof
its name.
The
the flower and
repetitionof the name
revives the mental
image of the absent flower.
" 8. Acquirement of Meaning. Reproduction has a great
modes
and
degrees, according as the original
many
less fully and
instated.
or
experience is more
independently reThe least that can
happen, in order to make the
word
reproductionapplicableat all,is found in a process
of fundamental
ment
importance which we may call the acquiremust
of meaning. We
distinguishbetween
meaning
which
is primary and meaning which is acquired. Primary
of any
series
meaning accompanies the first occurrence
panies
having continuityof interest. Secondary meaning accomits recurrence,
and
depends on the fact that it
each,

"

occurred

has
on

its first

cumulative

whole

is

In

the
has

occurrence

dispositionleft
that

suppose

now

before.

on

the

behind

future

am3.

lmlt

the

dm3,

cm*,

meaning due
by a, b, c.

occasion

the

to

Now,

process

as

Its

of the whole
previousoccurrence
The
of the series
starting-point
but

a,

point of departure is in #, but a


cumulative
produced by the
disposition

repeated.

excites

series

In other

words,

previous experience* Let


".

has
us

series a,
is therefore

bm^

cmZl

dm-6.

longer a,
acquiredmeaning through

consider

the

no

example

of

MENTAL

" 8.]

value

significance,a
"

with

connexion
has

85

first hearing it,the successive

On

tune.

PROCESS.

the

for consciousness
whole.

Now

have

notes

derived

suppose

each

from

that

their

the

tune

repeatedoften enough to become


recognisable.
In order to recogniseit,it is not necessary
to go through
the whole
again. You know what the tune is as soon as
This stands for or
a certain portionof it.
you have heard
the rest ; and if you are only interested in recognising
means
the tune, it is quite unnecessary
to go further, or
even
So, if I begin to
mentally to reproduce what follows.
been

Twice

"

say,
for

go

further.

table

knows

what

to

me

is two, twice

one

two"

hearer

there

"

knows

who

follows

is

as

whole

beginning of the
repetition. The
equivalentto the whole, and it is just because
whole

that

it is unnecessary

to

plication
multi-

the

detailed

the

need

no

without
series
it

is

means

repeat the whole

in

detail.
take

which

belongs to quite a low


A
chick
conscious
life.
level of
on
emerging from
without
the shell, and
previous experience, tends to
all small
objects*. This is
peck at, seize,and swallow
Let

now

us

conative

process,

case

has

which

appetite for food.


first,distinguishbetween

the

of
at

is not.

This

it has

to

for its end

Now

learn

the

what

the

chicken

is edible

cessation
does
and

by experience.

not,
what

It

will

and
pillars
caterpeck at and seize all worms
indiscriminately.There is a particularkind of
this is
called the cinnabar
caterpillar.When
caterpillar
it is pecked at and seized
first presentedto the chicken
it is fairly
similar
like other
as
objects. But as soon
the chicken
next
seized it is dropped in disgust. When
and refrains
it looks at it suspiciously
the caterpillar,
sees
the

at

This

outset

example

is taken

from

Lloyd Morgan's

Habit

and

Instinct,
p.

41.

[BE. i.,

PSYCHOLOGY.

86

en.

n.

pecking. Now, what has happened in this case?


re-excites the total
The
sight of the cinnabar caterpillar
by the previous experience of
dispositionleft behind
pecking at it,seizingit,and ejectingit in disgust. Thus
The
effect of these
the
sight
experiences is revived.
has
of the cinnabar
acquired a meaning. It
caterpillar
from

experienceswhich in the first instance followed


less
it may
them
more
or
it; and just because it means
dispense with the necessityof actuallyrepeating them.
determine
the course
of action that repetition
or
It may
so
items of the previousexperiof the specific
re-instatement
ence
To this extent, it is practically
is needless.
equivalent
means

the

to them

When

thing means

one

or

another.

instead

it functions

in reference
If

along with

means

it

or

to

another, it
certain

b, this
about

of them.

does

with

can,

for certain purposes,

end, be substituted

not

it.

imply
We

that

for

carries b

might as
always have

well

five
five-pound note must
wrapped up in it. The note will pass
sovereignsliterally
the
instead of five sovereigns,
and in like manner
current
of the cinnabar
will,
caterpillar
peculiarvisual appearance
in some
degree,pass current instead 'ofthe peculiarsensation
has previouslyfollowed
it. It re-excites
of disgustwhich
left behind
the whole disposition
by the previous process,
and it re-excites this disposition
ithas been modified in the
as
of previousprocess.
course
Consequently,this process will
stand
But to undernot take placeagain as it took placebefore.
the special
kind of transformation
which it undergoes,
take into account
must
the essential nature
of appetitive
we
This lies in its being directed to an end, in the
process.
of the chicken,the satisfaction of the appetite
for food.
case
This tendency towards
end is manifested
in one
an
general
character of all appetitive
Lines of action,
if and
process.
suppose

that

"

MENTAL

" 8.]

so

far

as

varied

they are

; and

In this way,

unsuccessful,tend

those which
for

PROCESS.

S;

to

be

discontinued

to
successful,

prove

instance,accuracy

in the

be maintained.

act

of

attained

the

unsuccessful
an

pecking is
tries again

When
it misses, it
by the chicken.
again with slightvariations until it succeeds,and
successful adjustments which
tend to persist,
and

and

which

end, whether

ipsofacto an

holds

causes

the

end

endeavour

Everything in
success,

eliminated.

are

the way

be
to

The

endeavour

consciouslyforeseen
avoid

of check

dissatisfaction

and

failure
or

or

and

impediment

it is
the

towards
or

not, is

obstruction.
or

altered behaviour.

want

of
This

in its primary occurrence


good of appetitive
activity
;
characterised
is
w
ith
varied
effort.
it
always
by persistence
also hold good for its repetition.Here, too,
The same
must
the lines of action which
proved unsuccessful on its primary
will be suppressedwhenever
the conditions under
occurrence
which
recognisable.
they previously led to failure are
Thus, the sight of the peculiarmarkings of the cinnabar
will, at the outset, by its acquired meaning,
caterpillar
In other words,
repress the tendency to peck and swallow.
far as the end of action is concerned, the sight of the
so
is superior to the actual taste of it, just as
caterpillar
cheques and paper money generallyare for certain purposes
superiorto coin.
called the acquirement of
The
have
we
process which
in the way
of reproduction
meaning is the minimum
learningby experience. All
requiredto explainintelligent
modes
of reproduction
more
it,and
specific
pre-suppose
their guiding efficacyto it. All revival of specific
owe
items
and
the like,in so far as it makes
of sensation
possibleintelligent
adaptation to the result of previous
make
definite and
more
explicitthe
experience,must
which arises from the re-excitement
peculiarconsciousness

PSYCHOLOGY.

88

[BE. i.,

CH.

n.

dispositionleft behind by previous process


have
The
case
we
explained in a
analysed is sometimes
the chick sees
It is said that when
different way.
again
the caterpillar,
which
it has previouslyejectedin disgust,
the previoussensation of disgustis reproducedby the sight
The primary
of the peculiarmarkings of the caterpillar.
of the caterpillar;
experienceof disgustprompted the ejection
sensation
will lead the
hence, it is argued, the revived
morsel.
chicken to refuse the unsavoury
Now, it is probable
enough that something which may be called a revival of
the disgustingsensation,actuallytakes place; but this is
and possiblynot necessary,
to account
for
not sufficient,
the result.
According to the proposed explanation,the
chick has (1) a primary sense
experience,the sight of the
and
(2) a faintlyrevived sensation of disgust.
caterpillar,
of

What

tlie total

must

follow

the other

Each

of the

two

sensations,the

one

secondary,independentlyprompt to
kind of action,and the result can
a certain
only be a sort
of mechanical
not intelligent
interference,
guidance. The
visual experience prompts to picking and
seizing. The
revived
distaste prompts to the act of ejectingor dropping
The tendencyto ejection
from the beak.
ought to interfere
with the act of pecking only in so far as the two
ments
moveare
mechanicallyincompatible. One would expect
alternation
blend of the two movements,
or
an
a nondescript
be a product
them.
behaviour
cannot
between
Intelligent
of such conditions.
Two
motor
impulses of a quasi-reflex
and
character
are
brought together in a mechanical
way,
resultant.
nothing can ensue
except a sort of mechanical
It is true that if it be granted that the sightof the cinnabar
the first,
a
has, from
meaning, this
specific
caterpillar
meaning may be rendered more
explicit
by re-instatement
of disgust. But the mere
re-instatement
of the sensation
primary, and

MENTAL

" 8.]
of

the

of

sensation
for the

account

PROCESS.

80

disgust taken

result,whereas

by itself does not


ing
acquirement of mean-

the

for the result apart from


the revival
might account
sensation.
In the case
of the specific
are
we
discussing,
there probably is a certain revival of sensation,though
and not by direct association.*
it takes placein a peculiarway,

Acquirement of meaning is that


which
nearly in
approaches most
It might indeed
be
retentiveness.
the

existence

phases
their
process

of

of

must

deduced

effect,the

tend

form

to

concur

renewal

to re-excite

of

reproduction
to primary

its nature

primary retentiveness.

process

cumulative

mode

priori from

If the
total
of

successive

as
disposition

part

of

the

disposition.Just as in
the specific
items of previous
succeeding experience,but
this

primary retentiveness it is not


experience which persist in
due to the cumulative
only a modification of consciousness
position
disthe re-excitement
of the cumulative
so
disposition,
involve revival of the specific
does not necessarily
items of previous experience,and it must
involve
thing
somedifferent from this.
It must
involve
what primary
of conretentiveness
sciousness
involves, that peculiarmodification
which
we
can
only call apprehensionof meaning
the part
of the peculiarcharacter
which
or
significance
"

"

derives

We

from
have

its relation

to

the

consider

whole.

modes

of

reproductionmore
in their nature
of a
than the general re- excitement
specific
These more
total disposition.
modes
of reproduction
specific
manifold
and
forms
assume
gradations,which are to be
regarded as stages in the evolution of meaning towards
definiteness and
explicitness.Meaning unfolds into them
the seed unfolds into the plant.
as
now

to

Cf.end

of

"

9.

PSYCHOLOGY.

90

"

9.

[BK. i.,

en.

ir.

plication.
of Specific
Reproduction. (#) Com-

Tlie various modes

Being reproduced is something different from


being produced again. Repeated production involves a
But
of the producing conditions.
renewal
reproduction
conditions of production
exists onlyin so far as the original
are
inoperative(see" 7). Apart from the renewal of these,
of the reproducedexperience
of itself
the previous
occurrence
This necessarily
of recurrence.
constitutes the possibility
has left behind
a
implies that the previous occurrence
persistenttrace or disposition.But previous occurrence
of recurrence.
constitutes
only the general possibility
The
excitingcause, in so far as the revival depends on
"

is
association,*

^4,

found
has

which

relation
psychological

consist

association

consciousness,as
conative

relations which
in

parts
The

process.

of another

occurrence

previously existed in some


which
to B, the presentation

main, the

In the

of

in the

the

or

union

the

of

phases of

readiness

operateas
the

with

same

which

two

tion,
presentakind

of

is reproduced.
conditions
modes

of

continuous
associations

formed, and their strength,depend largely on the


the
to
importance of the
presentationsin relation
whole
activityof which they form a part. The strength
of the association is also,to a very great extent, dependent
are

on

the

number

of

times

associated

has
presentations
Specificreproduction may
forms and degrees. Let us

A,

and

that with which

the

connexion

been

repeated.

assume

it has

the

great variety of

call the

between

reproducing presentation,

been

associated,B

the

reproducedpresentationmay be denoted by I. Now, the


the
forms
of reproductiveprocess depend (1) on
various
varying relation of I to A, (2)on the varying degrees of
completenessin which I correspondsto B. These points
*

This

is

by

no

means

always the

case.

MENTAL

I 9.]
of view

PROCESS.

91

intimatelyconnected.

are

integralpart of A, or it may have a


when
to be capable of persisting
so
as
the

second

and

clearness

the

is

be

may

distinct
has

of

either

an

individuality,
vanished.

In

free

reproduction:
b is an
when
pendent
integralpart of A and incapable of indethe process is called complication,
because
existence,
the result is merely a change in the constitution of A, and
for the most
part an increase in its complexity. The facility
case,

colour

as

intimate

is the

characters

is hard

We

which

of

union

be

can

form.

of

In

with

take

more

whether
as

or

not

general,

the

partialand
reproductionof B, so

to decide

may

is from

A, the

is the

one

and sepadistinguished
rately
attended
admits of many
to in the wThole complex A
gradations. It may be as intimatelyinterfused with the
whole as the red and blue which
each other
interpenetrate
t"e as easilydisenin purple. On the other hand
it may
gaged

modified

with

process

other

the
that

there

typicalexample
of quality which

more

constituent

profoundly

more

in

the

some

cases

it

is any
of

reproduction.
complicationthe

attach
sounds
to
peculiar differences
accordingto the various modes in which they are produced.
We
distinguish clapping, crashing, clashing,hissing,
ling
bursting,splitting,
rending,grinding,rushing, and whistnoises.

Now

these

sounds

doubtless

have

distinctive

considered
qualities,

But it
merely as auditorysensations.
clear that they also have acquired modalities
due to
seems
association.
In producingthem we have in each case
certain
distinctive experiencesof movement
and in
and resistance,
seeingthem produced similar experiencesare excited in a
the sounds
When
are
partialand inchoate way.
merely

heard

their

modified

qualityis partlyconstituted by
reproduction of these sensations.

element

is not

partialand
The

duced
repro-

without
usuallydistinguished

an

PSYCHOLOGY.

92

[BK. I., en.

n.

act of

But
it is none
the less
analyticattention.
present as a peculiarmodality of the auditoryexperience.
ing
Perhaps this will be most clearlybrought out by considerthe imitative words
by which the nature of such sounds
word
is commonly expressed. The
"clap" resembles the
"hiss"
the sound
of hissing,
sound
of clapping,the word
the sound of tearing. But on examination
tear
and the word
that the resemblance
it soon
by no means
appears
considered
lies wThollyin the sounds
tions.
merely as ear-sensathe movements
of articulation.
It depends also on
In saying clap,"the lipsare clappedtogether; in saying
hiss,"the breath is driven through a narrowed
aperture ;
from
the
in saying "tear," the tongue is pulled away
express

"

"

"

"

similar
instances
do
and
not
we
palate. In these
the motor
and the purely
distinguishbetween
ordinarily
So in the originalexperienceswhich
auditory imitation.
imitated

are

the

two

factors

distinction,
constitutinga complex
escapes

analysisuntil the
is brought to bear

sound

the

associated

such

as

motor

reflective

it.
upon
is the dominant

element

combined

are

appears

without

qualitywhich
logist
scrutinyof the psychoIn this complex quality
constituent,and the
sensory

as

modification

of the

sound.

cation
(1) to the qualifiand
of sight by touch
resistance,and (2) to the
of touch and resistance by sight.
qualification
"The
sightof a suit of polishedarmour," says Dr. "Ward,
all that we
instantlyreinstates and steadilymaintains
For

further

illustration

we

may

refer

11

retain of former

coldness*."

and

But this
*

Article

57.

sensations
The

armour

peculiar
appearance

of its hardness
looks
to the

and

smoothness

hard, smooth, and cold.


eye does not necessarily

"Psychology," EncyclopaediaBritannica, 9th edition,part

xs.,

MENTAL

" 9.]
involve

distinct

any
of

sensation

They

hardness, smoothness,

separate

itself.

The

modification

and

other

reproduction

manifests

of

the

visual

we

have

felt it to be cold.

visual

looks

been

the

touch,it would have looked warm.


is it a
is not a suggested idea ; nor
sensation.
It is something which

duced
repro-

experience
rather

addition

an

"

If it had

not

The

consciousness.

itself

experience
ice
unanalysed complexity. Similarly,

separate

or

coldness.

or

distinct modes

and

from

of the

idea

experiencesare

discriminated

not

are

93

representationor

correspondingtactile
as

PROCESS.

cold

as

to

distinct

its

because

always warm
Yet

its cold

to

look

temperature-

presented as if
included
in the visual appearance
an
as
integralpart of it.
Any attempt to separate it destroysboth its own
specific
character and that of the visual experience.
If (2)we
turn to the converse
now
case, the qualification
of actual touch experienceby revived visual experience,
we
find the union of the constituents of the complex much
looser.
This does not mean
that they are
more
easily separable;
human
for the association in normal
experienceis almost,
if not quite,indissoluble.
the tactual experience
But when
is primary,the reinstated
visual experienceis much
more
prominent, more
readily distinguishableand separately
when
than
is the reproduced tactual element
appreciable,
of
have here a case
the visual experienceis primary. We
complicationwhich approaches most closelyto free reproduction.
close our
When
we
we
eyes and touch an object,
distinct picture of the surface
need
indeed
have
not
a
touched.
But the slightest
reflective scrutinyis enough to
that the total impression is complex, containinga
show
visual
cases,

tactual

as

that
or

well
the
even

as

tactual

visual
more

constituent,and

constituent
so.

is

is

as

also, in

prominent as

most

the

PSYCHOLOGY.

94

[BK

i., cii.

n.

Reproduction. In free reproduction,the reproduced


of consciousness,b, is capable of existing
mode

Free
(Z")

"

the

apart from,

its

of
follow
has

which

in

Dr.

says

sightof

suit of

sensations

former

all the

actual

discussed

how

to observe

the

perceptionsare

at

later

stage.

tion,
complicais bound

difference,'
the

retain

we

of
and

sightgradually

same

of

now

crusades,and
The

of romance."*4

distinction

of their

nature

the

smoothness

and

changing imagery
and

far

first how

all that

of tournaments,

example, instantly

for

this

fore
there-

when

this

observe

to

its hardness

characteristics of ideas
from

only

polishedarmour,
of

coldness,and then
calls up
ideas, now

through

need

dividual
in-

an

can

In
of

realise

"To

it

supply by

existence

steadily maintains

and

reinstates

so

of A.

"we

Ward,

the

hand,

the existence

with

up

other

the

on

ideas

has

exist

to

important illustration.

and

familiar

of

Trains

and

A,

time, continuing

disappeared.

most

distinct from

own

it.

reinstates

topics which

wrill be

fully
here

It is sufficient to notice

reproductionwhich can be called an idea,


have sufficient independence to be capableof forming
must
be
distinct link in a train of thought ; (2) that it must
a
relation,
the thought of an object,such as a thing,quality,
(1)that

any

event, and

or

(3)

that

not

just

crude

mere

because

an

idea

faint;

sensation,however
from

differs

actual

an

reproduction!is always of a partial


The mental
character.
image of the flower,
" 7).
by the name, is a typicalillustration ("/.,

perception,ideal
modified

and

called up

as

in every

Is free revival

take

other

forms

ever

re-instated ?

In
Can

sensational character
*

Ibid.

case

ideal

revival,or

are
particular,

they

without

f Reproduction

be

which

sensations,as
in their

recalled

recurrence

takes

does

of the
the

form

it also

such,

original

appropriate
of

an

idea.

MEXTAL

" 9.]
stimulus

external

This

Broadly speaking, we
of
abnormal

of

may

sensations, as

event.

But

of

certain

sensations

PKOCESS.

the

there

is

important question.

an

affirm

that

such,*
is

95

an

class may

is

the

direct

duction
repro-

exceptionalaii.l
indirect process by which
be re-excited,
although
an

conditions

determiningtheir first occurrence


sensations
are
by no means
operative. Some
belong to
the class called organic. It is characteristic of these that
they are immediatelyexcited,not by impressionsupon the
external
of sense, but by the changing states of
organs
the internal organs, such as muscles, glands,and
the like.
Now, change in the state of these internal organs
is, in a
determined
from within the body
very importantmeasure,
by changing conditions of the nervous
system. Any strong
disturbance
tends
to
the
nervous
discharge itself over
whole
heartbeat,tension of
organism,affecting
respiration,
some

the
a

muscles, circulation
disturbance

nervous

by
But

external

an

it may

be

of the
may,

blood, secretion,etc.

in the

impression such
afterwards

first
as

instance,bo
wound

or

Such
set up

blow.

less

reproduced by
association without the external impression,
and it may
then
internally
generate organic sensations bearing a marked
to those which
rence.
similarity
accompanied its originaloccurThese
sensations
without
improprietybo said
may
The
to be
reproduced,though in a circuitous manner.
is indirectly
it
re-instated,and
physiologicalstimulus
directlyproduces the sensation.
Tickling is not merely
skin- sensation.
The
skin-sensation
sets
a
changes
up
the

in

central

more

or

system which

nervous

determine

diffused

organic disturbance, including spasmodic movements,


what
and
the
constitutes
resultingorganic sensation
*

and

such,
as
By sensation,
liveliness which

acting on

is meant

it possesses

sense-organ.

sensation

when

with

the

produced by

an

peculiarintensify
external stimulus

PSYCHOLOGY.

90

is most

in
specific

the

similar

effect may

be

[BE. I.,
tickled.

experienceof being
induced

actual

without

en.

n.

But

By

contact.

merely making believe to tickle a sensitive person it is


the
disturbance
with
possible to produce the nervous
resultingorganic sensations and convulsive movements.
food may
the mere
In like manner,
sight of nauseous
duce
prointense
and
nausea
even
vomiting. The
organic
be occasioned
discomfort
which may
by merely looking on
ments,
at a surgical
by seeing surgicalinstruoperation,or even
has the same
origin.
In actual
reproduction,
" 10. Facilitation and Arrest.
"

mental

one

reinstates

process

actual re-instatement,we
mental

one

into

process

have

may

favour

may

But

another.

of the

entrance

other

actuallyintroducing it

consciousness,without

of

facilitation.The

mere

the

instead

into

consciousness.
Facilitation
under

assume

may

diverse

many

characteristic
concentrated

conditions.

of attention.
the

on

whatever

sign or
accordingly. Her

forms

many

sick

The

is

it

movement

mind

It

and

in

to

general

place

essential

an

attention

is

notice

pre-disposedto

makes,

is set

is

whose

nurse

child

take

and

take

action

attitude

of

to her from
this
impressions come
This
to a certain
source.
general attitude of response
kind of stimulus may
persisteven when conscious attention
The
who
has itself ceased.
nurse
goes to sleepwith her
concentrated
be
attention
child
is likely to
the
on
awakened
by the slightestcry from it, though more

response

sounds

intense
Under

bring
paper

to whatever

the
a

on

fact
' '

fail to disturb
head

her

repose.

of facilitation due

noticed

by

Forgetfulness.

Mr.

Verdon

'

* '

*Mwd,

'*

to

in

attention
a

Individuals

449.
Q,S. ii.,

very

we

may

interesting

often remember

MENTAL

" 10.]

PROCESS.

97

clearlyand well up to the time when


they have to use
their knowledge, and then, when
it is no longerrequired,
extensive
there follows a rapid and
decay of the traces.
Many schoolboysforget their lessons after they have said
barristers forgetdetails got up for a particular
them ; many
case.
Thus, a boy learns thirtylines of Homer, says them
that he could not say
and then forgetsthem
so
perfectly,
five consecutive
lines the next
morning, and a barrister
be one
learned in the mysteries of making cogweek
wheels,
may
but in the next
he may
be well acquaintedwith
the

anatomy

of

general direction

the

ribs instead."

In

other

words,

the

of interest facilitates the recall of certain

experiences. It makes
more
readily excitable.
depend on direct attention

the

corresponding dispositions
This
seems
only partiallyto
to
to the specialsubject-matter
be remembered.
barrister who
The
keeps in mind for a
week
"the
mysteries of making cog-wheels" does so
through generalinterest in the case which he has in hand,
and not by constantlythinking of cog-wheels. In other
tained
mainare
words, the corresponding mental
dispositions
in an
excitable condition,not so much
by attending
thing
directlyto the subject matter, as by attending to someSo
it.
connected
with
long as the need for
of having something
remembering remains, there is a sense
When
the need
the mind.
no
on
longer exists,
of
a
feeling of relief is experienced, and the power
remembering disappears.
of verse,
If we
learn something by heart, e.g., a page
afterwards so far forgetit as to be unable to recall
we
may
the words

in their proper

learningit anew.
very
The

much

less

But

on

time

originallearningby
Psych.

order.

We

the second
to

do

heart

so

has

may

then

occasion
than

on

set about

take

it may

first.

the

the second.
facilitated
7

PSYCHOLOGY.

98

The

[BK. i.f

of facilitation is well

nature

carried

illustrated

by Professor
words
Printed
variously mis-spelt were
for a period of about
exposed on a screen
The
second.
subject of the experiment was
of

experiments

read

and

often without

most

here

have

We

nothing to
What

mistakes.

of the

word

was

made.

be

The

number

in the

few

very

most

noted

the

before

observed

were

does

interest

latter

was

to

on

rectly,
part incor-

spelling.
frequency

and

suggest the word


and

seen,

quiteas frequentlyas
between

printedword was
helped the entrance

after the

the results of the

confirm

is the effect produced

us

called out

relation

the

cases,

association

called

wrong

the nature

of

word

did the word

cases

shown

In

be

to

noticingthe

do with

one-fifth

for the most

so

series

association with
having some
shown
immediately before the exposure
result of this was
always a great increase
overlooked.
of mis-spellings
"In
only a

by callingout
the

did

n.

Pillsbury.*
successively

out

He

words.

off these

in

CH.

In

seen.

the

at other

such

word

times.
was

cases,

the

It seemed

to

impression,and

the

prints
mis-

words

two

of the word.

visual

that

the

then

to

to

give a

the

word

feeling of

confidence

intended."

called, though they did not of


actuallyreproduce other words, yet facilitated
The

themselves

Arrest

be

may

one

direction

process

as

"

of her

tends to hinder
it does

Study

in

not

negative side

the

interest.
the

In

occurrence

facilitate their

Apperception,"American

the

on

The

child,is apt

connected

not

certain

of others.

occurrence

are

of facilitation.

of

occurrence

concentrated

impressions which

of another.

than

the

as

facilitates

attention

with

overlook

fir

rather

processes is a bar to the

nurse,

main

word

regarded

Whatever
mental

was

words

of
perception

the

seen

with

to

the

general, any mental


of others,if and so

occurrence.

Journal

of Psychology,viii. 3.

MENTAL

"11.]

"11. Habit
attention

they

^Automatism.

and

In

such

automatic,to

go

on

in

engages

crowded

street

that

probably

in

of

itself.

music,

while

absorbed

is

clearest

more

and

or

the

less

What

there
details

is

the

diversion

be

said

of

The

he is

of

examples

those

are
a

person

the

samo

through
be

It should

of attention

musician,

is
for

playing a piece
is not
utterly

walker

he is in

be

to

crowded

street

and

in

is that in such
confidently
and discriminatingattention to
persistent
This
distinction helps us
action.
the
to
can

no

that

aware

absent-minded

motion.

understand

requiring

his way

thought.

absolutelycomplete.

of the fact that

the

action

threads
in

instances

oblivious

cases

"The

conversation,or

such

never

instance,is
of

instances,the

taking place apart from attention


attention is otherwise
occupied,as when
plays on a musical instrument, and at

knits,or

noted

at first

action

in which

Actions

"

performed without attention when


similar
frequently repeated under
sufficiently

conditions.

time

99

be

to

come

are

habitual

PROCESS.

another

asserted

of

group

habitual

actions

which

do

to fall into the state of secondary automatism,


appear
however
much
they may be practised. Fencing supplies

not

good

afford
train

instance
to

of

allow

in

himself

thought

contrary, the

point.
while

keenest

The

to

most

be

he is

expert fencer

absorbed

engaged

watchfulness

in
in
is

an

duel.

cannot

irrelevant
On

required.

the
The

only certain component parts of the action


have become
selves
thoroughly habitual ; these do not of themrequireto be attended to. The practisedfencer has
not
about
the proper
modes
of thrusting and
to think
parrying; what requires attention is the tactics of his
he discerns by sightor feelingthe
as
opponent. As soon
direction in which
his antagonist's
rapier is moving, the
automatically.Thus, attention is
proper reply is made
reason

is that

PSYCHOLOGY.

100

for

demanded

the

[BK. i., CH.

combination

proper

series

of

severallyautomatic,a combination
has to be adjusted to constantlyfluctuatingconditions.
union
of attentive adaptation to relatively
The
with
automatic
stances
circumstances
adaptationto circummore
uniformlyrepeated is found in all ordinary
which,

movements

which

novel

are

Thus, the decision


voluntary action.
requireattention,but the process
may
it and

volition

volition

in their

are

When

we

will,"we

of
or

the
We

attention.

into

blow

of

out

walking

bodily actions.

to

of will.

have

speak
do not

seen

of

of

that

which

There

candle

towards

"habit

that

of
the

are

thought

course,

that

processes

mean

processes

total process

Of

nature

very

specialtrains

fencing, "automatic
parts

and

thought

attention.
habit

confined

is not
of

habits

to

is automatic."*

blowing

Habit

"

of

n.

also
and

involve

thought" or
specialacts

of

thought can go on without


in such bodily activities as
enter

may
a

as

whole

as

component

is very

far from

inverse of this is seen


in habits of
The
being automatic.
a
comprehensive habitual
thinking and willing. Here
of
tendency realises itself on specialoccasions by means
specialprocesses which are not habitual."! We may take
an
as
example the habit of answering letters on the day
received.
which they are
Here, what is habitual and
on
is not the actual process of writingthe reply
automatic
but the writingof the
this,of course, requires attention
day on which the letter is received is a
reply on the same
automatic
and
habitual
procedure. It takes place as a
The
alternative
of postponing it to
of course.
matter
another day is not entertained without
exceptionalmotives.
A
good instance of a habit of thought is that of the
There
are
some
continually
making of puns.
persons who
"

"

Analytic Psychology,vol. i.,pp.

260-261.

f Ibid,p. 262.

MENTAL

" 11.]
make

simply because

puns

Of course
doing1so.
but the general trend
of

than

in other

The

PROCESS.

each

formation

of

is

habit

distinct conditions.

they have fallen into the habit


singlepun requiresattention ;

of attention

directions

The

if and

walk.

Let

This

cease,

take

us

at the

the

as

involves

outset

series of contractions

proportionsand
the

aimed

end

in

two

second
which

their

as

the child

end

is

learningto

full attention.

At

"

of intention

of certain

the

only

muscles, in

proper

order, is capable of realising

proper

at, with

far

so

example

an

; the

conation,accordingto

outset, performance falls far short


certain

operationof

first is retentiveness

conative

rather

of habit.

involves

of

attained.

in this direction

matter

lies in the essential nature


processes

101

the

maximum

of

rapidityand

of obstruction
and
failure,
certainty,and the minimum
At the outset of the process of
and correspondingeffort.
muscles
contracted which
are
are
superfluous,
acquisition,
and
which
therefore
disturbing conditions.
operate as
Others
and in the
not contracted
at the rightmoment,
are
the effort
that action is deranged. Now
so
rightmeasure,
to attain

the

obstruction

end

is,eo ipso,an

; hence

will

there

effort to
be

avoid

failure

and

tendency

constant

to

alter muscular

ful.
adjustmentsin so far as they are unsuccessHence
arise gradual approximationsto success, and
it is these which
are
permanently retained,while all that
belongs to the process of trial,as such, disappears. In

this

way

fixed

and

organised, which
effort, without
"

It will be

seen

of facilitation.
conation

can

series

uniform
go

trial and

on

of

facilitate

movements

itself without

of habit is

left behind
dispositions
subsequent conation in the
*

is

conscious

failure.*

that the formation


The

of

Op. cit.,
pp.

267-268.

example
by previous
an

attainment

of

end.

its

point
the

at

"When

12.

becomes

them
we

are

conscious

When,

be

taken

view

there
from

the
the

is

in

into

with

of

nervous

physiological

and

hand,

other

physiological
place.

it

both
is

Ibid,

p.

in

of

also

view.
as

are

23.

sidering
con-

When
of

trace

of

desire
the

in

are

psychological

psychical

appropriate

psycho-physical disposition."*
*

purely

we

side,

WTien

account,

operation

merely

it

They
Their

pre-condition

call

may

of

point

disposition

regarded

facts.

advantages

many

so

structure.

by

us

conscious

be

may

mode

as

process,

physiological

to

words

as

nervous

as

and

are

we

process,
on

necessary,

such

But

dispositions

consciousness,

exclusively
disposition

of

considering

previous

"

and

revealed

But

evidence.

n.

maintained

view.

correlated

modifications

instance

first

hitherto

of

inter-connexion,

existence,
the

is

point

persistent

en.

reaches

longer

no

using

"

have

we

point

traces

another

from

traces,

general

In

Dispositions.

psychological

psychological

is

I.,

automatic.

and

in

process

facilitation

of

process
endeavour

Physiological

dispositions

strictly

this

conscious

which

action

"

are

[BK.

PSYCHOLOGY.

102

further

disposition.
to

consider

physiological

term

simultaneously
to

speak

to

of

CHAPTER

1.

"

PSYCHOLOGY"

"FACULTY

THE

Introductory. There

of them

obsolete

"

and

the

other

these

pre-suppose

theories

the ways

popular mind, and,


fallacies

said

to

two

"

"

But

2.

ASSOCIATIONISM.

general theories of
development of great historical importance. One
the "Faculty Psychology
be pronounced
may

obsolescent.

"

AND

are

"

mental

account

HI.

so

of

obtained

they

as

is

"

least

at

speaking and thinking which

have

far

natural, that

so

Associationism

"

hold

on

the

false,they represent

are

it is worth

such

while

to

give a

critical

of them.
The
be

statingthe

"An

"Faculty Psychology"

"

individual

explainedby pointing out

its cause,

that

law

of which

its

laws

of causation

fact is

is, by

production
Thus
is an instance.
is explained,when
a conflagration
it is proved to have
arisen from
a
spark fallinginto the
in a similar manner,
And
midst of a heap of combustibles.
law
is said to be explained
a
or
uniformity in nature
when
law or laws are pointed out, of which
that
another
law

or

itself is but

deduced."*

Now

two

terms,

own,

product.
by which

Where

"

this

cause

from

of causation

and

effect,antecedent

can

condition
*

and

law

Each
it

case,

of these
be

must

states

process

have

103

and

character

fulfilled there

Mill,Logic, 9th edition,vol. i.,p.

be

relation between

conceived
definitely

is not

it could

which

540.

and
is

ing
resultof its

described.
no

causal

PSYCHOLOGY.

104

law,

and

explanation

be its

own

cause,

is

and

[BE. I.,

impossible.

An

en.

effect

cannot, therefore,afford its

nr.

not
canown

it is a
fallacy of not infrequent
explanation. But
what
turns
tion
examinato assignas a cause
out on
occurrence
to be
only the effect itself,expressed in different
of the fallacy called
language. This is a specialcase
and it usually consists in adducing
argument in a circle,"
the cause
of a specialfact the generalconceptionunder
as
which
The
classical instance of this
it is comprehended.
confusion
is the replyof Moliere's physicianto the question,
11
Why does opium produce sleep?
Opium," lie answers,
"produces sleepbecause it has a soporific
tendency." It
is to be noted that the fallacydoes not lie in reducing the
assumed
to the general,for this is the form
particular
by
all explanation. The
generalisedeffect (soporific
virtue)
is adduced
the cause
of the specialeffect (the producas
tion
of sleep by opium). But
to explain,we
in order
be
the fact
to
require a generalised relation between
other fact
which
determines
it
some
explained and
Thus, we may
explainwhy a person goes to sleep by his
having taken opium, but not by his possessionof a power
"

"

"

of somnolescence.
In

psychology,the fallacywe have described needs to be


The
form which
it is
guarded against with specialcare.
is that of referringa mental
state
to a
apt to assume
corresponding "faculty." To say that an individual mind
possesses a certain facultyis merely to say that it is capable
of certain states
To assignthe faculty as a
or
processes.
cause,

or

as

real

condition

of the

states

or

processes,

is

it is
evidentlyto explain in a circle,or in other words
failure to explain at all. Thus, it is futile to
mere
a
is due
to Will
say that a particularvoluntary decision
as a faculty. It is equallyfutile to say that extraordinary

PSYCHOLOGY.

FACULTY

" 2.]

105

in a voluntarydecision is due to an extraordinary


persistence
strength of Will, or of Will-power, or of the Faculty of
Will.
AVe
explain nothing1 by asserting that certain
mental
of

Reason,

have

that

the

one

certain

statements
a

in

have

man

that certain

or

their

true

processes

in

source

the

their

other

in the

source

processes

Faculty

in lower

of Instinct.

Faculty
animals

It may

be

Compound Faculty includingon


the other
of judgment, and
hand
the power
on
But such
of feelingor sentiment.
susceptibility
for the actual generation of
in no
account
way
is

conscience

scrupleor

twinge

of conscience.*
"

FacultyPsychology
A
take either a positiveor a merely negative form.
may
regarded as an agency or real
facultymay be explicitly
condition, producing its own
specialmanifestation, and
faculties
as
similarlyconceived
interactingwith other
But
such
a
position has
agencies or real conditions.
without
disguiseor equivocation.
rarelybeen maintained
The

What

fallacyof

we

reference

what

has been

find is rather
of this

or

called

tendency

that state

or

* '

to

rest

process

to

satisfied with
a

corresponding

inquiryfurther so as to raise
to
the
a
explanation. Reference
question of causal
faculty,
though it is futile from the point of view of causal
the less have
a
none
good and useful
explanation,may
meaning from another pointof view, that of classification.
kind
of classification is a primary necessityfor
Now
some
faculty without

pushing

the

"

of the will,"has brought


Locke, in criticisingthe phrase, "freedom
of this fallacy. "We
out
as
properly say,
may
clearly the nature
very
the
that it is the singing faculty sings, and
dancing faculty dances, as
usual
that the will chooses,or that the understanding conceives
; or, as is
that
the
the will directs
understanding, or the understanding obeys, or
to say
and
intelligible
obeys not the will ; it being altogether as proper
of
of singing,or the power
of speaking directs the power
that the power
of speaking."
Essay on Human
singing obeys or disobeys the power
Understanding,bk. ii.,ch. 21, " 17.
*

PSYCHOLOGY.

106

psychologist. To divide and


modes
of consciousness
fluctuating
the

that

each

receive

[BK. I.,
arrange
in

CH.

the various

distinct and

in.

and

orderly

appropriatename,
small
achievement.
this is in itself no
Many of the
absorbed
in inquiries
of this
earlier psychologists
were
so
for discussingquestions
that they ignored the need
nature
that
of origin and
development. They tacitlyassumed
of classification. .If they had
the whole
one
problem was
there
held and
expressed this view with full distinctness,
with
would
have
been
a
no
ground for charging them
fallacyof confusion, and the Faculty Psychology could
of reproach. But they were
not be justlyused as a term
by
no
means
completelyclear as to their own
position. They
and
did not fullyrealize that they were
only classifying
not explaining. They would
probablyhave repudiatedthe
charge that they treated faculties as real agencies if the
formulated.
But none
the less,
charge had been distinctly
implied causal
language which
they frequently used
both
between
relation
faculty and special process and
manner,

so

between

different

may

an

"

faculties.

expressionhad a disastrous
of explanationwithout
effect. It created
an
appearance
and in this way
the reality,
seriouslyretarded the progress
the word
of knowledge. For this reason
"faculty" has
almost
psychology. But the
passed out of use in modern
fallacydoes not necessarilydisappear with the word in
often found
which
it has so
are
by no
expression. We
in the present day. It is,
secure
means
againstit even
student
the
to warn
therefore, necessary
against this
peculiarmode of explanationin a circle,and to insist on
the necessity of real explanationby definite conditions,
giving rise to definite results,accordingto a fixed order.
Faculty Psychology is valuable,
" 3. Associationism.
Indulgence in

such

modes

"

of

FACULTY

"3.]
if

at

all, only

ultimate

aim

becomes

what

as

of

PSYCHOLOGY.

scheme

science

of

107

classification.

But

the

is to

explain and not merely to


once
classify.Hence, when
explanatory principlescame
be
to
and
clearly conceived
expounded the Faculty
in
Psychology tended to disappear. Its greatest enemy
modern
times
has
been
the theory of reproduction as
determined
This theory,when
by Association.
pushed to
of explanati
an
extreme, so as to exclude all other modes
:"n,
Mill

James
TIerbart

"Associationism."

is called
in

and

England,
Germany, may

in

be

in
taken

assumption which

lies at the basis

mental

can

if and

conditions
so

far

state

parts and

by

of

writers

different

very

of Associationism

only give rise

to

way

types of it.

as

mental

as

The

is that

product,

in the product as its components.


they reappear
this point of view, to explainthe originof

as

From
a

Such

consciousness
show

how
As

association.

is to

they
all

its constituent

enumerate

with

to cohere

came

words

are

each

other

together out

put

of

alphabet,so all derivative mental states


and processes
are
put together out of primary and simple
stimulation
modes
the
of
consciousness, arising from
of sensitive
inside the body.
surfaces
either outside
or
the

letters of the

In

consciousness
ordinary human
in
occur
rarely if ever
have
all acquired associations,so
embedded

cluster

of

revived

these

elementary

their
that

They

purity.
they

residua

now

sations
sen-

appear

of

previous
experiences. Thus, when an orange is perceived,what is
be only
immediately given in the way of sensation may
yellow colour. According to the theory we are considering,
the perceptionof the orange
or
wholly consists in the more
of past sensations
less complete re-instatement
by the
in

present

sensation.

nucleus

of

cluster

The

present

of revivals.

sensation
The

forms

immediate

the
ocular

PSYCHOLOGY.

108

[KK. i.,

en.

nr.

of the orange
experiencereproducestlie visual appearance
It reproducesthe smell, and
from
other points of view.
of the
the taste, and
the character
as
pulpy contents

touch.

presentedto sightand
It is admitted

part the simplecomponents

that for the most

only be ascertained by
psychicalcomplex can
ness
laborious investigation
; that the ordinarystates of consciouswhich common
sense
regards as ultimate are reallynot
an
ultimate, but have
origin and development due to
The essential point is that these
psychologicalconditions.
conditions
held to operate only in one
are
specialmanner
;
is the effect which
they
they combine, and their combination
produce. On this theory,causation and compositioncoincide.
" 4. d.ssociationism criticised. "Mental Chemistry" In all
of such

"

psychicaldevelopment
is involved.
tionism.

kind

some

So much

Its defect lies in

of association
be conceded

may

making

and

the whole

duction
repro-

to associa-

process

merely

of psychical
of other modes
to the exclusion
reproductive,
and not merely reproduced
interaction,
giving rise to new
of nature
causation and comresults. In the generalcourse
position
Conditions
by no
by no means
always coincide.
in their productas its component parts.
means
always persist
form part of
the sculptor's
chisel nor
its movements
Neither
tegral
inThe
fire does not remain
the completed statue.
an
as
part of a burnt house,or a knife as an integralpart of a
The
reduce
all mental
wound.
theory which would
duction
proselfto reproduction,
a
is,therefore,by no means
Its claims to acceptance rest entirely
evident truth.
the
on
it may
verification which
receive from
experience. What
kind

of verification

and

attainable

It would

sight that this question is easy to answer.


exist in the product itself we
If the producing conditions
ought to be able to find them by analyticscrutinyof the
seem

at

first

is necessary

FACULTY

" 4.]

product.
because

In material

about

compounds

the components
to be

cease

PSYCHOLOGY.

discernible

bo

may

by

109

this may

so

But

senses.

our

be

possible,
intermingledthat they
not

it is the

tinctive
dis-

of the combinations
which
are
peculiarity
brought
by mental association and reproduction,that both

the

It
components and their union exist in consciousness.
would
therefore,that it ought to be as easy to detect
seem,
the

components

of such

compound

as

to

spella

To

exist

word

on

phoneticprinciples.
But

this

conclusion
is

identified

one

is too

thing.

hasty.
To

be

in

discriminated

sciousness
con-

and

is quite another
object of consciousness
thing.
Spoken language is composed of a limited number
of elementary sounds.
But
spoken long
language was
and
before
discovered
these
were
elementary sounds
the sound
representedby an alphabet. So in articulating
of each
letter combined
of the throat, lips,
movements
involved.
The
corresponding
palate are
tongue, and
the
utters
sensations
who
are
experienced by everyone
But
sounds.
they are only discernible by an express
effort of analyticattention.
Most
of us never
notice them
of a musical
is due to its
note
at all. Again, the timbre
fundamental
united
with
are
a
complexity. Overtones
cernible
disrule separately
tone.
These
not
overtones
are
as
a
learn to
But he may
by an unpractisedobserver.
If
discriminate
them
by adopting an appropriatemethod.
is produced by itself and then compared with
a simple tone
of which
it is an
the complex note
overtone, and if this
sufficient frequency,it becomes
is repeated with
process
the overtone
as a separate component
possibleto distinguish
of the complex to which
it belongs.
It is illegitimate
that the constituents of a
to demand
complex mode of consciousness shall be immediatelyobvious

PSYCHOLOGY.

110

[KK. T.,

cu.

ill.

simple inspection.But it is both legitimateand necessary


that they shall be ascertainable
to demand
by a systematic
favourable
under
process of reflective scrutiny conducted
To
affirm their presence
where
conditions.
no
scrutiny
before
is simply to refuse
to
detect
them
can
appear
of
the bar
by
experience, and
judgment must
go
default
such
assume
a
position. If
against those who
certain mode
of consciousness
is alleged to consist of
a
certain constituents,#, b, c, the only criterion of primary
importanceby which we can test their presence is systematic
comparison. "We must
c, severally,
a, b, and
compare
is alleged to be a
with what
and, if possible,
collectively,
product constituted by their combination.
to bring the general plan of explanation
It is necessary
School to
the procedure of the Association
which
governs
this test.
Brought to this test it certainlycollapses. One
of the school,J. S. Mill,has virtually
of the ablest members
doctrine
"Mental
its bankruptcy in his
of
confessed
impressions or ideas are
Chemistry." "When
many
takes
together,there sometimes
operating in the mind
place a process of a similar kind to chemical combination.
often
When
so
experienced in
impressions have been
of them
calls up
readily and
conjunction, that each
the ideas of the whole
instantaneously
group, those ideas
melt and coalesce into one
sometimes
another, and appear

to

not

several

ideas, but

one

; in

prismatic colours
rapid succession,the sensation
the

But

seven

as

in this last

case

the

same

manner

as, when

presented to the
produced is that of

are

it is correct

to

say

that

the

eye

in

white.
seven

another, generate
they rapidly follow one
white, but not that they actuallyare white ; so it appears
that the Complex Idea, formed
to me
by the blending
together of several simpler ones, should, when it really
colours, when

FACULTY

"4.]

PSYCHOLOGY.

Ill

simple (thatis,when the separate elements are not


in it),
be said to result from, or be
consciously
distinguishable
Our
generatedby,the simple ideas,not to consist of them.
idea of an
reallyconsists of the simple ideas of a
orange
certain colour,a certain form, a certain taste and
smell,
we
etc.,because
by interrogatingour
consciousness,
can,
appears

perceiveall these elements in the idea. But we cannot


in so apparentlysimple a feelingas our perception
perceive,
of the shape of an
objectby the eye, all that multitude of
derived

ideas

ascertained
had

from

that

discover

those

shown

visual

in

nor,

frame,

in

which

it is well

perceptioncould
idea

our

which

without

senses,

elementaryideas

muscular

our

such

no

existence;

other

of

have

ever

Extension,

can

of resistance,derived
been

it has

we

from

conclusively

that the idea

originates.These, therefore,are cases


of mental
chemistry; in which it is proper to say that the
simple ideas generate, rather than that they compose, the
complex ones."*
It is well
some

We

care.

of the

while

worth
must

inadequacy of

examine

this statement

that it contains

note

of facts from

the stress

to

the Association

one

of its most

reluctant

with
sion
confes-

theory, wrung
devoted

by

adherents.

grudging nature of his


the Association theoryif and so far
He maintains
admissions.
he
Thus
he can
find any plausible
as
pretext for doing so.
consists of the simple
holds that our
"idea of an orange really

Mill

shows

ideas of

his

reluctance

certain

smell,etc.,because

colour,a
we

can

by

the

certain

form, a

certain

our
by interrogating

taste and

ness
conscious-

This is very
perceiveall these elements in the idea."
ask ourtrue that when
selves
we
plausible.For it is certainly
ing
what
an
is,we can only answer
by enumeratorange
such characteristics as those assigned. But the real
*

vol. ii.,
Logic,9th edition,
pp.

441-442.

PSYCHOLOGY.

112

questionat

issue

is

in every

whether

characteristics

quite different.

it for

The

in which

moment

know

and

orange

[BK. I., CH.

an

catch

we

orange,

real

m.

question is
sight of an

all these

distinctive

be

actuallypresentedto consciousness.
that the necessity
of such a collective
It will be seen
at once
ever
of our
resurrection
previousexperiencesof oranges, whenobvious.
one
happens to catch our eye, is by no means
No

the

doubt

must

visual

in which

moment

appearance
become

we

bed is

all this to

means

aware

of the

in the

us

object.

But

to

thing ; to say that it drags


To
bed along with it is something altogetherdifferent.
said before,like supposing
the contrary is,as we
suppose
that a five-poundnote must
always have five sovereigns
wrapped up in it. The note will pass current
literally
five
the
instead
of
sovereigns, and in like manner
that

say

means

visual

appearance

current

instead

it

has

been

certain

of
of

one

the
the

orange

will

in

manner

special experiences with

conjoined.

It

determine

will

in

certain

ways

pass

which
and

action,thought, and

feeling,
these experienceswill determine
action, thought, and
as
feeling,if they are actuallypresent or actuallyreproduced

to

in the

extent

form

of ideas.

Though Mill clingsto reproductionand association with


all his might, he is in spiteof himself compelled to confess
of the most
vital questions
their impotence to solve some
is constrained
to introduce
of geneticpsychology. He
a
new
principleof fundamental
importance,which is,in a
In the productsof
way, the contrary of that of association.
the producing factors persistin the result as
associations,
Mill
its components. In the process of "generation" which
the generating factors effect their own
assumes
ance
disappearin giving birth to their product. Its life is their
Yet Mill is by no means
that he is
death.
clearlyaware

FACULTY

" 4.]

PSYCHOLOGY.

desertingthe association
that he is modifying1and

doctrine.

He

113

is rather

of

opinion

improving it. This is shown by


his use
of the term
Mental
Chemistry." A chemical
of
compound reallyis a compound. It really consists
its components
and
is not merely "generated" by them.
Its weight is equal to their weight. By appropriate
means
"

"

"

the

chemical

combination

be

can

dissolved

so

that

the

It is true that
again exist in a separate form.
the compound has propertieswhich
do not belong to the
components taken separately. But the components do not
for the new
to exist in order to make
cease
properties
way
the generatingfactors in mental
as
chemistrycease to exist
in producinga new
product.It may be said that though they
do not cease
to exist,
they disappearjustas the psychological
factors disappear. But this is equivocation.The
factors is equivalentto
disappearanceof the psychological
of chemical
their non-existence
factors
: the disappearance
certain ways
in which
that there are
merely means
they
The
their presence
to us.
to manifest
cease
analogy

components

between

the chemical

process

and

the

mental, as

the mental

plausiblefrom another
and hydrogen may
In order that oxygen
pointof view.
to form
combine
water
they must first be brought together.
Similarly,
accordingto Mill, the generatingfactors of a new
first be brought togetherin a firmly
mental
product must
each other
cluster before they annul
associated
or
group
this
For
and
give place to something radicallynew.
still
to
have
he appears
imagined that he was
reason,
followingthe lines of the association theory. But in so
thinking he evidentlyfell into a "fallacy of confusion."
What
he affirms is that a preliminary
process of association
and reproduction
precedesthe generationof a new and simple
is that
mode
What
he tacitly
of consciousness.
assumes
is conceived

Psych.

by Mill,appears

more

PSYCHOLOGY.

114

[UK. i.,

of
process
association and

generation itself is
reproduction. But

of

Generation

the

"

thought.

which

that

from

process

"

prepares

fallacyhad alreadybeen
Brown's

Thomas
of

Condillac,as

when

he

has

remains

the

it appears

to me,

the

shown

for

way

it.

Mill

"The

consists in

circumstance

confusion

mere

before

criticism of Condillac.

to

altogetherdistinct

an

pointed out

in.

reducible

somehow
this is

CIT.

The
in

wrote

great

error

supposing that
which

from

any

the
essentially
which
with
the circumstance
same
produced it. Certain
sensations have ceased to exist,certain other feelingshave
feelingsare, therefore,the
immediately arisen ; these new
another
others under
shape. Such is the secret, but very
doctrine."*
false logic,
which
to prevade his whole
seems
He
held
that
mutandis
This
to Mill.
applies mutatis
elements
because
certain grouping of mental
a
precedes
all of
each and
the emergence
of a product distinct from
effect results he has

be

them, this product must


which
The
as

have

than

more

Things

and

"melted

metaphor
which

of

"

this result to be

shown

the

veiy

coalesced

elements
into

themselves

one

another."

melting and coalescence,"if it is taken


literaryflourish, is quite unmeaning.

"melt

and

coalesce

into

one

another"

hydrogen and
which
unite to form water, persist,
accordingto the
oxygen
of the indestructibility
of matter, in the compound.
principle
It is only because
of their
persistencethat they can
properlybe said to be compounded or to have coalesced.
structibil
But
there
is no
principlecorresponding to the indeof matter
applying to modes of consciousness.
They do not persistin their product,and therefore they do
remain

"

not

We

in existence

melt

and

have
*

after their

coalesce

"

union.

in it.

assumed
provisionally

Philosophyof

The

the Human

Mill's

Jfind,Lecture

theory
xxxiii.

that

the

FACULTY

$4-]
"

"

generation

of

conditions

PSYCHOLOGY.

mode

new

115

of consciousness

be

preceded by
generating factors. But,
must

grouping of the
self-evident
assumption is neither
experience. Mill,at this point,merely

by psychological
associative

an

in

this
reality,
nor
justifiedby
the strength
shows
led him to affirm the Association theory,
of the bias which
in the act of denying it. From
another
even
point of view
of "mental
also, his account
chemistry" is, in the main,
condition entirely
fictitious. He holds that the co-operative
This
disappears in giving rise to something new.
may
happen in certain cases : but it is certainlynot the prevailing
rule, and above all it does not apply to the special
he refers
which
to.
class of cases
Spatial perception,
forms
and modifications,
tactual and visual,in its various
is undoubtedly due to a vast
complexity of co-operative
do

which

conditions

not

appear

in the

But

result.

it is

contributoryfactors are discernible.


or
Magnitude, as perceivedby the eye, is colour extended
spread out. Shape, as perceivedby the eye, is constituted
In such perceptionthere is
of colour.
by the boundaries
always present at least visual sensation, and generally

untrue

that

none

of the

The

experiences accompanying eye-movements.


which
character
belongs to these visual

and

spatial
motor

of
and
datum
not
derivative
a
experiences is indeed
It belongs to them, at least in the
primary sensation.
of human
case
beings, only in virtue of their previous
with other specific
in specific
combination
experiences,
ways
ocular
None
the less, the
tactile,motor, and visual.
and magnitude does not float
form
perceptionof extended
loose in detachment
to

is

its

origin.
played by

become

endowed

all the

from

For

among

these

the

visual

and

with

contributed

factors which
factors
motor

an

essential

part

sensations, which

spatialcharacter

as

the

result

PSYCHOLOGY.

116

the

of

them.

of

has,

profoundly

What

denial,
is

the

the

course

all

them

an

is

true

express

only

so

modified

or

principle
of

is

mental

that

that

not

rather
with

the

CH.

m.

d,

c,

e,

recognition
all
of

one

others,
it

whenever

I,

from

that

I.,

a,

beyond

disparate

quite

interaction

through

in

is

disappear

happens

modification,

peculiar

in

conditions,

What

conditions

happens

behind

leave

and

What

process.

antecedent

the

[BK.

or

any
these

acquired
it

recurs,

recurs

form.
doctrine

the

implied,
of

that

fundamental

development.

of

mental

chemistry

reproduction
importance

by

is

the

association

controlling

BOOK

II,

SENSATION.

CHAPTER
DEFINITION-

"
of

Sensation

1.

what

we

production. It is
stimulus
is always

OF

SENSATION.

Stimulus.

and

agree

I.

"

One

in

is
calling sensation
caused
by what we call a

condition,external

some

mark

characteristic
its mode

of

stimulus.

to the

nervous

system itself and

operating upon it. This stimulus may


consist in physiological
change originatingin the organism
in the case
of organic sensations,or in physical
as
itself,
the
conditions
external
to the organism, which
act
on
of sense,
and
of afferent
by means
peripheral organs
affect the central nervous
nerves
system. The change in
the internal state of the body which
gives rise to organic
sensation
be initiated,in the first instance, by an
may
external
of

case

modes
in

the

within

stimulus

tickling.We
of stimulation

nature,
the

dependence
to the

acting on

and

have

peripheral organs

also to count

some

conceptionof

in

the

the various

among

the irritant effect of certain variations


the

distribution

brain, leading
on

as

kind

to

117

the

blood-supply

hallucinations.

of external

sensation.

of

condition

Causal
is essential

PSYCHOLOGY.

1 18

It is above

[BE;,n.

CH.

i.

all

the cause
thingsimportant to distinguish
of sensation
from the object of sense-perception.A man
examining a material thing present to his senses
may
successivelyor simultaneouslysee it, feel it,weigh it in
his hand, hear the sound
it makes, smell it,and
taste it.
In so doing he perceivesits sensible qualities,
such
as
He
does so
colour,hardness, weight, odour, and flavour.

by

of the sensations

means

the

varying
object. But

relations
the

sensible

identical with

means

of

the

which

produced in him by
his sensitive
organism to the
qualitiesperceived are by no

cause

sensation, for instance,is due

particlesof
chemical
so

to

or

of sensation.

The

colour-

vibratorymotion of the
the luminiferous
ether, giving rise to certain
physicalchanges in the organ of vision,and

certain

system.

nervous

are

modification
But

these

to

of

connected

conditions

are

parts
not

what

of
a

the
man

perceivesthe colour red or blue. Similarly,


the weight of the objectas perceivedis by no means
to be
identified with the changes produced by it in the skin,
the
occasion
sensations
muscles, tendons, etc., which
to the perceptionof the weight.
necessary
essential to the perception of things
Sensations
are
and
their qualities
in the conceptionof what
stitutes
con; but
abstract from the cognitivefunction
we
a sensation
which
belongs to it as an element in the perceptionof an
object. The vital point on which we fix attention is that
sensation
is a mode
of consciousness
a
produced by a
mode
of stimulation,and having its own
specific
specific
nature
ultimatelydetermined
by the conditions which produce
it. We
have noted that the producing conditions may,
in the first instance,be external to the organism. But they
can
only affect the nervous
system by firstoperatingon those
parts of the organism,which we call the organs of sense.
sees

when

he

SEXSATIOX

" 2.]
Thus

the

changes in
by

system,

constitute

" 2.

for

one

case

the

of

sensation

be

If

of

and

the

nervous

I have

grass,

I have

the

is that

The

difference

way

in which

of white

and

can

only be

my

eye

the

tion
sensa-

psychologicalreason

why
in

the

accounted

is affected

the
light. So in all cases
for by
ultimatelyaccounted

by
qualitiesof

reference

to

the stimulus.

actuallysee grass
picturesof them in my

greenness

subsequent

of the sensation.

at

at snow,

I do not

mental

the

affect

If I look

"

the sensation

different kinds

the nature

and

changes

assign no

can

different

must

of sense,

If I look

that of green.

by

119

the essential antecedents

of green.

of white.

other

these

Sensory Elements.

sensation

in the

the organ

which

processes

DEFINED.

whiteness

are

or

mind's

present

but

summon

up
of
eye, the qualities

snow,

mental

in my

image

these
they are present in actual perception. Now
would
not be present in the mental
image unless
qualities
they had been previouslyproduced by the operationof an
as

external

stimulus.

apply the

term

For

sensation

this reason,
to these

some

waiters

qualitieseven

when

would

they

perception
and in the mental
image they defy psychologicalanalysis,
for only by reference to
and
be ultimately accounted
can
There
external
stimulation.
is,however, an objectionto
sensation
to both
indifferently.
cases
applying the word
both
in the perceptionand in
Though greenness
appears
the mental
image of grass, it appears in a different manner
The
in each
instance.
present operationof the external
stimulus
steadiness,and other
gives it peculiarintensity,
do not belong to it in the
distinctive characters,which
mental
image. It is better to restrict the term sensation to
which
the specialform
of consciousness
accompanies the
of sensation
The qualities
actual operationof the stimulus.
appear

in the

mental

image.

Both

in

actual

PSYCHOLOGY.

120

as

they

appear

elements,but
that

their

in mental

imagery

sensations.

not

[BK. n.,

The

accounted
reference

to

that
existence

an

external

their

stimulus.

existence

psychologically
only be explainedby
The

word
the

pre-supposes

not

follow

from

formulate

it
?

seems
on

this that

cognitivefunction.

separately considered

is based

previous

of

exist without

which

dicates
in-

sensory

"

sensation

indicates

be

correspondingsensations.
In
Sensation.
denning sensation
" 3. Mere
disregarded the cognitivefunction which it may
constituent
element
in the perceptionof
as
a
It does

I.

called sensory

elements

term

cannot
peculiar nature
for, that ultimatelyit can
"

be

may

CH.

as

We
to

the

stimulus

without

this is

may

follows
owe

its

on

Is

to

fact

This

there

such

within

We

thing

Stumpf

question in

that

is

discharge
an
object.
can
actually
questionto be

merits.

own

Professor

settle this

sensation

have

we

may
as

mere

argument

an

the affirmative.

limits

we

can

vary

It
a

producing any perceptibledifference in


is
the object cognised. If this variation
in the stimulus
then we
accompanied by variation in the sense-experience,
makes
variation
in the sense-experience
which
have
no
a
is a difference
difference
in mere
to cognition. There
sensation,but not in perception. That, as a matter of fact,
so

be

demonstrated

as

follows.

We

may

vary
musical

physical conditions on which the pitch of a


note
depends, so as to produce a graduated scale of notes
increasingor decreasingin pitch. Symbolise the series by
PnP!, P2, P3, P4, P5,
Now, if the variation of the
gradual,Pl may be quite
physicalconditions is sufficiently
from
be quite
P2, and similarlyP2 may
indistinguishable
from Ps, and P3 from P4. None
the less,
indistinguishable
different from P,.
But
P4 will be perceivedas distinctly
unless the change in the physical
this would be impossible
the

DEFINED.

SENSATION

" 3.]

121

accompanied by a change in the sensation,


the change is imperceptible.If the pitch-senwhen
sation
even
Pl is regarded as identical with the pitch-sensation
from
the one
note is indistinguishable
P2, merely because
the other, and if in like manner
P2 is regarded as identical
conditions

were

with

P3, and P3

with

Pn,

with

it would

and

should

difference

P4, and

on, then

so

arise.

The

be identical

must

impossibletha.t

be

ever

Pl

perceptible

any

argument

same

be

may

gradual increase in heat or weight or


back may
on
a man's
pressure or brightness. The burden
be increased
gradual additions from an
by sufficiently
his noticing the successive
without
stone
to
a
ounce
applied

to

increments.
difference

to

successive

If

these

his

sensation,the

to him
weight would be all the same
produced by an ounce.
merit of Stumpf's argument lies
The

may

be

brought

It is easy
coincidence

which

into

form

out

that

show

to

by

between

"At

the

appeal to common
there is by no
means

the

existence

this moment

the sensation

in the

an

They may
cognitivefunction.
for perceptual consciousness,
utilized.

as

But

it is thrown.

no

produced by

sensation

stone

cogent

made

increments

and

exact

point
experience.
a
complete
same

of sensations

and

their

possiblematerial
without
being actually
logical
am
thinking about psychoexist

as

of
time a multitude
topics. I receive at the same
diversified impressions from
surrounding things which
certainlyenter into my total experience. But if I refer
them
to an
object at all,I do so in a very indeterminate
discrimination
is very far from keeping
My perceptual
way.
pace

with

the

differentiation

of the

sensory

immediately experienced."* The room


is shining in at the window.
and the sun
*

AnalyticPsychology,vol. i.,
p.

48.

is

data

as

well-lighted,
But, with, my

PSYCHOLOGY.

122

[BK. n.,

en.

i.

occupied,I do not notice this. My


thoughts otherwise
thoughts might be similarly occupied in the twilight
without
noticingthat it was
twilight. But my total
my
The
kind
experiencewould be different in the two cases.
and degree of illumination
modifies my consciousness,
even
I
though I do not take cognisanceof it. In like manner,
of a sound, am
at the same
time
often, in becoming aware
been
time
that I have
aware
hearing it for some
past
without
of it. The
being aware
corresponding sensation
was
though I did not notice
present in my consciousness
the

sound.*

" 4.

Sensation
as

sation
CognitiveState distinguished
from Senledge,
must
CognisedObject. We
distinguishthe knowas

"

which

of

knowledge

which

It

that

is true

knowledge of
know
by means
We

sensations
has

for its

without

them

but

the

are

vehicle, from

object sensations

the

sensations

it is not

of sensations

true

we

themselves.
can

that

have

whatever

knowledge of
what
distinguishbetween

must

the

is

these
a

no

we
sations.
sen-

sense-

and what it is in its own


intrinsic nature.
experiencemeans
The
image thrown by an objecton the retina of the eye
in magnitude as
the
distance
of the object
decreases
This
involves a correspondingdifference in the
increases.
When
fix our
attention
visual sensation.
we
deliberately
and
with practice
the sensation and its phases,we
on
may,
notice
We
this difference.
by using appropriatemeans,
and
become
that a man
aware
entering a room
may
But for
approaching us apparently increases in stature.
the most
part we ignore these variations in our experience.
the less,they fulfil a cognitivefunction.
None
They help
to determine
our
perceptionof the distance of the object
seen.

It is the

business
*

of the

artist to

Cf.Bk. i.,ch.i., "5.

attend

to

these

SENSATION

I 4.]
and

other

differences

them

in his

effect

an

of colour

in

visual

123

sensation,and

in this way

pictures. Only

artistic illusion.
and

DEFINED.

He

must

is he

reproduce
enabled

to

reproduce differences

of

shading, etc.,and differences due to the


varying way in which objectsin varying positionsaffect
the eye.
But
for all this he needs
a
specialtraining.
He has to learn to notice what nobody notices in ordinary
life. In ordinary life,people attend
the
only to what
The
artist must
sense-experiencepracticallymeans.
of attendingto the intrinsic nature
of
acquire the power
the sense-experience
itself.
in psychology,we
have to attend to sensations,
Similarly,
such : we
their attributes as psychical
have to examine
as
not
states, and
merely their meaning as vehicles of
coincide.
knowledge. The two pointsof view onlypartially
If we
the colour red as a qualityof a material
compare
objectwith the colour red as a qualityof the corresponding
sensation,we find that redness as immediatelyperceivedis
an

attribute

different

As

common

relations

to

into

both.

which

The

difference

it enters

in the

lies in the
two

cases.

quality of the thing, it is considered in relation to


other qualities
of the thing, its shape, texture, flavour,
odour, etc. As a psychicalstate, it is considered
as
a
peculiarmodification of the consciousness of the percipient,
in relation to the generalflow of his mental
life. But this
is not the only difference.
When
are
we
attending to
redness
take
as
a
sensation, we
cognisance of many
characteristics which
are
usuallyignored when we are only
interested
in it as
a
quality of material objects. The
manifold
goes
variations
which
the colour of an
objectunderunder
varying phases of illumination are, to a large
because
extent, ignored in ordinaryperception,
they make
no
practicaldifference in the nature of the objectas a
a

"

PSYCHOLOGY.

124

physical
the

thing.

The
alone

illumination

and

like

he,

the

Sensations,

we

they
the

attend

are

process

to

by

them

which

the

in

such,

of

attention

objects,

objects

are

the

only

cognised.

and

not

in

the

them.

objects
way.

I.

logist,
psycho-

psychical

become

CH.

importance,

upon
are

but

n.,

same,

and

primary

introspective

an

for

sensation,

therefore,
as

the

as

But

are

fix

must

states,

themselves

not

in

such,

as

regarded

varying.

variations

artist,

psychical

These

is

these

object,

is

as

interest

whose

physical

colour

[BK.

states.

only

when

Otherwise
constituents

of

CHAPTEE
SEXSATIOX-llEFLEX.

THE

"

1. As

PhysiologicalReflex.

distinguishedfrom

define

may

II.

reflexact"

says

"

Dr. Waller,

"We

the immediate

"as

centripetalexcitation."* The emphasis


The
reaction
here
immediacy of the response.
it always
that
the
stimulus, so
depends directlyon
motor

in

occurs

stimulus
the

the

is

leg

thus

jerked

irritate with

we

is

it

away

in

comes

it

hot

this happens,
plate; when
again. On being again irritated,it

away

and

when

it is

more

once

in

conies

again withdrawn;

until the limits

is

contact

and

so

A reflex act may

by change in consciousness, or at least


change. Coughing and sneezing are
irritation
sneeze

or

of

the

mucous

cough

either

*IInman

acetic acid

is
once

with

membrane.

125

jerked back
more
jerked
the hot plate,
may

go

acts, due

reflex
But

294.

with

on

being accompanied
by any conspicuous

unconsciously
Physiology,p.

contact

the process

fatigueare reached.
be performed without

of

the

hemispheres have
By using
jerked away.
be arranged that whenever

it may

apparatus

when

cerebral

whose

leg

whenever

manner

is discontinued

If

operate.

frog

removed,

suitable

the

to

of

inevitable

and

repeated, and

is

ceases

thigh

been
a

invariable

an

stimulus

the

to

response
the
is on

a
or

person

to

may

consciously.

PSYCHOLOGY.

126

the

Perhaps
but
other
of

hand

the

with

is sometimes
membrane

described

as

consciousness

There

is

The

and

for

is violent.

Now

conditions
sensational

the

on

the

irritation

those

reflex

which

described

as

believingthat

the

take

place

sensational.

physiological

other than

those which

effect the sensation-reflex.


is the most

primitiveform of mental
is distinctly
recognisable. If,then, we fix the
the physiological
under
which
passes into the
under
reflex,we
thereby fix the conditions

mental

conditions

be

through nerve-fibres

sensation-reflex

life which

which

when

keen,

physiological
; those
may

reason

no

reflex is effected
convey

consciousness
as

very

n.

complete ;

not

case

CF.

which, roughly speaking,take placeunconsciously,

be

may

The

nearly so.

very

mucous

actions

is in any

unconsciousness

it is often

[BK. n.,

life first appears

appear

to

be

in

two-fold.

definite
In

the

form.
first

These

place,the

reflex is found where


the action takes
merely physiological
place regularlyand uniformly in response to stimulation
which
is uniformly and regularlyrecurrent.
The sensationthe
other
a
paratively
comhand, takes
reflex, on
place on
which
is only of occasional
specialemergency,
In the second
occurrence.
place,much
depends on the
degree in which the mind is pre-occupiedby higher processes.
A
he is
man
cough unconsciously when
may
absorbed
in some
interestingtopic,although in a less
pre-occupiedcondition of mind the cough would have been
sensation-reflex.
The
a
more
pre-occupiedhe is,the more
the irritation be in order
must
intense
to
produce an
sensation.
appreciable
Taking up the first point,it is plain
that those reflex movements
which
belong to the ordinary
routine of the vegetativelife of the organism
and normal
almost
are
wholly physiological.The heart's beat and
its

modifications,the

constriction

and

dilatation

of the

SENSATION-REFLEX.

" 1.]

127

blood-vessels,breathing1,
swallowing,the secretion of saliva,
and

the

like,are

normally accompanied by distinctly


I say distinctly
appreciable
sensations,

not

appreciablesensations.
because, in all probability,
they
to determine

the

do

in their

contribute
totality

of consciousness

state

as

whole,

giving it a certain tone or modality. But the effects of the


various organicprocesses blend into a vague total experience.
several effects are
Their
not
separatelyappreciable. The
most

whole
be

say is that,as Dr. Michael

can

we

of

abdominal

our

of the loss

aware

viscera

as

Foster

removed,

were

change

in

puts it,"if the

our

commoYi

should

we

general

or

sensibility."*On the other hand,


comparativelyoccasional occurrence,

when

combination

specialemergency,
disengage itself from

the

of movements

to

meet

mass

consciousness.
intense

more

stimulus

prompts

is of

special

concomitant

the vague

and

experience may
salient in
of general sentience and become
The
more
specialthe occasion, and the
does the
the stimulation,the more
definitely

sensation-reflex

stand

out

in

its

own

proper

character

as

reflex.
from
the physiological
Coughing is
distinguished
and then, when
act requiredonly now
an
irritatingmatter
Hence
in waking life
happens to be lodged in the throat.
it is

when
usually a sensation-reflex,
much

too

intense

when

pre-occupied,or

enough

to counteract

the mind

even

the

is not

irritation

of

act

is

strong pre-occupation.

swallowing belongs to the fixed


vegetativelife,and is not in the ordinary course
The

wise
other-

routine
of

of

things

separatelyappreciableexperience. But
tickle
if we
touch the back of the tongue with a finger,
or
it with a feather, this is an interruption
of routine requiring
a
specialadjustment adapted to the specialemergency,
accompanied by

which

cannot
*

be made

Text-Book

without

well-marked

of Physiology,book

modification

ch. vi.,p. 1421.


iii.,

PSYCHOLOGY.

128

if any

or
difficulty

it at

process,

en,

n,

So, breathing is normally unconscious

of consciousness.
but

[BK. n.,

obstruction

becomes

once

;*

in the

occurs

and

accompanied

respiratory
prompted by

painfulsensations.
On

the

second

mind

the

need
not
point we
pre-occupied,we

is much

otherwise

reflex where
As

reflex.
mental

pre-occupationwe

the heat
most

of the battle is

concerns

may
unaware

is the

us

fact

have

refer to the
of
that

logical
physio-

had

soldier

who

being wounded.
at

in

What
levels

lower

the

sational
sen-

effect of

of the

example

extreme

an

Where

have

may

should

we

much.

say

of

action is largely or mainly reflex,so


organic life,where
that higher processes
play a comparatively small part,
there can
be very little mental
pre-occupation. Thus, the
lower we descend in the scale,the stronger is the presumption
that a reflex act adapted to meet an occasional emergency
is
of a sensational and not merely of a phsysiological
character.
from PerceptualReaction and Ideational
" 2. Distinguished
In sensation-reflexes
Reaction.
coordinated
ments
movespecially
"

follow the
and

existence

mere

of

sensation

as

an

isolated

transient

not prompted
are
experience; the movements
and guided by any meaning which the sensation may
convey.
Where
is determined
movement
by what the recognised
qualityof the sensation pointsto, by what it giveswarning
not
of,the reaction is to that extent perceptualor ideational,
The distinction may
be illustrated by
merely sensational.
the difference between
sneezing and repressinga sneeze.

The

follows

sneeze

is

This

existence
This

the irritation of the

sensation

of the
that

-reflex.

feelingof
the

It

irritation.

mucous

arises
On

from

membrane.
the

mere

the other hand, the

breathing-sensationsare normally merged in


not
mass
general
normally prominent
they are
;
when
is
obstructed.
as
are
breathing
consciousness, they
*

of

means

sentience

the

in

SENS'ATION-KEFLEX.

" 2.]

repressionof
head

inconvenient

an

similar

aside,or

of

the

turningof the
at least
are
precaution,

sneeze,

measures

129

or

perceptualacts and may involve distinct ideas. The agent


performs them because he recognisesthe irritation as of a
certain kind
which
pointing to certain consequences
are
inconvenient

at the moment.

"What

determines

his conduct

is the

cognitivefunction of the sensation,not its mere


existence as a feeling, a transient and isolated experience.
The presence of ideal representations
in the way
of mental
We
not
be able to spare
imagery is not necessary.
may
mental
time
to call up
a
pictureor a verbal description
of the consequences
of sneezing in a person's face.
A
before
the mind
as
recognised sensory
quality comes
it presents itself
:
having a certain specialsignificance
as
a
fragment of a whole ; it points beyond its own
existence ; in virtue of this cognitivevalue
which
it
"

possesses, it prompts to a
the repression
of the sneeze.
In this case,

sensational

certain

line of

impulsecomes

action,such

as

into conflictwith

and it is a matter of doubt which


will prevail.
perceptual,
tensity
Many sensational impulses,when they reach a certain inbecome
quiteuncontrollable even in human
beings;
this may
the almost mechanical
help us to understand
way
in which
without modification
they repeat themselves
by
of the lower animals,whose
experiencein some
perceptual
consciousness
is comparativelylittle developed. For the
of learning
by experiencefirstarises with perception,
power
with meaning and the acquisition
of meaning. The purely
ness,
unguided by higher modes of conscioussensory reaction,
its appropriatestimulus.
Thus
follows inevitably
a
moth
or
a
daddy-long-legs flies again and again into
the flame in spiteof the obviouslypainfulresult.
Here

"

we

have
Psych.

apparentlya

"

sensory

reaction

uncontrolled
9

by

PSYCHOLOGY.

130

[BK. n.,

en.

n.

The
perceptual consciousness.
brightness of the flame
in its direction.
produces an immediate
sense-impulseto move
But the light-sensation
is not correlated with other
experiences; it does not acquirea warning significance.
From
the biological
point of view, the action requiredin

response
life and

to

stimulus

is

which

one

well-being of

to maintain

serves

the

the

organism. The appropriate


be determined
of the
by the specialnature
response
may
or less
actingon the organism ; and it may be more
agency
delicatelydifferentiated according to the varying nature
of this agency.

In

far

so

this is the case,

as

perceptual rather than sensational.


agents differingin their own
many
the organism in a similar manner,
similar

In

response.

so

far

On

the

nature

and

the reaction

so

other
may

give

is

hand,

impress
rise to

this is the case, the reaction

as

purely sensational type. Thus, when


otherwise
a
or
part of the body is cut or bruised
suffers direct
the
not
at
moment
injury, it matters
whether
a
stone, a piece of wood, or
a
piece of iron,
does
the mischief.
In each
case, the rapid withdrawal
of the part of the body affected,or
of the body as
a
whole, is the appropriatereaction,and follows directlyon
the unpleasant sensation.
existence
It depends on the mere
of the sensation as a painfulexperience; it does not depend
the specific
of the sensation
nature
on
being recognisedor
known
for what
it is; this is only necessary
the
when
of the sensation pointsto something beyond
nature
specific
itself to some
specialkind of material agent ; and when
the organism has to adjust itself in reference
not
to the
immediate
operationof this agent, but to its other qualities
and
modes
of behaviour, as when
animal
an
perceivesits
in the
distance.
Such
adjustment requires a
prey
approximates to

the

"

attitude
prospective

of

mind,

state

of

expectant attention

SENSATION-REFLEX.

" 3.]
and

131

preparationfor future aetion. It is the beginning


of a systematiccoordination
of successive
mined
actions,deterby the whole nature of the objectwhich thus reveals
the appropriatereaction takes place,
its presence.
Where
the spur of the moment,
and
is not the
to speak, on
so
of a systematic combination
of successive
commencement
remoter
some
good or avert
acts, so directed as to secure
remoter
some
evil,it need be determined
by nothing but
immediate
the sense-experience
as
an
feeling,
independently
of its cognitivefunction.
" 3. Conative and Iledonic Aspect of the Sensation-Reflex.
The movements
arisingfrom sense-impulsesdisplay in a
antithesis which
an
simple and distinct manner
pervades
all manifestations
of mind.
They are directed either,on
the one
of
hand, to the removal, avoidance, or abatement
which
the stimulation
excites them, or, on the other,to its
The
first kind
of
detention, maintenance, or increase.
reaction may
be called positive,
and the second
negative.
The psychical
states which
find expressionin these antithetic
fold
types of movement, show a correspondingcontrast of a twocharacter.
The reaction of avoidance
is the
or repulsion
outward
manifestation
of disagreeableconsciousness,and
also of aversion,or, as Hobbes
would
endeavour
say, of
of
fromward;" the positivereaction is the manifestation
and
also of appetition,
deavour
"enor
r.greeableconsciousness
of

"

"

toward."

fundamentally
their contrast
or

Appetition and

antithetic

is

striving aspect

directions

contrast

of

which

are

the

of

psychicalactivity;
belongs to the conative

consciousness.

the fundamental

aversion

antithetic

Pleasure
modes

and
of

pleasure
dis-

feelingTheir
tone.
is a contrast
contrast
which
belongs to the
hedonic
In the purely sensory
aspect of consciousness.
impulse,appetitionalways actuallycoincides with pleasure,
are

PSYCHOLOGY.

132

and

aversion

[BK. n.,

always actuallycoincides

"with

en.

pain.

n.

At

between
higher levels of psychicallife,the coincidence
and between
tone of feeling,
positiveconation and positive
negative conation and negative tone of feelingis by no
means
complete. After a fashion,the sensation-reflex may
be described
it has a conative
as
as
an
activityinasmuch
But
the
of appetitionor
aversion.
aspect in the way
involved
is of a rudimentary and primitivekind,
activity
just as the process itself is of a rudimentary and primitive
kind.
The
sensation-reflex
consists in a single simultaneous
with perceptual
act ; in this respectit is contrasted
and usually does, combine
a series of
may,
process, which
distinct and successive acts in the unity of a singleaction
directed towards
a singleend.
Thus, in the case of perceptual
we
activity,
speak of progress towards an end,
may
which
in its
not be interruptedor obstructed
or
may
may
In the

course.

the word

case

of the

on
sensation-reflex,

the contrary,

progress" has little or no meaning. It is for


that in it appetitiveconation
this reason
and
agreeable
feelingcompletelycoincide. This is not the case in perceptual
arise
disagreeablefeeling may
process, because
which
the
none
through obstruction of appetitiveactivity,
less remains
appetitive
although it has become disagreeably
toned.
We
are
endeavouring to hit the nail on the head
when

even

We
in

may

"

we

miss

it.

describe
briefly

sensation-reflex

equilibriumof

the

as

the

physiological
process involved

follows.

stimulus

disturbs

The

the

subsequent process
consists in the recovery of nervous
equilibrium. When
this is accomplishedthe end of the whole activity
is attained,
To put it simply,the excitement
and it ceases.
is allayed.
The tendency to equilibrium is the physiological
correlate
of what on the psychicalside we call conation, the striving
nervous

system.

"

SENSATION-

"4.]

REFLEX.

But

aspect of consciousness.

the

133

system

nervous

may

It may
be that
regain its balance in two oppositeways.
it can
only do so by removal of the stimulation which starts
On the other hand, it may happen that
the whole process.
of the stimulation
for a longer or shorter
the continuance
of the reattainment
of equitime is a positivecondition
librium.
In the first case, we
have
pain and aversion ; in
the second, pleasure and appetition. As a rule,the more
important is the perceptualfunction of a sensation,the less
and the more
it approximates
emphatic is its feeling-tone,
concerned
in merely sensory reaction,
to a mere
sensation
the more
emphatic is its feeling-tone.
same
" 4. Relative Purity of Sensation- Reflex. The
existence
sensation
as
a
by its mere
momentary
may,
experience,issue or tend to issue in a certain movement,
and at the same
time it may
also determine
action by its
mingle with the
significance.Thus the perceptual may
sensational impulse, so that in practiceit may
sometimes
"

be difficult to draw

the line between

of consciousness

degrees.*
other.
the

The

In

blend

in

intricate

general,they

lower

we

them.

bear

descend

ways

The
and

inverse

an

in the

modes

two

in

ratio

varying
to

each

scale of animal

life,

importantis sensation ; the higher we ascend, the


more
importantis perception.It should,however, be clearly
them
is
understood
that in theory the distinction between
sharp and clear. This is peculiarlyevident when the perceptual
impulse depending on the meaning of a sensation
is contrary to the sensational impulse itself,
when
we
as
repress a coming sneeze.
*

more

This

appliesalmost, if

consciousness.
adult

human

The

beings

if it
pain,especially

for it beforehand.

nearest

is the
occurs

not

quite,universallyto
approach

to

the

reaction

which

suddenly

without

pure

the

developed

sensation-reflex

accompanies
the

human

intense

in

bodily

subjectbeing prepared,

CHAPTEE

DIFFERENTIATION

OF

HI.

PSYCHICAL

ITS

SIGNIFICANCE.

and Integration.The
" 1. Differentiation
"

in the scale of animal

AND

SENSE-EXPERIENCE,

the
life,

lower

we

descend

important is sensation ;
the higher we
mount, the more
important is perception,
in other words, the intrinsic intensityand feeling-toneof
for less; its meaning counts
for more.
sensation
counts
reaction

The
the

which

maintenance

to the

it sets

or

attainment

more

is directed

up

removal

of the

of remoter

not

present

much

so

stimulation

to
as

ends.

This

graduated difference in the relative prominence of


and
sensation
perception is accompanied and manifested
of senseby a correspondingvariation in the nature
ence
experiitself. The more
developed is perceptualconsciousness
the more
delicatelydifferentiated is sense-experience. In
other words, there is a finer correspondencebetween
ences
differin the nature
of the external
stimulus,and differences
in the

sensation

is connected

discriminated

produced.

more

With

definite restriction.

sensations

are, the

co-existingsimultaneouslyin
mutual
Dr.

says

that

"

interference

Ward,

except

as

this finer differentiation

"are

the

regards the

more

delicately
capable they are of

same

consciousness

more

amalgamation.

or

with

The

us

drain
134

so

distinct

upon

out
with-

"Colours,"
from

attention

"

sounds
there

is

SENSE-DIFFERENTIATION.

" 2.]

135

nothing in the intensest colour to affect the simultaneous


of a sound.
But, at the beginning,whatever
presentation
we
regard as the earliest differentiation of sound might
have been incopresentable
with the earliest differentiation
of colour,if sufficiently
a field of sight
diffused,justas now
all blue is incopresentablewith
all red.
one
Or, if the
stimuli
active together, the
appropriate to both were
been
what
should
we
resulting sensation
might have
describe as a blending of the two, as purple is a blending
of red and

violet;"*

Thus

to be

intimatelyconnected

With

differentiation
of the

and

and

"

increased
with

differentiation

increased

restriction there

seems

'restriction.'

"f

tensity
is loss of the in-

intrinsic

pleasantnessor painfulnessof
itself. The
the sensation
intensityand feeling-toneof
need
the
to
sensation
be
strongly emphasised, where
existence
of the
reaction
depends directlyon the mere
In so far as the reaction depends on
sensation,as such.
the meaning of the sensation,and not on its mere
existence,
the importantpoint is that its special
spond
qualityshould correaccuratelyto the specialquality of the stimulus.
intrinsic intensity
Any direct effect produced by its own
would
interfere with its value as a vehicle
and feeling-tone
indication of something beyond its own
of meaning
as
an
becomes
existence.
Thus, as perceptual consciousness
relativelymore
prominent and important, sensation is
more
more
restricted,
definitely
delicatelydifferentiated,
of pleasure
less intense,and less stronglytoned in the way
"

or

pain.
native
of Sense- Organs. Degree of discrimi" 2. Differentiation
sensibilitycorresponds broadly to the complexity
"

and

differentiation
*

Article
Ibid.

"

of the

organs

of

sense.

If the

Psychology,"Encyclop.Brit.,ninth ed.,part

nerve-

xx., p. 46.

PSYCHOLOGY.

136

[BK. n.,

CH.

in.

running to the skin in human


beings are laid bare
stimulated, then,however
directly
they be stimulated,

fibres

"

and

be the stimulus
at

weak

affection

all,the

examination
that

takes
of the

called

be

can

strong, if consciousness

or

the

on

result
subjective

sensation

form

of

be affected

of

pain; logical
psychodiscloses nothing

touch.

"*

sensations,delicatelydifferentiated

Touch-

or

they are,
neutral in tone, and capable of combining in
and almost
of consciousness
moment
a
one
great varietyof qualitative
can
differences,
only be developed by the help of special
terminal
But cutaneous
and
all
pain-sensations,
organs.
and stronglyorganicsensations which are vague, diffusive,
the help of specially
differentiated
toned, arise without
end-organs. Now, in the ascending scale of animal life,
of the
find a growing complexity and
differentiation
we

pressure-

terminal

of

organs

and

sense

of

their

as

nervous

nexions,
con-

marking a correspondingly
graduated displacement
of sensational by perceptualconsciousness.
In followingthe ascending scale of animal
find a
we
life,
for the reception
structures
gradual evolution of specialised
of external
of specialkinds
stimulation ; beginning with
those which are
from
the general
scarcelydistinguishable
surface of the body, and ending with such elaborate organs
as

the human

from

eye
sight,because

understood

that

or

The

ear.

most

best

is known

illustration
about

it.

is drawn

It must

be

the word

"sight" is here used to mean


merely sensitiveness to light." It must not be assumed
that the sensations
vibrations are
produced by luminous
in the higher organisms as in the lower.
the same
In some
lowlyorganisms which have no eyes the general
surface of the body appears
to be sensitive to light. This
"

is the

case

with
*

earth-worms

Foster,Text-Book

and

newts.

"It

of Physiology,
p. 1427.

is easy

to

SENSE-DIFFERENTIATION.

" 2.]

imagine," says Lubbock,


skins

whose

are

more

or

in

unpigmented animals
the light
semi-transparent,
though it
system even

"that
less

137

directlyon the nervous


could be
could not produce anything which
Certainly it would be misleading to call

might

act

of the

earth-worm

visual

the

"We

experience
rather

must

generalorganicdiscomfort.
The
most
rudimentary beginning of a specialstructure
consists simply in
for the receptionof light-stimulation
connexion.
of pigmented cells with
a
nervous
groups
The
pigmented material occurring in a semi-transparent
the
limpet
light. The
organism arrests and absorbs
side
the outer
has
eye-spots of this simple kind "on
suppose

it to be

of

tentacles

the

kind

sensation.

called vision."*

of

where

the

eyes

are

situated

in

more

into a
"f The skin is thrown
highly organised species,
pit within which the epithelialcells are elongatedand
pigmented.
The next step is the development of a lens for condensing
of a burning-glass. Some
the lightin the manner
species
others have a concenhave only pigmented cells,
of worms
trating
simple eye-spots, consistingof
apparatus. These
pigmented cells and a vitreous body or condensing lens,
the general surface of
exist in great numbers
over
may
called "Polyin a speciesof worm
the organism. Thus
ophthalmians there is a series of eye-spots "along the
sides
of the
body, in pairs from the seventh to the
eighteenthsegments."J Such rudimentary organs can only
nation,
sensitive to degree of illumithe creature
to render
serve
to the transition from
lightto darkness ; they thus
"

reaction when
possiblea protective
approaching objectfalls on the animal.

make

The

Senses

J Op. cit.,
p.

of Animals,p.
134.

207.

the shadow

fLubbockj

"P-

cit-"
?"

of

139"

an

PSYCHOLOGY.

138

The

[BK.n.,

CH.

in.

mentary
important step is the development of a rudiretina,essentially
consistingin a layerof rod-like
nerve-endings. The eye of the snail is situated on its hinder
horn

next

It consists

tentacle.

or

of

cornea

transparent

or

horny integument, a lens,and a retina composed of three


layers,(1)the rods, which are the proper organ of vision,
(2) a cellular layer,(3) a fibrous layer. "In all probability
the

does

eye

distinguishbetween
be

to

of

aware

little

the

merely render
directions

an

these

its tentacle."*

the animal

the

is
The

the
does

In

all

animals

many

formation

of

an

seem

within

of the retina

rods

in

snail to
not

brought

sensitive
differentially

light.

retinal rods

"It

terminates

optic nerve

of the

enable

lightand dark."
object unless it

quarter-of-an-inchof
in which

than

more

probability
to different

which
in

image

possess
any

way

comparable to that thrown on the retina of the human


eye
is impossiblefrom the positionand convexityof the lens.
These
less sensitive
more
or
eyes with rudimentary retinas,
be spread in great numbers
the
to direction,may
over
surface of the body. There
certain speciesof a genus
are
of sea-shore
which
have
these
slugs called Oncliidium
scattered eye-spots in varying numbers, some
a
hundred,
others

few

as

individuals

twelve.

as

of the

growing
the

by

Onchidium
minute

warned
out

by

of the

shower

next
*

and

contains
pore ; and

the

shadow
to prey

sea

of spray

The

same

and

so

The

number

differs in different

tinually
species,and the eyes "are conbeing reabsorbed."f The back of
number
of glands,each opening
a
it has been
suggested that when
which
of certain flying-fish
come
them, the little slugs emit a
upon

drive

stage in the

off their enemy.

development

of

the

Lloyd Morgan, Animal Life and Intelligence,


p.
The
Senses
Lubbock,
of Animals, p. 143.

eye

293.

is the

" 2.]

SENSE-D.IFFERENTIATIOX.

formation

of

than

three

or

have

very

often

seen," says

139

retinal

of a lens ; it is
image by means
for this that each diverging pencilof
necessary
rays from
a point in the
objectshall be brought again to a focus in
one
point, and in only one
point, of the retina. The
delicacyand perfectionwith which this is effected depends
the complexityof structure
of the retina,on
on
the nature
of the lens,and on
the power
of adjustingit for different
distances.
Cuttle-fish and their allies have well-developed
apparatus for the formation of images. So have vertebrate
in varying degrees. Many fishes
animals, but of course
do not distinguish
their food (worms) at a greater distance
a

four feet.

On

vision

accurate

Mr.

the other
for

short
"

hand,

of them

some

distances.

"

have

search the
largeWrasse
sand
for shrimps, turning sideways, and
looking with
either eye independently,
like a chameleon.
Its view is so
the
see
a
good that it can
shrimp with certaintywhen
whole
body is buried in grey sand, exceptingthe antennae
and antennae
and amphibians have
plates."* Some reptiles
similar

main

this

leads

which

organ

of vision

accuracy

Besides

Bateson,

at short

line

of
the

to

up

distances.

development
eye

of

of

the

visual

vertebrates,with

its

of a lens
forming a distinct image by means
sensitive retina,there is a branch
and delicately
line which
leads to the compound or facetted eye of insects and of

apparatus

Crustacea

for

such

compound
hexagonal

areas,

stated to have

Beneath
towards
*

each
the

and

lobsters.

is divided

eyes

insects

some

crabs

as

twenty
facet
facet

into

little lens.

thousand

is

and

kind

of these

Animal

turned

of
in

dragon-flyis
hexagonal facets.

crystalline
cone,

its apex

Quoted by Lloyd Morgan,

is

surface of these

great number
called a facet,and

up
of which

each

forms

The

of

with

inwards,

its base
where

Life and Intelligence,


p. 287.

it

PSYCHOLOGY.

HO

in

ends
is

nerve-rod.

lens

and

by
and

eye-spots,

cells

separate

crystalline
these

But

dispute.

the

taken

office

same

of

rays
affect

cone

as

cones

spot
view,

light

and

with
form

higher

such
must

the

to

All

that
"

eyes
be

is
far

its
from

coming

eye

point
stippled

much

the

by

The

only.

accurate

and

and

vertebrates.
*

Op.

cit., p.

290,

the

that

way

Only

vertebrates.

through

each

in
is

result

the

image

distinct

field

what

vision

which
than

of

Lloyd
of

range

of

minute

single

point

the

strike

Thus,
a

the

crystalline

which

rest

The

image."*

much

different

pigment.

single

which

been

nerve-rod

own

smaller,

less

of

straight

go

absorbed

are

from

calls

Morgan

in

nerve-rod.

the

conveys

of

lens

which

light

obliquely

cones

the

single

in

out

in

the

way

has

fulfil

such

while

form

made

of

pound
com-

of

lenses,

there

collectively

the

at

to

clearly

there

consisting

eye

the

in.

each

number
of

function,

these

arrive

regards

pretty

now

of

en.

round

coalesced

As

n.,

of

form

number
lens

their

is

organs

those

the

it

developed

midst

should

the

rod."

perform

is

we

each

and

the

together

increasing
beneath

in

simple

bringing

cone

eyes

facetted

from

nerve-fibre,

eye

pigment

Starting

cones.

cells

Dark
"

the
of

elongated

great

[BK.

they
in

the

CHAPTEE

IV.

LIGHT-SEXSATIOM".

1.

"

Introductory.Having

given

"

the nature

of

of the

sensation,and

general

sense-reaction,we

to the

specialsenses, beginning with those


most
about, sightand hearing. Sight is a vehicle
of the
perception,and it is so in part because
pass

of visual

nature

of this
with
At

sensation.
of

part

we

differences
call

In

other

intermediate

"
is

medium

purposes,
the

of the

undulating

diffused

we

end,

and

As

the

of

course

only

may

which

waves

jerked

words,

called

"

of

movement

ment
treat-

to

deal

consciousness.

the

to

deal

colour-

with

tints,white, black, and

the

Physicallyconsidered,light
the particles
of a generally

luminiferous

ether.

represent this undulating

along

pass
up

and

the material
form

have

we

neutral

Stimulus.

traverses

wave

spatial
peculiar

greys.

2. Nature

an

of

fications
peculiarmodispecifically
corresponding to
the physicalstimulus
which
we

of

sensations, including the

know

we

come

we

with

now

postpone

sensational

from

concerned

nature

shall

we

subject,until

consciousness

in the

light.

only

are

of

the

distinct

perceptual as

present

But

of

account

of movement

rope,

down

the rope,

by
what

of
particles
which
141

hand

at

travels

the rope

at

one

other.

the

along

our

by

movement

it is fixed

when
the

For

it is not

themselves, but

is transmitted

from

one

PSYCHOLOGY.

142

[BK n.,

The hand
to another.
particles
quicklyit moves,
quickly; the more
In the undulating1movement

set of

less

move

may

en.

more

the shorter

are

iv.

or

the

the

particlesof the
and then fall beneath
their position
rope first rise above
the rope is -at rest.
of equilibriumwhen
They rise to a
The
is
length of the wave
crest,and sink into a hollow.
the point at which
this
measured
by the distance between
it terminates.
movement
begins and the point at which

waves.

Longer
shorter

traverse

waves

hence

ones;

repeatedin

the

as

due

to

time

rope

shorter
same

wave

time.

it takes

in

the

same

must

be

Thus

the

time
more

shorter

as

quently
frethe

complete itself. The


must
be carefully
from
amplitudeof the wave
distinguished
its length.The
ments
hand, while continuingto repeat its movein the same
time, and consequentlyproducing waves
take a more
less extended
of the same
or
length, may
extended
the swing, the greater is the
swing. The more
that traverse
The
the
amplitude of the waves
rope.
particlesof the rope rise higher and sink lower; their
crests are
higher and their hollows deeper. Suppose now
that the hand, in making its excursion
to and
fro, also
different kinds
trembles.
Two
then comof impulse are
municated
to the rope, each of which
separatelywould give
of different length. The result is waves
rise to waves
of a
more
complex form which can be mathematicallyexplained
the

wave

shorter

the

the

combination

impulses would

of the

to

waves

which

the

separate

severallyproduce.
Thus we
three characteristics of an undulating
can
distinguish
movement:
(1) wave-length, (2) amplitude, (3)
of light,each of
simplicityor complexity. In the case
characters
these
of the physical undulation
is specially
connected
with a correspondingcharacteristic of visual sensation.
Differences
of wave-length
connected
are
specially

LIGHT-

" 2.]
with

differences

143

of

other than
those which
colour-quality
by degrees of paleness or darkness, viz.

constituted

are

SENSATION.

less resemblance
black.
Colourto white
or
or
by more
is called colour-tone.
For
quality in this restricted sense
yellow and green, or
example, the difference between
between
yellow-green and a still yellower green, is a
The
difference between
difference of colour- tone.
yellow
and
yellowish-brownis difference in saturation due to a
the
amplitude of
darkening of the
yellow. The
with
is speciallyconnected
the
wave
intensityof the
sensation.
Any specificcolour-tone, such as green or
red, produced by light of a certain wave-length, may
be
made
brighter or less bright by increasing or
diminishing the intensityof the light,viz. the amplitude
become
ation
It may
of the vibration.
brighter without alterof

colour-tone.

its

If

have

we

series of greys

including what we call white, arranged in a graduated


it is possibleto fix the brightnessof a
scale of brightness,
given colour, such as green, by comparing it with the
of them,
It is judged to be equallybrightwith one
greys.
less bright than the rest.
The complexity
of a
and more
or
determines

wave

purity of
seen,

compare

another
the

correspondingcolour.

the

intensityor

brightness:

in

free it is from

It must

we

It

we

grey,

any

pure

also

admixture

we

as

wThite in

it in

grey

The

or

the

of grey,

the

it

more

is,and

it

have

resembles

green

green.

or

respect of

compare

greenish

the less saturated

apparent

saturation

can,

far the

be

apparently a

AVe

can

how

may

degreeof

or

grey

but
ask

can

quality.

greyish green, or
approximates to
saturated

with

green

respect :

grey

is called the

what

more
more

it is.
not

be

supposed

that

colour-tone

is determined

solely by wave-length, intensitysolely by amplitude,

PSYCHOLOGY.

U4

degree of

[BK.

n.,

CH.

iv.

solelyby complexity. It is
only within certain limits that the physical intensity
be
varied
without
of light can
affectingcolour-tone.
in
the
Variation
intensityof the light also affects
makes
the
colour
saturation; increase
whiter, and
makes
it darker.
decrease
mines
Wave-length not only detercolour-tone,but also helps to determine
ness.
brightSome
colour-tones
are
brighter than others,even
and

the

though

saturation

of vibration

is

determining colour-tone.
produced by simple waves
waves
also, though in
White
all

of

grey

or

is

physical stimulus

results

The

same

be

can

less

from

indeed

colours

in

which

are

produced by complex

pure

saturated

or

combination

plexity
Com-

intense.

important factor

very

less

form.

of

lights

various
other
binations.
comwave-lengths,and also from
In
ordinary daylight,all wave-lengths are

combined.

of the Eye, For anatomical detail we


of physiology. The eye as a
refer to the text-books
is analogous to
a
photographic apparatus. "In

" 3.

camera

Structure

or

dark

that which

part, and

a
a

must

"

chamber

of notable

size exists

photographer uses, having


sensitive

curtain

at

whole
it

similar

lens in the

the back

to

fore

When

the

he sees
on
photographerlooks in at the back of his camera,
he wishes
the ground glassplatethe image depictedwhich
delineated
to photograph,placed upside down, but faithfully
in all its colours ; and such an
inverted landscape is

formed

in like

eyeballs. And
his

instrument

screwing it nearer
the focus

of the

of

our

in the

manner

as

the

by
or

eye

back

part

of each

photographer adjusts the


altering the position of

further

from

the screen,

instinctively
accordingto

objectlooked at,not

indeed

so

of
focus

the
we

the

our

of

lens,
adjust

distance

by changingthe position

LIGHT-

" 4.]

SENSATION".

its form
by altering
required."*1

of the lens but

weaker

or

as

sensitive curtain

The

is

there

respects by
retina,and
Near
it,on

the

to make

it stronger

retina; in its

centre

far

the

discriminative

most

part of

the

gives distinct vision of an object.


enters
the nasal side, the optic nerve
the
this point,not being sensitive to light,
is called

and

the blind

it alone

spot.

retina

The

is called

as

depression called the fovea centralis.


its immediate
margin is also called the yellow
its colour.
In ordinary light this is in all

spot, from

eye,

so

circular

pitand

This

145

essential

is

an

constituents

expansion
are

of

certain

the

Its

opticnerve.
cells

minute

of

two

kinds, called

and
The
rods
cones.
yellow
respectively
closelypacked together. In
spot consists mainly of cones
other parts the rods predominate. The
number
of cones
decreases from the yellow spot to the margin of the retina.
must
of Light-Sensations. We
" 4. Descriptive
^Analysis
neutral
tints and
colours
distinguishbetween
proper.
"

Neutral

tints consist

with
Starting

greys.

of black
pure

and

black,we

white
can

and

intermediate

arrange

the greys

by gradual transitions to pure


be interposedbetween
Each
others
two
white.
grey may
it resembles
which
so
closelyas to be barely distinguishable
from them.
It differs from the one
which
precedesit
and from the one
in being a little lighter,
follows it
which
in being a little darker.
Thus, though the greys differ,
the generalform of transition between
them
is throughout

in

series,so

as

to pass

identical.
The
of

about
700 shades
capable of distinguishing
brilliant
the deepest black
to the most
should be noted that though black is not due

eye is
grey, from

white.

It
*

and Sensation,pp. 77,78.


Cleland,Evolution,Expression,

Psych.

10

PSYCHOLOGY.

146

[BK. n.,

CH.

iv.

positivephysicalstimulus, as other visual sensations


sees
eye which
are, it is yet a positiveexperience. The
the back
darkness
of the
is not
at all comparable with
for believing
hand, which sees nothing. There is reason
is present to consciousness
in the
that the grey field which
of light is due
and
absence
directlyto a brain-process,

to

does

involve

not

Differences

excitation
of

of retinal elements

colour-tone, apart

from

at all.

differences

of

in the order in
best studied
are
intensity,
in the spectrum. The spectrum is formed
which
they occur
by passing ordinarywhite lightthrough a prism, and so
and projecting
breaking it up into its component simplelights,
The simple components of the white
these on a screen.
lengths.
lightare then arranged in a series in the order of their waveAt one
end are the longestwave-lengths,giving
the sensation
of red, at the other the shortest,giving the
tween
sensation
of violet,viz. a blue
tinged with red. Bethe red end and the violet end are interposedall the
various
colour-tones,*with the exceptionof the purples.
The
purples can be formed
by intermixing red and violet
lightsin varying proportions. In what follows we shall
of these
the spectrum completed by the addition
suppose
purple tints,so as to form a closed figure.
saturation

We
which

and

have

said that colours

they

occur

in the

are

best studied

unfortunatelythe
respects for the analytic

spectrum.

in
spectrum is unsuitable
comparisonof colour-tones.

other

in the order in

But

comparing a series of colours


their brightness
merely with reference to their colour-tones,
and saturation ought to be kept as uniform
as
possible.But
the colours of the spectrum differ greatlyin brightness,
Hence

in what

arranged
*

in

Not

follows
the

of course

order
all

In

shall suppose

we

of

the

spectrum,

degrees of saturation

and

series of colours
but

uniform

intensity.

in

LIGHT-SENSATION.

" 4.]

147

Such, a series may


be made
brightness and saturation.
by takingbits of transparent coloured paper, and adjusting
their degree of brightnessand saturation
by placing bits
of grey
The

or

white

whole

paper

series of

underneath

them.

colour-tones,
beginning with

red

and

returningto red, is continuouslygraduated, like the grey


series of which
have
we
just spoken. But there is an
lengths,
important difference. In the region of greatest wavethe
member

of

transitions
the

but
perceptible,
and

of

from

the

transition

from

red

yellow;

to

each

others
two
interposed between
so
closelythat the difference is barely
in being redder,
differs from
the one

series is

it resembles

which

are

it
other

ia

the

in

being yellower.

the

Thus

form

throughout,and

series is uniform

Gre"n

Fig. 2.

"

Circle

serial order
illustrating

is quiteanalogous to that between


after

passing yellow, there

occurs

of colour-tones.

black

what

and

white.

may

be

But

best

PSYCHOLOGY.

148

described
continuous

change

as

it

of direction.

The

transition

iv.

en.

is still

place between
yellow and
We
begin with, greenishyellows,and pass by the
green.
smallest perceptible
transitions to yellowishgreens, and so
After passinggreen there is another change
to pure green.
have
of direction ; we
a
now
green-blueseries. There is
still another
turning-pointafter passing blue ; the series
which
follows is blue-red,passing from blue through violet
and purple to red.
The change of colour in the spectrum
that it is not possibleto fix
is throughout so continuous
the
these
exact
point at which
changes of direction
be
said is that they begin somewhere
begin. All that can
in the
region of red, yellow, green, and blue,
it
respectively. Since the change of direction occurs,
At
somewhere.
the
must
occur
precise point of its
there
be
must
a
simple colour-tone, such
occurrence,
For
as
red, pure yellow,pure green, or pure blue.
pure
instance,pure yellow is the point of transition between
red is
the red-yellowsand
the green-yellows,and pure
the purples and the redthe point of transition between
yellows.
It may
be well to note here a question of some
logical
psychointerest which
has been much
discussed.
Is it right
of blue and green,
to say that a blue-greenis a combination
of red and yellow?
It has
or
a red-yellowa combination
become

; but

[BK. IT.,

the fashion

now

takes

of late to say

that

such

and

green,

blue-greenmerely resembles

blue

contain

elements.

them

as

constituent

colour
but

does

colour

The

as

not

itself,

it is

maintained,is perfectlysimple. Now it is natural for


to distinguish
common
sense
one
blue-greenfrom another,
less of blue in it,or more
or
by saying that there is more
or

less of green

writer

that

any

in it.

It does

not

cogent arguments

appear
have

to

the

been

present

brought

LIGHT-SENSATION.

" 4.]
to show

forward

that

this

149

point of

is untenable.

view

approach so very near to pure green as to


from
bo barely distinguishable
it, so that the casual
It seems
observer would
regard it as a pure green.
strange
to say that such
a
blue-green contains no green at all.
of those
who
is probably in the mind
What
deny the
be
is that
combination
a
blue-green cannot
simply
The
blue -f green.
denned
as
components by entering
modified
combination
in a peculiar
into so intimate
a
are
blue-green may

modification

This

way.

is

element

new

which

may

bination
experience of the comis a
of blue
and
simple experience,
green
the experienceof
and
to be identical in kind with
seems
other such pairs.
of yellow and red, and
the combination
But the components abstractly
regarded are not the less*
of blue and green.
discernible as partaking of the nature
is something new
and
Because
there
simple in the
experience,we have no right to infer that there is no
that
complexity in it. It must, however, be admitted
the balance
of
the question is not
an
one
easy
; and
I
to be
am
against the view which
authority seems

be

regarded

inclined

combination
to

of

speak
believe

of blue
hand

one

such

and

that

interpretthe

may

in

blue

of

The

But

favour.

to
to

inclined

simple.

as

colour

the

green

it resembles

case

it is most

as

blue-green

If

green.

the

student

venient
conas

is not

colour

statement

and

any

as

actuallyis complex he
that blue-green is a combination
merely meaning that on the

blue, and

the

on

other

resembles

green.
*

Of

course

they

are

but they
separable,

not

The respect
distinguishable.
to

resemble

green

and

to

me

each

other

when

compared

blue-green resemble

sufficient

reason

for

in which

each

are

blue

is different
other

when

under
and
from

ditions
appropriate conblue-green are seen

the

respect in

which

This
compared.
appears
inferringcomplexity in the blue-green,

PSYCHOLOGY.

150

far

So

have

we

but

difference

all the colours of the

these

respects so

of them

be

made
If the

increased

or

less

diminished
the

result

great, the

too

may

is

that

in either

or

all the

of

Each

admixture

an

the illumination

the

increase

iv.

colour-

series.

pale by

while

CH.

saturation

vary

continuous

a
or

if

in

intensityand

general intensityof

and

being examined,

form

more

light.

in

difference

spectrum

to

as

be

may

of white

not

considered

only

tone, apart from

[BZ. n.,

spectrum is
diminution

colours

is

in the

brightnesswhile remaining the same


But the change in brightnessis in general
in colour-tone.
Increased
accompanied by a change in saturation.
a colour
paler,and decreased brightness
brightnessmakes
spectrum

it darker

makes
the

increase

are

it to be mixed

causes

"

decrease

or

is made

with

black.

When

sufficiently
great,

the

whiteness
ness,
blackor
disappear in mere
and
respectively.
They may be mixed with white light,
that both changes
lowered
increased in intensity,
so
or
All the colour-differences
combined.
recognised in

colour-tones

also

in

vary

tend

ordinary life

to

be

may

They are constituted


in intensity,
and in
whitish

reds ;

diminished

differences

saturation.
is

intensityas
is

dark

for in these

to

green.

in

Pink
dark
be

various

primary
and

ways.

colour tone,

rose-colour

red, i.e.,a

red

are
so

strongly infuse^ with


We
usually call a pale

The series of colourlightgreen or blue.


modifications
obtained
by making a colour-tone,such as
blue, paleror darker is psychologically
quite analogous to
to such a series as that of the blue-greens. Here, too, the
question of simplicityor complexity arises. Those who
maintain
that no
two
distinguishableparts of the bluegreen

green
that

or

blue

by

maroon

in

Olive

black.

accounted

series

they are

have, qua sensations,any


all

common

element,but

simple and independent colour-qualities,

LIGHT-SENSATION.

"$ 5, 6.]
must

maintain

the

must

maintain

that

blue-black

for the

same

black

in which

tinge of blue has no


black, or with black that

detects
pure

151

only the

element

series.

has

in

They

artist's eye
with

common

barely appreciable

tingeof green.
In the
Intensityis by no means
independent of colour.
spectrum, the physicallightis most intense in the region
of red.
But for our
the
experiencethe yellow is distinctly
colour.
The blue is less bright than the red,but
brightest
the difference

by no
of the
intensity

in the

It
not

is

should

be

the difference

proportionto

illumination.

noted

that

the

red

of the

is

spectrum

Hering pointed out, is tingedwith

red, but, as

pure

in

means

yellow.

"

5.

absence
which

Light. In the total and continued


of external light,there still exists a field of view
does not consist of mere
darkness.
ground
Upon a backof medium
seen
specks and clouds
grey, there are
The

Retina's

This

of colour.
are

own

"

is due

continuallybeing

to

the

fact that

stimulated

of heat.

This

internal

external

stimulation.

objectswhich

and

stimulation

internal

cesses
pro-

the re-distribution

sensation

in the

It arises when

stimulate

elements

is called the retina's

The

der Retina}.
light(Eigenlicht
in its purest form
not obtained

such

by

the circulation of the blood

as

retinal

of

black

complete absence
the

eye

passes

own

is
of

from

object which fails to


stimulate it except in a slightdegree.
The extreme
" 6. Total Colour- Blindness.
margin of the
colour-blind.
Let the eye be fixed upon an
retina is totally
objectimmediatelyin front of it,and let someone
gradually
it,to

some

"

introduce
view

from

view,

the

an
one

unknown
side.

objectwill

coloured
On

objectinto

its first entrance

appear

white, grey,

the

field of

into the field of


or

black.

Its

PSYCHOLOGY.

152

colour

will

only become

centre

of the

[BE. n.,

recognisableas

it

en.

iv.

approaches the

field.

Again, when the illumination is sufficiently


faint,the
whole
of the retina,with the exceptionof the yellow spot,
is totallycolour-blind.
All the colours of the spectrum
into

when

the

dim
light is made
enough.
When
we
ordinarydaylight into a dark room,
pass from
not at first able to discern objects: but after a time
we
are
the eye adapts itself to the faint illumination.
It then
becomes
able to discern objectsbut not their colour-tones.
It sees
It has
been
everything in black and white.
experimentallyascertained that this twilightvision depends
the portionsof the retina which
surround
the yellow
on
adapted to
spot. The yellow spot itself does not become
If a small patch of colour is seen
the faint illumination.
of the yellow spot, decreasing illumination
only by means
does not
the colour to disappear altogether,but
causes
been
Cases
have
transform
it into
a
patch of grey.
showed
of persons
and recorded
who
carefullyexamined
of sensibility
entire want
to colour-tones, not
an
only
under
all
conditions.
faint
under
illumination, but
In
most
everything in black and white.
They saw
of these
pathological cases, though not in all, there
of lightis an alteration in the distribution of the intensity
For the normal
sensation in the spectrum.
eye the region
of greatest brightness is that of yellow light; for the
totallycolour-blind,it lies in the green rather than in the
pass

grey

yellowportionof
spectrum,
shows

the

can

same

seen

under

change

It is

notable

faint
sufficiently
in the

distribution

fact that the

illumination,
of the

ness
bright-

totallycolour-blind cannot for the


part bear illumination of ordinary strength. They
well in a dim light,but are
see
painfullydazzled
of its

most

as

the spectrum.

parts.

The

LIGHT-SENSATION.

" 7.]

153

full

dition
light. This indicates that their ordinary conis analogous to that of a normal
whose
person
blindness
Colourhave
been
adapted to twilight vision.
eyes
is common
to both
cases.
Probably a special
visual apparatus is brought into play in twilight
vision,and
exists in the
this is the only apparatus which
in most
cases
research seems
to
colour-blind.
Recent
eyes of the totally
show that this special
apparatus is constituted by the rods
of the retina as distinguished
from the cones.
the outer margin
Between
" 7. Partial Colour-Blindness.
of the retina and the yellow spot,there is a region which
colour-blind.
It is sensitive to blue and yellow,
is partially
be tested by an
but not
and
to red
This
may
green.
experiment similar to that described in the previoussection.

by

"

When

the

that

they

colours

spectrum

are

sideways, so

seen

partiallycolour-blind
blue-green region appears
grey.

fall

retina, the
divides

of the
the

on

the whole

spectrum into

two

parts.

of

zone

This

The

the
grey

part

taining
con-

lightof greater wave-length appears yellow,that


containing light of smaller wave-length, appears blue.
Bed

and

It is well
whole

known

green
other.
to red

there

are

whose

persons

many

consisting
by a partialcolour-blindness,
and
red
inabilityto distinguishbetween
tinguish
considered, this inabilityto disabstractly

an

Now,

between
ways.

that

retina is affected
in

green.

discernible.

not

are

green

and

who

person

could
But

red

not

of

the

same

not

to

and

green

arise in either of two

insensitive

was

both

to

distinguishthem

course

might
green,

may

or

hold
to

true

green

of

and

red

sensitive

person
to

yellow to be due to a combination


suppose
retinal processes
which
are
produced by red

red.

If

of

the

we

green

lightrespectively,
persons

insensitive

each

from

not

to

and

light
red

and

would

PSYCHOLOGY.

154

all

yellows as green, and


red.
would
all yellows as
see
partial colour-blindness
see

[BK. n.,

advocated.

On

the

whole,

those

insensitive

Both
have

it

seems

modes

been,
most

of
and

to

en.

iv.

green

ing
explainstill are,

probable that
equallyincapable

the retina is
partiallycolour-blind
either of red or
of giving rise to sensations
green.
evidence
But
the question is full of difficulty.The
shows
distinct
two
clearly that there are
types of
and it has been
maintained
that
partialcolour-blindness,

in the

in the

one

type the sensation

type the sensation


which

only

one

being normal.

green.
has

eye

But
been

in the other

have

occurred

colour-blind,the

other

in
eye

sensations

have

both

of red

and

green,

we

explanationof the difference between the


the oppositeview distinguished
two types which
are
on
as
and
red-blindness
green-blindness.In both types it is
by mixing in varying proportionslightfrom the
possible,
short-waved
end of the spectrum with lightfrom the longwaved
end, to produce all the colour-tones which they are
mediate
capable of seeing when their retina is affected by intersimplelights. In type i. (the so-called red-blind),
the rays at the extreme
end of the spectrum, which
give
of red to the normal
distinct sensations
eye, produce no
appreciableeffect of any kind, and other reddish rays
must

find

of the

instances

instances

and

belonged to the type


be classed as red-blindness by those who
tinguish
diswhich would
between
red-blindness
and green-blindness.
Now
the colour-blind
themselves
that the
in such cases
testify
colours they see with the abnormal
eye are yellowand blue,
and those they fail to see, red and green.
They see the
spectrum as composed of yellow and blue, with a grey
region in which normal persons see blue-green.
that partialcolour-blindness
If we
consists in
suppose
the absence

These

red is absent

some

faint

produce only
in

sensitive

intense

of

the

yellowwith
the

intensityof

about

four

kind than

some

times

reddish

rays

in

type i.

retina

end

type

i.

for

as

is
the

of

produce more
In comparing
free from red,

yellow almost
yellow light must

for

great

as

red

the

at
rays
general, reddish

in

certain reddish

type ii.,the

to

way

sensation

155

In

sensations.

some

and

spectrum;
a

SENSATION.

LIGHT-

" 7.]

be

made

type ii.,in

able
resultingsensations may be indistinguishin intensity
and colour-tone.
Clearlythere is a great
difference in sensitiveness to red light in the two
types.
But it by no means
follows that the red lightproduces the
order

the

that

sensation

in

red

ii. and

type

in

not

type i.

The

probable explanationis that the red light has


yellowin type
power of producing the sensation
type

greater

ii.than

correspondingdifference is found in normal


in regard to sensations
of yellow. "If
by means
of
specialarrangement we bring a certain amount
of the

spectrum and

part of the spectrum


result is

we

can

and

sensation

bring on

can

make

green,

match

the

on

one

certain

the

to

on

of

of the actual

amount
we

eye

yellow.

the

between

same

parts of the spectrum

the

with

Professor

this takes

nesorgane,

The

Gr. E.

place.
Band

Miiller

See

XIV.

sensation

given

to

Heft

3 und

4, p.

distinguished
to

confuse

the

ment
arrange-

time

certain

In this way

derived

from

derived

two

from

of
adjustthe quantities

elaborate

seems

explanation

of the
of

Physiologieder

how
Sin-

182.

from

two

green

same

the mixture

an

the red

spectralred
spectralyellow on the

Zeitschrift
f. Psychologicund

as

are
Physiologists
apt

has

of

sensation

single(yellow)part. We have
red lightand green
light until

of

time, the

same

spectrum.
mixture

and

hand,

the

By

to the eye at the

yellow of

the

at

persons

of the

amount

other, comparing the mixedf sensation

in

i.*

part

most

the

things.

stimulua

is not

mixed.

PSYCHOLOGY.

156

hue

tlie

CH.

iv

brightness as the yellow, not


When
this
showing either a reddish or a greenish tone.
that
different
is done
it is found
people differ very
materiallyas to the proportionof red and green, the proportion
of the intensities of the two
lights,necessary to
with yellow."*4
make
the match
" 8. Effectsof the Mixture of Lights of DifferentWavelightsof all wave-lengthsare intermingled
Lengths. When
the result is grey
in due proportion,
white.
If in the
or
is a relative predominance of some
there
mixture
one
light,such as green or blue, the result is a whitish green
same

and

[BK. n.,

same

"

or

If
find

whitish

select any

we
some

other
will

of

blue.

the

colour

colour

is

spectrum, it is possibleto

which, mingled

neutral

yielda

mixture

of the

present

tint.
in

If

one

with

it in due

of the

portion,
pro-

components

greater quantity than

grey, the

is

predominant lightgivesits
The other lightdiminishes
colour to the mixture.
the
own
degreeofsaturation. Thus, if goldenyellow and blue be mixed
in proper
proportions,they yield the sensation of white.
As the proportionof blue is increased,the white becomes
white ; as the proportionof yellow
and more
a bluish
more
and more
is increased,the white becomes
more
a yellowish
Colours
white.
with each other,yield
which, intermixed
white,are called complementary. Yellow is complementary
The red of the spectrum is not complementary to
to blue.
It should
be remembered,
green, but to a bluish green.
however, that the red of the spectrum is not pure red, but
yellowish. As every discernible colour of the spectrum
its complement, either
within
the
spectrum
possesses
in the
or
purple series,the pairs of complementary
colours are
If the simple lights
numerous.
indefinitely
requiredto produce a

Foster, Text-Boole

of Physiology,
part iv.,pp.

1240-1241.

correspondingto
from

SENSATION.

LIGHT-

" 8.]

each

colours
in

other

which,
the

are

157

spectrum

far

too

not

removed

mingled,

are

the

intermediate
corresponding to an
light. The wider the interval separating the mingled
the whiter
is the resultingcolour.
the
When
colours
in proper
interval
becomes
wide, mixture
sufficiently
For instance,by mingling
proportionyieldspure white.
the simplelightswhich
severally
produce blue and green,
obtain
all the blue-greens. A larger proportion
can
we
of the blue lightyieldsa bluer green : a largerproportion
If we
blue.
mix
of the green
light yields a greener
obtain
blue
with
a
mingled
yellowish-green,we
green
is

result

with

the

colour

white

due

the

to

combination

of

blue

and

it may
be
or
relatively
pure
bluish
or
yellowishaccording to the proportion of blue
of
The
combination
or
yellow light in the mixture.
of pure blue w7ith pure yellow yields
white.
If,proceeding

yellow.

This

further,we
contained

green

mix

in the

blue

be

may

with,

red, we

obtain

new

colour

not

purple.By mixing the red light


of the spectrum with the green
in certain proportionswe
produce yellow: by increasingthe quantity of red light,
redder
the yellow is made
; by increasingthe quantity of
The
laws of
light,the yellow is made
green
greener.
combination
which hold good of simplelightsapply also to
those
mixtures
which
colours
the
as
produce the same
simplelights.
If we
select three colours so related that by combining
obtain a colour which
is complewe
can
mentary
any two of them
to the third,it is possible,
by varying combinations
of the three, to produce all the colours of the spectrum.
But
there is only one
tripletof colours by which the
be produced in a high degree of saturation.
rest can
This triplet
and
is red, green,
bluish violet.
For this
a
spectrum,

"

PSYCHOLOGY.

158

and

red, green,

reason

[BK. n.,

violet,have

been

called

CH.

IT,

primary

colours.
method

best

The

so

to

as

allow

two

same

part

lengths,
mixing lightsof different waveascertain the resultingsensation,is to

different

way

is

the

colours

of

the

by using the

of

parts
retina

of the

spectrum

the

at

colour-wheel

or

be

same

to

time.

fall

on

the

Another

colour-top.Sectors of
disk.
a
placed on

investigatedare
The
be
as
as
pigments used in colouring must
pure
possible; in other words, they must as nearly as possible
reflect simple and not compound lights.* The disk is set
rapidly spinning so that one kind of light is brought to
bear

If

the retina before

on

the

Thus

to

different

sector

one

if the

colours

modes

the effect of the other has ceased.


of stimulation

superposed.
of the disk is blue, and another
yellow,and
the rapidly
are
present in due proportion,
are

rotatingdisk will appear grey.


passing a street" 9. The Effectsof Contrast. A man
is cut
That which
lamp in moonlight casts two shadows.
off from the lightof the lamp and only illuminated
by the
blue.
Now, moonlight is white or nearly
moon,
appears
"

The

so.

with

the

blue

of the shadow
is due to contrast
appearance
yellow illumination thrown by the lamp on the

surrounding field of view. The excitement of the retina by


affects that portionof the retina
the yellowlightindirectly
of the central nervous
which is not directly
excited
matter
or
by it. The influence thus exerted by the yellowlightproduces
effect
similar
to that which
would
be produced by
an
blue is complementary
a blue
lightactingdirectly.Now
to yellow. The
generallaw of contrast is that a colour in
any part of the field of view tends to tingeadjoiningparts
*

The

mixture

them, is by

no

means

of

the

pigments themselves,in the way that artists mix


equivalentto a mixture of the lightswhich they reflect.

LIGHT-

" 10.]
with
a

its

colour.

complementary

large field

small

SENSATION.

of uniform

159

effect is

The

colour

acts

on

greatestwhen

small

one.

relativelyextensive field of blue,


stituted
yellowish. If a small spot of red be subdistinctly

spot of grey

appears

for the

on

colour.

the contrast

its

it will combine

grey,

colour

own

yellowishred

It will appear

with

or

dish
red-

at the
yellow. The effect of contrast is most marked
It is interfered with by
meeting-pointof the two colours.
lines of demarcation
separating them, such as a pencil-

mark

round

drawn

also interfered
coloured

with

surfaces.

clearlywhen
texture

the

conditions

For

are

these

the

on

in the

obtained

it

reasons,

minimum.

blue

field.

in the

The

out

comes

most

differences

of

favourable

most

of coloured

case

It is
of the

texture

obliterated,and

are

to

spot

differences

by

contours

reduced

red

shadows,

or

by projectingthe lightfrom coloured glasseson a wall, or


disks in rapid rotation
of coloured
with the
by means
is to
A
colours
in concentric
zones.
simple method
place a small piece of paper on a larger sheet, and
to

cover

paper

both

obliterates
The

in

with

contrast

affected

darker

on

direct

it is

experiment with than


also operative
between
appear

conceals

effect is of

the

by

of tissue

and

contours

proportion as

retina

sheet

white.

The

of texture.

general stronger
part of the

of the

thus

tissue

grey

influence

is better
of contrast

to

is

grey will
background, and lighteron a black

black

white

excitation

weaker;

difference
in

course

The

paper.

and

white.

The

same

background. If contrasted colours are complementary to


saturated.
each other,the contrast renders them
more
" 10. The Negative After-Image,etc. "If, after looking
steadfastlyat a white patch on a black ground, the eye
for some
be turned to a white ground, a grey patch is seen
white
A black patch on
little time.
a
ground similarly
"

PSYCHOLOGY.

160

[BK. n.,

CH.

IT.

gives rise when the eye is subsequently turned towards


a
patch. These
grey ground," to the image of a white
of the primary
after-images,which follow the removal
stimulation, are

called

negativeimages.

"When

red

subsequently turned to a
white or to a grey ground, the negativeimage is a greenish
blue; that is to say, the colour of the negative image is
complementary to that of the object. Thus also orange
produces a blue, green a pink, yellow an
indigo-blue,
The
conditions
for the
negative image, and so on."*
favourable,
productionof the negativeimage are the more
intense and persistent
the more
is the primary stimulation.
is very transient,it may
When
the primary stimulation
give rise in the first instance to a positiveimage, as we
shall see later.
Negative images arise also when the eye
well as
is simply closed after the primary stimulation
as
it is turned to a different background.
when
of
for the occurrence
It is not
absolutelynecessary
should
be
negative images that the primary stimulus
The
result may
be brought about
removed.
same
by
diminishingits intensity.If we steadfastly
gaze at a red
spot on a yellow ground, and then diminish the intensity
the light or otherwise,
of the illumination
by turning down
blue
a
a
ground will appear
spot upon
green
instead of the red spot on a yellow ground.
patch is

The

looked

same

at, and

process

the

eye

is manifested

in

different way

while

actuallysubjectto the primary stimulation in


undiminished
at
intensity.If we gaze long and steadfastly
less saturated ; the effect
any colour,it graduallybecomes
of steadfastly
that produced
as
gazing at yellowis the same
and
by graduallymingling the yellow light with more
of its complementary blue.
It becomes
more
paler. We
the

eye

is

book
Foster,Text-Boole of Physiology,
part iv.,

iii.,
chap, iii.,
p.

12GG.

LIGHT-

$11.]
may

gather these
of the

facts under

mode

same

SENSATION".

161

formula.

one

of stimulation

The

tends to

not onlyon adjoiningportionsof


effect,

also
This
when

that

on

portionwhich
effect takes

contrast

the

the
the

primary stimulation

weakened.

When

maintain

the

stimulus
form

of

produce a
the

trast
con-

retina,but

directlyexcites.
negativeimage
or
sufficiently

is withdrawn

stimulus

ance
continu-

is continued

so

to

as

its

positiveeffect,the contrast effect mingles


with this,so as to produce loss of saturation.
In this way,
the yellow illumination
of a gas-light
candle practically
or
becomes
it is long continued.
to white lightwhen
equivalent
It is noteworthy that negativeimages modify each other's
colour-tone
it
in cases
in which
by contrast,and this even
is difficult to obtain

contrast

effect under

ditions.
ordinary con-

The

negativeimage of a red patch on a white


ground is blue-green; the negative image of the white
This
ground which surrounds it is reddened
by contrast.
is important,because
it shows
that contrast
phenomena
of judgment, as has been maintained
not due to errors
are
by Helmholtz.
" 11. The Positive After-image,etc. Light actingon the
and
retina takes a certain time to produce its full effect,
the retinal excitement
takes a certain time to disappear
"

after the
disk

with
the

As
grey.
successive

stimulus
a

has

white

whole
the

been

removed.

sector, and

disk
white

portions of

the

the

retina,but

round,

by

black

rapid

as

eye

is whirled

sector

take

we

set it in very
to

appears

If

no

tion,
rota-

uniform

it affects
means

so

intenselyas if it continued to act on the same


part.
Owing to the rapidityof the rotation,it returns again to
the same
pointbefore the effect of the previousstimulation
has become
The result is a uniform
appreciablydiminished.
grey

identical with, that which


Psych.

would

be

produced 12
11

tlio

PSYCHOLOGY.

162

white

lightfrom

the whole

the

surface

were

of the visual sensation

after the stimulus

some

time

are

most

been

favourable

withdrawn

when

from

the

an

eye

over

sistence
per-

as

of

the

briefly
it. The

which

influence

iv,

has ceased

to what is known
givesrise,under certain conditions,
positiveafter-image.To obtain this,the eye must
instead of steadfastly
glanceat an object,
gazing at

conditions

CH,

equally distributed
rotatingdisk at rest. The

sector

of the

[BK. n.,

has

for

light is

Thus
momentarily exposed to a somewhat
strong stimulus.
if immediately on waking from
sleep in the morning the
for an instant and then closed,
eye be directed to a window
and darker
with its bright panes
an
image of the window
colour as the
sashes, the various parts being of the same
object,will remain for an appreciabletime."*
Theories
of Light-Sensation.
Very
" 12. Physiological
is known
and experilittle indeed
by direct observation
ment
about the physiological
either in the retina
processes
The
in nervous
matter
or
correspondingto light-sensation.
theories on the subject
are
hypotheticalconstructions based
on
physicaland psychologicaldata. The two which are
''

"

best

known

are

those

connected

with

the

names

of

of these is
Neither
Hering respectively.
more
on
a
plete
comsatisfactory
; but that of Hering is based
safely
survey of facts ; and if it is not right,it may
It has recentlybeen
be said to be on rightlines.
greatly
but his views
modified and improved by Prof. Or.E. Miiller,
too complex and too recent for us to deal with
at once
are
them here.
"We shall therefore refer to Bering's theory

Helmholtz

and of

mainly in its originalform.


is primarilybased on the facts
The theory of Helmholtz
of colour combination
regarded from a physicalpoint of
for the
The aim is to account
in the simplestway
view.
*

Foster,op. cit.,
p. 1265.

LIGHT-

" 12.]

SENSATION.

163

colour by many
different combinations
productionof the same
of physicallight. Helmholtz
believed that this could
be done
by assuming three, and only three, ultimate
Each
of these
takes
physiological
processes.
processes
placein the first instance in the retina and is conveyed by
its own
it produces a
to the brain,where
specialnerves
excitation.
The
corresponding specificnervous
cesses
proseverally
correspondto the sensations of red, green,
and blue.
in equal proportionsyields
Their combination
the sensation of white or grey.
tion
Every kind and combinaof lightexcites all three processes.
Hence
colour
no
under
is ever
ordinary conditions of stimulation
quite
saturated.
certain intermixture
It always contains
of
a
white.
By combining in various proportionsthe red and
the

green

the

blue, all

processes,

the

the colours

green
of the

and

the

blue, the

red

spectrum, togetherwith

and
the

purple,may be obtained.
This theory seems
of the
account
a
highly satisfactory
results of combining lightsof different wave-lengths,so
long as we do not test it by psychologicalanalysisof the
But
when
do this, a difficulty
we
resultingsensations.
in the case
of white and yellow. By mixing green
occurs
lightwith blue light,we obtain a blue-green. This, says
Ilelmholtz,is due to a compounding of the physiological
corresponding to blue and green respectively.
processes
His account
of the matter
is borne out by a scrutinyof the
sensation itself. A blue-greenpartakesof the nature
both
of blue

and

resembles

green

it resembles

both

of them

at

once.

It

each in

varying degreesaccordingas blue or green


preponderates. But by mixing red and green lightswe
produce,not reddish green but yellow. The yellow does
not partake of the nature
both of red and green,
blueas
green

of
partakes

the nature

both

of green

and

blue,

No

PSYCHOLOGY.

164

analyticscrutinyof
a

reddish

sensation
The

green.

is

does

tones, red, green,

compound

not

partake at

and

blue.

white.

of

iv.

as

White,
ultimate

fact,the

of the three

once

CH.

colour

of all three

matter

as

such

of

is true

But,

physiological
processes.

discover

can

same

accordingto Helmholtz,
of white

[BK. n.,

tion
sensa-

colour-

Objections of this kind will probably have different


it so happens that
But
weight with different persons.
they are confirmed by some
very important facts connected
If white arises through a combination
with colour-blindness.
of the three
elementary processes, all the colour
when
the sensation of white
sensations ought to be possible
is possible.
But, as we have seen, there are well-established
all three elementary
of total colour-blindness.
Here
cases
are

processes

absent,

and

yet

sensation

of

white

we
theory of Helmholtz
must
elementary processes are really
say that the three
present,but that they are on all occasions excited in equal
able
by all kinds of light. This is a rather improbproportions
increased
assumption,but the improbabilitybecomes
when
consider
that the
of impossibility,
to the verge
we
be applied to a number
of other
same
hypothesis must
colour- sensibility
is absent, and
in which
cases
sensibility
is preserved. All lights of whatever
to white and black
wave-length,produce only neutral sensations,when they

remains

act

on

the

unimpaired.

the retina for

spectrum

The

the

when

the

short time.
grey

They

illumination

outer

extreme

very

into

pass

diminished.
sufficiently

white

On

the

margin

when
pass

is
of the

white, but totallycolour-blind.

All
the

the

colours

illumination

of
is

almost

completelyinto
intensified.
sufficiently
retina

Under

is sensitive

all these

to

varying

accordingto Helmholtz, suppose that


the three elementary colour-processes
are
present,and that
conditions

we

must,

the

SENSATION.

LIGHT-

" 12.]

only reason

why
the

is that

colours are
corresponding
are
always excited
processes
the

proportions.
ATI equallyserious objectionarises
It is evident

colour-blindness.
absence

the

of

one

white, which

more

or

involve

must

processes

135

of

to their combination

is due

in

ceived
per-

equal

of

partial
is right,
that,if Helmholtz
of the elementary colour-

absence

the

from

not

cases

the

sensation

of

in

equal proportions.
is green-blind ought, upon
this
"A
who
person
in white
tuents,
to see
only its red and blue constisupposition,
hence
and
white ought to look to him
as
purple
As long as his defect made
him incapableof
looks to us.
this might perfectly
well,for
explainingto us what he felt,
But we
know
now
aught we knew, have been the case.
who
is green-blind in one
that a person
eye only sees
white
with his defective eye exactly the same
he sees
as
it with his normal
eye."* A similar argument applies
also to yellow. The
partiallycolour-blind usually retain
the sensations of yellow and blue,although they are without
the

sensations

marginal zone
and

of red

or

of the retina
and

green

at which

or

the

both.

There

to
sensibility

is

red

that to

yellow and blue is retained.


of illumination,
red
So, with great increase in the intensity
and
still discernible
in the spectrum, though
are
green
compati
yellow and blue disappear. Such facts as these are inwith the suppositionthat yellow is due
to a
ceases,

green

combination

of the red process and the green process.


If the theory of Helmholtz
is unsatisfactory
in its account

of

colour-combination,its

sensation
lightcontrast
*

effects

failure to

explain other facts of


for
conspicuous. It accounts

is still more
between

C. L. Franklin, "On
vol. ii. (1893),
p. 479.

adjoiningcolours

Theories

of

as

errors

of

Mind, N.S.,
Light-Sensation,"

PSYCHOLOGY.

166

judgment.

shown

such

that

respects like

en.

of these phenomena
investigation
hypothesisis quite untenable.

fuller
an

by
colour-produced

[BK. n.,

contrast

appears

and

in

behaves

iv.

has
The
all

produced by direct stimulation.


due to
as
explained by Helmholtz

colour

the

Negative images are


of the ultimate
fatigue. By long continuance,one or more
become
exhausted, so that the others are
colour-processes
predominantly aroused either by stimulation from without,
from the retina's own
or
light. One objectionto this view
of Helmholtz, fatigueof all three
is that,on the principles
be constantlytaking place,as all three are
processes must
is
the fatiguewhich
excited by every kind of light. Now
take placein the course
to explainnegative images must
of

few

seconds.

Hence

we

should

expect

very

spicuous
con-

effect of

fatiguefrom the ordinaryuse of the eyes


sensations
of
in daylight. Hardly any
capacityfor lighthour, especially
any sort ought to be left at the end of an
after exposure
to predominantlywhite
light,which must
exhaust
all three processes equally.
In Hering's theory, a strenuous
to
attempt is made
escape

the

difficulties which

beset

that

of

Helmholtz.

givenby psychological
analysisof lightsix ultimate
ing
sensations,he assumes
processes, correspondof white, black, red, green, yellow,
to the sensations
These
he arranges
in antithetic pairs; white
and blue.
red and green, blue
and black go together,and similarly
and yellow. To each
pair there corresponds a separate

Following the

retinal
nervous

clue

substance,
matter.

and

The

distinct

modification

red-greensubstance

is

of

central

of
susceptible

Bed
in their nature.
antagonistic
processes, chemical
lightexcites the one, and green the other. "When red and
neither process
in equal portions,
green lightare combined
Hence
is producedbecause of their mutual
incompatibility.
two

LIGHT-SENSATION.

" 12.]
there

is

such, colour

no

green act on
produce the sensation
their

occur,

of

excitement

of white.

red and

green

though

the two

black-white

red

stimulations

each

neutralise

black-white

substance,and produce the

black

as

combine

white

and

that the two

much

be

must

far

as

to act

sensation

as

the

on

of white.

gous.
yellow processes are analoare
supposed by
processes

white

and

of fact there

matter

and

in
antagonistic

to be

Hering

this

to

other

concerned, they continue

of the blue

black

tions
sensa-

substance.

effect is

The

to

as

green
due

the

Hence, when
in equalproportions,
simultaneously

lightact

relations

or

mainly

their colour

The

both

substance, so

When

intensity is

the

But

green.

black-white

the

red and

reddish

as

167

the

same

essential

an

to form

; but

way

difference

intermediate

as

here,

greys,

so

than
incompatibleany more
the blue and green, or the yellow and red processes are.*
Hering is no doubt rightin assuming that the processes
correspondingto black,white,red,green, blue, and yellow,

separate and

are

them

be

can

But

distinct in their nature,

resolved

substances.

black

"

clench

Really,black

grey

Total

process.
to

seem

process

is connected

There

this

and

out

of

there.

sensation

with

are

of

of

none

the

But

do
the

in

that

others.

the

cancel

of

state
is

But

each

cortical

there

there

exclusivelywith

conclusion.

grey."

Professor

other

which

before

the

(owing

to

the eye

facts

there is

optic nerve
changes
or

follow

not

in the retina

is

white-

allied

it does

commotion

stimulus

the

and

cells with

'intrinsic'

(This proposed explanation is


great care.)

doubt

no

colour-blindness

white

always
whether
temperature, etc.),
this commotion
gives us
p. 42.

is

connected

specialapparatus

the

combinations

that

probably pushes this pointtoo far in assuming that


pairs of antithetic processes always take place in

separate

no

into

so

he

his

not

are

processes

not

of

; and

'subjective'sight-sensation,
Titchener, Primer
of Psychology,

due

or

to Gr. E.

who
Miiller,

works

it

PSYCHOLOGY.

168

that

white-black

the

those

processes

retinal elements

When

[BK. IT., en.


also

cannot

subserve

which

take

the colour

iv.

place in
processes.

and

yellow lightsact simultaneouslyso as to


give rise to the sensation of white, Hering has good reason
for denying that the blue process and the yellow process
take place together. As such,they neutralize each other ;
he refers the conjointeffects of the two
but when
lights
blue

merely to their action on the white-black substance, his


Since the yellowand blue
positionis not without difficulty.
each other,the combined
neutralise
intensityof
processes
deducted
from
the
be
these
must
resulting
processes
sensation of white.
This involves the assumption that the
of the yellow and blue processes, as such,is very
intensity
small
indeed, and that when
they actually occur, the
brightnessof the correspondingsensations is mainly due
to

the

intermixture

of

colour

when

we

are

asked

is hard

This

is introduced

''Hopelessconfusion
of

white.

to

into all
believe

believe.

to

conceptions

our

that

the

entire

brightnessof every sensation of lightis nothing but the


brightnessdue to the white sensation which is mixed with
Can
it.
they be thinking beings who have allowed
of
themselves to follow Hering into the intellectual vagary
saturated red,for instance
that
supposing that a perfectly
what
matter
is a red wholly free from white admixture
no
which called it forth,
would
of chemical
the amount
activity
have
no
brightnesswhatever, that there would be nothing
of this
in sensation correspondingto differences in amount
Hering's view cannot be set
photo-chemical
process ?"*
But
aside in this sweeping way.
can
we
scarcelyaccept
...

"

"

it without

fuller

in its favour.
is almost

evidence

If

Hering
entirelydue
*

than
is

has

yet been

right in holding

to the

effect which

Franklin,op. cit.,p.

480.

adduced

that
it

brightness
produces

white-black

his

on

169

LIGHT-SENSATION.

$ 12.]

substance, colours, which,

tinguishabl
indis-

are

lightswhich
the yellow spot, ought also to
fall on
produce them
the
be
produce
lights which
indistinguishablewhen
fall on
the
them
totally colour-blind margin of the
of fact, this
As a matter
as
retina,and are seen
greys.
On the other hand,
to be
approximately true.
appears
in

intensityand

when

tone

the

apparently identical in brightness and tone,


of spectral
lights,and the
one
produced by a mixture
differ very greatlywhen
other by homogeneous light,
may
But
this can
in twilightvision.
as
they are seen
greys
hardly form a cogent argument against Hering, because
from
of twilightvision differ essentially
the conditions
those of ordinarydaylightvision.
(See " 6, ad Jin.)
colours

two

The

red and

green

of the

spectrum in combination

duce
pro-

for this by the composite


yellow. Hering accounts
of
admixture
It contains an
of the spectralred.
nature
yellow : and when the red and green lightsneutralise each
other,the yellowalone is left. He may be right,but this is
of the pointson which it is difficult to see that his theory
one
It would in some
is quitesatisfactory.
respectsbe preferable
be produced by
that the yellow process*can
to suppose
of red and green lights.
co-operation
positive
for
to account
easilybe made
Hering's theory may
and
the phenomena of contrast
negative images. They
disturbance
of the chemical
due
to a
are
equilibrium
For instance,we
of the retinal substances.
may
suppose
that

the

white

of
Hence
rise
*

Viz.,a

of the

material

the
to

process

white

the
distinct

processes

black
retinal

for

has

for

the

black

process
process,

will
both

its

product the

process,

and

positivelytend
in

the

lation
accumu-

vice versd.
to

portion of

give
the

corresponding to yellow,not a combination


separatelyproduced by red and green lightsrespectively.
process

PSYCHOLOGY.

170*

be

may

are

being

accordance

with

theories
in

all, interesting

that

note

those

In

hopeful

and
New

modified

and,
It

attempts

the

on

above

is,
most

are

cessful
suc-

data

psychological

respect, the

this

method

comparison

of

method

physical

predominantly

the

light-

made.

made.

being

psychological

predominantly

the

of

theories

old

accurately

most

process.

in

discoveries,

is

psychological analysis.

and

and

ultimate

theory

being

fresh

progress

follow

which

of

to

the

to

constantly discovered,

propounded,

satisfactory

whole,

the

complementary

measurements

these

due

are

of

iv.

clear

seems

difficulties, is

being

are

each

that

with

quantitative

exact

its

say

beset

facts

New

condition.

of

part

may

although

sensation,

more

we

it

process,

CH.

n.,

Whatever

part.

after-images

produce

to

conclusion,

In

the

and

the

on

processes

adjoining
of

effects

contrast

positive tendency
retinal

the

details

special

the

both

that

in

and

affected

retina

[BK.

with

Hering

is

Helmholtz

of

instructive.*
*

The

general
from

Leipzig,

1897,

Book

p.

In

work.

ff.

320

of Physiology,
also

See

excellent.

the

English

fifth

Mind,

developments

mainly

pages
where

of

are

the

the

important.

of

treatment

book

edition,
C.

Mrs.

Light-Sensation,"

who

student

to

vol.
be

ii.

found

Zeitscliriftfur Psychologie

contributions

of

Konig,

von

(1893),
in
und

iii., pp.
"On

article
pp.

German

and

G.

consult

Foster's

E.

is
of

Theories
The

especially
der

Text-

1222-1247,

473-489.
and

Physiologie

Kries,

chapter

Halbband,

should
in

Light-Sensation
iii.,chap,

this

Erster

German

read

Franklin's

L.

N.S.

can

in

detail

the

Psychologie,

der

Grundzilge
The

of

much

and

exposition

Ebbinghaus.

is taken

this

of

plan

latest
in

the

Sinnesorgane,

Miiller

are

most

CHAPTER

V.

SOUND-SENSATION.

"

1. Nature

Stimulus.

of the

of sound

sensations

occasions

The

"

which,

physicalstimulus

consists

of the

of vibrations

tinguish
disof light,we
can
particlesof the air. As in the case
wave-length or rapidityof vibration,amplitude,
and complexity. Wave-length determines
pitch; amplitude
loudness, and complexity timbre.
details we
must
" 2. Organ of Hearing. For anatomical
"

again refer

is thrown

ear

This

text-books.
physiological
into

its

basilar

impact

3. Noises

sound

are

marked
*

impulse

an

sound-waves.

vibrations

to

Musical

"The

Sounds.

characterised
for
is

the

by

most

marked

"

membrane

called

of this membrane

Noises

confusion

part by

by unity

vibrations

which

and

these

fluid,which

as

the
are

in
excitingcertain hair-cells,
terminate.
auditorynerve

and

experiences are
complexity, and
character.

of

of the

stimulus

the fibres of the

sound

The

membrane.

musical

give

drum

small bones, and

into vibration

throws

The

by impact

in certain

in their turn

the immediate

"

vibration

produces movements

movements

by

to

which

immediate

and

indefinite

irregularity.A
uniformity

constitute

of

musical

and thus possess a


repeated at regular intervals,
also
Musical sounds
or
are
rhythm."*
periodicity

Foster, Text-Boole

of Physiology,book
171

chap, iv.,p.
iii.,

1361.

[BK. u.,

PSYCHOLOGY.

172

en.

v.

instead of being regular,


produced when the periodicity,
would
which
varies continuously. Regular vibrations
otherwise
sounds, give rise to noises,
produce musical
but little in waveof them, differing
length,
when
a large number
number
of adjoining
a
occur
together,as when
touched.
But in general,
keys of a pianoare simultaneously
which
the stimulus
gives rise to noises is produced by a
series of vibrations
differingfrom one another in period.
noises and
"There
is,however, no abrupt line between"
Between
and
musical sounds.
a
simple musical
pure
sound produced by a series of vibrations,each of which
has exactlythe same
period,and a harsh noise in which no
"

consecutive

vibrations

stages. Much
series of sounds

called

are

alike,there

of
regularrepetition
easilyrecognised."*
Pitch.

"4.

vibrations which
the time

the

of each

pitchof

one

greater the

"The

"

mediate
inter-

numerous

irregularity
present itself in a
may
of the roughest
music, and in some

noises the
be

are

fall upon

the

ear

or

vibrations may

more

number
in

of

consecutive

second, the

shorter

vibration,the higher is the pitch. Hence

sound

is determined

by

the

lengthof

the wave,

having long, a high note short wave-length.


able to distinguish
series of musical sounds
We
a whole
are
of different pitch,from the lowest to the highest audible
note."f In this series each note has its fixed position
from
two others which
between
are
barely distinguishable
what
higher, and the other someit; the one being somewhat
The
lower.
arrangement is therefore linear,and
comparable to the series of greys intervening between
It has been maintained
white and black.
that, as in the
to
can
we
distinguishvarying degrees of affinity
greys
in the scale of notes
of
white and black respectively,
so
a

low

note

Ibid.

Op. cit.,
p.

1362.

SOUND-

"5.]

SENSATION.

173

of sensation are involved,


two ultimate modes
pitch,
But this view has not
correspondingto black and white.*
been generally
accepted.
about
below
Vibrations
thirtya
having a recurrence
unable
sensation of sound, "f
to produce a
second are
For
similar
limit for high notes.
most
is a
There

different

"

16,000 vibrations

this is fixed at about

persons

second,

distinguishtones of 40,000.
In music, only a comparatively small
portion of these
tones
are
used, beginning with about thirtyand ending-

though

some

with about

can

persons

3,600 vibrations

second.

difference
of pitch is very
distinguishing
In tones
rising
highly developed within a certain range.
observers
from 100 to 1000 vibrations in a second,practised
The

under

power

of

favourable

conditions

can

differences

discriminate

of

pitch correspondingto differences of one quarter or one


above
4000
below forty
fifth of a wave-length. Tones
or
are
distinguishedfrom each other with great difficulty.
differences of hundreds
Towards
the higher end of the scale,
or

of thousands

even

of vibrations

second

not

may

be

recognisable.

"

5. Harmonic

Intervals.

"

When,

of two

notes

ously
simultane-

produced,the vibration period of one is exactlytwice


as
rapidas that of the other, the two sensations show a
It is hard to distinguish
strong tendencyto blend into one.
them

as

two.

The

result of their union

sensation,peculiarly
agreeableto

the

is
ear.

richer and
There

fuller

is also

when
tendency to confuse the two sensations even
they do
musician
not occur
even
a practised
simultaneously.When
is called upon to imitate on the piano a tone whistled by the
to
mouth, he frequentlyproducesthe tone which corresponds
"See

Mach, Analysis of the


f Foster,op. cit.,
p. 1363.

Sensations

(English trans.),
pp. 127, 128.

PSYCHOLOGY.

174

half

double

or

other

the number

words, the

upper

he has to imitate.

What

tendency to
hear

to

confuse

them

as

lower

or

with

pitch. Notes much


distinguished.What
and

they are
in
not
depend on similarity
pitch are easilyand clearly

in

nearer

has

musical

when

said

been

of the

octave, the fifth,

double

the
intervals,

holds

octave

the twelfth.

musical

When

of Musical

Combination

" 6.

attention

sounds

of
intensity
more

of the

one

so

when

notes

the

is, as

"

as

seen,

greater the relative

The

it

have

we

is the octave, the

one

compared

as

it is to discern

easy

It

of the other.

the twelfth

fifth,or

do

sources.
from different

together,it usually requires


them.

discriminate

to

Sounds

occur

difficult to
peculiarly

the

sound

single musical

the
and

in memory,

its octave

simultaneouslyproduced,does

also of other

octave

is that
interesting
peculiarly

is

v.

en.

per second, or in
of the note which

of vibrations

note

[BE. n.,

with

separate

the

others,
It is

tone.

in proportion
to its relative faintness.
distinguish
which
of tones yieldsa specific
The combination
experience,
of the
be regarded as merely the sum
cannot
separate

harder

to

experiencesof
tones

the

are

integralparts of a whole.
its own
characteristic pitch and
Its pitch is approximatelythat
as

tones,
The

the

intensityof
of

sum

the

this

when

even

the

of

intensities

approximatelyequal to

the

the

lowest
the

is not

experience is

total

has

characteristic
of

its

its

the

own

intensity.
of

its

not

stituent
con-

intense.

most

equal
It

constituents.

of
intensity

stituent
con-

still apprehended

whole

This

the

when

Even
separate notes.
discriminated,they are

loudest

to

is

among

them.

" 7.

Seats

sounded
that the

Dissonance.

and
"

together
periodof

are

not

"

of the

vibration

of

"If
same

the

tuning-forks"
pitch,but so related

two

one

is not

an

exact

SOUND-SENSATION.

" 7.]

multiple of that of
experiencehas certain
is the

which
formed
in

effect

intensity.As
and

then

other,

marked
on

of the two

out

louder

the

175

the

We

; but

waves

fainter

the

of

ear

our

to grow

which

features.

hear

is not

or

is heard

wave

uniform
to grow

now

die

to

even

we

sound

compound

the sound

listen the sound

we

sensation

away,

but

thus rising
to fall away,
again,and once more
the rhythmic change being
fallingat regularintervals,
to revive

soon

and

to actual

sound

either from

silence

from

or

louder

sound

intensityare due to
the vibratory
the fact that,owing to the difference of pitch,
impulses of the two sounds do not exactlycorrespond in
time.
Since the vibration period,the time during which
a
is making an
excursion,moving a certain distance
particle
in one
direction and then returning,is shorter in one
sound
than in the other,it is obvious that the vibrations belonging
sound will,so to speak,get ahead of those belonging
to one
to

to

fainter

the

other

impulse of

Such

one.

variations

hence

sound

is

time

of

will

when,

come

while

the

tending to drive a particlein one


direction,say forwards, the impulse of the other sound is
in the other direction,
i.e.
tending to drive the same
particle
result is that the particle
The
will not move,
backwards.
much
if it were
will not move
so
or
as
subject to one
impulseonly,stillless to both impulses actingin the same
direction ; the vibrations of the particle
will be stopped or
one

lessened,and

giving rise

are

sound
with
or

the sensation

has
the

more

or

its vibrations

wanting or diminished : the one


completelyneutralised or 'interfered'

crest

with

to which

be

less

other,the

less coincided

sound.

will

of sound

the

of the

wave

trough

of
of the

one
wave

sound

has

of the

more

other

Conversely,at another time, the two impulses will


be actingin the same
direction on
the
the same
particle,
of the particle
movements
and the sound
will be intensified,

[BK. n.,

PSYCHOLOGY.

173

en.

v.

the one
condition
will pass
augmented. And
gradually into the other. The repetitionsof increased
intensitythus brought about are spoken of as beats."*
discernible when
the difference between
Beats are separately
is very
the vibration
tones
frequency of the concurrent

will be

As

small.

rapidly,and
give rise to

more

then

somewhere

ceases

second.

becomes

the difference

But

greater, the beats

clearlydiscernible.
a
rattling or whirring effect.
between
thirtyand sixty beats
not

are

then

even

certain
there

are

beats

occur

hundreds
with

of

the

beats

of their harsh

beats

in

This
in

still manifest

the

second.

their
them

When

the

this

the roughness or harshness


rapidity,
pointis reached,the notes, because
said to be dissonant.

are
effect,

The

number

produced by two notes which approach each


vibration frequency,is equal to the mathematical
the number

between

when

other

of beats
in

the

sufficient

Before

ceases.

They

so

by imparting to the notes which produce


roughness. This experiencemay persisteven

presence

occur

of vibrations

per

second

ence
differ-

of each.

at sixty-four
tuning-forks
vibratingrespectively
or
seventy-two a second, will give eight beats a second,"f
overtakes
the longer eight times,
the shorter wave
because
to give to the vibratingparticles
as
so
oppositeimpulses,

"Thus

two...

which

neutralise

interval
the

between

each

other.

the

combined

become

beats

We

that

they

appreciable;but they recur


again when
increased.
when
sufficiently
They recur
somewhat

greater or

it is somewhat

octave, etc.
second

give

less than

greater
Two
four
*

or

tones

beats;

the

four

increased,

longer

are

no

the

interval

is

the

interval

is

again,when
twelfth,the double

the
and

beats

Op. cit.,
pp. 1367,1368.

the

as

octave, and

less than
of 200

that

seen

becomes

tones

rapid

so

have

396
are

vibrations
also

t Ibid.

in

produced by

SOUND-SENSATION.

" 9.]
and

of 200

tones

of beats

is

number

of

of the lower

vibration number
and

200

This

of the

explainswhy

higher

interval

for which
great distinctness,

the compass
of these.
One

is called the
the

to

difference

higher tone

the

these

and

between
twice

the

tones

tones

of the

the

octave

or

sounded

are

octave, there

same

vibration

number

number

vibration

has

produced

are

determined.
the

4.

effect.

it

But

and

not

function

of

The

yet

that

seems

the

of the

of the

tone, and is called the second difference-tone.


which

596

to the difference
corresponds
vibration numbers
of the primary tones, and
The
other corresponds
firstdifference-tone.

mainly two
the

200

notes

with
heard, occasionally
is no assignable
physical

there

Within

if the

from

two

"

stimulus.

is 3

dissonant

produces a

to the

nearest

Thus

deviation

Tones.
When
" 8. Differencetogether,certain other tones are

between

number

The

comes

tone.

of beats

small

which

tone

the number

596

other musical

are

second.

the vibration
equal to the difference between
tion
the higher tone and that multipleof the vibra-

number

are

in

vibrations

404

177

lower

mode

been

they

in

factorily
satis-

are

due

of

hearing,
Their
and not to physicalconditions.
explanationforms
an
important test for any general physiological
theory of

to

structure

organ

sound-sensations.

" 9.

Timbre.

"

The

note

same

violin,a trumpet, etc.,has


its

pitchis identified

are

called differences

of the

as

they arise from


Attentive analysis
can
The

power

very
same.

of timbre.

sensation.

when

tones.

the

sounded

piano, a
varyingcharacter,though
a

Differences
Timbre

of this kind

is due

to the

plexity
com-

Ordinary musical sounds, even


single source, are not simple.

discern

number

of discrimination

aptitudeand practicein analysis.The


Psych.

on

of distinct
varies

with

pitchof

partial
musical

the whole
12

178

PSYCHOLOGY,
is

complex
This

approximately the pitch,of

is called the
at the

fundamental
The

outset.

separatedfrom
The

with
the
affinity
octave.
Thus, though

difficult.

more

musical

natural

Thus
the

them,

be

may

discernible

relative

tried

their harmonic

sufficient

as

this way;

practice,a

constituent

makes

of

person

artificialhelps.

separatelyon
in attendingto
in

tones

them

and

overtones

it

of discriminating

power

of

some

the

as

relation

kept in mind
analysed. Several

in

fied
identi-

course

intensitymakes

then

is to be

tone.

tones, such

less skilled may


use
be first sounded
may

The

partialtone
key of a piano,and
which

is of

aptitudeacquiresgreat

the

the note

are

their

With

overtones.

lowest

the

v.

they are called,are


tone by harmonic
intervals.
usually those which have

fundamental

most

it

en.

overtones,as

of them

easier to discriminate

and

tone

the fundamental

intense

most

[BK.n.,

sion
succes-

be

may

others

not.

Sometimes

slightdifferences in pitch are noted between


and the correspondingnote as sounded
the overtone
the
on
why the analysismust
piano. This is one of the reasons
be regarded as real,and not illusory.
number
of relatively
low
A moderate
partialtones
richer and fuller and
makes
the whole
somewhat
higher
of high overtones
of considerable
in pitch. A large number
gives to the whole a sharp and penetrating
intensity
sometimes

and

arises from

harshness
The

combination

produced from

of notes
the
tones

somewhat

great

combination

summation

in

in
specific

of the

the

intensitybetween

the overtones.
is

between

The

character.

high overtones.
of partialtones
in a complex note
is analogous to the combination
singlesource
from
different sources, except as regards

difference

and

beats

harsh

The
its

whole

the

fundamental
to the

experiencedue

character,and

severallydue
experiences

is not

to the

partial

mere

SOUND-SENSATION.

" 10.]

is true

170

aro
partial tones
discriminated.
They are still apprehended as constituents
of a whole having an unique character.
Analyticattention
in
to create
them
does not appear
in discoveringovertones
is already
to find what
of discovery,but
the moment
pre-existing.Thus the compositionof an ordinarymusical
which
excellent example of sensations
are
note affords an

This

tones.

when

even

the

of their
distinctive
discrimination
merely felt without
qualities. So long and so far as the experience is
sensations
are
present, qua
unanalysed, the constituent
sensations,
though their presence is not cognised. There
without
is a sense-differentiation
perceptualdistinction.
Anatomical
" 10. General Theory of Sound- Sensation.
"

research
to

to

the

in

way

physical and

side, wre

have

the

separatelygive

that

the

auditory
basilar

the
which

the

immediate

stimulus

is constituted

nerve

membrane.

this membrane

The
acts

main

is found

the
On
physical
psychologicaldata.
fact that impulses which
broad
would

rise

before

to

distinct

waves

of

sound,

blend

into a single
they reach the ear
resultant
effect.
They produce a single wave, the form
is mathematically accounted
of which
for by their combination.
This is true whether
the several impulses come
from, separate material
objectsor from the same
object.
Thus
the vibrations
which
produce ordinary sounds are
of origin. The
forms
which
complex in their mode
they
be mathematicallyresolved into
can
consequently assume
combination
of the forms
of certain constituent
a
simple
These
called pendular, because
waves.
are
simple waves
their form
is like that
described
of a
by the sweep
pendulum. Though one, not many waves, is produced by
the impulseswhich
simultaneouslyset the air in vibration,

their

effects

show
of

of

vibrations

the

clue
in

terminations

the

by

to

seems

PSYCHOLOGY.

180

yet

each

of

[BK. n.,

impulses acts separatelyon

these

the

CH.

y.

organ

because
the several
to be
so
hearing. This is known
sensations
distinguishablein
corresponding to each are
We
consciousness.
can
analyse a single note into its
of notes
partialtones, and we can distinguisha number
This
is
sounded
simultaneouslyfrom different sources.
the
starting-pointfor the theory of sound- sensations.
be so constructed
to respond
of hearing must
as
The organ
produce the
separatelyto the several impulses which

of

complex
The

wave.

simple

most

obvious, if

and

the

not

only,

way

of

is that
of the ear
accounting for this analyticpower
commonly, though
propounded by Helmholtz, and now
not universally,
accepted. It proceeds on the analogy of
If a tuning-fork,which
certain
physical phenomena.

overtones, be laid on the


produces a simple tone without
top of a piano, and if the correspondingnote is sounded
by touching one of the keys, the tuning-forkvibrates in
sympathy with it. If the lower octave of the note be sounded,
in sympathy; for its
the
tuning-fork again vibrates
sounded
the
of the note
octave
on
own
note, being an
It can
piano,is contained in this as one of its overtones.
to vibrate in sympathy with
made
be similarly
any of the
notes

contain

which

unaffected

by

is struck in
those

contain

as

overtone.

an

It is

will

notes.

vibrate

adjustedto
specially
which

note

own

Conversely,if the tuning-fork


neighbourhood of the wires of a piano,

other

the

wires

its

this

the
as

in

tone,

same
an

it, which

are

to any

of the

notes

the

second

to

response

overtone.

or

In

case

length,but in
The
wire
which
corresponds to the lower
segments.
the tuning-forkrespondsby
of the tone sounded
octave
on
of which the wave-length is half the length of
ii vibration

they

do

not

vibrate

along

their

whole

SOUND-SENSATION.

" 10.]

the

Now,

wire.

the

consists

membrane

basilar

theory
of

181

of
a

Helmholtz
series of

is that

the

strands,each

of

piano or like a tuning-fork,is


adapted to its own peculiartone, and vibrates in response
to this.
Thus, however
complex the physicalsound-wave
not a single
be, it produces in the basilar membrane
may
of distinct vibrations,
complex vibration,but a number
and each of these constitutes a separate stimulus
affecting
of the auditorynerve.
the terminations
is very
Though the theory of Helmholtz
simple and
it is not without difficulty.
In particular,
it does
plausible,
in its present form
not
satisfactorily
explain differ encetute
tones
(see" 8). Attempts have been made to find a substifor it : but in all probability
it only needs modification
and
to light
development. Recently facts have come
which
analogous to colour-blindness
stronglyto
appear
like the

which,

support

it.

of

wires

There

are

in which

cases

the

mechanism

for

conductingsound-impulsesis intact,and yet the sensibility


smaller
for greater or
portions of the scale of tones is
much
instances
absent
the toneor
impaired. In some
deafness extends to the greater part of the scale,leaving
sensibility
only to a fragmentary portionof it. One tone
be clearlydistinguished,
of moderate
while
intensity
may
another neighbouring tone is indistinguishable,
when
even
it is very loud.
It is difficult to explainthese phenomena
unless

we

suppose

in the

ear

system

each
be

of

separateelements,

adjustedto its own


peculiartone, some
absent or incapableof dischargingtheir

the rest behave

in

normal

of which
function

may

while

manner.

In this

chapter I have followed Ebbinghaus very closely. For further


is referred
Text-Book
to
Foster's
reading in English the student
of
book
and
Power
to
The
Physiology,
iii.,
part iv.,
of Sound,
pp. 1361-1378,
In German
there
is the great work
of Karl
Stumpf
by E. Gurney.
in two

entitled Tonpsychologie.
vols.,

CHAPTEE

OTHER

"

1. Taste and
which

are

"If

the

odours.

Smell*

VI.

SENSATIONS.

"

The

greater number

usually ascribed
be held

nose

and

to

of

taste

the eyes

the
in

are

sations
sen-

reality

shut, it is

very

difficultto
and
but

between
in eating,
an
distinguish,
apple,an onion,
be recognisedby their texture,
a potato ; the three may
Cinnamon
not by their taste."
applied to the tongue

under

the

like

appears

but

appreciatea slightsweetness,

may

undoubted

four

are

conditions

same

bitter.

There

are

taste-sensations
two

others

"

"

flour ;

that

the

is all.

taste

There

sweet, salt,acid,and

the alkaline

and the metallic

"

disputed. The alkaline is possiblya mixture of


salt and sweet, togetherwith peculiartouch-sensations.
All taste- sensations
and
to be intermingledwith
appear
An
acid, too slightto be
qualifiedby tactile sensations.
distinguishedas such, produces a peculiartouch-sensation
by its astringentcharacter ; and as the acidityis increased
the touch- sensation
becomes
stinging,and finallypasses
the
into a pain-sensation
which
completely dominates
specialexperienceof acidity. Salt is also accompanied by

which

are

stinging sensation
pitchof intensityas
a

but

in the

this does
case

*In

not

of acids.

reach
The

the

same

sensation

of

Kiesow, "Beitrage zur


regard to taste, I have mainly followed
Studien^
PhysiologischenPsychologic des Geschmacksinnes," Philosophische
X. (1894),pp. 329-368,532-561.
182

OTHER

" 1.]
and

softness

SENSATIONS.

smoothness

the

appreciablewhen
quantitiesso small that
As

of

sensation

the

be

and

are

is

present in
such.

as

intensified,the

obscured

is further

intense sensations of sweetness

sweetness;

discerned

becomes

sweetness

the sweetness

again as

emerges

it cannot

with

substance

sweet

is dominated

touch-sensation

associated

is

tliis is

183

it.

by

But

it

increased.

Very
accompanied

sometimes

bitingsensation.
sensitive to sweetness,
The tip of the tongue is especially
and the base to bitterness.
The
the edges to acidity,
tip
and edges are
equally sensitive to salts,the base less so.

by

has

the mouth

When

substance,such

as

the result differs

been

washed

the

persons
the

to

cases

accordingto

respond by
sensation

same

tongue the distilled

sensation

except

sweetness

at

appear

the

the

The

effect

on

would

is

of

solutions
be too weak

of bitter.
to

feel

acidityat

the

of colours.

to be

In

whatever

Others

of sweet

tongue appears

taste

no

sensation

relations

of

There

somewhat

Salt,by

substances

feel

edges.

sweet.

some

part of

applied. Others

taste-sensations

contrast

of the

is aroused

base.

tipsand

base

sensation

water

the

appliedto the tongue,


and
point of application,

the

distilled water

contrast, makes
same

at

to exist among

analogous to

neutral

some

distilled water, is

varies in different persons.


in all

out, and

It has

which

of

sort

the

in themselves

appreciable. It also has


which
are
strong enough

an

effect on solutions
to
intensifying
be appreciable.It operatesin this way both when
the same
first by a salt,
stimulated,
part of the tongue is successively
then by a neutral or sweet
the salt
fluid,and also when
and

the sweet

simultaneouslyapplied to homologous
parts of the tongue, e.g., to correspondingpoints on the
right and left edges of the tongue. Sweet has a much
effect on salt,
weaker
than salt on sweet.
contrast
In both
are

PSYCHOLOGY.

184

forms

vi.

en.

experiment,sweet instead of making distilled


On the
it taste sweet.
taste salt by contrast, makes
with
makes
sweet
hand, contrast
distinctly
appreciable
salt
solution
in
itself
weak
be
too
to
a
perceived.
of the

water

other

Similar
and

[BK. n.,

relations

between

have

been

and

sweet

observed

acid ; but

between

in the

case

salt and

acid,

of sweet

and

stimuli arc
the two
they are manifested
only when
to the same
appliedsuccessively
part of the tongue, not
when
they are appliedsimultaneouslyto homologous parts.
Bitter appears
effects nor
to be
neither to produce contrast
affected by them.
The
be stimulated
of taste
sense
can
only by fluids.
acid

Solid

substances

appropriatestimulus

other
the

hand,

consists

membrane

smell

dissolved

in

mouth

the

before

affect it.

they can
The

be

must

have

in

been

not

of

touch

The

medium.

and

there

They

smell,on

the

particlesconveyed

adequatelyclassified

primary constituents
great variety of them.
with

of

sense

odoriferous

gaseous

their

mixture

for the

analysedinto

or

to

often

be

very

modified
The

taste-sensations.

of

sensations

appears
are

to

by

pungency

of smell at all,
sensation
a
strictly
but a peculiarkind of tactual experience. Odours
proper
do
to
not
produce sneezing : this is due to
appear
sensations
Odorous
irritation affecting
the sense
of touch.
take
time
to
some
develop after the contact of the
stimulus
with the olfactory
membrane, and may last very
the stimulus
is repeated the sensation
long. When
very
terminal
dies
out : the
speedily
soon
organs
sensory
of

odour

an

is not

"

become

exhausted.

olfactory membrane
sensation

large

area

; animals

of

larger,apparently,the surface of
the
intense
employed, the more

The

with

acute

scent

olfactory membrane.

have

proportionately

The

greater the

" 1.]

OTHER

quantityof
the

odoriferous

intense

more

SENSATIONS.

material

the

185

to the

membrane,

certain

limit ; and

brought

sensation

to

up

measuring olfactory sensations has


been
constructed,the measurements
being given by the
size of the superficial
area, impregnated with an odoriferous
which
the air must
substance, over
pass in order to give
olfactometer

an

rise

to

for

distinct

sensation.
is

sensation, however,

reached,

soon

of

limit

The

increase

minute

of

quantity

of sensation, and further increase


producing the maximum
minimum,
The
quantity of
giving rise to exhaustion.
be
sensation may
material requiredto produce an olfactory
in some
immeasurably
cases, as in that of musk, almost
small."*
The
in

of smell

sense

life of animals.

the

hearing are
it by means

to

of scent.
the

warns

pursuer

is

It

The

us.

On

the

other
The

of

ants

specieswho

another

to their

own

that
odours

this

belonging

The

unfamiliar

nest

has

and
nest

is due
to

odour

of the

the scent

been

to

different
of

There

are

an

the

them

attack

ants

clearlyshown
peculiar and

nests
ant

of another
among

conditions

It has

nests.

those

intrude

may

normal

under

they never

odour.

attack

nest

one

follows

escape.
its

some

own
men

beings by smell; dogs and


in a very high degree.
power

this

possess

hand

guides its efforts to


and
every specieshas

distinguishhuman

animals

other

and

and

prey

every individual
characteristic and distinctive
can

detects its prey

animal

Probably
who

immensely important part


what
to them
sight and

plays an

and

nest

or

of

; whereas

belonging
by experiment
distinctive

their inhabitants.

coming

from

strange

exasperatingeffect. The intruder is attacked


into a
usually killed. If before being introduced
in juiceproduced by crushing the
it is first bathed
an

Foster, op. cit.,


pp.

1389-1390.

PSYCHOLOGY.

186

of

tenants

the

nest,

it may

widely
incorrect

that

to say

notice

no

differ

[BK, n.,

in

is taken

other
recognise
own
family:

ants

vi.

of it however

from

appearance

CH.

these.

It

is

belonging
depends on the
of strangers.*

ants

as

all
belonging to their
odour
irritatingeffect of the unfamiliar
The comparativelysmall part played by smell in the mental
for by the fact
life of human
beings may be accounted
that trains of ideas constitute
so
large a part of human
experience. Smells are not adapted to ideal revival in
serial succession as sounds
and sightsare.
of three
" 2. Cutaneous Sensations. These are principally
not

or

"

kinds

temperature, and

pressure,

"

their nature

to

prominent

are

character

called

are

sensation

"The

The
the
even

with

caused

organicsensations

by

pressure

is at

in

general.

its maximum

its

sensation

sensation.

when

surrounding areas

the
at

pressure
into

the

surface

in contact

not

skin
be

wholly

drawn

See

of
with

covered

up

Albrecht

and

Bethe's

Qualitdten zuschreiben
Bethe

also

shows

of smell.

that
In

the

Thus

are

if the

with

the

than

will be felt

den

Diirfen wir
(Archiv fur

moving they

die

their
leave

an

caused

und

odorous

is

finger

will be

that

Bienen

psychische
Bd.
Physiologie.
70).

gesammte
to

which

if the

and

Ameisen

way

skin

more

in the parts of the

mercury;

the sensation

find

subject to
fingerbe dipped
not

adjoining the

the mercury,

ants

spot is increased

of the mercury

fluid

down,

in any
skin

of

time.

same

the pressure

mercury

the

means

last class will be best

This

pains.

rise to any

allied in

diminishes.
beginning, and thenceforward
more
suddenly the pressure is increased,the greater
sensation ; and if the increase be sufficiently
gradual,
be applied without
giving
may
very great pressure
after

soon

at

others

which
the most
organic sensations,among
their peculiarly
those which
from
able
disagree-

in connexion

considered

certain

and

from

track

their nests
behind

them.

by

OTHER

$ 2.]
of

that

marked

in every

body

be detected
conditions

present

are

soon

as

the

uniform

stimulus

within

the

and
body itself,

with

the

clothes

when

differences.

The

ordinarilyescape
attend

we

of the skin

areas

of

that

as

which

varying degrees.
surface

Such

them.

to

blood, etc.,furnish

contact

different

can

of the

produces sensations
are
quitediscernible
The

the

circulation

constantlypresent
such

of

their presence

attention

turn

fact,pressure-

general surface

lives,and

our

we

as

of

matter

the

over

of

moment

as

As

attention.

to attract

sensations

the

187

ring moving along the finger."* It should be noted


this appliesonly to sensations of pressure
sufficiently

in

SENSATIONS.

the

The

tips of

forehead,

sole of the

we

wear

notice,but

to them.

are

sensitive

the

the lips,and
fingers,

discriminate

foot,the

to pressure

the
and

arm,

smallest
the

back,

comparativelylittle power of discrimination.


Bodies of the same
shape,weight,size,and temperature,
produce different pressure-sensations
according to their

have

various

textures.

Thus

contact

with

smooth

surface

and

different
rough surface yield specifically
experiences. Similarly,we
distinguish sharpness and
and
and
softness,wetness
bluntness,hardness
dryness.
All these peculiarqualities
of sensation are due to varying
contact

with

combinations

of

pressure,

to

variations

in

the

relative

of the constituent pressures, in the mode


of their
intensity
spatialdistribution,and in their successive changes. A
smooth
surface produces a uniform
pressure at every point;
a rough surface
produces a pressure which is discontinuous
and irregular.The difference between
hard and soft is connected
with successive changes in the intensity
of the pressure
sensations.
differences in
are
Sharpness and bluntness
the extent

of surface

touched.
*

These

Foster,op. cit.,
p.

various

1413.

are
qualities

PSYCHOLOGY.

188

[BK. n.,

en.

yi.

tions
presented to consciousness,not merely as varying combinaof pressure,
but
as
having a specificcharacter of
their own,
which
does not appear
to be capable of further
here
confronted
with
the same
fact
are
analysis. We
which
has met
in other departments of sensation.
Just
us
the partialtones combined
in a musical
note
as
produce by
their union a specific
experiencedistinct from the quality
taken
of any of them
separately,or of all of them taken
ence
together,so the combination of pressures which we experiwhen
velvet comes
in contact with the skin,produces
of consciousness
call
those peculiarmodifications
which we
and

softness

smoothness.
of

are
Temperature-sensations

hot.

the

that

from
that
to

The

of

of

of

necessary
be too

is not

the

certain

temperature

what

we

to

the

skin,

is raised
rise in

skin has

that

certain

previously
it is also a

call

and

the

temperatures

may

differ

heat

is

of

skin

at the

time

will have

does

temperature

hand

more
so

the

enter

may

forehead

or

As

less

sudden

the stimulus

Op. dt.,p.

1416.

the

same

give

not

another, though

widely."*

of the skin ;
*

should

temperature

though its effects may


general sensibility
; we

temperature

temperature

and

has

temperature

regionsof the
skin at a given

conscious,for instance,that
directly

sensations

which

sensation

may

from

time, accordingto circumstances,

to

of

black

of

marked
sufficiently
take place when
the

in all

given spot

distinct

the

Our

"

same

that

time

time.

to

only

seems

gradual.

heat

cold and

the

"

distinct
specifically

as

sensation

of

varies from

which

sensation

condition

is

the

as

region of
fairlyconstant,

been

and

attention

temperature

not

warmth,

white.

attract

of cold

sensation

classes

two

not

has
the

stimulus
rise in

for sensations

rise
into
be
one

two

for
the
of

cold is

skin.

This

more

fall in the temperature of tlie

loss sudden

or

discernible whenever

always present, and


interested in taking note of

cold

is

sensations

The

are
respectively

"If
to

blunt

exert

189

appliesonly to sensations conspicuousenough


A
attention.
general experience of heat or

attract

to

SENSATIONS.

OTHER

" 2.]

and

produced
pointed but

and

cold

of

otherwise

of

pressure

points of

the

fine needle

be

different

at

explorationwill

little

pressure,

are

it.

heat

of

we

skin.
used

ascertain

that

of pressure
can
readily be
points the amount
at other
while
of touch
is acute
recognised the sense
the
be quite near
others, the
points, and these may
of pressure cannot
be recognised,and indeed
amount
no
is excessive
/sensation is experienced until the pressure
at

some

"

"

and

then

but

of

felt is not

sensation

pain. Similarly,if
of

means

will

the

be

metal

found

tube

rod

or

cold

or

touch
be

narrowed

to

proper

applied by
a
point, it

points of the skin are


very
sensitive to changes of temperature, while
other points
insensitive
to
are
temperature, the applicationof heat
cold giving rise to pain only and
not
to
or
specific
sensations
of heat or
cold.
Further, the points of the
skin which
not

also
with

those

does

not

to

the

some

sensitive

are

sensitive
that

that

heat

of

one

heat

pressure

cold,and

or

points sensitive

sensitive
seem

to

to

and

cold.

to

be

so

to

are

those

vice versa"*
heat

The

complete

are

which

It appears
not

separationin
as

pressure-spots. Some

that

are

identical
this

between

case

perature-sp
tem-

pointspeculiarly
sensitive to cold seem
also in a less degree to be sensitive
to heat, though this result of experiment may
be illusory.
It is possiblydue
to spreading of the
stimulation
over
is
neighbouring parts of the skin. Further investigation
*

Op. cit.,
p. 1428, 1429.

PSYCHOLOGY.

190

of

seat

of

sense

" 3.
and

distinct

three

cold,and
see

the

senses,

If

of the

accuratelyaware

close

we

body, we

own

our

"

the

"

the
of

sense

CH.

skin

vr.

is the
the

heat,

of pressure.

sense

Sensations.

Motor

cannot

generalresult,so far,is:

the

needed, but

[BK. n.,

our

none

are

positionof

eyes so
the less
our

that

wo

distinctly

limbs.

If

wo

the finger,we
aro
or
example the arm
and direction
of the amount
and accurately
aware
distinctly
of the change and of the new
positionwhich it produces.
Similarly,if instead of merely moving a limb we push
of the kind
againsta wall, or lift a weight, we are aware
and degree of tension produced by the resistance opposed
movements
efforts.
to our
initiating
If,instead of actively
ourselves,we allow the positionof our limbs to be shifted
in various ways
by another person while we remain passive,
stillalmost equallycapable of appreciating
position
we
are
contracted
muscles
and change of position. If our
are
by
the
applicationof an electric current, the experiences
mark
which
positionand change of positionas well as

move

limb,

kind

and

amount

for

of

continue
resistance,

to be

present.

?
In any movement
experiencesoriginate
tissues.
a
changes take place in a great many
great many
the skin is in various ways
In moving the arm,
crumpled
do these

How

There
are
pressed at every stage of the process.
varying degrees and kinds of tension in the tendons : the
one
another; the muscles pass through
jointsslide over
and

various
be

stages of contraction.

suppliedwith
each

that

and

of

matter

in

some

important.

Our

these

tissues appear

to

possible
; it is therefore
sensory nerves
the
all of them
contribute
to determine

experienceswhich
As

All

mark

fact,it

degree.

positionand change of position.


is probable that all of them
tribute
conThe

discrimination

skin
of

appears

to

be

the least

movement,
position,

etc.,

OTHER

"3.]
is not

"

notably

the skin ;
for

in

our

while

SENSATIONS.

diminished

by temporary

if,for instance,the
anaesthetic,we

power

of

191

skin of the

do not

or

be

arm

find any

judging1 weights

anaesthesia

marked

of

rendered

change

resistance,or

in

appreciating,with the eyes shut, the position of the


limb."*
Joints, on the other hand, constitute a very
important factor,so far at least as concerns
appreciation
of positionand
in a
change of position. This is shown
series of experiments carried out by Groldscheider.
"This
patientobserver caused his fingers,arms, and legs to be
passivelyrotated upon their various jointsin a mechanical
apparatus which registeredboth the velocityof movement
of angular rotation.
No active
impressed and the amount
muscular
took place. The minimal
contraction
felt amounts
in all cases
of rotation were
small,being much
surprisingly
less than a singleangular degree in all the jointsexcept
of the skin made
those of the fingers."f Anaesthesia
no
difference in the result.
Anaesthesia
of the jointsthemselves
In
greatlydecreased the power of discrimination.
the perceptionof resistance,
the tendons
are
probably the
most
important factor. They are organs especially
adapted
of strain or tension.
for the appreciation
Let your
arm
hang down looselyby your side. Attach a fairlyheavy
weight by a stringto the forefinger.The weight pullsthe
and other jointsapart ; so that there
surfaces of the elbow
friction of one
surface
is no
or
against another.
pressure
But
soon
get the sensation of strain throughout the
you
selves
arm.
"| Sensations due to the states of the muscles themto exist ; but it is
undoubtedly seem
very difficult to
estimate
their importance, as marks
of varying position,
"

movement,
*

and

tension.

vol. ii.,
t James, Principles
of Psychology,
Op. clt.,
p. 1436.
pp.
An
Outline of Psychology,
Titchener,
p. 61.

192-193.

PSYCHOLOGY.

192

distinction

The

between

is

and
position-sensations
important. The former are due

of
particularform
quiescent,the latter
The

sensations

nervous

moved
into

change

to

of

tension

have

we

the

vi.

ment-sensations
move-

to the

when

organs

in this form.

far considered

another

by

contraction

sensations

when

such
been

to the

actual

due

muscles, joints,tendons,

and

thrown

electric

besides

these

changes

skin, there

to be

the

as

that

and

be

to

means

maintained
state

limbs

our

muscles

our

artificial

it has

are

allow

we

or

person,

by

But

current.

so

volition,and

own

our

the

en.

peripheral
origin. They are produced by impressionsproceeding
from
outlying portions of the body to the
system. They are equallypresent when we move

in their

by

[BK- IT.,

of state

is also

of

tional
sensa-

with the initiation of


connected
experience,directly
the nervous
with
the discharge from
centre
movement,
independentlyof any effect produced by it on the muscles
with them.
and the tissues connected
Thus, accordingto
there

Bain,

is

direct

independent of
produce.
may

This

At

wholly to deny its


the fact that

tension

well

as

can

them

we

other

hand, when

move

the

when

when

the

called

forth

put

forth

putting

by

the

sense

present

time

our

The

own

in consequence

denial

which

of
of

energy
sensory

or
of effort,

it is the

is

the

fashion

mainly founded
and
movement,
appreciateposition,
the limbs
are
as
passivelymoved

existence.

we

of energy

peculiar modification

been

innervation-seme.

on

results

any

has

consciousness

sense

is

volition ; and
of

nervous

that,on

the

diseases

the

sensibilityof the joints,tendons, etc.,is impaired or


to appreciate
destroyed,there is a correspondingincapacity
But this argument lacks
movement, and tension.
position,
it
logicalcogency ; for if there be an innervation- sense
cannot, from

the nature

of the case, inform

us

of the actual

OTHER

" 3.]
effects of the
are

have

SEXSATIOXS.

It

impulse.

motor

limb

that the movement


limb

has

all the

another
limb
knows
Hence

his eyes

with
has
time

only tell us

can

attempting to do, not what we


done.
Thus
a
patient may

anaesthetic

193

will

shut ; and

held

we

actuallydoing

are

to

move

or
an

he may

suppose
place,although the

actuallytaken
been

what

in its

originalpositionby

The

the
patientdoes not know whether
has changed its positionor not ; but he none
the less
that he has made
an
attempt to change its position.
the argument
does
not
positivelydisprove tho
person.

existence

of

an

that
maintain

innervation-

it throws

the

But

sense.

it must

probandi

onus

this

peculiarmode of sentience.
that the patientwould
in such a case
be aware
made
an
attempt ; but this only shows that
of his volitions.
But volition is by no
means
innervationthan

more

conation.
person

must

But

sense
a

it is not, in

belief is

It is true
in

some

fact,a

sensation

that
way

in order
be

able

to
to

those

on

We

mitted
adwho

have

said

that he had
he is conscious
the

sensation

; it is

be

at

same

all,any

peculiarmode

will
think

as

movement

of this

of
a

ment.
move-

for this, ideal

is enough : the
representation
ideal representation
involve
ideal reproductionof
may
it may
motor
sensations
or
mainly consist of a
proper,
visual image.
In neither case
it be regarded as a
can
peculiarsensation immediately accompanying the motor
discharge.
There is certainly
the experience
a vital difference between
of having a limb passively
moved, and that of moving it
initiative. But
it is very far from
clear that
by our own
the active movement
involves a peculiarsensation which is
absent in the passive movement,
sensation comparable
a
In
with
those
which
arise from
joints and tendons.
passingfrom a state of doubt to a state of belief there is a
Psych.

J3

PSYCHOLOGY.

194

[BK. n.,

CH.

vr.

peculiarchange in consciousness,but it is not a sensation.


Similarly,in passing from a state of indecision to one of
sciousness
voluntary determination, there is also a change in conit is in no
comparable to sensations
; but
way
such

as

those

There
the

of redness

however,

are,

assumption of

an

or

of heat

greenness,

certain

facts which

or

lend

inriervation-sense.

The

cold.

support

to

patientwho

that he
not only knows
a paralysed limb
attempts to move
is making the attempt, but is also aware
of differences
of effort which

in the amount

he

forth.

puts

This

be

may

explained,at least in part, by the fact that the motor


is to be
impulse proceeds not only to the limb which
moved, but also to other parts of the body which preserve
their sensibility,
of respiration.
and especially
to the organs
of paralysis
there are
certain cases
insists,
But, as Wundt
of the muscles

of the

If the

which

is

muscle

eye

which
the

moves

that an
so
paralysed,
longer possible,the

no

are

eye

outward
effort to

harder

to

right is

the

to

pletely
com-

of the eye

movement

produces

it

move

deal with.

an

The muscle
of the object looked
at.
apparent movement
be only partially
disabled,so that it is still capable of
may
In
twenty degrees and of no more.
this case, the patient,
although he has moved his eye only
through the angle of twenty degrees, refers the objects
to the same
seen
positionwhich they would occupy if they
a

lateral rotation

were
an

seen

outward

measures

by

of

the

normal

direction.
the

amount

eye

This

turned

seems

to

of movement

as

far

that

show

by

as

the

possiblein
the patient

amount

of his

effort,independently of any peripheralsensations


this effort may
which
impossibleto
produce. It seems
in
explainthe illusion as- due to sympathetic movements
own

the

other

eye

for when

illusion does not occur,

or

both

eyes

are

the two eyes

either

the

Double,and

the

open,
see

SENSATIONS.

OTHER

" 4.]
illusion is confined

illusion is

The

eye.

to

195

diseased

the

the

image presented to
constantlypresent when

normal

the

eye is closed.

It
be
is

that

seems

the

for innervation-sensations

case

cannot

regarded as completelydisprovedby its opponents. It


probably best at present to suspend judgment and wait

for

further

very
one

evidence.

In

conclusion, we

importantpoint. There are


advocated
by Bain, and

must

of the

forms

two

the

note

one

theory,

advocated

other

by

Wundt.

is
According to Bain, the innervation-experience
primarilyoccasioned by the motor dischargeitself : it is a
tion
unique kind of sensation correlated with the active initiaof movement.
According to Wundt, on the contrary,
its specific
qualityis ultimatelyderived from a peripheral
The

source.

of

area

impulses

are

character

rather

the

from

cortex

which

the

motor

in which
motor
discharged is also the area
sensations in general are localised.
Hence, the excitement
of this area
in the process of motor
dischargeinvolves a
less similar to those
or
reproductionof experiencesmore
which
arise from peripheralsources
in the actual execution
of the movement
the
the reproduction assumes
; but

There

be

can

theory of
in the

form

4.

no

actual

an

doubt

that,

in which
Bain

derive

if
at

we

than
are

all,we

of
to

has

accept the

accept

propounded by AVundt,
given it.
"

The

sensations

we

idea.*

an

must

it is

OrganicSensations.

considered

sensation

innervation-sensations

in that which

"

of

and

have

so

their main

it

not

far

importance from the function


they fulfil in the perception of external objects. Their
modes
specific
qualitiescorrespond not only to the specific
in which
the organism is affected,but also to the specific
of the agencieswhich
it. It is true that
nature
act upon
*

On

this

pointWundt's

own

statements

are

somewhat

vague.

PSYCHOLOGY.

196

do

sensations

[BK. n.,

arise from

CH.

vi.

external

impressions:
they originatewithin the organism itself. But they none
the less play a most
important part in the perceptionof
external
things. It is through them that we appreciate
there
is
weight, resistance,and space-relations.But
which
another
class of sensations
states of
mainly mark
the organism itself,
and not the nature
of external objects.

motor

These

called

are

extreme

cold

heat

cold at

and

no

not

organic

is the

is heat

In

from

they are

cold.
a

produced by
of such

whether

same

like

bruise,a blow,

characteristic

heat

and

longer produce sensations distinctive of


all ; they both produce a peculiarpainful

experience,which
or

Extreme

sensations.

very

the

manner,

cut,may

or

the external

various

sensations

agency

sensations
be

ing
result-

similar,though

external
that

agencies. It is
they persistoften for

long time after the external agency has ceased to operate.


The bodilychange which
it has produced continues
to act
A wound
stimulus.
after the knife
as
a persistent
persists
which
has inflicted it is withdrawn, and
along with the
wound
the sensation occasioned
also. Organic
by it persists
experiencesmay arise either through the operationof an
external agency,
or
merely through the changing states of
the internal
Hunger and thirst and the like
organs.
familiar
are
examples of sensations
originating from
within the organism itself. Motor
have
as
we
experiences,
the qualities
and relations of external
seen, generallymark
things; but the sensations of fatigueor of cramp are truly
the state
of the muscular
organic, because
they mark
and do not contribute
to our
apparatus itself,
knowledge
a

of

the

external

organic sensations
our
experience.

dependson

them.

world.

In

every

constitute
The
On

general
them,

most
tone

moment

of

our

lives

important element in
of our
bodily feeling

depends the

difference

between

SENSATIONS.

OTHER

$ 4.]

107

feelingwell and feelingill,and the like. But this or that


organic sensation does not attract attention and emerge
clearlyinto consciousness,unless it attains a specialpitch
of intensity.In general,organic experiencesfrom manifold
are
sources
merged in a massive whole constituting
what
from

is called the

coenaesthesis. When,
or
sensibility

common

of

general mass

the

detaches

organic sensation

a
sensibility,
single

common

itself and

becomes

salient

in

consciousness, it is

and
usually intrusive
engrossing.
Such
sensations
are
specially characterised
by their
diffusiveness.
They do not, like sensations of sight or
depend merely on the localised affection of a
pressure,
circumscribed
portion of the organism ; they also involve
less widespread organic disturbance.
For
more
a
or
instance,the pain-sensation produced by a cut or a blow
is a complex experience partly depending on
the
turbance
disof
the
whole
respiration,circulation, and
The
the
intense
motor
more
apparatus of the body.
sensation,the more
conspicuous and widespread is this
generalorganicdisturbance.
This brings us to another
aspect of organic sensation.
It may
arise, and usually does arise in part, from a
disturbance
of the nervous
system, which excites changes
throughout the organism, these changes in their turn
In
all the
intense
more
giving rise to sensations.
emotions, there is an accompaniment of organicsensation
This
is so
originatingin this manner.
important an
element

in

the

total state

that

it has

been

the essential part of the emotional


We
makes

have

seen*

that

the

organic sensations
are

under

normal
*

Book

held

to

stitute
con-

experience.

of central initiation
possibility
tions
reproducibleas no other sensa-

conditions.

Whatever

I.,chap, ii.,
" 9, ad fin.

reinstates

PSYCHOLOGY.

198

similar

[BK. IT., en.

vi.

disturbance,will indirectlyproduce
similar
organic sensations.
Tickling,for instance, is a
will
anticipation
very diffusive experience; and the mere
because
it
produce the correspondingorganic sensations,
produces the general disturbance of nervous
equilibrium
which they depend. The uncomfortable
on
feelingswhich
arise in paying a visit to a dentist,even
before he begins
have the same
source.
operations,
We
shall have something to say about
pain-sensations
in general in a subsequent chapter. "We
need
here
portance
only refer to two
organic experiences of specialimhunger and thirst. Thirst is usually produced
of the water
"by the diminution
present in the body
either through restriction of the intake, or through excess
a

nervous

"

of

the

output in the

secretions,such

as

that

of

sweat,

Thirst thus brought about


through both together
be temporarily assuaged by simple moistening of
may
the
soft palate. From
this we
infer
that
the
may
of thirst is brought about
sensation
by afferent sensory
membrane
of the soft
impulses started in the mucous
membrane."*
in that
palate by a deficiencyof water
Hunger is usually produced by the productsof digestion
The sensation seems
ceasingto be thrown into the blood."
connected
with the condition
"to be in some
specially
way
in the same
that thirst is
of the gastricwalls, much
way
with
the
speciallyconnected
palate; the products of
digestionhave a much greater power in appeasing hunger
membrane
when
and directly
the gastric
on
they act locally
when
than
they are simply brought to bear on the body
small quantity of food will immediately
at large, and
a
introduced
into the stomach, though
satisfy
hunger when
effect when
introduced
it will have no
otherwise."!
or

"

Foster,op. cit.,
p.

1423.

f Op. cit.,
p.

1424.

CHAPTEE

VII.
LAW.

WEBER-FECHNER

THE

" 1. The Experimental Facts. We


them like or
objectsand pronounce

can

"

disparatein kind, we

are

they

unlike.

are

brightnessof
we
a

the

sound,

we

any

instance, we

cannot

is

the

equal

to

if

hand,

we

of

objects
that

than

more

say

two

any

If the

comparing

the

the soul.

If

lightwith the loudness


; but
possess intensity

of

immortality of

the

say that both


definite
relation

can

fix

with

sun

to

only result

is the

brightnessof

the

compare

cannot

This

unlike.

unable

are

compare

we

between

them.

For

affirm that the loudness

of the

sound

brightness of
the

compare

the

light.

On

the

other
of the

quantitative variations

objectin the same


respect,we can pronounce
definite judgments. We
that one
more
can
pronounce
loud or equal in loudness
sound is less or more
to another.
Besides
this, we can compare
degrees of unlikeness with
kind

same

definite

results.

louder

much
we

We
B

than

select two

can

proceed to
We

of

find

then

may

third

compare

extremes, A

and

D,

unlike

as

sounds

of the
B

can

say

that

is louder

sound, C,

one

than

of different

and

C,

so

in loudness
199

as

to

to A

In

as

this way

loudness, and

exactlyintermediate
the intermediate

A.

is

between

then
them.

with each
sound, .Z?,
A
interposebetween
in the same
degree in

PSYCHOLOGY.

200

which,

it is unlike

in

and

"

between

degree

an

loudness
unlike

it is unlike

in which

possibleto

form

unlikeness

from

scale

a
a

[BK.
B

in loudness
in loudness

and

to

to B
to

C.

CH.

vn.

interpose

in the

same

It is thus

passing by equal gradations of


faint

very

to

n.,

sound

to

very

loud

one.

degrees of unlikeness in
pitch,in the brightnessof light,in weight as appreciated
Now
the fundamental
etc.
by pressure on the skin or by lifting,
underlies
law
is that equal
Weber's
fact which
in sensation
do not
correspond to
degrees of unlikeness
equal increase or decrease in the absolute intensityof the
tion
stimulus.
If a series of increasingintensities of stimulabe denoted
by R^ Jlz,^3, ^4, and the corresponding
between
sensations by r1? r2, r3, r4, the degree of unlikeness
between
degree of unlikeness
r2 is equal to the
rv and
Similar

scales

be

can

formed

7?

rs and

r4, when

"

7?

-1=

-"a

respects more

some

for

"

?,or

to

use

an

equivalentformula, in

-^4

convenient,when

in psychology were
Long before quantitativemethods
had occasion
the stars
to classify
thought of, astronomers
different
according to their relative brightness. The
classes are
arranged in a scale. At the top of the scale
the brightest
in average
comes
brightness
; the unlikeness
this and the second class is equal to the unlikeness
between
in average
brightnessbetween the second and third class,
The
and so on.
correspondingintensities of the physical
lightshave since been determined; and it is found that
they approximately form the geometricalseries,^, ", ",
Here
each stimulus
is the half of the preceding
i1^,etc.
stimulus.
an(i
Obviously ":":!":",

In

attention has been chiefly


experimentalinvestigations,
given to degreesof unlikeness which are barelydiscernible.

WEI3E11-FECHNER

" 1.]

stimulus

limits,the

Within

law

same

whatever

by

fraction

also.

fraction

in the sensation

is different

for

be,

of its

be

kinds

term

there

is

no

difference

passed,but
discernment

brightness of
when
increased

placetwo
white

than
white
the

is

candles

stimulus

respects

to

in

us

before

of

of the

as

surface,the

throw

in the

threshold

difference.

shadow

shadows

caused

by

of
each

For

cernible
disto

words,

originalstimulus.
two

that

threshold

unlikeness

speak

leading
mis-

saying

the

101, or, in other

of the

T^"th

the

to
perceptible
; or
is
difference-threshold

threshold

In

skin,

light,unlikeness
only becomes
ratio of the originalstimulus
is 100

so

the

increased

discernible

no

of the

stimulus

the increment

is

constant

is

in the'"sensation

that there

The

on

warrant

not

It is better therefore

sensation.

on

facts do

the

before

of sensation.

language, before the


is in some
Difference-threshold

passed.

of

unlikeness

an

technical

use

is

before

increased

amount,

own

estimatingweight merely by pressure


ratio between
and
original stimulus
must

be

must

is discernible.

different

sponding
corre-

any

becoming perceptible.*
The
original stimulus,

intensitymay

constant

unlikeness

any

here

its absolute

certain

holds

201

without

vary

may

in the sensation

unlikeness
The

LAW.

some

"

the

when
If

we

object

lightwill

be

light,and the rest of the surface


will be illuminated
move
one
we
by both lights. If now
shall reach
candle away
we
a
point at which the shadow
that is to say, we
fail at
to be visible,
caused by it ceases
the surface
this pointto appreciatethe difference between
illuminated
light alone and that illuminated
by the near
by the near
light and the far lighttogether. If now,
having noted the distance to which the candle had to be
moved, we
experiment with two bright
repeat the same
illuminated

by

the other

See book

chap,i.,"
ii.,

3.

PSYCHOLOGY.

202

UK.

ci.

v;i.

.,

lamps, moving
to be

ceases

moved

visible,Ave

just as

difference
which

lamp

one

far

between

the

until

the

shall find that

the

as

away

candle

the

; that

illumination

shadow

lamp

is to

of

the

sav,

it casts
has

to be

the least

bright lamps

in the case
of the
as
appreciateis the same
dimmer
candles.
Many similar examples might be given
showing a similar result,in fact,it is found by careful
observation
that,within tolerablywide limits,the smallest
difference of lightwhich
sations
we
can
appreciateby visual senis a constant
fraction (about T^oth) of the total
luminosityemployed."*
we

can

It should

degree

be

added

that

stimulus

must

reach

certain

of

intensitybefore it can
produce any discernible
sensation at all. Physicallightor physicalsound
be
may
too faint to be distinguishable.The
point at which it is
that the least increase
would
so
just indistinguishable,
make
it distinguishable,
is called the stimulus-threshold.
scribed
" 2. Interpretation.The explanation of the facts dehas been much
discussed.
One hypothesisis that
increase in the intensity
of the stimulus fails to produce an
increase in the intensity
of the sensation until the increment
is a certain fraction of the originalstimulus.
On this hypothesis
the sensation ought to vary by leaps and bounds
at
certain fixed points. The reason
why no unlikeness in the
reached
sensation is discernible before these points are
is
"

that

no

unlikeness

in the sensation

be

exists.

This

may

points-of
sensation
the original
relative increment
is required to make
be, the same
may
unlikeness
discernible.
In
gradually increasing the
intensityof the stimulus,it is not found that there are
certain
points at which
change in sensation becomes
definitely
rejected. There are no
transition. Whatever
the intensity
of

.Foster,
op. cit.,
p.

such

1211.

fixed

view

WEBEK-FECHNER

" 2.]

LAW.

203

in such, a way that any pair of stimuli givesrise


perceptible
to distinguishable
sensations,if they lie at oppositesides
of the point of transition, however
closelythey may
of fact,a sensation
A. may
be
approach it. As a matter
from ", and B from
C, and yet A may
indistinguishable
C.
be distinguishable
from
If discernible
unlikeness in
with
actual
sensation
co-extensive
were
unlikeness,this
would
be impossible. Another
objectionis that the power
small
of discriminatingvery
is
degrees of unlikeness
greatly improved by practice,and varies greatly with
It seems
the concentration
of attention.
improbable that
these

conditions

should

have

effect

great an

so

the actual

on

sensation

of
intensity

produced by the stimulus.


Another
explanation is that adopted by Fechner.
He
rightly holds that the sensation varies with the
is not perceptible. It
stimulus
the variation
when
even
becomes
the degree of variation
has
perceptiblewhen
But
passed a certain limit. So far,we may follow him.
he also holds that the increase
in intensityof sensation
unlikeness
is not
required to constitute a discernible
relative
form

but

with

of

the

sensation

estimatingweight by
an

that

the

variations

geometrical series, while

variations
In

absolute, so

ounce,

unlikeness

we

is discernible

add

of

; if

arithmetical

third of
we

an

begin

if

begin

before

ounce

with

we

series.

pound,

any
we

is
pound before any unlikeness
discernible.
In
both
the
according to Fechner
cases,
is not
increase in the intensity
of the pressure-sensations
but absolutelythe same.
There
the same
are
relatively
If we
the
compare
very serious objectionsto this view.
with
no
weight of an ounce
weight at all,according to
the
two
between
Fechner, the degree of unlikeness
must

third

an

stimulus

corresponding

of pressure,

means

add

must

form

the

of

PSYCHOLOGY.

204

[BK. TT.,

CTT.

vil.

to the differstrictly
proportional
between
the intensity
of sensation
once
produced by one
and
the complete absence
of pressure
sensation.
ounce,
In other words, it ought to be proportional
to the absolute
But
as
a
ounce.
intensityof pressure produced by one

to be

experiencesought

of

matter

sensation

fact,the

unlikeness

and

finite value

any

between

the

value

zero

is infinite.

Hence,

of

for this

breaks down.
There
limitingcase, Fechner's interpretation
in testingit in other cases, because
of the
is a difficulty
magnipeculiarnature of intensive magnitude. Intensive tude
is indivisible.
from

louder

loudness
in

such

the

so

to be

as

able to

point to

of unlikeness
their

proportionalto
which

the other.

But

law

Hence

left if

be

there

is

simply
to

the

be subtracted

could

of the

cases

that

application

does not present


difficulty
law holds
itself. Weber's
good of extensive as well as
If
intensive magnitude, and it also holds good of number.
line two
inches long with a line three inches
a
we
compare
line six inches long with a line
a
long, and then compare
the degree of
inches
seven
long, according to Fechner
of Weber's

in which

contention

"

other

are

of

cannot

we

difference,
one

sound

degree

sensations

two

mathematical

would

certain

Fechner's

between

fainter

remainder.

immediately test

cases

remainder

subtract

cannot

the mathematical

as

degree

from

We

unlikeness

between

line

to be

ought
the

mathematical

physicalpoint of
presented to the

view.

in which
be

an

inch

eye

the

the

For
under

if

is the

retina
mode

well

suppose

similar

with the

same

"

as

the

In both
one

from

in which

one

inch.
the

lines to be

conditions,the
in the

inch

unlikeness

of

inch line.

seven

we

the three

degree

psychologicalas

affects the

identical
virtually

line and

difference

the

is true

with

line and

from

This

inch

two

identical

the six inch

between
cases

the

this

case

mode
may

it affects the

WEBER-FECHNER

" 2.]

other

I AAV.

The

inches

205

only equal
measured
as
by a rule ; they also appear equal as they are
We
therefore
are
dealing
presented to consciousness.
and not merely with physical,
with psychical,
magnitudes.
that
2
in
But
1, and
spite of the fact that 3
6 also
7
1, there is a greater degree of unlikeness
inches taken
the line of two
between
a
as
whole, and
in the

retina

case.

not

are

"

"

of

that

between

line

the

taken

inches

three

of

six

as

and

than

whole,

that

of

there

inches.

seven

is
The

perceptibledegrees of unlikeness.
If we
have to increase the length of a line of six inches by
be just
in order that the unlikeness
certain amount
a
may
the length of a line of two
increase
must
we
discernible,
but in the same
amount,
inches, not by the same
portion,
probe justdiscernible.
in order that the unlikeness
may
holds

same

Number

lay a

for

least

well

as

of three

group

two, and if we

of

the

then

group

is between

there

lay a
that

of

there

in both

cases

one

counter

; and

of
is

eight and

If

of three

and

the

group

than

seven

of two.

the group

be

to

we

group
resemblance

of

group

difference

appear

eight beside
greater

the

the mathematical
it may

illustration.

the table beside

on

group

the group

Yet

affords

counters

it is clear

of seven,
between

extension

as

is the

same

same

as

"

sented
pre-

The

principle holds also for


magnitudes which are not directly
perceived,but thought
of.
Everybody recognisesthat a billion and one is more
to

like

consciousness.

billion

than

eleven

dealings of life,if
amounting to hundreds
not

by

matter
no

means

is under

We

may

about

odd

we

is like ten.
have
of

then

conclude

the

that

but
sum

ordinary

receive

feel that

we

penny
to be

degree of

in the

or

pay

pounds,

pence

negligibleif
shilling.

to

So

more

paid

it does
or

or

unlikeness

sums

less is

received

between

PSYCHOLOGY.

200

the visible

quantitiesis

difference

neither

[UK.
identical

n.,

cir.

vn.

matical
with their mathe-

proportionedto it.
In the case
of intensive magnitudes, such as the loudness
of a sound, or the brightnessof a light,
there is,properly
cannot
we
speaking,no mathematical
difference,because
divide such magnitudes into parts, so as to find a numerical
equivalentfor each, and subtract the one from the other.
in intensive
None
the less, there
be
magnitude
may
difference.
something analogous to the mathematical
The
tude
velocityof a moving body is an intensive magniit is a magnitude which
be represented
can
; but
which
is a function
of the space traversed
by a number
and

the

time

thus

be

treated

capable of
reason
why
conceived

nor

which
as

addition
the

in

the

it takes
if it

were

and

way.

an

extensive

sensation

At

it.

traverse

subtraction.

intensityof
same

to

any

It

may

magnitude
is

There
should

not

rate, the

no

be

mere

dealing with intensive magnitude does


in itself constitute
not
an
insuperableobjectionto the
Hence
abstract possibility
of such a mode
of treatment.
there is in principleno
attempt to
objectionto Fechner's
tensity
incorrelate increased
of sensation with increased
intensity
of stimulus.
But he was
over-hasty in supposing
that equal degrees of unlikeness
involved
equal absolute
differences of quantityin the sensation.
On the contrary,
that
the analogy of extensive
to show
magnitude seems
with
is correlated
relative, not
degree of unlikeness
Fechner's
absolute, differences in intensityof sensation.
not
We
do
yet know
problem is yet to be solved.
the
in the
law which
increase
connects
strength of
fact

that

the

stimulus

AVe

we

cannot

degrees of

are

corresponding increments of sensation.


shall represent
which
yet assign a number
obtained
loudness
or
brightness,as the number
with

by dividingthe
Further

discern

to

the

into

of units

sum

represents velocity.

of space

" 3.

of lime

of units

sum

207

LAW.

FECI-IXETI

WEBER-

$ ?,.]

questions.It

Now

small.

is very

the unlikeness

more

less effort

or

is greatestwhen
difficulty

.The

unlikeness.

an

cost

may

"

it has

maintained

been

ourselves
we
reallyestimate when
suppose
to be estimatingdegrees of unlikeness, is the degree of
at all;
find in perceivingunlikeness
which
we
difficulty
A
the less the unlikeness.
the greater the difficulty,
The
this is untrue.
shows
that
simple consideration
tinguish
lower
are
speciallydifficult to disgrades of unlikeness
the unlikeness
is increased in degree,it
; and, as
But this holds only up to a
discernible.
becomes
more
easily
is sufficiently
the unlikeness
certain point. When
great
without
and
after
it is discernible
appreciabledifficulty,
does not make
it appreciablyeasier
increase
this further
therefore
conclude
must
that
to
our
perceive. We
judgment of unlikeness depends primarily on the actual
of detecting
or
unlikeness,and not on the ease
difficulty
it. At the same
of detecting
or
time, the ease
difficulty
less affect our
unlikeness
or
more
an
judgment of its
may
that what

we

amount.

It may

be

of

source

and

error,

deviations

explain apparent

extent

some

thus

from

to

may

Weber's

law.
Here

assumed

degrees

question

of

without

discussion

of unlikeness

are
qualities

equal.

It is indeed
which

not

they

follow

that

between
Now

this is

self-evident

are

that

is to say,

that

they

are

with

themselves

no

It is often

least

perceptible

kinds

same

by

discernible

all discernible

all

the

just discernible,are

are

that
if

importance arises.

some

of sensible

self-evident.

means

degrees

of

unlikeness

therefore
with

cernible
equally disEven
equal ease.

equal

equal.

ease,

The

it does

not

appeal

in

PSYCHOLOGY.

203

the

last

be

en.

vn.

comparison. A
valid reason
for assuming them
to be equal is that they
is that they occur
under the
equal. Another reason
appear
conditions
holds
in general for
of Weber's
law, which
equal degrees of unlikeness.
A
stimulus
reach
must
certain degree of intensity
a
before
it can
produce any discernible sensation at all.
The
it produces any
sensation
question arises whether
before it produces a discernible
sensation.
Proceeding on
the general analogy of the results we
have
in
reached
law we
that in all probamust
assume
discussingWeber's
bility
it does.
W'e have here a special
of the general
case
relation

instance

[r,x.::.,

of

must

stimulus

sensation

varies

variation

becoming

actual

sensation.

to

the

as

to

stimulus

Within

is

limits, the

increased,without

perceptible.It

is most

natural

the
to

is not
of a stimulus, which
bring the case
yet intense
enough to produce a discernible sensation at all,under the
same
principle. It is stillmore
improbable that sensations
attention is otherwise
which
our
escape notice merely because
occupied have no existence as psychicalfacts. Thus,
from
reinforce
the
can
our
present point of view, we

argument

" 4.

of Bk.

II.,ch. i.,"

Limitations

Weber's

law

all sensations

being the
discovered

as

of

2.

TPeber's

Law.

"

We

have

if it held

good exactlyand

but

matter

as

of

spoken of
uniformly for

fact this

is far from

Many deviations and limitations have been


by experiment. Verification commonly fails for

case.

In view
high or very low intensities of sensation.
the complexityof the operativeconditions this is not in
least surprising. Our
of discriminatingmay
power
influenced by many
factors besides the actual nature
of
very

sensations

between

which

we

intensityof

have

to

stimulus

compare.
and

absolute

The

of
the
be
the

relation

of
intensity

sensation
other

LAW.

WEBER-FECHNEft

" 4.]

We

may

unlikeness

that

it states

as

depends

probably does, depend upon many


than the mere
intensityof the stimulus
asmuch
the law to be perfectly
exact, insuppose

and

may,

conditions

itself.

209

their relative

upon

between

without
difference,

sensations

supposing

onlyby difference
of the
The
specialstructure
probably an important factor.

that this relative difference is determined


of

stimulation.

external

different
To

sense-organs

speak

of

is

nothing else,the

of their

own

due

eye

to internal

and

the

ear

have

which,
stimulation,

sations
sen-

it is

difficult to allow for.*

The

Ueber

treatment

die

of

Bedeutung des

Psych.

Weber's

law

Weberschen

in

this

Chapter
etc.
Gesetzes,

follows

Meinong,

VIIL

CHAPTER
THE

"

Sensibility.The

1. Common

pleasure

"

organic sensations
importance in our
all-pervading
with,

these

sensations

fused

are

SENSATION.

OF

FEELING-TO:NTE

in

of

are

pain

fundamental

mental
total

and

life.
of

mass

nected
con-

and

Normally,
experience,

ponents
partiallyanalysed into its comwhich
line
by attentive scrutiny. The membranes
internal organs
are
generally supplied by sensory
our
which, from all parts of the body, are perpetually
nerves,
conductinga multitude of impressionsto the central nervous
system. On the resultant effect of these impulsesit depends

which

whether

be

only

can

at

any

very

moment

feel well

we

or

ill,cross

or

placent.
com-

organic sensations in the


morning we can often predictwhether the day'sexperiences
are
going to be agreeable or disagreeable. The feelingdetermines
in large measure
of common
tone
sensibility
of more
the feeling-tone
specialexperiencesin the way of
and ideas. An incident which might
sensations,
perceptions,
be pleasantor but slightly
feeling
disagreeableif we were
fresh and "fit,"is apt to be intenselydisagreeableif our
This is too well-known
organicfunctions are out of order.
By

fact

which

to
are

the

need

nature

extended

agreeableto

unpleasantto

of

our

illustration.
the

the invalid.

Smells

and

tastes

may

be

highly

meal,

food

healthy person
After
210

full

which

delicious
previously

was

OF

FEELING-TONE

$ 1.]

SENSATION.

almost

become

may

211

even

nauseous;

unpleasant. The very thought of


smoking a pipe in certain states of body may be repellent
of tobacco.
of persons who usuallyenjoy the use
in the case
companies
The
profound alteration of organic conditions which acproduces curious ''longings" and
pregnancy

the

idea

be

of it may

for

repugnances

articles

organicsensations

system.*

nervous

of

influence
The

food.

It

the whole

neural

thus
state

processes

that

appears

central

of the
connected

with

restricted and localised.


definitely
specialsensations are more
The
are
sensibility
experiencesdue to common
diffusive in their character.
They give to the nervous
and on the psychical
system a certain generalpredisposition,
side produce a certain general mood
or
temper.
By reflective scrutinyit is possible,as we have said,to
detect special
components of the total complex of organic
sensation,such as those due to the heart-beat,and respiration,
the shiveringsof cold or
and
glows of warmth
arisingfrom contraction or dilatation of the blood-vessels at
occasions when
the surface of the body. But there are
no
effort of attention is required to detect an
organic
special
The experiences
sensation.
immediatelydue to a toothache,
to a burn, a bruise, or
to a colic,to muscular
a
cramp,
other interests
blow, usually compel attention,whatever
When
one
compete with them.
organic sensation
may
of common
itself from the mass
detaches
it is apt
sensibility,
Such intense experiences
to be overwhelmingly obtrusive.
"Besides
central

receiving sensory
system

nervous

and

is also

in

impressions

from

the

directly affected
the

character

internal

organs,

by general organic

the
ditions,
con-

amount
particular by
to determine
supply which flows to it. This factor must also contribute
of experience as
the general nature
pleasant or unpleasant. Its relative
with
the
indirect effect of sensory
more
importance as compared
sions
impres-

upon

the inteinal

organs

and

is difficult to estimate.

of

the

blood-

PSYCHOLOGY.

212

[BK. n..

en.

vm.

painful than pleasant; but they


also occur
in agreeable phases. In general,the satisfaction
of organic cravings,such
as
hunger and thirst,
be
peculiarlydisagreeable
intenselyagreeable. The
may
which
of most
character
are
organic sensations
from
the general
intense
enough to detach themselves
is marked
by the usage of popular language which
mass,
much

are

appliesto

more

often

them

in

restricted

A bitter taste

and

distinctive

discord

the

sense

be

disagreeable,
but it is not usuallycalled a pain. On the other hand, we
currentlyspeak of the pains of hunger, of scaldingor
is that the main
The
reason
burning, or of toothache.
experiences lies in their intrinsic
importance of such
feeling-tone. They have comparativelylittle value for
They contribute
comparatively
cognitive consciousness.
of the qualitiesof external
little to the discrimination
less vague
information
bodies ; and theyyieldonly more
or
word

pains.

about

the

received

condition

in
of

must

the
mere

exist

in

some

character
the

and

the

be

word, pains,

those

have

its

own.

accompanying
different

It

is

sensation
kinds

other

unpleasantness.
abstract
purity: it
sensation
having a
of

help us

not

that

at

The
is

"When

have

we

it to find out

mode

proper

itself does

noted

look

to

popular language called,by

their

of

have

may

bodies.

own

our

we

wound,

precisecharacter
The pain-sensation
It

of

or

of

its

treating it.

much.

sensations

which

distinctive

application

characteristics

are

besides

feeling-tonedoes not
always the feeling-tone

more

or

through
that

we

less

determinate

the

character

are

able

to

of

tinguish
dis-

organic pain or pleasure.


discriminate
from
each other stinging,piercing,
Thus
we
gnawing, crushing, beating, shooting, burning, and
it is possible
other kinds of pain. Hence
innumerable
to
of

" 1.]

FEELING-TONE

OF

SENSATION.

213

the
pain-sensationsin other
respects than
intensityof their painfulness. The points of agreement
and
difference
in the
to a large extent
to be found
are
temporal and local distribution of the constituents of a
distribution
is marked
by
complex experience.Local
such terms
and
as
pricking,
shooting.Temporal sequence
by such terms as throlling,
rhythmic alternation are marked
the
These
like.
differentiating
beating,and
qualities
which
in
we
use
describing the varieties of painsensation
have
of any
usually little cognitive value
is conother
kind.
So far as
cerned,
cognitive consciousness
their main
function
is fulfilled in enabling us to
detect and express the difference between
kind of pain
one
and another.
natural that in naming them
It is therefore
should apply to all indifferently
the common
word pain.
we
But it is better to speak of pain-sensations
than of pain, in
order to indicate that something besides mere
ness
unpleasantis involved.
Markedly analogousexperiencesmay also
without any intenselydisagreeablefeeling-tone.A
occur
slightburn may retain much of the peculiarprickly,
pungent,
qualityof the originalsensation when the painfulnesshas
almost or quitedisappeared. So it is possibleoccasionally
to detect the peculiarthrob
characteristic of a toothache,
and the tenderness
when
of the gum,
the acutelydisagreeable
phase of the experiencehas passed away or has not
times
Hunger is usually unpleasant, but someyet arrived.
the beginning of it does not appear
to be so.
So far we
have referred only to those distinctive features
which
in describing
the difference between
serve
us
one
But there are
pain-sensation and another.
undoubtedly
other
differences
which
seem
incapable of analysisand
of
description.This follows from the diffusive nature
which
we
organic sensations. The particularsensation

compare

PYSCHOLOGY.

2U

regard
wound

as

in

condition
The

have
painful may
a
particularpart of
of

the

membrane

the

tends
and

to

the

origin in
the skin, or

of

the

burn

in

stomach

or

vin.

or

diseased

bowels.

experience will therefore be in


the character of this primary sensation.
disturbance
set up
by the localised impression

involve

to

its

en.

of the

nature
specific
part determined
by

But

[BK. JL,

overflow

more

the

less the

or

whole

whole

organism.

system,

nervous

The

diffused

effect

be marked

by some
peculiarity
in the experience. Certainly,
the impressionswhich
arise
from
the changed conditions
of the organism as a whole
must
modify the total experiencein an important degree.
But
these elements
not
are
easilyexpressed in definite
language.
They can, as people say, be felt but not
on

system, may

nervous

described.

Organic pains and pleasures in extreme


degrees of
reduce to a minimum
intensity
cognitiveprocess in general.
In having a tooth drawn, our
consciousness
to conseems
sist
in a single thrill of mere
Attention
sensation.
to
definite objectsceases
be said to attend even
cannot
: we
do
We
to the sensation
itself,
except in the vaguest way.
take note
of its peculiarqualities,
not
we
simply feel it.
The
distinction between
for the
subjectand objectseems
almost
lost. It remains
moment
true that the experience
has
a
peculiar quality which
might be analysed and
taken
described
which
had
by a demon
possessionof us
But no
and was
watching our mental processes.
approach
is possibleto us until the
to such
analysisand description
we
can
calmly regard it in
experience is over, and
retrospect.
Pain-sensations
tissue
surface

or

excessive
of the

arise

may

body.

stimulation
The

through
in almost

disintegrationof
any

questionarises,how

part of the
far

are

they

FEELING-TONE

I 1.]
due

tlie existence

to

SENSATION.

OF

of

of

nerves

215

sensibility

common

terminatingin the skin and other sensitive surfaces,and


how
far they may
be produced by stimulation
of the
It appears
nerves
subservingthe specialsenses.
probable
that stimulation of the nerves
of sightand hearing does not
called. But the
result of itself in pain-sensations,
so
strictly
doubtful.
Groldof cutaneous
case
impressions is more
scheider

has

found

that

point peculiarlysensitive
rise to
those

new

of

several

sensation

pressure

taps.

This

which

series

continued

to

from
different in kind
distinctly
had
previouslyaccompanied the

sensation,due

new

on

suddenly give

may

pressure

of taps

cumulative

to the

is organicin its nature, and


repeated impressions,
bears the general character of a pain-sensation
although it
be
be acutelypainful. Now
the question may
not
may
the
raised whether
the same
nerve-endingswhich were
effect of

medium

of the sensation

of this other
thrust

sensation.
into

the

of pressure

Again,
skin;

is felt,which
may
pressure
It is only after the lapse of

at

be

let

were

more

suppose

us

first

also the medium

only
or

less

point
needle-

sensation

of

disagreeable.

appreciableinterval of time
that the pain-sensationof pricking occurs.
The
timeinterval points to the possibility
that the pain-sensation
subserved
and the pressure-sensation,
are
respectively,
by
different nerves.
This view
to be reinforced
by
appears
certain
There
are
cases
pathological phenomena.
when
intact
This
other
some

sensitiveness

to

an

temperature

and

pressure

remains

while

no
pain-sensations are
longer producible.
sometimes
or
happens to patientsunder chloroform
anaesthetics.
It also occurs
in lead-poisoning
and in
cases

of

nervous

disease.

The

inverse

also may

take

to pain-sensation
be retained,
place. Susceptibility
may
though pressure- and temperature-sensationsare no longer

PSYCHOLOGY.

216

producible. These facts


and
common
sensibility

[BK.IT., CH.
sliow

to

seem

the

of

nerve"

special sensations are


distinct and separate. But there is one
weak
pointin the
The
pathological phenomena
only occur
argument.
which
under
conditions
states of the
produce abnormal
We
nervous
explain the facts, not by
system.
may
nating
supposing separate and distinct sets of nerve-fibres termiin the skin,but by supposing that the effect of the
is altered by the
nerve
same
impression on the same
altered

state

conveyed.

of the

It has

those

that

vrn.

central

been

of

found

it is

to which

matter

nervous

that removal

or

disablement

spinalcord produces insensibility


and
to painsensations, while
sensibilityto pressureso
long as the
temperature- sensations is left unaffected
strands
of the cord
remain
intact.
white
Conversely,
cutting through the white strands of the cord destroys
sensitiveness to pressure- and temperature-,but not to painmitted
Now
before a nervous
sensations.
impulse can be transthrough grey matter, it must firstexcite the grey cells
For this the
so that theydischargein an
explosivemanner.
reach a certain pitch
to them
must
impulse communicated
after their discharge the
of intensity,and
impulse is
in an
intensified form.
transmitted
as
They thus serve
of the grey

of the

matter

accumulators

of

explain the

sudden

nervous

In

energy.

emergence

series of successive

of

new

this way
sensation

we

may
as

the

pressure-point.
Each
feeble nervous
impulse,
tap gives rise to a relatively
which by itself is insufficient to produce a dischargeof the
cells of the cord.
But
the series of taps by its
grey
effect ultimately succeeds
cumulative
in producing an
sensation
explosionof the grey matter, and with it a new
of the
the grey matter
of an
organic character. WTien
spinalcord is removed, the nervous
impulses from the
result

of

taps

on

OF

FEELING-TONE

" 2.]

skin,

origin,may fail to produce painintensity


they cannot attain the requisite

because

in the absence

217

their

"whatever

sensations

SENSATION.

of

an

apparatus

for accumulation

of

nervous

why they should not still


and temperature-sensations.
to produce pressurecontinue
Similarly,in the inverse case, all nervous
impulses from
sensation
the skin, in order to produce any
at all,must
of the cord, and in so doing
discharge the grey matter
reach a pitch of intensity
that can
only give rise to painIt seems,
sensations.
therefore,very possible that the
But

energy.

nerves

kinds

is

subserve

which

also subserve
two

there

of

no

reason

temperature- and

pressure-,

pain-sensations,the difference
experience depending upon

between
more

may
the

central

conditions.
turn
to consider
" 2. The Special Sensations. We now
the specialsensations
of sight,sound, smell,taste,touch,
and
temperature. The feeling-toneof these sensations
their
varies,first,with
intensity,secondly, with their
with their quality.
duration,and thirdly,
(1) Many of them in a low grade of intensityappear to
be virtuallyneutral.
All of them, acquire appreciable
their intensity
is increased.
Some
of them
as
feeling-tone
All of them
when
are
they are weak.
unpleasant even
intensified
become
unpleasant when
beyond a certain
point. Before reaching this pointthey nearly all have an
agreeablephase ; after reaching this point they continue
and more
to be more
increases.
disagreeableas intensity
It is a matter
of dispute whether
there is any sensation
is constantlydisagreeablein whatever
which
phase of
It is always possibleto
it appears.
that
intensity
urge
it might be
though a sensation is generallydisagreeable,
agreeableif it could be made weak enough. As an example
of a pleasant
phase of an experiencewhich everybodywould
"

PSYCHOLOGY.

218

[BK. n.,

CH.

viir.

regard as absolutelydisagreeablefrom its very quality,wo


"I
quote the following from Mr. H. E-. Marshall:
may
from
serious
well
remember
once
having been aroused
thought in a railwaycarriageby a delicious odour, and
What
the words
a
actually
delightfulperfume ! were
in thought. Almost
formed
immediatelythe smell changed
there
to
disagreeablenesswith growing intensity,and
appeared evident the intenselydisagreeablesmell emitted
We
by a polecat which had been killed by the train."*
the general rule for the relation of intensity
formulate
may
A
reach
sensation
must
and
a
feeling-toneas follows.
'

'

certain

minimum

of

intensityin

order

to

have

an

ciable
appre-

of sensation
Further
rise in intensity
tone.
feelingof feeling-tone.If
is accompanied by a rise in intensity
is initially
the
sensation
unpleasant, its unpleasantness
continues

to increase

as

the

sensation

is intensified.

If it

pleasantness increases to a
it remains
at which
certain maximum,
roughly constant
is increased
until the intensityof the sensation
beyond
When
this limit is passed, the pleasantcertain limit.
a
ness
decreases, and finally
f
passes into unpleasantness.
of the transition from
The
nature
pleasantness
pleasantnessto unAn unpleasant
requiresfurther elucidation.
while
to enter
into the experience even
element
appears
to be in itself agreeable.
the originalsensation continues
traceable
to other
This is sometimes
definitely
distinctly
assignablesensations,which are superadded to the primary
warmth
one.
Thus, at a certain pitch of intensity,
may
still agreeable in itself,although it is
be
to
continue
disagreeablesensation of a
accompanied by a distinctly
probably due to stimulation
pricklyor pungent character,

is

initiallypleasant, the

Pain, Pleasure,and Aesthetics,


p. 288.
See A. Lehmann, Die Hauptgesetzedes

menschlichen

Gefuhlslebens,
p. 181.

FEELING-TONE

" 2.]

OF

SEXSATION.

219

So a
in the part of the skin affected.
pressure-points
bright light may continue to give pleasure when it is so
of

intense

that

unpleasant.

the

effort to

accommodate

But

there

other

are

cases

the

eye

in which

to

it is

it is much

of the
assign definitelythe source
collateral
intense
sweetness
unpleasantness. However
in its own
intrinsic
to become
be, it scarcelyseems
may
excite
nature
disagreeable. At the same
time, it may
with accomto be connected
seems
panying
strong disgust,which
organic sensations not easy to analyseor describe.
(2) The dependence of feeling-toneon duration varies
tained
in nature
accordingas the sensation is continuouslymainor
repeatedintermittently.
There
to be no
appreciable interval of time
appears
between
the emergence
of a sensation
of given intensity
and the correspondingfeeling-tone.Apparent exceptions
be explained away.
If we
touch
can
a
disagreeablyhot
object,the heat is felt before the unpleasantness;but this
the stimulus
is because
requiresa certain time before it
take full effect. On its first application
the sensation
can
is not intense enough to be disagreeable.
The followingis the general formula
for variations
of
with the continuous
tion
feeling-tone
persistenceof the sensaincreases in intensity
in time.
The
to a
feeling-tone
is pleasant,it continues
maximum.
If the sensation
for
and then graduallybecomes
time at this maximum,
some
less agreeable,and in the end distinctly
disagreeable. If
the sensation is initially
unpleasant,the maximum
persists
for a much
longer period than in the case of agreeable
After
sensations.
become
this, the unpleasantness may
into pleasantness,
and
it is
fainter,but it never
passes
intense
at intervals in more
always liable to reappear

more

difficult

phases.

to

PSYCHOLOGY.

220

The

same

remarks

which

we

[BK. n.,
made

about

the

en.

vni.

transition

from

pleasantnessto unpleasantnesswith rise in intensity,


transition as dependent on continuous
apply to the same
Here
also collateral elements
of a
persistencein time.
disagreeablekind are introduced into the experiencebefore
the primary sensation
in itself unpleasant. The
becomes
illustrations of the bright colour and of the sweet
taste
be
of
transferred,mutatis mutandis, to the case
may
duration.
A boy eating sugar-plums,if he continues
to
indulge himself beyond a certain point,has disagreeable
sensations distinctly
and
traceable
the stomach
other
to
internal

organs,

while

the

sweetness

itself

remains

sufficiently
agreeableto tempt him to go on eating. But
such
even
definitelyassignable collateral
apart from
be
surfeit of sweetness,
a
accompaniments, there may
in itself an
remains
agreeable taste.
though sweetness
Doubtless
this is due
to
some
general organic effect
hard
the
to define
analysis. Sometimes
by introspective
disagreeablenessis simply due to tedium ; if we gaze at
of the
a
bright colour too long we feel bored because
tinues
suspension of other activities,
although the colour conto be pleasing.
mittently
The
in which
the
is repeated intersensation
case
is in many
analogous to that in which it
ways
persistscontinuously. If the repetitionis too frequent,
less pleasant,and
a
pleasant sensation tends to become
often
becomes
by
unpleasant. Unpleasant sensations
often,but by no means
frequentrepetition
always,become
less unpleasant. They may
neutral
become
even
virtually
even
or
actuallypleasant. Perhaps the best instance of
sensation becoming agreeable by repetition
a disagreeable
for olives.
is the
acquiredtaste
When
a pleasant sensation
by repetitiondoes not lose
"

"

FEELTNG-TOXE

$ 2.]

OF

SENSATION.

221

an
disgusting,and when
pleasantness and become
less
more
or
initially
unpleasant sensation has become
its absence
from
consciousness
will
pleasantby repetition,
at certain moments
give rise to a craving for it. Tlie
for tobacco, of the olive-eater for
craving of the smoker
in
olives,or of the drinker for his bitter beer, are cases
marked
the effect is most
when originally
point. Certainly,
pleasantby repetition.
unpleasantsensations have become
The
nervous
system has adapted itself to certain modes
of excitation
returning at certain intervals, and their

its

absence

equilibrium.If
of using tobacco
is in the habit
a
only at fixed
person
times in the day, the craving is apt to arise exclusively
these
times.
The
omission
of
at
a
customary early
ing,
morning pipe may trouble the smoker in the early mornbut the craving may
and not recur
during
pass away
the day.
have
that there are
seen
sations
sen(3) We
probably some
which
are
disagreeablein all phases of intensity.
Others become
disagreeableat a very low intensity.In
the case
of others,such as sweetness, it is not quite certain
that they ever
become
when
even
intrinsically
disagreeable,
It follows that qualityof sensation
they are most intense.
is a most
important factor in determining feeling-tone.
do little to explain why one
We
can
qualityis predominantly
agreeableand another predominantly disagreeable.
The
nearest
approach to an explanationis found in the
of complex sound-sensations.
The disagreeablecase
special
ness

produces

of dissonance

the
interrupt
the

organ

of

disturbance

is due

uniform

to

course

hearing.

The

of neural

the

presence

of the

of beats

which

periodicstimulation

central

nervous

matter

of
has

adapted itself to a certain rhythm of excitation,and


this rhythm is disturbed
We
have 110
by the beats.

PSYCHOLOGY.

222

[BK. IT., en.

vni.

of
assign why certain combinations
odours
and tastes
are
agreeable,and others disagreeable.
It is clear that the agreeable
" 3. Surplus Excitation.
with
the
or
disagreeablefeeling arising in connexion
of a sensation
be wholly due to the
not
occurrence
may
is
quality or intensityof the sensation itself. "If one
to a series of sounds, or
looking intentlyat some
listening
object,the feelingof distraction caused by being spoken
to in a whisper,or
lightlytouched," is comparable with
sharp physicalpain.* The whisper or the light touch
be in no
disagreeablein themselves ; they may
way
may
be virtuallyneutral ; but they set up a general nervous
and bodily disturbance,correlated with a general mental
A
of an
disturbance
intenselyunpleasant character.
similar shock is experiencedwhen, in the process of going
startled by some
sudden
to sleep,we
are
sound, which

similar

to

reasons

"

'

need

not

diffused

be

especiallyloud.

excitement

of the

There

nervous

is in

such

cases

system, produced by

sensation,and

superadded to that specialexcitement


is immediately correlated
with the existence of the
which
call this
sensation.
Following Professor Ladd, we may
Its occurrence
diffused
effect the ''surplus" excitation.
confined to such exceptionalexperiencesas
is by no means
the contrary, all sensations
that of being startled; on
have a distinctly
which
appreciablefeeling-tone,
appear to
the

have

more

less diffusive

or

between

character.

In

this

respect,

organic sensation produced by


and the specialsensation produced by a bright
a wound,
this statement
extent
light,is only one of degree.f To some
be directly
verified by introspection
: wherever
may

the difference

Ladd's

the

Psychology,
Descriptive
p.

199.

between
line of demarcation
painsharply
When
sensation and the disagreeablenessof specialsensation.
unpleasant
arises.
become
prominent, pain-sensation
organic accompaniments
t

Hence

there

is

no

marked

FEELIXG-TONE

" 3.]

OF

SENSATION.

223

is sufficiently
intense,we can detect a diffused
feeling-tone
change in
bodily and mental excitement, and concomitant
An intensely
bitter taste may
our
organic sensations.
give
of a railway
rise to a cold shiver ; the piercing scream
whistle disturbs
thought and perception,and is felt over
the whole
organism. A delicious taste may not only tickle
set the whole
the palate,but
man
a-gog"; the strong
produced by stroking,
pleasure or displeasuresometimes
or
rubbing, is not immediately due to the quality
tickling,
of the tactile sensations themselves,but to the
and intensity
previously
surplusexcitement they produce. "We mentioned
that sensations in themselves
agreeablemay in their general
found
that the collateral
effect be unpleasing, and
we
for by the
unpleasantnesscan only in part be accounted
of definitelyassignable and
describable
concomitance
surplus excitation,with
experiences. But
consequent
of common
modification
sensibility,
adequately explains
"

these
the

subtle
same

and

way

we

evasive
are

affections

able

to

of consciousness.

account

for the

In

qualitative

of different sensations which


feeling-tone
agree in being pleasantor unpleasant. The pleasureof a
differs in kind from that of a bright colour or
taste
sweet
the difference
note ; and
be wholly
of a musical
cannot
of the sensations of
identified with the qualitative
diversity
Lesides the variety
sight,taste, and hearing themselves.

diversityof

the

primary sensations, there is also a distinction between


the kinds
of pleasure which
they afford. The several
which
fulfil no
other
experiencescontain elements
nitive
cogfunction than that of enabling reflective analysisto
modalities
of
diverse
discriminate
feeling-tone. The
modalities
has been
existence
of these diverse
strongly
The ivaij we feelis not by
emphasized by Professor Ladd.
the same
for all equally pleasurable
precisely
any means
of

"

PSYCHOLOGY.

224

or

and

equally painful,tastes
odours

[BK.

described

IT.,

Some

smells.

CTI.

TUT.

agreeable
as
having

'

heavy, and others


an
or
'enlivening'
'spicy'quality."*Compare, for instance,
the heliotropeand the Japanese lily. The
strong organic
effect which
be produced by a powerful odour
is
may
shown
by its sometimes
causinghighly susceptible
persons
"Pleasant
coolness
is 'refreshing': pleasant
to faint.
is 'cherishing.' Musicians
have always attached
warmth
different distinct kinds
of feeling to different
musical
chords
The
to different keys and
instruments," and
feelingbelonging to the bass registeris different
grave
otherwise
than
in mere
quantity of pleasure-pain from
the
stirring of the tenor, "f These various experiences
tend
induce
with
tinctive
disto
certain moods
having affinity
The
emotions.
is true in a less degree of
same
colours.
Bright lightand mellow lightproduce differences
in the character of the equally pleasurablefeelingwhich
cheerfulness
of a
Groethe contrasts
the
result.":];
may
view
as
seen
through yellow glass with its "mournfulseen
ness
as
through blue glass. These differences in
be reduced
difference
to the
mere
feeling-tonecannot
between
pleasantness and unpleasantness; and
they
identified
be
with
the
cannot
qualitativedifferences
sweet

are

as

'

"

'

'

'

'

' '

"

"

"

the sensible

between

qualitieswhich

said to be

which

are

refer

them

to

pleasant or

more

or

system with

its

resultingmodifications

of

nervous

We

have

asserted

that

occupy

unpleasant.

less diffused

organic

"all sensations

evidence
*

sufficient to

Op. cit

p. 184.

But

must

excitement

of the
and

the

sensibility.

common

"||

We

consequences,

appreciablefeeling-tone,
appear
less diffusive character.

attention,and

we

have

which
to
not

justifythis positionin
185.
Op. cit.,p.

Ibid.

have

have
so

tinctly
dis-

more

or

far adduced

its full extent.

\\" 3, p.

222.

FEELING-TONE

" 3.]

OF

SENSATION.

225

deficiencyis suppliedby experiments,


which, show
that pleasant and
unpleasant sensations in
istic
general produce organic effects differingin a characteraccordingas they are agreeableor disagreeable.
way
variations
By suitable apparatus it is possibleto measure
in the volume
of the limbs, and in the respiratory
movements,
while
the
subject is undergoing pleasant or
unpleasantexperiences. The variations are recorded by a
traced upon
for
curve
a
revolvingcylinder. The curve
of the limb indicates,
besides largerand longer
the volume
Fortunately the

variations,also
of the

beat

pulse.
analysisof

careful

good cigar smoked

increase

at

increase

that

as

surface

of the

height of

increased

be

The

respirationis deepened,
the

of

who
person
of the limbs due

by

in the

part due

variations

general results
these
experiments

may

under

in

the

shorter

The

in the volume

blood-vessels
an

and

such
sensations,

Pleasant
a

smaller

to

control of the will

deduced
are

in

as

sweet

to the

from

follows.
taste

or

of

enjoys it,produce
to dilatation

of the

body. They also produce


the pulse-beat,
which

contraction

and

are

due

of the heart.

probably the muscles


generalmore
strongly

contracted.
The

unpleasantsensations is more
complicated.
of the unpleasant stimulus,the
On the first introduction
of the limb is distinctly
volume
striction
diminished,owing to conof the blood-vessels
at the surface of the body.
constriction at the surface of the body is probably
The
accompanied by a dilatation of the blood-vessels of the
internal
The
amplitude of the pulse-beatsis
organs.
diminished.
At the same
time, there is a deepening of
when
the stimulus
is strong,there is a
respiration
; and
conspicuouscontraction of the voluntarymuscles in general.
Later phases of the process present different phenomena.
case

Psych.

of

15

226

PSYCHOLOGY.

After

its initial diminution, the volume

increase,and

to

[BK. n.,

increase

is not

of the limb

increasingfor

continues

supposed

be

to

arisingfrom

decreased

their

it at

previous constriction
later

voluntary

stage.

muscles

is

begins

in the first instance

This
due

of

to

venous

But
activityof the heart.
followingby way of reaction
is supposed to contribute to

dilatation of the blood-vessels


on

vnr.

time.

some

dilatation of the blood-vessels,


but to accumulation
blood

en.

The

increased

also

followed

innervation

by

of

the

corresponding

relaxation.
These

experiments justifythe assumption that all


sensations
having a distinctlyappreciable feeling-tone
differs in a
produce a diffused organic effect,which
characteristic way,
pleasant or
according as they are
unpleasant.
There

(2) The

thus

appear
to determine
diffused

to

be

three

which

factors

:
(1) The
feeling-tone

of the

excitement

may

sensation

tribute
con-

itself ;

system which

nervous

produce ; (3)The effect of this diffused excitation


the organism,by the consequent alterations of common
on
which
arise from the altered state of the internal
sensibility
All three factors probably contribute to the result
organs.
in varying degrees according to circumstances.
It seems
alone
of them
as
arbitrary to select one
important to
it may

the

exclusion

of

the

others

but

some

writers

show

Ladd
For
lays
tendency to do so.
instance, Professor
of the nervous
stress exclusively
the diffused excitement
on
of the sensaoccasioned
tion.
system directly
by the occurrence
He

seems

and
feeling-tone,
to the

to

he

regard
seems

organic sensations

the sensation
to attach

which

it

itself

little or

no

as

devoid

of

importance

produces. But
indirectly

shows
that a sensation may
be in itself agreeintrospection
able
or disagreeable
apart from its effects. Thus, sweetness

FEELING-TONE

" 3.]
in

its

OF

intrinsic

SENSATION.

227

be

agreeable,though
the whole
it awakens
on
view, which
disgust. Another
favoured
seems
by Professor James, is that feeling-tone
belongs exclusively,or almost
exclusively,to organic
He is not very clear on
sensation.
the point,but it seems
to form
part of his celebrated theory of emotion that,apart
from
mental
would
consist
states
organic sensation, our
almost wholly in cold intellectual perception
without feelingAt any rate, it is important to discuss the point,if
tone.
because
other reason,
of its bearing on
for no
a
theory
shall have to examine
which
we
later, the theory which
reduces
emotion, and the pleasantnessand unpleasantness
and their feeling-tone.
of emotion, to organic sensations
On
the
psychological side, the distinction between
pleasantnessand unpleasantness is simple and ultimate.
should
If it is duo to a difference in organic conditions,we
do not
we
expect this difference to be equallysimple. Now
between
the organicprocesses is corfind that the contrast
respondingly
those organic
simple. On the contrary, even
which can be detected by expericoncomitants
of feeling-tone
ment
of unpleasant
are
very complicated.Thus, in the case
experiences,initial constriction of the blood-vessels at the
surface of the body is accompanied by dilatation of the bloodvessels
may

own

nature

"

of

the

is in

rurface
followed

by

of the volume
accumulated
the
we

internal

subsequent phase

dilatation
of the
venous

voluntary muscles
cannot
singleout
as

organs.

the universal

The
of

at the surface.

limb

So

is followed

and

the

process

The

initial diminution

by

by

probably

increase

increased

general form
uniform

of

the

is followed

blood.

any

constriction

contraction

relaxation.
of

condition

due

organic
of

to

of

Hence

lation
stimu-

unpleasant
advantage

feeling-tone.There is therefore no theoretical


to organic sensations.
in ascribingfeeling-tone
exclusively

PSYCHOLOGY.

228

The

[BK. IT.,

CH.

vm.

problem confronts us in regard to them as in the


of the specialsenses.
case
They constitute a heterogeneous
of experiences,some
of which
are
pleasant
group
and some
unpleasant. Each of them has, besides its feelingtone, its own
specific
qualityas a sensation,and this quality
same

be almost

may

neutral

in

tone,

it may

or

have

both

able
agree-

and

or
disagreeablephases accordingto its intensity,
accordingto the general mental condition at the moment.
in their internal nature, as analysed by introspecNeither
tion,
in their mode
of origin,do organic sensations
nor
justifyus
present any peculiarcharacteristics which would
and
in making so vast
important a distinction between
them
and the sensations of the special
senses, as is involved
in affirmingthat they alone can
be pleasant or
painful,
while the sensations of the specialsenses
neutral.
It
are
is true that organic sensations
have
a
peculiarlydiffusive

character,but

even

in this respect the

distinction

between

specialsensations is only one of degree. A


be derived
positiveargument againstthe hypothesis may
of a simple sensation in a
from the fact that the emergence
and the emergence
of its feelinggiven phase of intensity,
tone, are not separatedby any appreciableinterval of time.
the production of organic changes by the original
But
of the nervous
stimulation
system, and the productionof
of these changes, is a
organic sensations in consequence
must
In fact,
an
appreciabletime.
occupy
process which
elements
the later addition of new
to the original
experience
can
frequentlybe detected by introspection. A very bitter
Lehmann
taste may,
as
remarks, appear at first merely as a
them

and

the

bitterness,which
disagreeable
interval of time by
appreciable

is
a

followed
cold

only

shiver

due

after
to

an

striction
con-

of the blood-vessels.
We

conclude

therefore

that

it

is

unjustifiableand

5 4.]

OF

FEELIXG-TOXE

SENSATION.

229

arbitraryto ascribe feeling-toneexclusivelyeither to the


excitement
primary sensation, or to the surplus nervous
which
it produces,or to the resultingorganic sensations.
All three
in
contribute
factors contribute,and they may
different proportionsaccordingto circumstances.
and OrganicWelfare. Most psychologists
" 4. Feeling-tone
support the generalthesis that the processes corresponding
to agreeable sensation
promote organic welfare, and that
those correspondingto disagreeable
sensation are injurious.
Stated more
this means
that agreeable process
definitely,
contributes
in the organs
to efficient dischargeof function
and that disagreeable
which it affects,
process disables the
in which the general
organs it affects. There are two senses
The meaning may
be that
propositioncan be understood.
the whole
and in the long run
on
a
pleasant experience
contributes
welfare
of the organism. The
to the
position
prounderstood
in this sense
doubt
holds good as a
no
general rule,but it is a rule which has many
exceptions.
Any race of animals which should as a rule be pleasedby
conditions
and
injurious to them
pained by conditions
beneficial to them, would
certainly
perish in the struggle
for existence.
But to preserve
the speciesin the struggle
for existence,it is not
that pleasure should
necessary
and
infallibly
universallycoincide with ultimate benefit,
and
that
universally
displeasureshould
infalliblyand
coincide with ultimate
injury. Hence we find that many
and inversely
thingsmay be agreeablewhich are injurious,
poisons are palatable. Intoxication is very bad for
many
the health ; but it may
be very pleasant.
If we
universal law, we
to establish
consider
must
are
a
vital activity
at the moment
in which
only the immediate
the pleasant or painful sensation
occurs.
Sugar of lead
"

has

sweet

taste,which

is

pleasingat

the moment

this

230

PSYCHOLOGY.

pleasingtaste may in
although the substance

itself bo

into

the

bitter

blood,

drug

beneficial
due

favourable

occasions

to vital

it,when

en.

YIII.

activity,

introduced

deadly poison. Similarly,a


disagreeableto the taste may have a

acts

which

which

[BK. IT.,

as

is

medicinal

The

effect.

beneficial

effect

is not

disagreeablebitterness,but to subsequent
with the originalexperience.
effects entirely
disconnected
The case
of intoxication
by alcohol is different. Here the
is correlated with pleasureinvolves
a
very process which
to

the

of the central

disablement

of the intoxicated

person,
this

impaired. But
explainedaway.
co-ordination

general he
these

The

methodical

accurate

kind, he

finds them

the loose and

of

he

does

from
a

preciseand

view

to

strenuous

make

attempt

flow

of ideas

But

in

to fulfil

efforts of the

serious

which

from

delicate

end.

an

disagreeable. On

very

varied

or

is disabled

person

with

serious

If

functions.

thinking and acting,is


be
exception also may

thinking,and
no

efficiency

for

intoxicated

of movement
makes

both

kind

The

system.

nervous

the other

hand,

accompanies the

free and
more
pleasingphases of intoxication,is much
all
expansive than in a state of perfectsobriety. We
know
that champagne
having a
promotes conversation
all know
that the
kind
of brilliancy
certain
we
; and
opinionsexpressedand the arguments used are not likely
to bear

is

no

examination
varied

flow

the
reiterating
is connected

in sober
of

same

with

when

ideas, even

thing over
the

fact

Even

moments.

and
that

over

the

when

there

persistsin
again,his pleasure
point he is urging
a

man

peculiarvividness and intensity.


cation
that in the pleasing stages of intoxiit appears
Thus
of
certain higher forms
from
is disabled
man
a
have
function ; but
he
does
not
mental
disagreeable
conscious
activityin these
feelings, simply because
presentsitself to

him

with

FEELING-TONE

" 4.]
directions

is

OF

On

suspended.

SENSATION.

tlie otlier

231

the

hand,

kind

of

impaired,
but intensified,
and he consequentlyfeels pleasure.
referred
In this last example, we
have
especiallyto
system. It is in this only
process in the central nervous
essential
interest.
have
an
that, as psychologists,we
Pleasure
and
sciousness
pain are states of consciousness,and conis immediately correlated with neural
process.
is whether
us
Hence, the question which reallyconcerns
with
are
essentiallyconnected
disagreeable processes
activitywhich

conscious

obstruction

continues

disablement

or

to go

of

is not

on

and

conscious

and agreeableprocesses
activity,
flow of such activity.If we
unobstructed

nervous

in

this

form

affirmative.

it

seems

that

the

the free and

state

the

Disagreeable sensations, in

intensity,obstruct and
activities which,
motor

disturb

their
the

with

must

answer

for

question
be distinctly
proportion to

mental

their

correlated

and

process

effective

discharge,

how
cult
diffiguidance. Everybody knows
it is to think or act efficiently
with
toothache
or
a
a
headache, even
though the desire to do so is strong. It is
not
merely that the painful sensations divert attention ;
this is true of pleasantsensations also,of similar intensity
;
the point is that the disagreeablesensations
positively
enfeeble
disorder
and
the
thought and
action, when

require

conscious

endeavour

is made

to

think

arisingfrom
disagreeableness
is

faint,and

if the

total state

or

this
of

or

that

course,

if the

specialsensation

consciousness

whole, agreeably toned, in spiteof the


that disagreeableitem, the obstruction

presence
to mental

is,on

the

of this

or

activity

it seems
appreciable. But in principle
a safe
generalisationthat agreeableexperience is favourable,and
disagreeableexperienceis unfavourable,to the effective
dischargeof mental functions.

may

not

be

Of

act.

PSYCHOLOGY.

232

[BK. II.,

en.

vm.

and Conative Tendency. Some


" 5. Feeling-Tone
pleasures
of sense
There
are
dependent on pre-existingconations.
with
the
are
sense-cravingsconnected
primary organic
needs, such as the need for food and drink ; and the gratification
of these cravings is a source
of sense-pleasure.
Similarly,the induced cravings for tobacco and alcohol,
of themselves
at intervals,give a
which
recur
pleasure
is quite distinguishable
when
they are appeased which
from
the pleasureimmediately due to the stimulus
apart
from the cravingfor it.
Every pleasingand every painfulexperienceat the time
at which it is actuallytaking place has a conative,or at
least a quasi-conative,
aspect. In so far as the experience
and develop it
is pleasing,there is a tendency to maintain
be found
until its
means
effective,
by whatever
may
capacityis exhausted, or is overpowered
pleasure-giving
of unpleasing elements.
In so far as
by the intermixture
continue
the experienceis unpleasant,there is a tendency to disit by whatever
be found
effective.
means
may
sensation,agreeablefeeling-tone
Thus, on the level of mere
corresponds to the positive phase of conation, and
disagreeablewith the negative. The pleasant experience
with a conative tendency which
is coincident
requiresfor
the continuance
its satisfaction
of the experience. The
with
conative
a
unpleasant experience is coincident
tinuance
tendency which
requires for its satisfaction the disconof the experience. While
pleasurelasts,conation
When
is being satisfied ; it is working itself out.
satiety
"

is

reached,

and reached

it has

been

satisfied

its termination.

Until

it has worked

itself out

is reached, there
satiety

If the
always a tendency for the process to go on.
is discontinued
obstructed
or
pleasing sensory
process
before
satietyis reached, the conation continues and is

is

FEELING-TONE

" 5.]

SENSATION.

OF

233

tendency to continue the


the
pleasing sensation
tendency to get rid of the
unpleasing-state due to its interruption. The original
conative tendency,which
in process of being gratified,
was
is transformed
into a thwarted
craving. Suddenly snatch
the bottle from the baby who is complacentlysucking
away
it,and you will have a pictureof the situation referred to.
The reverse
of all this holds good of disagreeableexperiences.
To discontinue
them, however
abruptly,is to give
intensified ; there

and

satisfaction

always
which
It

is added

not

and

thwarts

to the

dissatisfaction.
never

connected
essentially
should be carefully
noted

continuance

the conative

appeases

is

Their

with

tendency,

their existence.

that

distinguishbetween
ultimate
satisfaction and the process of becoming satisfied.
Ultimate
satisfaction
is attained
only when
satietyis
the subject has had
reached, only when
enough of the
still maintained, it
pleasant experience,so that, if it were
Pleasure
is found
in the
would
to
cease
please him.
in its completion. Its
not
of becoming satisfied,
process
nation
completion is its termination, and therefore the termiof its feeling-tone.
said that every agreeable or disagreeablesensation
We
has a conative
or
quasi-conative aspect. The words "or
added
to meet
a
quasi-conative were
possibledifficulty.
Some
psychologistshold that certain pleasing sensations
can
analyse
purely passive,so far as introspection
appear
them.
They do not appear to involve any experience of
endeavour,
or
striving. I do not agree with these
the
It
one.
question is a subtle
psychologists
; but
best to evade
the difficulty
therefore
seems
by pointing
we

"

"

out

that

for

tendency
will not

is

be

our

it is not

purpose

experienced or
denied

that

not,

there

so

is at

essential

long
least

as
an

whether

the

it exists.
unconscious

It

PSYCHOLOGY.

234

[BK. IT.,

CH.

vin.

tendency to continue a pleasing experienceuntil we have


had enough of it.
taken
when
it has once
Any pleasingsense-experience,
place, will, on
subsequent occasions, give rise to a
its conditions
are
conation, when
only partially
repeated,
it is connected
which
is perwhen
the object with
as
ceived,
is reproduced. The
the corresponding idea
or
impulses and desires thus occasioned have both agreeable
and
disagreeablephases. They are for the most
part
pated
comes
quickly,or is anticigratification
agreeable when
confidence.
with
disagreeablewhen
They are
in
is long witheld, especially
if it be withheld
gratification
to produce disappointment,or
so
a
as
a
tantalising
way,
series of disappointments. The
experienceis also apt to
less disagreeablewhen
be more
or
anticipationis not
confident,but doubtful and hesitating.

" 6.

General

end,

are

Whatever

in the attainment

conditions

Whatever

"

conation

favour

its

Theory.

sources

obstruct
of

conditions

further

and

of its end, yieldpleasure.

conation

in the attainment

displeasure. This

is the

of

widest

which
can
we
frame, from a purely psychological
generalisation
point of view, as regards the conditions of pleasure
to the feelingand displeasure
respectively.Its application
in the last section.
of sensation is already contained
tone
A pleasingsense-experience
operates as a positivefactor
tendency
satisfyingthe conative tendency or quasi-conative
connected
with it. On the contrary,
which is essentially
an
unpleasing sense-experienceoperates as a positive
factor thwarting the conative
tendency or quasi-conative
connected
tendency essentially

with

it.

This

is at the best

pleasure-pain. It can
explanationof sense
only be regarded as being an explanationat all on one
pleasureexists,
assumption. If it is supposed that,first,

only

vague

FEELING-TONE

" 6.]
and

SENSATION.

OF

its

that, subsequently to

of

matter

fact,there

to

seems

the

occurrence,

tendency arises as a consequence,


explainthe pleasureby reference
a

235

it is
to the

be

no

conative

logicalcircle

conation.

But,

whatever

reason

to
as

for

and conation
are
separated in
supposing that feeling-tone
time.
From
the very beginning they appear
to coincide.
From
the very beginning a pleasing process is a process

which

tends

We

to maintain

hope

may

the ultimate

itself.

attain

to

conditions

which

more

definite

determine

the

insightinto
of
feeling-tone

that side
side.
But from
physiological
have not at present any direct knowledge of the nervous
we
involved.
We
can
only frame hypotheses to
processes
data.
the psychological
cover
If we
language
attempt to translate into physiological
the generalrelations of pleasureand displeasure
respectively
to
conative
can
tendencies, perhaps the best result we
in general appears
obtain is the following. Conation
to
of nervous
equilibrium,and
correspond to a disturbance
of equilibrium.
its completed satisfaction to a restoration
The
conditions
of displeasurenot
only disturb nervous
equilibrium,but also, so long as they continue, obstruct
the processes
On
the
by which it tends to be restored.
of pleasure
other hand, the continuance
of the conditions
is a factor positively
operativein the restoration of equilibrium.
sensation

from

the

It is evident

that

if this view

even

of the

case

be

for further speculation


room
granted,there is stillabundant
of the physiologicalprocesses
to the precisenature
as
corresponding to pleasure and displeasurerespectively.

The

most

favoured

theories

with
opposite feeling-tones
in the

nervous

principleassume

of

the

kind

the relations

of

connect
wear

system. Explanationsbased
many

different

forms

our

on

and

these

repair
this general
ignorance of

PSYCHOLOGY.

23C,

the exact
in

of the

nature

and

assimilation

connexion

with

[BK. n.,

complex

chemical

dissimilation

of

processes

tissue,and

en.

vm.

involved
of

their

functional

and repose, leaves much


activity
for speculation. The
is
room
simplestform of statement
that when
outruns
pleasing,
wear
repair the experience is disand that when
the experience
repairoutruns wear
is pleasing. On this view
it is difficult to account
for the
be exhausting,and that when
fact that pleasuresmay
they
are
they diminish,and pass into displeasure.
long-continued,
Mr. H. E. Marshall
has propounded a theory which
lays
great stress on the buildingup of tissue during periodsof
functional
Pleasure, according to him, depends
repose.
the building up
of
a
surplus of stored energy
upon
"Where
acquired during the inaction of the organ.
exist or
has been
this surplus does
not
consumed, the
corresponding experience will be virtuallyneutral, so
in the
course
wear
long as repair keeps pace with
of functional
outruns
activity. If wear
repair, the
corresponding experience is unpleasant. There is much
to

be

said

said

in favour

it with

of this

great clearness

view,
and

and

Marshall

Mr.

force.

Fatigue

has
is in

of
of
source
general a
disagreeable,and freshness
agreeable,experience. Of course, the fatigue or the
be that of the specialtissues engaged in
freshness
must
the functional
activity. After the quiet of the nightthe bird-song,as we
than
hours
awake, is more
usually
rested
beauty in all colours.
pleasurable
; the
eye sees
The rubbing, at our
morning bath, of the skin,which has
friction of our
not
during the night felt the normal
specialfood to which we
clothing; the flavour of some
has not
have
been
accustomed, but which
lately been
tasted, all are
pleasurable."* A pleasant sensation,
' '

"

fain,Pleasure,and Aesthetics,
p. 200.

FEELING-

" G.]

TONE

OF

SENSATION.

237

unpleasant,because
is a surplusrelatively
the stored
to one
intensity of stimulation, will not be a surplus
by gradually
relativelyto a higher intensity
; hence
from
increasingthe intensityof a stimulus, we
pass
pleasantto unpleasantphases of an experience.But along
culties,
with
these
advantages the theory presents grave diffiif we
attempt to base on it the whole explanation
in my
of sensation ; and
of the feeling-tone
opinion it
by
presents insuperabledifficulties if we attempt to cover
all the pleasuresand pains of perceptualand
its means
are
ideational activity.At present we
only concerned
when

with

too

long continued,will become


surplusis used up. What

sensation.

dependence of
as
on
quantity of sensation.
feeling-tone
sensations be unpleasant at a very low
Why should some
and
be pleasing even
others
at
a
high
intensity,
very
?
Why should a comparatively small degree of
intensity
be disagreeable,
while a comparatively
bitterness or acidity
is agreeable? Mr.
Marshall
high degree of sweetness
repliesthat there is a great variation in storage capacity,
of different sensation-processes.
This explanain the case
tion
is probableenough in some
Where
cases.
a function
and without
with great frequency and regularity,
recurs
much
variation of intensity,
as
does, we should
respiration
On
the other
not expect any
large storage of energy.
and with great variations
irregularly,
hand, where stimuli occur
the organism can
of intensity,
only provide against
them
But there are a
by storingup a surplusin advance.
in which
of instances
such explanation
no
large number
dislike
applicable. Why should the same
appears
person
of vanilla,and keenly enjoy cloves or
the smallest trace
cinnamon?
Why should the same
enjoy beef and
person
One

obvious

objectionarises
quality as well

from

the

PSYCHOLOGY.

238

liate mutton

? To

[BK. ir.,

for suck

account

differences

by

cir.

vrn.

variation

forced.
capacityseems
A more
is connected
with tlie conception
important difficulty
to fix what
of a surplus. How
are
we
is,and what
is not, surplus energy ? Mr. Marshall
says that there is a
the energy
involved in
pleasure-givingsurplus "whenever
in storage

the reaction

to

stimulus

is greater than

the energy

which

habitually calls forth," and that pain is


the physical action which
mines
deterexperienced whenever
is so related to the supply of nutriment
the content

the

stimulus

' '

that the energy

to its organ

stimulus

in

is less

this statement.
its

with

effect

The

he

Mr.

There

is
a

Marshall
kind

same

reaction

energy

produced by

the

mean

in the

the

forth."*

intensity;when

stimulus," does

than

amount

habituallycalls

stimulus

involved

to the

which

the

ambiguity

stimulus

speaks

of

of stimulus

in

varies
"the
in the

the same
kind of stimulus
or
degree of intensity,
to include
in varying degrees of intensity
?
If he means
his case
varying degrees of intensity,
obviously breaks
down
stimulus is unusuallyintense,
a
altogether
; for when
it is often unpleasant,although the effect which it produces
same

is greater, and
On

to.

the

group
The

the other

degree

same

of

facts

instances

less,than

not

hand,
of

that which

if he

the

means

in which

the

for
same

are
same

accustomed
stimulus

in

comparativelysmall
verifying his hypothesis.

intensity,only

is available

we

kind

and

intensity of

yieldsalternately
pleasure and pain to the same
best
are
relativelyinfrequent. The
example,
person
perhaps,is the gradual decrease of pleasurewhen a pleasingstimulus is prolonged. Here
not
merely the feeling-tone,
but the experienceitself,
fainter ; but
to become
appears
clear that it continues to remain
fainter
it is by no means
so
stimulus

Op. clt.,
pp.

204-205.

FEELING-TONE

" 6.]
when

OF

239

SENSATION.

periences
disagreeable. Unpleasant expositively
maybe continued for a very long time indeed before
of unpleasantness
appreciablediminution
;
any
they continue,it cannot be said that the effect of

it becomes

they show
and

while

the

stimulus

is smaller

than

its habitual

effect.

When

pain begins, the effect of the stimulus is


On
Mr.
smaller, the total experience becoming fainter.
Marshall's
should
view
we
expect, as an accompaniment
of the diminishing effect of the stimulus, an
increase
and not
abatement
of painfulness. This leads up to
an
another
objection;the intensityof unpleasantnessappears
be
in general proportioned to the intensityof the
to
were
unpleasant experience. If Mr. Marshall
right in
affirmingthat unpleasant stimulation produces a smaller
effect than
should
pleasantness
pleasant stimulation,we
expect unabatement

of

of all kinds

actuallyfind
We
form

have

to be

very

much

fainter

than

we

it to be.
discussed

Mr.

favourable

Marshall's

example

views
of

the

because

they

theory which
and
traces
pleasure-pain to wear
repair of nervous
conclude
tissue.
In general,AVO may
that a large part of
the explanation,
at least for sense
pleasureand pain, may
be found
But
these lines.
these
no
on
on
theory framed
lines has been so formulated
to cover
the whole
as
ground
for sensation,and they are
all beset by
even
successfully
specialdifficulties. After all,it is not, a priori,likelythat
merely quantitativeconditions will be found adequate to
for the facts.
account
Considering the great complexity
in organic tissues in interaction
of the chemical
processes
be all kinds of qualitative
with the blood- supply,there may
For
well
as
as
instance, the
quantitativevariations.
be
accumulation
of waste-productsin the blood
a
may
takes
what
It is possible that
important factor.
very
a

very

in

place

building
tend

to

of

tissues.

if

to

insecure,
this

this
in

kind

point
the

are.

know

that

are

long

they
in

present

up

activity

We

degeneration

are

order

state

to

of

show

our

CH.

n.,

of

the

considerations
of

tissue

rather
tissues
disused.
how

knowledge,

vin.

is

organs

than

products

building

functional

repose.

freshness

waste

There

the

that

during

functional

refer

these

of

show

the

restores

removal

up

mainly

of

and

repose

the

rather

or

[BK.

PSYCHOLOGY.

240

actual
which

takes

place

during

than
suffer

atrophy

We

merely

speculative
hypotheses

and

DIVISION

PERCEPTION.

III.

BOOK

PROCESS

I. PERCEPTUAL

CHAPTER

DISTINCTIVE

CHARACTERISTICS

IN

GENERAL.

I.

OF

THE

PERCEPTUAL

CONSCIOUSNESS.

Definition. Perception is essentially


Cognition.
We
cannot
thing.
perceive without
perceiving someinvolves that referThus
ence
perceptionessentially
to an
object which we disregardedin treatingof
is a specialmode
of cognition
sensation. But perceiving
;
" 1.

"

specialmode

which

immediately depends on
of an objectto the senses.
It may
the actual presence
the cognitivefunction of sensation.
in fact be denned
as
of cognitionwhich
takes
It is contrasted
with that mode
pendent
place through ideal images. Such images are not deof an objectto the senses.
the actual presence
on
of absent
objectswhich have
They are representations
already been perceived. Thus the existence of perception
of the existence of ideal images.
is a pre-condition
Direct cognisanceof present objectsmust
precede ideal
of absent objects.
representation
it is that

Psych.

241

16

PSYCHOLOGY.

242

[BK.

i., CH.

in.,

i.

In the direct

ciation
cognitionof present objects,assoand
reproduction play a very important part.
in perception,taken
in the strictest sense
of the
But
word, only those forms of association and reproduction
which
have called complication and
enter
we
ment
acquireof meaning, together with that peculiarmode of

Even

and

which

reproductionby

free

excitement

mental

sensations

are

of

general states

and

their

nervous

concomitant

organic

revived.*

Though association and reproduction are essential


the development of perceptual consciousness, they
not

to

seem

be

necessary

to

This

seems

rudimentary form.

of the

constitution

Perceptionis

rather

in

and

the

depend

to

do

most
on

herited
in-

system.

nervous

merely cognition. It
When
tone.
a feeling-

never

character

conative

its existence

to

has
we

also

speak

perceptualprocess, we include these factors.


" 2. Unity and Continuity of Perceptual Process.
They
Many perceptionsare very brief and evanescent.
interest,after which
satisfya slightand momentary
the mind
passes to other occupations. Other perceptions
of

"

do

not

occur

in this

isolated

manner

but

into

enter

constituent
as
prolonged trains of mental activity
moments
or
phases. These more
prolonged trajns may
be mainly trains of ideas : but they may
also be mainly
composed of a sequence of perceptions.A man
climbing
cliff may
have his attention fullyoccupied
a precipitous
more

His
gaining and retainingfoothold and handhold.
activities mainly consist in muscular
movement
guided
by sense-perception.Such an act as threading a needle
in

See

chapter

bk.

i.,ch. ii.,""

in mind

at the

8-9.

The

present

student

point.

should

keep

the

whole

of

this

CHARACTERISTICS

" 2.]

243

PERCEPTION.

OF

necessarilyinvolve ideal images ; attention


is fullyoccupied in the guidance of the hand, and the
of its movements
delicate co-ordination
by the aid of
holds broadly true of such performThe
the eye.
same
ances
as
walking on a tight-rope,keeping one's balance
far as it may
on
a bicycleso
require attention,and, in
of bodilyskill.
In these instances,
general,of games
series having
not isolated facts ; they form
are
perceptions
a certain
unity and continuitysimilar to that of trains
trains of thought. Any
such
of ideas or
series constitutes
It differs
a
singlecomplex perceptual process.
does

not

from
of

train

its parts does


The

ideas

inasniuch

depend

not

of

sequence

on

as

the

sequence

direct mental

its parts

depends

duction.
repro-

upon

the

of external

sequence
of

of

impressions; but as the sequence


tent
impressionsdepends to a very large exof the
the bodily movements
percipient
is to a very
under
large extent
subjective

external
upon

subject,it
control.

It is in these
of
many

ways,

They

are

complex

animals

in definite forms

study is
in the

animal

instinctive

activities for which

of their

no

pre-adapted by the
nervous
systems. They

period in the
opportunityfor

arise at

life of the animal

ideas ;

of the

in those

best be studied.

pre-disposedand

constitution

the

can

field for their

the best

animals, viz.

are

it has had

that the distinctive characteristic

perceptualprocess

found
of

forms

so

that there

the
can

no

doubt

life.
tivities
ac-

the

herited
in-

quently
fre-

at which

acquisitionof
be

In

sponding
corre-

ing
concern-

predominantly or
process.
in

For

purely perceptual character


volved
instance, the train of actions in-

hunting a livingprey

is shown

in the

play of

244

PSYCHOLOGY.

the kitten before

watching or

out
actuallyhunted, and often withitation.
opportunityfor learningthem by im-

kitten

in

seizes it with

prey,

it lets
finally

; it will then

teeth

in the

the

place it
the quasiworries
it;

next
on

claws,

to

of

its plaything,

pounces

and

attitude

steal up

forms

manner;

spring,and

the

assume

objectwhich

snake-like

gathers itself for

first

wait

other

or

noiseless

will

lying in

ball of thread

i.

i., CH,

it has

its having had


The

[BK. in.,

and

the

the
objectgo again,and re-commences
The
several
of lying in wait, stealthy
acts
process.
approach, crouching for a spring,pouncing on the prey,
are
phasesin the development of the same
activity.The
is true of the hunting of an actual prey.
same
All such
are
sions;
guided by external impresprocesses
but each
impression,as it occurs, only supplies
the occasion
for the further development of an
activity
of
which
is alreadyin existence.
If the series were
one
pendently
purelyreflex actions,each separate stimulus would indeproduce an isolated reaction,so that the process
have no
internal
would
continuity. But it is just
the internal continuity
which
is distinctive of perceptual
activity.The successive phases of perceptualprocess
directed to one
are
end, and this end is not merely
nature's

end;

it is what

after,or,
striving
*

the

time

have

We

cognitive

no

attitude

into

calls

play

continuity

which

recognises

the

But

the

mental
than

but

fulfil an

to
there

data

if

we

may

which

would

of
a

marks

attitude

anything
is

analogous

animal

an

train

object,

the animal
use

is

else.

preparation
function.

There

us

to

the

pre-supposes

more

is

We

no

sense

some

what
expression,

characterise

object

movements

process.

recognition
probably

an

towards

perceptual
for

such

enable

of instinctive

itself is in

precisely
for

which

having
cannot

the

say

previous

the

first

internal

the

animal

experience.

analogous to what we call recognition


ence,
preparation by previous experi-

by congenital

endowment,

which

seems

to

CHARACTERISTICS

" 2.]
it is

This

drivingat."

"

the animal

be effected.

It

or

endeavour,

with

means

satisfied until the

in the

advertisement
till he

happy

the

result,the

itself out.
of

the

does

not

the

train

which

is not

be

PERCEPTION.

end

conation

of movements

the

soap,

With

starts,

Like

is reached.

of Pears'

gets it."

the

animal

"

baby
won't

the final attainment

it has

because

ceases,

failure

Interruption,delay,or
is

245

that
mean
necessarily
itself a mental
image of the result
that the felt tendency,conation,

to

presents

to

OF

at

of

worked

any

stage

continuous
thwarting of the one
conation ; it is felt as displeasureand aversion, and is
of proaccompanied by a tendency to vary the mode
cedure.
process

The

successful

stage felt

every

in the

same

as

pleasure and

neural

by
from

for

the

equilibrium of

stimulation

within.

It

the

action

tinue
tendency to confrom
the physiological
as

follows.

co-ordination
this

either from

is in

happens is

arrangement

acts, the

as

Stated

course.

point of view, what

of

progress

of

arrangement
without

the

Given
sive
succes-

turbed
is dis-

organism

its own
balance
only recover
and
become
so
quiescent by a series of successive
leading to a certain result. By these its
processes
initial excitement
is allayed. The
psychicalactivity
develops itself,and so brings
whereby a conation
about
its own
end
or
termination,is the counterpart
of the
activitywhereby the neural system regains
equilibrium.
This unity and continuityof perceptual process
is its
The
most
istics
general feature.
followingspecialcharacterbe regarded as bringing out in detail from
may
various
points of view what is involved in this general
or

account.

can

PSYCHOLOGY.

246

Attention.

" 3.
itself

by

in., i.}

en.

i.

can
Perceptual activity
only fulfil
tions
co-operationof a series of external condi-

the

"

supply in

which

turn

if these

Now,
utilised in

[BK.

occasions

occasions

external

effective manner,

an

for its further

animal

the

to

are

cannot

velopme
debe
main
re-

On the contrary,
purelypassivein regard to them.
them
it must
meet
half-wayby watching for them, and
by keeping itself in readiness to act in an appropriate
Thus
when
is essentially
perceptualactivity
they occur.
way
characterised by attention.*
is conAttention
stantly

directed
are

relevant

them.

guided by
Just

the

as

of
are

the

mind

one

of the

activityis a train of
correspondingtrain
successive

movements

continuous

parts of
in

external

the

the progress

to

The

towards

attitude

action

so

distinct
of

as

to

which
utilise

movements

distinct

express

conation, so

continuous

conditions

the

percepts.

ment
develop-

distinct cepts
pertrain in which each sets
the

of

preparationfor the next.


Such
a train is the
analogue on the perceptuallevel of
sider
what, on the ideational,twe call a train of thought. Consuch a simple act as the chicken
even
pecking,it
be for the first time.
The
terminate
pecking is not an indemay
pecking in any direction ; it is a pecking at a
certain object in a given direction
and at a given distance.
The
its determinateness
act of pecking receives
from
the previousact of seeing,of attentively
fixingthe
the object. Conversely,the tendency to peck
eye on
guidesand controls the act of seeing. It is because the
animal
is about
is engaged in pecking,that
to peck, or
it keeps
it keeps its eye on
the object;and it is because
its eye on
the object that it is enabled
to peck in a
*

See

bk.

an

i.,ch. i.,p.

65.

t See

note, p. 249.

CHARACTERISTICS

" 3.]

of

it within

the

Attention

is

for

our

mutual

total co-ordination.

same

in

always

prospective. So

far

as

of

"

already know

we

appetency

ficientl
suf-

is already

thought, whether

with

the direction
;

its end

towards

thing

or

of

aversion

or

of attention

work

the

purpose,

pressing forward
is nothing
which

expectant

manner

some

accomplished. The direction


perceptualor ideational,coincides
conation,

247

guidance lasts tillthe


bringseizure,determining this act also,and ing
This

purposefulmanner.
moment

PERCEPTION.

OF

of

is always

conation
; hence

tion,
atten-

defining itself in
of cognition,
cognition,and so guiding itself by means
forward
also constantly be directed
must
beyond the
To attend
ignorant present,"to meet what is to come.
When
is always to watch, to await, to be on the alert.
but

conation

"

we

take

place,we

lightto lighten our


use

not

where

our

future

we

if

that

attention

out

its
is

care

path.

to

the
use

is the

Only

external

out

whither

we

already arrived.

have

steps, not

Now

we

make

it to

path through

steps
a

bold

lightused
we

must

are

It is to

dark

going,
guide

already taken.
metaphor, we
may
say
by conation to make

we

have

remember

illumination,but

is

that

tion
atten-

cal
simply identiin its cognitiveaspect.
considered
with conation
of perceptual activity
Trains
marked
are
throughout
their course
ternal
prospectiveness. Its exby this mental
to
sign is the pre-adaptationof the sense-organs
and the pre-adjustmentof the body
receive impressions,
the opportunitypresents itself.
in readiness to act when
for the mouse
The
ficient
bird is a sufcat lying in wait
or
example. The sightand smell of the mouse-hole,
we
Eye and ear are admay suppose, set it in action.
no

PSYCHOLOGY.

248

justed so

catch

to

as

of the

mouse

or

[BK.

in., i.,

the
coming impressions,
sound

any

it makes

CH.

i.

ance
appear-

; the muscles

body are in a state of tension in preparationfor


other appropriate action.
But the action is
a spring,
or
suppressed and postponed until the occasion for it
such
Perhaps a doubt may be raised whether
emerges.
of
behaviour
it not
be purely perceptual. Does
can
involve acquired ideas and association of ideas?
necessity
this objection
We
take another
instance,in which
may
can
hardly be urged. A crab or flat-fish at the bottom
of the sea
itself with sand, protruding only its
covers
With
this it keeps restlessly
stalked eye.
spying in all
the eye is
directions.
On
the approach of an
enemy,
the
hidden
in the sand.
On
and
rapidly withdrawn
of the

of prey,

appearance
the

is

prey

swiftlyup

enough,

near

seizes it.

and

that this characteristic


of any

kind, to

If the flat-fish
where

poor

can

behaviour

say

crab

the

It

had

chance

to

of

When
darts

animal

scarcelybe maintained
is acquired by association

learn
come

its motions.

observant

nothing of

its instruction

would
have

or

follows

the eye

association
to

look

from

out

of ideas.
for prey,

It would
The

survival.

tainly
cer-

attentive

ance
frequentlyfound in the very first performof an instinctive activity.
That
tive
systematicwatching and searching and attenin general are
behaviour
possiblewithout mental
beings,and
images, may be shown in the case of human
One
in certain pathologicalcases.
curiously
especially
interestingcase has been recentlypublished.* A man
called Voit was
quite unable to name
objects or their

attitude

is

Ueber
krankhafte
Dissoziation
Wolff,
der
u.
Psych,
Phys.
Sinnesorgane,
Zeitschriftf.
*

Gustav

"

der
Bd.

Vorstellungen."

xv.,

Heft

1, 2.

OF

CHARACTERISTICS

" 3.]

properties,unless

if he

Thus

senses.

?"

meadow

has

language

unless

he

far

as.

so

could
the

saw

Yet

horse.
do

to

did

not

tell how

not

able

be

to

if he

answer,

tablet,and

green

of trees

the leaves

are

when
?

he

he

what

"

he

asked,

was

could

green

tablet,but

When

the

questionerpointed to

asked,

"

the leaves

Are

legsa

told,

was

his

inability
of

number

these

among

What

colour

answer

the

tablet,and

green

like this ? "

of trees

the

see

understood
he

"

ing
by pointtotallyhelpless.

not

remained

the

to

is

many

appropriatelyand accurately. Nor was


to find words
: when
merely an inability
laid before him, and
coloured tablets were
a

his

to

colour

asked, "What

not

he
Similarly,

249

actuallypresent

were

were

could

he

meadow.
horse

they

PERCEPTION.

Voit

could

the same
answer
only reply,"Perhaps," and he made
when
the question referred
red
to the blue, yellow, or
held good of sightextended
tablets.
also to the
What
other

in

senses

an

unable

to

assignany

named

to

him.

object as

the

could

He

not

quite
of objects
qualities
was

recall the idea of the

so

consciousness

its visible,
audible,

sensible characters.

other

point is this : In spiteof


truly remarkable
of ideal representation*
to recall by way
inability
of an object,he could none
the less sysappearance
tematica
search for anything named
in
to him ; and
the

Now

his

of the sensible

bring to

to

or
tangible,

greater degree. Voit

even

The

as

stated

an

idea

distinct

object,

should,

student
in bk.

have

must

in

link
such

as

a
a

the

The

image

of

faint."
which

meaning
may

sufficient
train

mind

the

be

of

an

idea

"(1) Any reproduction


can
to be
independence
capable of forming
be
the
thought ; (2) it must
thought of

image
a

character
which

All

the

merely

essential

9:

thing, quality, relation,

sensation, however
and

in

bear

ii.,"

i.,ch.

ideas
has

mentally

or

have

two

acquired
revived

and

event,

not

be

mere

constituents,
in

word.

previous

an

called
a
an

crude

image

experience.

PSYCHOLOGY.

250

far

so

he

as

it.

named

and
such

refrained

it,he
he

made

to

the

On

legs

to

see

was

the

and

watch

remarked

that

the street,he

was

until

useless

at

attempt

to

the time
do

colour

"No,

no,

He

asked

was

no

look

for

to

snow

tent
quite con-

was

passing.As

one

!"

Perhaps

mental

"Red."

black.
many
the

to

the most

Note

in

next

as

he
claimed,
ex-

curious

is the following.

condition

the colour

soon

passer-by,he

of blood

period of bewilderment, in which he


the room,
about
he finallypressed
happened to be on his hand, until the
answered,

he

was,

accept the statement,

of

what

when

some
passed. When
walking about naked

is.

After

looked
a

helplessly
pustule which

blood

that

He

came.

he

could

not,

sible
merely seeing an object,name
any other of its senthan those immediatelypresentedto sight.
qualities
shown
it and
he were
a piece of sugar, he could
name

say it
he

of

horse

window

clothes

illustration of the man's

If

colour

Thus,

the

he

was

to

so.

but

snow,

people were
quite content

only while there was


caught sight from the

on

when

object inquiredabout

for

but

then

But

saw

objects

green

recognised their

he

what
look

he

as

acquiesce in the suggestion that it was


other hand, when
the question was, how
horse
has, he would, if permitted,go

window
one

it

summer

attempt

no

the

from
in

asked

was

to

soon

assistance to him.

no

When

that

As

tree.

Merely

themselves,

it.

nature

of

was

leaves

the

saw

for

"

kind

of any

looked

and

said, Green."

tree, he

i.

i., CH.

in.,

scribe
actuallyperceived,he could accuratelydeOn being asked the colour of leaves,he went

the window

to

[BK.

was

could

white
not

soughtto get

; but

tell how

hold

even

with

it tasted

of the sugar

the

sugar

in full

view,

merely by seeing it.

He

and put it into his mouth.

OF

CHARACTERISTICS

"4.]

Only

when

he

succeeded

in

PERCEPTION.

doing this

251

could

he

find the

Again, Voit could not tell whether the


surface of a mirror
was
rough or smooth until he had
It was
not
it himself.
touched
enough for him to see
it.
others pass their fingers
up and down
The
grand lesson of this case is to be found in the
conjunctionof great impairment if not total absence of
with comparativelyunimpaired perideational activity
ceptual
Voit saw
how
a thing,he knew
activity.When

word, "Sweet."

make

to

it,covered

saw

of it.

use

proper

He

sat

his hat

with

his head

on

chair

when

when

he

he

it,

saw

and drank
when
he saw
the
glassto his mouth
had meaning for him as
glasswith liquorin it. Words
signalsincitingto trains of action,though they
practical
carried

did not

call up

Persistency

" 4.
the

trains of ideas.

earliest

viz. those

with

Varied

performance
activities for

pre-adaptedby

the

of

its

which

inherited

Effort.
"

instinctive

it is

Even

in

activities,

pre-disposedand

constitution

of its

nervous

displaypersistencywith varied
it does not succeed
effort. It keeps on trying when
at
first,
varying its procedure so far as it is unsuccessful.
Professor Lloyd Morgan givesa good example, communicated
Mr. Batchelder
had taken
by Mr. Batchelder.
squirrelsfrom their nest when
they were
very young ;
unable
take
solid food, and
to
at first
had
to
they were
mixture
of cream
be fed through a quillon
and hot
a
Afterwards
water.
cuits,
they took to bread and milk, bisan

animal

may

and

bread

crusts.

system,

them

Mr.

Batchelder

then

gave

the nuts
hickory-nuts. They examined
evidently looking upon them as unusually
attentively,
and at last the more
novelties,
interesting
enterprising
some

"

PSYCHOLOGY.

252

of the two

set

work

to

on

[BK. in.,

nut,

as

if he

wished

i.

i., CH.

to

find

With
hitherto unexampled
prizeit might contain.
patiencehe laboured over it,until at last,after
than half an
hour's diligent
more
gnawing, he gained
With
few days'practicethey
to the kernel.
a
access
these hard-shelled
acquiredskill and speed in extracting
delicacies ; and after that they lost all interest in such
the princiand hickory-nutsformed
pal
thingsas biscuits,
item on their bill of fare." *
Persistencywith varied
out

what

itself in

shows

effort also

indefinite

more

ways.

"I

again and again


able
noticeIt was
of young
birds.
in the case
especially
bit of wire or piece of
in jays. Every projecting
in their cage was
wood
pulled at from all points,and
in varied ways.
object introduced into the
Every new
mered
carried
turned
was
about, pulled at, hamover,
cage
have

noted

it,"says Lloyd Morgan,

at, stuffed

into

this

"

and

corner

into

that, and

experimented with in all possibleways."|


Obviously,persistencywith varied effort is a precondition
of learningby the results of by-gone experience,
of it. In itself it
and not merely a consequence
is an
adaptationto present experiencerather than to
can
only be
past. Further, it is an adaptationwhich
understood
impulse or
by reference to the continuous
conation
which
pervades and constitutes perceptual
the
Just because
impulse is a tendency
process.
of the
action.
towards
an
end, it guides the course
checks
into a phase which
the action
enters
When
the curto equilibrium,
instead of furtheringthe return
rent
of activitydiverts itself into a relativelynew
channel.
*

The
Habit

and

process
Instinct,

would
p. 122.

not

be

process
Op. cit.,p.

towards
154.

CHARACTERISTICS

" 5.]

end,

an

if it could

PERCEPTION.

OF

253

in

variation

persistwithout

an

successful
un-

course.

" 5.

Free

Adaptation

have

Varying Conditions.
perceptual process exhibits
to

"

that
just seen
adaptive variation,according as activityis
unsuccessful.
find
or
But, besides this,we

We

adaptivevariation
conditions.

We

successful
in it also

varying external
mentary
quote first a simple and rudiI took
a
Lloyd Morgan.

in accordance
may

with

example from
in
time
some
pheasant,which had been hatched
young
in
the night,from
the incubator
drawer
at nine o'clock
the morning.
He
was
unsteady on his legs,so I
very
held him in my
hands, and tried to induce him to peck
"

at

piece

did

not

do

so;

yolk

but

of the

movement

inches

of egg

he

pair of forceps. He
followed, with his head, every

object in
of

his

in

held

narrow

circle about

two

Simple as the action


it shows
dinated
a striking
example of congenitalco-orseems,
in
movements
accuratelyrelated to movements
the visual field,
the whole
performed without any possibility
of learning or
practice,and less than half an
hour after the bird had first seen
the lightof day.*
All adjustment of the sense-organs, in looking,
ing,
listening
exploringby touch, and the like,must vary accordto the varying position,
distance,and shape of the
of darting upon
the act
a
object. Similarly,
moving
involves
claw or mouth
or
prey and seizingwith beak
to varyprecise and delicate adaptation of movement
ing
Think
of swallows
catching flies,
space relations.
and

in

similar

The

same

front

beak.

instances.
kind

of
*

purely perceptual adaptation is


Op. cit.,pp.

38-39.

254

PSYCHOLOGY.

found

often

[BK.

m.,

i.,

i.

CH.

in human

beings. In boxing, in fencing,


similar
and
activities,
rapid adaptation to constantly
is required, adaptation which
volves
invarying conditions
perceptual attention,so that eye and hand may
keep pace, but which would
frequentlybe hindered,
rather than
helped, by mental
imagery. Or take the
with
simple act of leaping from point to point. A man
the avenger
of blood behind
him may
have to jump from
to

crag

to

crag
be

his life.

save

crossed,and

His

his muscles

the distance

measures

eye

ingly
adjustedaccordin a certain spot.
If he stopped
to land him
so
as
to mentally picturehimself
moving through the air over
in all probability
a certain
perish. He
space, he would
to

trust

must

Perhaps

to

are

his eye.

the

strikinginstances of adaptation
determined
to varying conditions
purelyby congenital
endowment, independent of prior experience,are to be
found

most

in the behaviour
of ants,

their

main

which

ants

outline
have

as

of ants.*
well

as

taken

the activities characteristic

of bees

instinctive.

been

All

They

and
are

their nest

from

are

wasps,

in

displayedby
immediately

nest.
being hatched, and set apart to form a new
of
Independently of prior experience, the processes
the rearing of the young,
the capture of
nest-building,

after

the

so-called
and

the

situation

weather

the

These

causes

and

maintenance

of

domestic

mals,
ani-

cumstanc
adaptation to varying cirThe
mode
of building the nest varies with
and
accessible
material.
Change in the
them
to make
corresponding changes in

like,vary

adaptations

in the

fixed

slaves,the

preceding

are

not

in

free

paragraph.

specificcircumstances.

in

They

the
are

same

degree

relative

to

as

those

scribed
de-

comparatively

CHARACTERISTICS

" 6.]

When

their

nest.

holes

in it

the

is too

nest

it looks

that

so

PERCEPTION.

OF

like

255

damp, they pierce


This

sponge.

tates
facili-

evaporationand keeps their home drier. In the


tending of their young they show a similar plasticity.
The
youngest larvae are generallykept in the deepest
of

chambers
and

highest.

When

the

more

the

and

half -grown

the

larvae

mature

from

evidence

The

the

is cold

weather

the

in those

above,

pupae,

and

in

the

rainy,they
higher into

the

to

seems

show

that

adaptationsto varying circumstances


by experience,but are due to original

similar

learnt

not

are

chambers.

lower

these

nest

fully-grown,together with

the

carry

the

of congenitalendowment.*
plasticity
In contrast
the
to
" 60 Learning by Experience.
sensation-reflex,
perceptualactivity
by the results
profits
do so without
of past experience. It can
any distinct
items of sensation,
revival of the special
as theyoriginally
The
occurred.
unity and continuityof impulse which
of distinct acts into a singleaction has
binds a sequence
"

its counterpart
of

the

on

cumulative

disposition. On

the traces

of the process
in and

side of retentiveness

contribute

to

left

determine

in the formation

the first occurrence

by prior phases persist


succeeding phases.
disposition. When

They unite in a single cumulative


is repeated,whatever
stimulus
the activity
prompts, it
re-excites the total cumulative
left behind
disposition
by
The cumulative
its previousoccurrence.
has
disposition
in the anterior experience,and accordingly
been modified
takes a correspondingly
modified
the re-aroused
activity
*

der

See

Studien

Vergleichende

hohern

Thiere.

lagshandlung,

1897.

Von

Pp.

E.
122.

uber
Wasmann

das

Seelenleben

S.J.

Price, Is. 9rf.

Freiburg:

der

Ameisen

Herdersche

und

Ver-

[BK.

PSYCHOLOGY.

iJ56

This

course.

is the process

which

we

m.,

i., CH.

described

have

i.

as

be
this there can
acquirement of meaning * Without
tellige
kind; and inno
learningby experienceof an intelligent
learningby experiencemay be due to it alone.
of reproductionare
further processes
Where
present,
they co-operate with the acquirement of meaning, and
make
definite ; but the acquirement of meaning
it more
tion
condition of the variaprimary and indispensable
of future activity,
in intelligent
correspondence with
shall have hereafter to
the results of past activity.We
discuss at what
pointlearningby experienceleaves the
merely perceptual level and involves ideas. We now
Let
us
give instances of typicallyperceptual cases.
"A
refer once
to Mr.
more
Lloyd Morgan's chickens.
had
learnt to pick out
chick two
days old
young
I cut little
piecesof yolk from others of white of egg.
size as the pieces
bits of orange-peelof about the same
of these was
of yolk,and
one
soon
seized,but at once
chick
the
Seizing
shaking his head.
relinquished,
is the

....

another, he

held

it for

moment

in the

bill,but

then

That
dropped it and scratched at the base of his beak.
was
enough ; he could not again be induced to seize a
pieceof orange-peel. The obnoxious material was now
but they
removed, and piecesof yolk of egg substituted,
for orangeleft untouched, being probably taken
were
tion,
peel. Subsequently,he looked at the yolk with hesitabut
but presentlypecked doubtfully,not
seizing,
merely touching. Then he pecked again,seized, and
swallowed."
| This illustration well bringsout the in-

See

section
of

the

i.,ch. ii.,""

bk.
will

serve

earlier

to

8-9.

The

examples

give definiteness

chapter.

to the

which

follow

somewhat

t Op. cit,,pp.

40-41.

in

vague

present
exposition

the

257

PERCEPTION.

OF

CHARACTERISTICS

" 6.]

learning by experience. The


chicken looks hesitatingly
at the yolk ; he then makes
a tentative
peck, only touching it to try what it is like
trial
this preliminary
before venturingto seize it. When
and swallows.
he pecks again,seizes,
proves satisfactory,
of

telligentnature

Take

widely different part


pus,
Cephalopods,such as the octo-

illustration from

another

of the animal

creation.

about

grope

the

in all directions

their

with

arms

ground and on rocks for small mussels and


they push their arm-like tentacles into holes
Schneider
of rocks, in search of crabs.
Now
a

very

crab

octopus seize

young

hermit-crab.

the shell in which

covers

these

recoiled

it was

observed

and
to

prawns,
or

or

chinks

hermitwith

its abode

diately
imme-

the octopus

let its prey escape.


avoid hermit-crabs.

the

observed

The

it takes up

stingingzoophytes. Stung by

on

Subsequently
Older

animals

speciesmanaged cleverlyto pull the crab


without being stung.
out of its house
Persistence
with varying effort is in itself a learning
ing
by experience,
although it is in the first instance a learnby present experiencerather than by past. But it
is also a most
of profiting
importantpre-condition
by
past experience. Repetitionof trials with variation of
sults
procedure is a sort of perceptualexperiment. The reof previous experiment determine
facilitate
and
of the

same

future

action,inasmuch
are

alone

the

quote from

Recently collected
Development of Animal
1898.

Price, $2.00.

Psych.

and

successful

Dr.

part iii. of a
Intelligence.

in

book
New

modes

Mills' valuable
of

entitled:
York:

of procedure

modes

Wesley
"PsychicalDevelopment

pany,

unsuccessful

graduallyeliminated

survive.

papers* on

as

The

Young

The

Nature

?.iacmillan

Ani-

and

Ccui-

258

[BK. in.,

PSYCHOLOGY.

"

mals

method

of young
entries

kitten.

to

goes

day

lower

it.

day

On

hold

is put

It

get
5

The

the

entrance

kitten

pushes
a

upon

in
box

last she

and

sucks

30th

day

near

and

claws.

after

few

givesit up,
mother,

It makes

it is found

sleepingon

moments

and

more

and

strong desire

day

again.
.

by

and

determined

It

on

her

to

then

barred

was

to

About

up.

to

31st

the

barricade

It is taken

finds

ing
curtain,hold-

the

to

the

again,
attack.

settles down

box,

after falls

soon

attempts

books.

barricade,but, not
near

got into

returns

returns

many

behind

some

perseveres.

box

and

box

trying again and

last succeeds.

at

back

among

the

this

After

way

"

leapsfrom

"

the

her
:

on

box

book-shelf

the

to

the

28th

from

"

desists,and
At

starts

towards

show

to

first tries every part of the barricade,then


the curtain
cries with vexation
climbs

with

on

continues

book-shelves.

the

to

P.M.

The

kitten

mother

its box.

taken

was

objectson the shelf, turned


given a few taps. It ran on to
...

The

the kitten

the

it.

completely

not

into

and

shelves,
book-

some

are

things.

of box

gettingout

lowing
fol-

its box

leaves

are

back

The

his observations

there

other

for the book-shelves.

littlerun

"

of which

kitten

The

kitten

where

room

but

their birth.

registerof

The

ones

books,

from

in the

occur

part of the

filled with

27th

animals

26th

the

follows

i.

The
very good illustration of this process.
of Mills was
careful diary of the
to keep a very

behaviour

of

i., CH.

asleep.

shelf,
get into the book-

day

of the

In the

ning
eve-

book-shelf
its

out, but works

getting out

but
difficult,

It tries the book-shelf


day :
succeeding,gives up and sits in its

82nd

grooms

itself well.

attempt

on

the

Later

it makes

barricade,

and

with

250

in gettingout; but soon


difficulty
goes
half to three-quartersof an
remains
from

It has

success.

in

PERCEPTION.

OF

CHARACTERISTICS

" 6.]

again and

S8rd

hour.
.

day

morning before
in

advance

the barricade

this

its

daylight,when, trying to prevent


direction

certain

behind

Found

the kitten

evades

by

me

den.
rocking-chairwhere it is partlyhidclosed by a
were
Though the book-shelves
curtain tacked
on
them, the kitten managed to get in,
how.
35th
It
though I do not know
day :
into
scrambles
the book-shelf
and
at
by a new
way
much
greater height."
drama
I have
at length
reproduced this book-shelf
it is a typicalinstance
of how
animals
because
learn by
the gradual nature
note
experience.We must especially
of the process.
Having succeeded
once, the kitten does

running
.

under

not

therefore

succeed

next

...

time

without

happens is that the


tentative groping gradually diminishes,until
trial and

failure.

the

end

can

The

clever

What

attained

be

tricks

directlywithout

of

animals, which

to

behaviour

their resemblance

let

latch.

But

in

successive

steps have

found

the

that

the

surpriseby

few

been

is

door

instances

in

has

been

conducted

success

corroborated

by

Mr.

by

Thorndike

time.

next

series
of

of

of

animals

by
which

examined, it has

the

seem

sad lack

which

perfectresult only emerged


failures
trials and
involving much
once
groping, and that to succeed
by no
immediate

last the

at

human,
distinctly

There
acquiredin the same
way.
systematicobservation of the process by
do
such
to
come
things as opening a

of

amount

hindrance.

or

excite

to be

further

after

ing
liftthe
been
cessive
suc-

tentative
means

This

tailed
en-

view

experiments

Columbia

Univer-

260

PSYCHOLOGY.

dogs, cats, and

sity,on

put the animals

[BK.

chicks.

"

The

in.,

i.,

method

i.

en.

to

was

hungry in enclosures from which


they could escape (and so obtain food) by operating
some
simple mechanism, e.g. by turning a wooden
held
button
that
the
door, pulling a loop attached
lever.
Thus
the
to
a
one
bolt, or pressing down
readilysees what sort of things the animals can learn
Not
to do and
only
just how they learn to do them.
in effectingescape
of the animals
the actions
were
observed,

kept

of

also in every

but

times

the

enclosure,

to

that

minutes

some

struggles hit

while

enough

in

escape
is

cat

record

accurate

the

upon

trials it will

successive

the

put into

the

such

an

before

its

movement,

proper

make

was

ment
right move-

The
immediately upon being put into the box.
in curves] show
records
exactly
[plotteddown

time

and

the method
to

an

generally elapse

instinctive
after

case

taken

first time

The

trials.

when

the

latter

the

of

rate

condition

of

from

progress

What

affairs.
.

in all these

cases

the box, and


with

so

food

is this

confronted

with

The

with

such

have
a

in the

on

forth
course

situation.

being put

situation

the

former

happens

animal

outside,'bursts

activities which
connected

the

into

'

the

of nature
It tries to

into

ment
confinetive
instincbeen
squeeze

fining
through any openings,claws and bites at the walls conside,
it,puts its paws through and claws at things outrush
It may
around,
trying to pull itself out.
and
sistence.
perdoing all this with extraordinary vehemence
If these
impulsive activities fail to include
in opening the door, the
succeeds
which
any movement
and
remains
animal
quietlyin the
finallystops them
does
the animal
If in their course
box.
accidentally

mechanism

the

work

and

in

pleasure will stamp

stance)
in-

food, the resulting

act, and

the

for

round,

button
and

freedom

win

thus

the

(claw

261

PERCEPTION.

OF

CHARACTERISTICS

" 6.]

again put

when

in

This
likelyto do it sooner.
continues ; all the squeezings and bitingsand clawings
do not hit the vital point of the mechanism, and
which
do not result in any pleasure,get stamped out, while
so
ing
the particular
impulse, which made the successful clawor
biting,gets stamped in, until finallyit alone is
of the box's
terior,
inconnected
with the sense-impression
animal

the

the box

it is done

and
.

to

of

of

certain

Moreover,

from

to

doors

which

of the

it

For

theorisers

have

accident
by mere
is,therefore,unnecessary
for these

and

and

evidence
in

similar

the

which

has

therefore

tain
cer-

to

invoke
with

besides

on

take

credit

the

reason

(e.g.opening
turningbuttons)

acts

incapable of
be

so

mechanical
them

for

It

account

ances,
contriv-

falls

the

formance
per-

done.

reasoningto

destroyingthe
offered

powers,

to

who

certainlycan

based

been

them

seem

and

declared

successes

argument

Moreover,

ground.
reason

that

by depressingthumb-latches
these

to

possession
generalisation.

or

the feet of those


found

in.

of the

sign

any

experiments

was

is shut

the full their mental

to

gave

beneath

animals.

it was

inference, comparison

of

animal

importance

boxes, and

use

animals

the

the

when

once

of the utmost

was

would

they

powers

ground

at

of the various

out

that
none

it

Although

get

will be

value

to

the

of the

presence

of

animals, the time-records

that the
reason.

For

Surely if

that it would

cat

subjectsof these
the
slopes of the
made

open

the
the

movement

dence
give us positiveeviexperiments could not
curves

are

from

door, it ought, when

an

gradual.
inference

again put

PSYCHOLOGY.

262

make

in,to

due

was

should

the movement

take

to

rudiment
slightest
of

power
the

of

of

ten

make

the

from

be

ought, that is,to


of

time.

regular minimum

The

gradual.*
Finally,experiments made

any

if no

trials to
and

in

realise
forth
thencea

sudden

real

time

decision, not

i.

first

were

some

getting out,

means

movement

least

at

CH.

the

if there

successful

twenty

times
long, irregular

the

trials after

And

ought

cat

button

There

impulse.

i.,

even
reasoning faculty,

or

turningthat

from

time.

inference,the

course

that

inference, all

an

m.,

If its first success

immediately.

minimum

[BK.

mere

change

to
impulsive activity

change
in another

is

as

fact very

connexion

show

the
perform even
simplestacts by seeing another do them or by being put
thus
through them by the experimenter. They were
unable
another
to infer that since
by pulling a string
obtained fish,they might, or that since fish were
gained
it would
with their paws
be
I pushed round
when
a bar
t
gained if they pushed it round themselves.
The best examples in adult human
beings of this gradual
of the rightway,
and gradual disappearance
emergence
of wrong
of doing a thing,are
presented by
ways
the process of acquiringbodilyor other dexterity
merely
sauce
a
through practice. The cook who can concoct
that

animals

these

could

learn

not

to

"

"Thus

happen

The
to

"

animals
do

the

Review,

six

and

vol.

vol.

of the

original

Review.

or

by

taken

the

cat

one

of

case

times,

seven

but

after

forever

v., No.

series,

Psychological

in

then

new

t Science,
an

would,

thing

scrabbling,

abstract

times

in

certain

box

were

160, 30, 90, 60, 15, 28, 20, 30, 22, 11, 15, 20, 12, 10, 14, 8, 8, 5, 10, 8, 6,

(in seconds)
6, 7."

successive

the

difficult

some

after
would

associations,
of

long periods
fail to

do

it."

miscuous
pro-

chological
(Psy-

5, p. 552.)
vii., No.

paper

in

181

(June 17, 1898), pp. 818, 820-821;

Monograph

Supplement,

No.

8, of the

OF

CHARACTERISTICS

" 7.]

PERCEPTION.

263

peculiarlyfelicitous way, but cannot teach anybody


the ingredientsin the right proportions,
else to mix
tentative
attained
have
must
success
mainly by mere
groping without the aid of definite comparison or general
Mr. Thorndike
ideas.
points out that association,
in his animals, is not homologous with
it existed
as
association except such
conscious
anything in human
feels in playingtennis or billiards.
connexions
a man
as
essential thing in it is not the idea,but the impulse.
The
associations is homologous with
this sort of human
That
is borne
out
the animal
sort
by the fact that they are,
like the latter,formed
gradually by the stamping in of
in

"

due

successes

formed

by

trial and

to

imitation

one's

by

or

and

error,

able

not

are

being put

be

to

through

them."

^Reproduction,

" 7.

in

the

purelyperceptualprocess,
are
(1) Acquirement
and

(3) The
and

excitement

only forms

In

"

of

reproduction
of meaning r, (2) Complication,
of general states of nervous

revival
their

Process.

Perceptual

concomitant

organic

sensations.

of meaning is the most


primary
It is grounded in the very nature
of perceptual
considered
as
appetitiveactivity.The

(1) Acquirement
essential.

and

process
whole
leaves
it is

in

process,
it

behind

far

it is

as

cumulative

repeated,it

so

is modified

as

whole

Psychological
by

draws
more

from

the
his

system.

nervous

Review,

coincidence

experiments,

general grounds.

vol. v., No.


between
and

and

continuous,

disposition. Hence,

(2) Complication is a process


probably specialpre-arrangements
of the

one

the
that

5, pp.

the

for which
in the

552-553.

I had

which

outset.

there

are

stitution
originalcon-

It consists

conclusion

which

from

when

in modifi-

am

Mr.

previously

greatly

pressed
im-

Thorndike
formed

on

264

PSYCHOLOGY.

[BK.

m.,

i.,

I.

CH.

of the

cation

qualityand increase of the complexity of


certain sensations
by association with other kinds of
in past experience. It mainly takes
sensation
place
sensations belonging to different senses
between
such
In looking at a hard
as
sight and touch.
object,our
have
that which
visual experienceis different from
we
is due to
in looking at a soft object,and the difference
the correspondingtactile experiences.
ment
excite(3) The revival of general states of nervous
and

their

concomitant

especialimportance in
has

which

whipped

been

of fear and

connexion

distress

is of

sensations

organic

emotion.

with

will whine

dog
displaysigns

and

at the

inal
sight of the lash. The origment,
excitepain-sensations
produced a diffused nervous
of or"
rise to a general disturbance
which
gave
The
sight
ganic functions,and to organic sensations.
and bodily
analogous nervous
and with it analogous experiences,,
excitement
" 8. Ideas
Perceptual Process.
accompanying
of perception and
treated
have
So far we
perceptual
in its pure
We
have
form.
distinguishedit
process
of

the

whip

revives

an

"

sharply from
life of

mental
that
but

ideational

we

do

rather

not

what

but
absolutely,
some

may

of

extent

the

man

we

only
the

process

The

animals

without

The
essentially
perceptualnature.
a function
essentially
analogous to
and

requiresthe

not

any

presence

actual

another,

so

perceptualprocesses,
perceptual processes not

potiori.

higher

one

the

pure

call

may

into

run

usually find

accompany

two

in

But

process.

function
of ideas.

same

also.

is true

ideas

Free

interferingwith
free ideas

may

that fulfilled

which

This

to

by

its

fulfil
ception,
per-

by its very nature


happens when the

CHARACTERISTICS

" 8.]

PERCEPTION.

OF

265

imagery is to prompt
only office discharged by mental
of an action,and not to lay out
or
guide the execution
in the form of a train
the plan of an action beforehand
of thought. Mr. Batchelder's
squirrelsgnawed at the
and by reaching their contents
satisfied their connuts
genital
cravingwithout any mental image of the kernel
inside.
Suppose that on a future occasion they start
with this mental
image, the character of the process is
altered.
The
not
essentially
image of the kernel inside
now
only contributes to prompt and guide the action,
perception of the nut prompted and
just as the mere
Free images may
useful
be especially
guided it before.
and
in this way,
when
the activity
is
even
necessary
nite
comparativelycomplicated,and undetermined
by deficongenitalimpulses. Take for instance the case of
a monkey
imitatinga train of actions which it has seen
those concerned
in shaving,for
performed by a man,
instance.
Possiblypercepts would alone suffice in such
The
a case.
might prompt the act of
sightof the razor
sharpening it,and the act of sharpeningit might next
But
prompt the lathering,and so on.
certainlyit is
"

easier

understand

to

different
the

phases
and

monkey,
exist*

They

not

each
*

There

is

in

not

think

in

the

animal

perhaps

for

room

that

there

mind,
of

rule
a

give

of

difference

except

elephants.

ideas,so

mind

of

of

the

to

so

Their
opinion

case

for

far

they
speak, sporadic.

rise to further

evidence
in the

the

image

him.

and,

train.

is much

in

in

that

suppose
mental

some

in animals

isolated

other

do

and

as

we

arises

man

that

seem

all, are

at

do

the

helps to guide

It would

if

of its progress

of

behaviour

action

the

ideas following

function
this

on

the

of the

is rather

point.

presence

more

as

to

Personally,

of ideal

images

intelligent monkeys

PSYCHOLOGY.

266

[BK.

in.,

i.,

en.

T.

impulse as percepts
guide the development of a motor
guide it. As Mr. Thorndike
says, the impulse and not
the idea is the essential thing.
In

our

life,free

mental

own

ideas

almost

are

stantly
con-

purely perceptual activityis


it certainly takes
comparatively exceptional. But
been
bitten by a dog, and meet
place. If I have once
the same
occasion, I do not need to
dog on another
mind
summon
a mental
image of being bitten
up in my
of an intelligent
again in order to take practicalmeasures
present,

that

so

kind.
The

interval

vast

far

so

animal

from

which

they depend

as

achievements,

animal

is
intelligence,

between

perceptual

activities

are

they

an

hand,

man

them

action

"

of

distinction

the

Animal

process.

He

can

Impulsive

execution.*

in his

action

is thus

He

in advance.

" 9.

with

ideational

in its actual

constructs

out.

as

purely perceptual,or, in so far as


and
to prompt
ideas,these ideas only serve

ideas, schemes

of

far

so

intelligence,
they depend on

either

involve

guide

human

on

connected

and

ments,
achieve-

separates human

head," by
before

capable of
cross

On

Character

of trains

means

he

begins to carry
overcoming difficulties

bridgebefore

the other

he

of Perceptual

to it.

comes

Process.

"

Any single train of perceptual activityhas internal


conscious
life is
unity and continuity. But where
mainly perceptual,the several trains of activityare
with
each
other.
relativelyisolated and disconnected
They

do

not

unite

implied in

is
*

There

broadly

may

true.

be

the

to

form

continuous

conception

exceptions

to

this

of

rule, but

system, such

person.
the

general

We

as

must

statement

is

OF

CHARACTERISTICS

" 9.]

PERCEPTION.

267

in the main
They are
deny personalityto animals.
word
of impulse. The
creatures
impulse is properly
applied to any conative tendency, so far as it operates

its

by
a

isolated

own

of

general system

or

deliberation.

of

relation

into

action

the

to

follow.

the
He

reflexion

instead

man,

of

for

deliberation,regret

When

the momentary

conflict

with

come

into

which

give unity and

the

of

system

appeals

from

without
is

remorse

impulse

has

general
his life

consistencyto

likely

ceased

of his past action

more

Self

strength

action

or

his

the

If the

determine

consciousness,the idea

dominate

total

the total Self.

impulse

momentary

giving time

with

future.

and

life,past

of the present moment

to

from

is

impulsearisingfrom the circumstances


brings the contemplated course
present moment,

mental

of

impulse

on

results

deliberation

In

its relation to

the

followingout
of the

Action

motives.
action which

with

contrasted

thus

from

intensity,
apart

to

may

tendencies
as

whole.

is impossible on
of this kind
the
Regret or remorse
the peron
purely perceptual plane; simply because
ceptual
plane there is no unified system of tendencies
the isolated impulse could
with which
collide;there is
whole
no
personal Self including in one
past, present
and future experience. It is nonsense
to punish a dog
for

an

which

action

did

he

purely perceptual consciousness


detached
process

impulses.
does

attainment

having

not

The

constitute

of further

ends.

own

internal

with

each

its

with

each

end

the

of

relatively
attained in one
perceptual
for the
a
starting-point
several

unity and
much

We

Thus

ago.

is compact

The

other

other.

week

do

processes,

continuity,are
as

not

games
assume

are

each

connecte
dis-

nected
discon-

the result

268

of

one

of

the

holds
the

the

of

analogy

and

as

the

the

be

even

and
the

complete.

begun.

continuous

coherent

lower
On

the

is

races

the

of

purely

the

this

also

makes

phases,

perceptual

and

things

in

gradually

ideal

tion
construc-

mentary
rudi-

comparatively

mankind,

tinuous
con-

world.

of

up

say

may

future

system

The

that

single

no

and

built

world

we

up,

single
past

pletely
com-

and

is

development.
of

but

there

constructions,

human

Self

present,

single

ideal

of

course

in

not

as

are

of

can

uniting

world

processes,

with

contrasted

starting-

true

activity,

Summing

plane

is

practice,

by

perfect.

whole

It

T.

CH.

i.,

starts

game

perceptual

perceptual

Self
Self

of

trains

more

the

on

increased

m.,

the

as

Each

account.

own

is

player

whist

at

game.

its

on

good

that

rubber

or

succeeding

afresh
of

chess

at

game

point

skill

[BK.

PSYCHOLOGY.

and

it

plane

never

it

has

II.

CHAPTER

IMITATION.

" 1. Introductory.
great
both

importance for

is

Imitation

the

animals.

and

men

"

its

very

life in

of mental

development
In

of

process

complex forms,

more

it

trains of ideas ; but in its essential features

pre-supposes

operativeat the perceptual level. It


is largelythrough imitation that the results of the experience
of one
generationare transmitted to the next, so
the basis for further
to form
as
development. Where
trains of ideas play a relatively
unimportant part, as in

it is present and

the

of

case

form

animals, imitation

of social tradition.

In

the

said to be the sole

be

may

of human

case

beings,
in language,
distinctively

thought of past generationsis embodied


institutions,
machinery, and the like. This

the

which

generation,that
this

trains of ideas in past generations,

tradition pre-supposes

human

so

in

environment

mould

the

environment

of

new

apprehending and adapting itself


re-think

it must

the

old

to

trains

of

of this kind is not found


in animal
thought. Tradition
does not
because
the animal mind
life,
proceed by way
of trains

of ideas.

animals

depend

consists

in imitation by
essentially

None

largely

of their parents, or

the
on

less,the

of other
269

This

tradition.
the

intelligent

more

young

members

tradition
of the

of the

tions
ac-

com-

[BK. in.,

PSYCHOLOGY.

270

in

munity
imitative

which

they are
though it

process,

of social tradition in human

the whole

importantpart

very

is very

en.

IT.

directly
far from
forming
beings,forms a

The

born.

i.,

same

of it.

We
must
Impulse.
distinguish
We
between
to imitate and impulse to imitate.
ability
be alreadyfullyable to perform an action,and the
may
sightof it as performed by another may merely prompt
act performed
to reproduce it. But the sight of an
us
by another may also have an educational influence; it

" 2. The

could

we

follow.

When

to

us

do

what

not

the

do

without

cough

of

we

having
one

an

us

to

example
sets

man

already

are

also enable

its aid ; it may

without

able to do
what

"

only stimulate

not

may

Imitative

do
to

another

coughing,it is evident that imitation here consists only


second
does
suit. The
in the impulse to follow
man
the example of the first.
to cough from
not learn how
occasion
He is simply prompted to do on this particular
what he is otherwise quite capable of doing. But if I
shows
one
me
am
learningbilliards and some
by his own
a
example how to make
particularstroke,the case is
stance
in the first inIt is not his example which
different.
prompts me to the action. He merely shows the
I alreadydesire to do.*
to do what
way
We

have

then

first to discuss the nature

of the imitative

impulseto perform an action which arises


from the perceptionof it as performed by another.
But
This impulsemay
be due to varying conditions.
far as it is of importance in mental
so
development, it
The
with attention.
connected
to be essentially
seems
perceptionof an action prompts us to reproduce it when
the

impulse
"

So

far

"practice."

as

this

is capable

of

being

taught,

and

does

not

depend

on

and

271

IMITATION.

" 2.]
far

so

it excites interest

as

with

connected
interest

must

certain

kind.

what

least

at

excite interest.

does

of such

be

is

or

Further, the

it is

that

intimately

fully
or
by partially
gratified
wholly repeatingthe interesting
imitation
is a specialdevelopment of atThus
action.
tention.
Attention
is always striving
after a more
vivid,
more
definite,and more
complete apprehension of its
in which
this endeavour
object. Imitation is a way
gratifyitself when the interest in the objectis of a
may
all

nature

It is obvious
of

manner

actions

that

do

we

without

more

not

tate
imi-

to

try

distinction,
merely

is
What
our
they take place under
eyes.
familiar and commonplace or what
for any other reason
is unexciting and insipid,
fails to stir us to re-enact
it.
It is otherwise
in any
novel
with what
is strikingly
or
attention
that our
dwells
it with
so
on
impressive,
way
because

relish
whatever
is

fascination.

or

when

where

case

it is in fact
so

fixes attention

act

only the

interest

is

sake

own

it is not

centres

but

in

something

acts, but
often

is

there

also

that

with

than
the

the

like
act

which

the

on

for

This

the

activity

sake

ulterior

of its

motives.

in itself should

this act

be

the

cases

act

is

terest
in-

imitated,
is

so

mately
inti-

virtuallyto form a part of it.


tendency not only to imitate interesting
of interesting
the acts
Dogs
persons.
as

imitate their masters.

gestures and

of attention.

important class of
directlyin the external
else

This

helps attention,where

most

not

connected
Thus

and

necessary

interesting
; in

rather

that

true

imitation.

to

directlyconcentrated

possibleconsequences
But

prompts

imitation

not

course

specialdevelopment

itself for its

It is of

modes

of

Men

speech

are

of those

apt
who

to

imitate

excite

the

their

PSYCHOLOGY.

272

admiration

affection

or

their

imitate

Children

Even

playground.

[UK.

parents,

the mannerisms

n.

in

their leaders

or

CH.

T.,

personal interest.

other

some

or

m.,

tricks of

and

the

speech

unconsciouslycopied by those
who
regardhim as a hero. In such instances the primary
interest is in the whole
personalityof the model ; but
this is more
sciousness
brought before convividlyand distinctly
by reproducinghis external peculiarities.*

of

great

Our

man

are

result

then

imitation

to

in

interest is of

by

is that interest in

proportion to
kind

imitative

often

which

interest

The

intensity,
provided the
sustained
be gratified
or

here

make

must

we

either

be

may

prompts

its

will

activity. But

action

an

primary

tinction.
dis-

or

quired
ac-

imitative
through previous experience. The
tent
impulse in young animals and children is to a large exindependent of previousexperience. It depends
duck brought up by
A young
on
congenitaltendencies.
a

hen

chickens

among

imitates

its social

environment

there is an instinctive
only in a limited degree. Where
tendency towards a certain form of action,the action is
tive
when
another
interesting
performs it,so that the imitainto play.
impulse comes
As a rule,this instinctive imitation
not
only prompts
less its special
the action,but also determines
more
or
The child has a congenitaltendency to utter
character.
of the
articulate sounds ; but
the
special character
sounds it utters is largelydetermined
by the sounds it
hears

of

true

Hence

from

Of

the

course

the

the

persons
of

song

the

society

tendency

associating

to

with

surround

who

birds.

in which

acquire
people

who

live

is

provincial
have

it.

The

sometimes

But

we

it.

always
accent

imitation

interesting
when

is

same

we

are

to

us.
stantly
con-

" 3.]

273

IMITATION.

occasional

onlyto supply an

seems

in the first instance


action

the

create

appreciablymodify

or

in which

the

impulse,and does not


of performing an
power

its character.
of

presence

an

ample
ex-

lates
simply stimu-

model

As

and does not modify it,we


take
activity
may
the repetition
birds when
of a danger-cryby young
they
hear others utter
it. The
edly
danger-cryitself is undoubtinstinctive.
perience
Any disagreeableor disturbingexan

will
heard

not

elicit it from

it before.

hear

it is instinctive.

cry,

the

cease

chick

in

the

on

has

birds who

same

uttered

by

instinctive way, the sound


bird prompts another
one

repeat it,so that the alarm

to

whole

and

to
may be communicated
It is mainly in this manner
that birds

group.
animals

other

learn

to

avoid

they had disregarded. The


desert island
on
a previously
feathered

inhabitants

; but

the fatal consequences


the birds

in

uttered
state

disturbed

the alarm-note
of

alarm,

and

dangers which
with
sight of a man
evoke

may
after

connected

general will

actuallybeen
a

also

which

parent-birdutters the
is
yet in the egg will suddenly
become
to pierce the shell and

justthe

of the alarm-note

When

which

Tn

chicken

young

Its effect

its endeavour

motionless.

or

few

with

become

shy.

wounded

; this has

they

thrown

also

utter

these,when

no

at
a

alarm

first
gun
in its

experiencesof
man
so
armed,

Those

by

the

who

have

gun

have

yet others
the

into

alarm-note;
alarm-note,

they again see a man, utter the


although they have never
experienced any harm from
human
beings.
Let us now
" 3. Learning by Imitation.
turn
to
the other side of the question. Let us consider the case
in which
of performingan action is acquired
the power
"

Psych.

18

274

PSYCHOLOGY.

in and
a

by the
general rule

[BK.

of imitation

process

is obvious

which

when

part of the still more

out.

It is

him

that hath

shall be

itself.

in.,

Here

general rule
Our

given."

of

power

u.

there

it is

once

en.

i.,

is

pointed

that

"

to

imitating

is

proportioned to our
strictly
of performing the same
general kind
pre-existing
power
is devoid
of action independently.* For instance,one
who
of imitating
of musical
no
facultyhas practically
power
Imitation
the violin playing of Joachim.
may
develop and improve a power which alreadyexists,but
it. Consider
the child beginning for
it cannot
create
tation
the first time to write in a copybook. He learns by imimentary
rudihe has alreadysome
; but it is only because
abilityto make such simple figuresas pothooks
activityof

the

another

that the imitative


his

can

process

pothooks

are

very

get

unlike

model

the

the

At

start.

set

set,
out-

before

pendent
Graduallyhe improves ; increased power of indeproductiongives step by step increased
power
imitation,until he approaches too closelythe limits

him.

of

his

of

capacity
of

progress
But

an

in

this

direction

to

make

any

further

appreciablekind.

this is an

of the matter.
The
incompleteaccount
of learning by imitation
is part of the general
power
of learning by experience; it involves
mental
power
plasticity.An animal which starts life with congenital
tendencies and aptitudesof a fixed and stereotyped
kind,
in the course
that they admit of but little modification
so
of individual
development, has correspondingly little
of learning by imitation.
animals, monAmong
power
*

to

Mr.

imitate

buttons,
been

Thorndike's

actions
etc.

different.

The

animals,
so

strange

result

with

referred
and
an

to

in the

unfamiliar

to

previous
them

intelligentmonkey

as

would

chapter,
the

failed

pressure

probably

of
have

IMITATION.

" 3.]

the

have

keys

kinds
of

of ways,

They

and

they

in

are

of
of

the

use

the

more

human

knives,

of

sphere

of

failure

of

their

the

imitative

of

distinctly

an

The

action

wide
of

without

is, as
of

their

which

range

interest.

general,
more

They

the

are

all

in

success

of

or

their

They

tivity
ac-

attend

directly practical aim;

any

form

before

bringing

rapidly by

range

this

learn

and

animals.

the

to

things, experimenting

impulse

of

development

wider

all

capable

In

etc.

other

learning

things

in

spontaneously

have

than

do

to

wide

of

all kinds

way

plates,

attempts.

involves

and

forks,

cups,

active

admitted

will

and

ways,

when

Thus,

tude
apti-

greatest

high degree

very

beings, they

activity

incessantly trying
sorts

intelligent monkeys

varied

the

incessantly

are

learning by experience.

company

to

plasticity and

greatest

imitation.

for

275

have

we

seen,

attention.

The

consciousness

interests

them,

special

readiest

vividly
is to

and

re-enact

it themselves.
Of

at

course

imitative

impulse
activity

in

activity organised
imitate
the

not

action

desirable

so

is

far

less

general
in

much

of

levels

higher

unified

as

with

and

system.*
of

immediate

view

to

results.
*

See

last

development

conspicuous

is checked

because

imitated

mental

chapter,

"

9.

the

because

the
pulsive
im-

overruled

Civilised
interest

attainment

by
men

in

of

III.

CHAPTER

PLEASURE-PAIN.

of perceptone
Introductory. The hedonic
tion
We
is determined
by varying conditions.
may
is
which
distinguish
broadly the pleasure or displeasure
directlydue in the first instance to the perceptual process

" 1.

at

from

"

the

time

of its occurrence,

and

that

which

arises

pre-formed associations.

Whatever

disables

perceptual process
is disagreeable
at the time of its occurrence
; whatever
favours or furthers it is agreeable. Here it is important
functions
of perception: (1) the
to
distinguishtwo
attention ; (2) the
apprehension of objects,or mere
are
performance of actions which
guided by attention,
but do not merely consist in the process of attending.
The
conditions
"2. Feeling -Tone
of Attention.
of pleasure-painin the process
of attending,as
such,
well stated by Dr. Ward
have been
There is pleasure
:
in proportionas a maximum
of attention is effectively
tention
exercised,and pain in proportion as such effective atis frustrated by distractions,shocks, or incomplete
and faultyadaptations,
fails of exercise owing
or
obstructs

or

"

"

the

to

narrowness

and

slowness

Article
xx.,

on

of the

smallness
"Psychology"

field of consciousness

of its

in

276

the

ninth

tion,
edi-

changes."*

Encyclopaedia

p. 71.

and

Britannica,

PLEASURE-PAIN.

" 2.]
The

continuance

monotonous

of

kind

same

involves

similar

in

similarlysituated.

variety is

for

necessary

this

Where

its interest is exhausted,

activitywhich may be
along a road where
travelling
all
character,and the villages

in

is uniform

and

certain

free

the

On

the

other

hand,

too

attention.

will strive

is

fail

and

of

amount

of

play

lacking,the mind
exercise its activity
upon,

objects to

the

of mental

highlydisagreeable,as
the scenery

repetition of

or

presentationafter

restriction

277

find

to

ably.
disagree-

succession

rapid

of

varying external impressionsmay be equally unpleasing. The mind, while pre-occupiedwith one object,is
of another, and
other,
interruptedby the obtrusion
yet anthat attention
is being perpetuallywarped.
so
This
gives rise to the pain of distraction,which may
also occur
when
disconnected
objects simultaneously
claim
be efficiently
attention,so that it cannot
cised
exerof them.
In attendingto the same
by any one
complex object,pleasure or displeasuremay arise from
the

of

relation

adapted

to

Where

the

facilitates

its

parts, which

Kant

what

calls

"

our

parts

of
has
the

the

the

whole,

the

other

meets

hand,
is

where

prepared

with

and

another

the

activityis

apprehension
apprehension
pleasant,if it

stage of

one

certain

for which

is unpleasant.
activity

prehens
ap-

facilitates the

field for its exercise.

at

for

where

and

facilitates the

total

varied
sufficiently

the mind
and

and

prepares

be

facultyof knowing."

part prepares

one

apprehension of another, and


the

not

may

apprehension of the whole


prepares
the apprehensionof the parts, where
the
of

of

or

may

As

kind

the

On

process

of continuation

it is not

examples

pre-adjusted,
we

may

refer

278

[BK.

PSYCHOLOGY.

"

to

sounds

outlines, of
sound,

of

movements,

or

and

i.,

en.

in.

of
rhythmic succession
symmetricalforms and curved

pleasurableness of

the

m.,

gentle crescendos
of gradual variations

and

diminuendos

of shade

in

in

colour,and

painfulness of nickering lights,false time, false


and the like. In all these, whenever
steps, false quantities,
be readily
the result is pleasurable,
attention
can
the

accommodated,
and

is,so

"

say,

result

the

whenever

to

is

balked, wasted."*

economicallymeted out;
prised,
painful,attention is surunderstand

To

this, we

of
prospective nature
essentially
It is always a pre-adjustment
the attentive process.
the pre-adjustment varies in
for what is coming, and
If what
its specific
nature
accordingto circumstances.
is that for which
a
specific
pre-adjustment
actuallyoccurs
has
been
made, the mental
activityproceeds
of energy.
without
waste
smoothly and
successfully
If on
the other hand
does not fit
what
actuallyoccurs
in with the pre-adjustment,
of disapthere is a shock
pointmen
remember

must

and
The
movement

the

of energy.

waste

pleasureor displeasureexperiencedin observing


the part of other persons
on
or
thingspartly

depends

on

the

same

conditions

the

of
feeling-tone
discussingimitation,we
intrinsic

interest

attract

as

those

motor

which

mine
deter-

activities.

our

own

saw

that actions which

attention,produce

by

In

their

in the observer

This tendency
tendency to repeat them himself.
is always present, even
it does not issue in overt
when
imitation.
occasions
The
sightof external movement
the revival of correspondingmotor
experiencesin the
revival
subjectwho is attending to it. This motor
a

Op. cit.tp.

69.

PLEASURE-PAIN.

" 2.]
forms

integralpart

of the

distinct idea.

The

an

course

279

perceptualcomplex, not of
conditions
of pleasure and

in general,
displeasurewhich apply to motor
process
in
involved
apply also to the reproduced motor
process
it takes
attending to a moving object. When
place
with
and
and
fineness of adjustspecial ease
facility
ment,
call the

we

But

"graceful."

an

it is not

that involves

movement

the

external

that

movement

the

merely

slender

column

apparentlydisproportionate
weight
effect

the spectator.

on

It is

he
to which
supporting a burden
mere
thought of Atlas bearing up
shoulders

makes

has

if he

as

is not
the

uncomfortable.

it
of

perception

the revival of motor

part of the subject.

excites

on
activity
supporting
a
able
disagree-

himself

were

equal.

heavens

on

The
his

The

pleasingor
unpleasingeffect of geometrical forms is also to a large
due to the motor
in perceiving
extent
involved
activity
them.
In part, this motor
activityconsists in actual
such as those of the eye followingan
line
outmovements,
; but

in

apprehending
themselves
"

one

great

measure

lines

and

active.

into the

We

air ; of

it arises from
surfaces

our

mode

of

if

in
they were
self
speak of a column
raisingitpath winding ; and so on.
as

"

"

"

feature of
Language of this kind marks a fundamental
The
direction of lines and surfaces
perceptualprocess.
is apprehended as if it were
which the lines
a direction
and
surfaces
themselves
activelytake and maintain.
there
is a sympathetic
Hence, in apprehending them
in us, which
revival of motor
activity
may be pleasing
the geometrical outline is so iror
unpleasing.* When
*This

Baumasthetik

view

is
und

developed

in

full

detail

geometrisch-optische

in

Dr.

Lipps'

Tduschungen.

recent

work

280

PSYCHOLOGY.

regular

in

its

[BK.

m.,

i.,

CH.

in.

defeat

pre-adjustmentson
our
abrupt changes for which we
part, and to demand
are
unprepared, it is disagreeable. On the other hand,
is agreeable. Of course,
if the
a
gently flowing curve
figureis too simple,it will be almost neutral in feelingit is at once
complex and graceful,it
tone, but when
pleasure
displeasure. Marked
give rise to considerable
may
when
sufficient regularity
is present to
occurs
other
appoint.
disconditions
create
a
pre-adjustment which
The
ing
experienceis also unpleasant when, owmonotonous
to the simplicity
or
repetitionof the
occupied. In this
object,attention is not sufficiently
active tendency is thwarted
because
it does not
case
an
find adequate material
for its exercise.
Of course
what
is too simple or too complex for one
not be
person
may
too simple or too
complex for another.
and
" 3. Success
Defeat as Determining Pleasure
and

Pain.

very

extensive

that

it

"

and

an

endeavour

that

of the

class

knows

the
of

seems

that

by

of

head

second

cases

it is

is

familiar

so

necessary

to

unpleasant

adverse

external

which

facilitate

circumstances

end

to

as

Under

scarcely

Everybody
in

course

included

and

obvious

mention
be

to

them.
defeated

circumstances,
the

attainment

pleasing.
activityare for that reason
The
the mouse
cat is displeasedwhen
it; the
escapes
stead
he digs up the turf ingolf-playeris displeasedwhen
of hitting his ball ; the sportsman
is displeased
is
he misses his bird.
An
when
analysisof such cases
We
need
only insist on their importance
unnecessary.
for the general theory of pleasure-pain. The
very fact
them
familiar
makes
obvious
and
that they are
tant.
imporIf

we

an

can

reduce

other

instances

in which

the

281

PLEASURE-PAIN.

" 3.]

less obvious
to the
tone
are
feelingwe
same
fairlyclaim to have
general principle,
may
iologica
given an explanation.It should be noted that the phystions
theory which refers all pleasure-painto relatissue can
and
of wear
scarcely
repairin nervous
We
be made
to apply here.
are
pleasedwhen we hit
miss it;
nail on
the head
and displeasedwhen
we
a
for supposing
whatever
there
to be
no
reason
seems
is being used
that in the one
case
surplus-stored
energy
of

conditions

up,

and

whatever
These

in

the

the

other

surplus existed
remarks
apply to

failure which

arise from

is another

There

One

not.

would

be

of

that

suppose

both.

to

common

of

conditions

those

or

success

circumstances.

external

group

would

in which

cases

tions
condi-

the

ternal
or
are
found, not in exefficiency
inefficiency
circumstances, but in the activityitself as a
The
simultaneous
and
successive
subjectiveprocess.

of

co-ordination

of

delicate

involves

impulses.

adjustment
of

Each

these

duration, and
and

succeed

general, failure

directed

movements

each
in

of

have

must

in

motor

certain

they

end

one

innumerable

and
rapidity,
other

towards

must

certain

tensity
in-

pany
accom-

order.

In

adjustment,disturbingthe activity
whole
and
is unpleasant.
as
a
rendering it inefficient,
The
is a
peculiarexperience of losing one's balance
treme
good illustration. Part of the unpleasantness of exvulsive
fatigue lies in the muscular
tremblings and conjerks to which it gives rise. On the other hand,
and
ease
plex
certaintyof adjustment in performing comis a source
of pleasurewhen
the movemovements
ments
habitual
have not become
to lose feelingso
as
free
and
A
tone.
easy flow of delicatelyadjusted

PSYCHOLOGY.

282

is

movements

play

to
same

its

such.

as
.pleasurable,

in children

kind.

[UK.

and

The

animals

young

in.,

cu.

i.,

in.

pleasures of

largelyof this
dog in its struggle

are

Compare the mental state of a


keep standing on its hind legs with that of the
dog in its natural gambols, its mock-fights with
and

companions,

There

the like.

certain

are

and

general

conditions

which

bute
contri-

effective motor

adjustment. Among
these perhaps the most
important is rhythm. In rhythmic
the same
movements
adjustment is repeated at
regular intervals,so that it is possibleto prepare for it
to

easy

beforehand.
and

the

this way

In

maximum

of

is
efficiency

of

energy

is

attained.

avoided,

All workmen

again and again,


in striking
with a hammer, or hauling on a rope, fall
as
in rhythm beinto a regular rhythm.
tween
Concurrence
distinct and
simultaneous
two
processes, greatly
facilitates both.
Each
is not
only facilitated
process
rhythm, but also by that of the other, and
by its own
stances
the result is often
intenselyagreeable. The best inare
dancing and marching to music.*
Associations.
" 4. Feeling-Tone due to Pre- Formed
and
tive
associaAcquirement of meaning, complication,
re-excitement
of organic sensation, play an
tremely
eximportant part in determining the feeling-tone
of perception.
in itself,
The
cawing of a rook
is certainly
not
agreeable. This sound, in the case of
have
those who
lived in the country in early life,and
and its adventures, is well known
to
enjoyed its scenes
who

have

waste

to

repeat

movement

"

"

...

Thus

Rhythmic
kind

which

the

rhythm

activity

also

intensifies
of

verse

produces
the

effect

intensifies

diffused

of other
the

effect

of

excitement

pleasure-giving
of

poetic

ideas

an

able
agree-

conditions.
and

ments.
senti-

PLEASUKE-PAIK.

" 4.]

become

particularly agreeable

is
heard

and

than

of

in such

that

the

abstract

; the

is determined

feeling-tone of

itself

in

its

feeling-tone of

and

its

disposition

experience, and
the

Probably

this

to
a

is the

unpleasant

vividly experience
may
*

be

the
to

Sully, The

give

may
of

tant
imporing-tone,
feel-

the

because

this

the

aspect

experience.

of

rooks

is the

It

re-excites

its

pleasantness.

this instance.
The

lemon

Human

sight
actual

makes

In

other

of

food

I.

mere

vol.

ii.,p.

gusting
dis-

highly

sight

some

78.

stances
in-

The

nausea.

in James
The

also

of

people

highly disagreeable.
Mind,

previous perceptual

corresponding organic
them

taste

organic sensations

produced

sucking

pler
sim-

conative

of

produce

joyment
en-

painfulness which

or

cawing

disturbance.

organic

person

in

duces
pro-

of

merely

and

source

of

may

sword

pleasant perception

by

prominent.

taste

drawn

the

behind

re-excitement

the

It is

eye.

acquired meaning.

important part

which

fruit

developed by

left

it is very

another

the

cognitive

acquired feeling-toneof

modified

take

To

the

pleasantness

The

of

it is not

cases

been

sight

which
.

previous experiences
to

been

having

currents

many

planation
ex-

pleasure,

delicious

has

plays an

by previous experience only

perception

total

the

of its appearance

note

is revived

of

sight

because

more

because
to

of

these."

accompanied

instance, the
pleasure

of

re-excitation

which

surroundings

among

accompaniment

faint

The

one.

particular sound,

again

marked

this

that

again

have

283

tions
sensa-

IV.

CHAPTER

EMOTIONS.

General

" 1.

is

What
to

common

Characteristics.
an

emotion
is

sense

"

in

states

have

same

name,

Emotion,

the

that

? the first answer

which

common

all of

to

ask
leads

them,

inconsistent

giving varying and

what

find

we

fear,

"

When

character
to

us

tion,
quesoccurs

emotions,
specific
jealousy,and the like.

hope, suspense,
push the inquiry further, and

these

ask

we

list of

anger,
we

If

apply the

gists
psycholoing
Accord-

answers.

kind of sensation,
a
essentially
due
to
According to
general organic disturbance.
revival by association of past
others, it is the massive
pleasures and pains. According to others, it is a
and
be
in a particular
must
tendency to behave
way,
The
consciousness.
of conative
regarded as a mode
for us to pursue
of this disagreebest course
in view
ment,
is to take certain typicalemotions, and to attempt
to

emotion

some,

is

to fix

characteristics

them

in all their manifestations.

(1)

is

confronts

which
The

There

distinctive

prominent

one
us

at

specifickind

same

various

levels

appears

to

be

of
an

the

outset

of emotion

mental
affair of

and

of them

fact
;

"

about
its wide

may

development.
mere

284

sensation.

to

common

occur

emotion
range.
at

Sometimes
"The

very
it

signs"

285

EMOTIONS.

" 1.]

readilyprovoked in the case of the


of
infant by firmlygrasping and holding one
average
of his body, or by causing him
members
the movable
sudden, strong, and not overpoweringly painful
any
of perceptualconforms
the lower
From
sciousness
sensation."*
of ideational and conceptual
up to the higher forms
the same
typicalkinds of emotion are
activity,
arise in connexion
everywhere present. Anger may
The
of a blow.
the smart
with the pain of a wound
or
of anger

umay

be

wounded

lion

bites

at

wounds.

The

cat

will

with

its kittens.
its

away

understand

his

his book.

Paul
from

was

saint

giving too

forms.
specific
direction

Bain,
he

when

knowingly
being,and
inflicted."

with

arouse

that

must

limited

instance,seems

not

of ideational
such

cover

the foolish

different
be

definition
to

of

an

its

in this

err

contains

"

very

impulse

is
it.

*Ladd,
t Mental

the

varied

Any

kind

Psychology,
and

Moral

consciousness
cases

as

; and

St. Paul's

even

righteous

Galatians.

(2) Closely connected


emotion

over

that anger

says

It follows

emotion
we

St.

another
sentient
sufferingupon
in the fact of suffering
a positive
gratification
This
would
|
only apply to a somewhat

it would

anger

for

fail to

inflict

to

developed stage
then

of

take

saint,as

Galatians.

development,

avoid

if you

qua

angry

foolish

the

distribution

wide

to

be

interfere

if you

angry
angry

own

unfavourably criticise

if you

also

its

at

if you

angry

become

or

may

with

stages of mental
careful

will

argument

angry

this

become

man

and

stones

child will become

A
A

toy.

sticks and

with
nature

of

the wide
of

the

thwarting

Descriptive
Science,

and

p. 261.

or

distribution
conditions

oi

that

opposition may

Explanatory,

p. 538.

PSYCHOLOGY.

286

[BK.

m.,

T.,

en.

iv.

excite fear.
Any kind of danger may
You
produce anger in a dog by disturbingit while
may
eating,or by interferingwith its young, or by pulling
of situation,not a
its tail. It is a certain general kind
excite

anger.

specificclass

of

objects,which

excites

certain

kind

of

emotion.
The

behaviour

in which

emotion

finds

expression is

It is not an
correspondinglygeneral in its character.
of this or that specific
nature
adaptation to the specific
object,but a general mode of action adapted to a certain
kind of situation.
of the angry
behaviour
The
dog is
is excited.
It
the anger
genericallythe same, however
adopts the same
bodily attitude,shows its teeth,growls,

attempts

to

bite,and

the like.

which
of emotional
states
(3) There are two sources
arise in
it is important to distinguish.Emotions
may
connexion
with definite perceptionsor ideas,as when
excites joy ; on the other hand, they may
be
good news
primarily due to organic changes, such as those which
of alcohol
follow
other
the use
or
drugs. A man's
The
organic
temper varies with the state of his health.
both
of two
or
changes may
operate in one
ways.
They may directlychange the condition of the nervous
of nutrition
amount
or
system by alteringthe nature
it is supplied,or in other ways.
with which
They may
also, by alteringthe general state of the body, alter the
of the impulses received
nature
by the central nervous
Owing to the diffusive
system from the internal organs.
of organic sensations,this occasions
nature
a
general
change in the state of the nervous
system, which on the
mood.
side is experienced as an emotional
psychological
mood
is not
emotional
An
quite the same
thing as an

287

EMOTIONS.

" 1.]

called.

properly so

emotion
called

be

emotion

An

felt in relation

properly

so

definite

object;
be angry
about
must
to be angry
we
something. But
the generalstate of irritation due, let us say, to a sleepless
night,has not, as such, any definite object. As we
under
shall see
(4),it tends to find objectsfor itself,
it may
and
one
objectto another, givingrise
pass from
of the same
In general,
kind.
to a series of emotions
the

must

of

occurrence

it

definite

emotional

mood

to

some

emotion
of

tends

leave

to

hind
be-

correspondingnature.
mood, whatever
(4) An emotional
may be its primary
it is aroused, and to
once
origin,tends to persistwhen
fasten upon
any objectwhich presents itself. Ill-temper
in the first
or
gloomy depressionor hilarity
originate
may
instance
in the use
of drugs ; but when
these moods
are
in existence
A
once
they create objectsfor themselves.
who
man
gets up in the morning in a bad temper, due
of sleep or similar causes,
is apt to be irritated
to want
by almost everythingthat occurs;
though in another
mood

an

the

incidents

same

The
of the

the

ears

the

sightof

on

their

he

is fixed.
in

the

scullion ;

absence

seen

in

received
her

of

only objecton
excitement
of

on

the

dogs, when

will box

their

vent

the

reason

which
find

fury
being

their attention
an

outlet ;

definite channel

injured animal.
three

placency.
com-

cattle,enraged by

must

other

any

with

mistress

will
distress,

companion

is the
Their

be

herd

in

comrade

it,it discharges itself


sometimes

would

angered by

unfortunate

simply that
and

cook

or

four

or

"

for
It is

five

are

together,that if one suddenly utters a howl or cry


is near
of pain, when
it and no cause
no
man
apparent,
the others run
to it,and
seeing nothing turn round

met

PSYCHOLOGY.

288

and

each

attack

the males

time, when

their

direction

whatever

(5)

of many

angry

emotion

rivalry. An
or

other."

of

way

it is

So

speciesof
passionsare

involves

in.,

i.,

dangerous

animals

in

iv.

CH.

to

proach
ap-

breeding

aroused

by sexual
general trend

certain

which
itself
activity,
particularises
it can, according to circumstances.

fifth feature

The

[BK.

of

emotion

is what

we

in

may

its

So far as emotions
character.
are
parasitical
excited
not
by general situations, and
merely by
general organic changes, they are usuallysecondary
of more
the
existence
phenomena, and pre-suppose
This
tendencies.
is true of all but the simplest
specific
and
The
most
primitiveemotional states.
anger
duced
proin a dog by taking away
its bone
pre-supposes
the specific
appetitefor food. The anger produced in it
the specific
with
its young
by interfering
pre-supposes
tendency to guard and tend its offspring. So the presence
of a rival who
interferes with its wooing causes
pulse.
imbecause
of the pre-existence
of the sexual
anger
call

(6) In all the


organicsensations
has

been

changes,or

whether

connexion

with

fact has been


to

form

an

of consciousness.

total state
emotion

phases of emotion,
important constituent of the

intense

more

which

This

is true

primarily introduced
it has

the

whether

by organic

in the first instance

arisen in

This
perceptions or ideas.
ing
basis of a general theory,accord-

definite

made

the

the essential

nature

of the

emotional

sciousness
con-

arisingfrom change in
body, includingboth viscera

consists in sensations
the internal

organs

of the

muscles.

and
*

Hudson,

The

Naturalist

in

La

Plata,

ch.

xxii.

(towards

end).

289

EMOTIONS.

" 2.]

" 2. General

Theory.

is most

which

The

"

generaltheoryof

at the

favoured

tion
emo-

present time is that

It is at least as old as
justreferred.
with
the
Descartes,but is now
speciallyconnected
its claims
of Professor James, who has advocated
name
do better
cannot
with great force and eloquence. We

to

which

than

have

we

quote his

of the

of the main

statement

argument

in favour

simply organic sensation


and
nothing else. "I now
proceed to urge the vital
point of my whole theory,which is this: If we fancy
some
strong emotion, and then try to abstract from our
consciousness
of it all the feelings of its bodily symptoms,
have
vie find we
nothing leftbehind, no 'mindview

stuff ' out


that

that

of which

cold and

would

the emotion

neutral

all that remains.

is

emotion

state

What
.

can

be

constituted,and

of intellectual
kind

of

an

perceptionis

emotion

of fear

be left if the

beats
feelingneither of quickened heartof shallow
nor
breathing,neither of trembling
of
nor
limbs,neither of goose-flesh
lipsnor of weakened
visceral stirrings,
were
present, it is quite impossible
for me
Can
to think.
one
fancy the state of ragf
and pictureno
ebullition in the chest, no
flushingof
the face,no
dilatation of the nostrils,
no
clenchingof
the teeth,no
impulse to vigorous action,but in their
stead limp muscles, calm breathing,
and a placidface ?
The
The
present writer, for one, certainlycannot.
rage is as completely evaporated as the sensation of
its so-called manifestations,and
the only thing that
can
possiblybe supposed to take its place is some
and dispassionate
cold-blooded
fined
judicialsentence, conentirelyto the intellectual realm, to the effect
that

certain
Psych.

person

or

persons

merit

chastisement

for

290

[BK.

PSYCHOLOGY.

sins.

their

The

states, the

closelyI

more

in.,

i.,

CH.

iv.

scrutinise

my

that whatever
persuaded I become
and passionsI have are
in very truth
moods, affections,
constituted by, and made
of, those bodily changes
up

which

more

; and

the

from

drag

out

This

existence

an

to

seems

me

is

passage

stringency.
and

of

quence
conse-

that if I
be

to

were

excluded

tender

alike,
lectual
intel-

merely cognitiveor

form."

eloquent,but
certainly

It does

follow

not

stone

it lacks
A

that because

with

connected
essentially

identical.

are

it

more

expression or

corporeallyanaesthetic,I should
the life of the affections,
harsh and

become

and

their

ordinarilycall

we

is
A

that
.Z?,

fall into

cannot

logical
sarily
neces-

and

without

water

but the ripples are


the stone.
not
A
making ripples,
have
line cannot
direction,but length
length without

direction

and

fire,but

without
So

it may

not

the

smoke

is

are

be

expressingitself;but it
the expressionconstitutes
Professor
that

James's

is emotion

sensation

does

emotion

it.

exist

to

be

smoke

without

follow

emotion.

the whole
to

no

fire another.

therefore

not

thesis

invert

cannot

we

thing and

one

impossiblefor

is

There

same.

that

ing
Suppos-

true, it is evident
all

Certainlynot

organic

not
are
hunger and stomach-ache
fore
emotional
experiences. To complete the theory thereit is necessary to distinguish
the kinds of organicreaction

which
So far

as

we

point from
connects

many

produce emotion from


can
gather Professor
his

own

emotion

organs.
*

But

Principles

those

James's

statement, it would
with
all

diffused

view
seem

disturbance

organic disturbances

of Psychology,

which

vol.

do

not.

on

this

that

he

affecting
are

ii.,
pp, 451-453.

diffused

EMOTIONS.

" 2.]

experience of

The

in this way.

after

being shampooed
It is evident
into

by, or
in the

Turkish

Now

excitations.

They

is traceable

drugs. But here


organic conditions

its

which
when

nutrition,as

proceed

it from

to

the neural

emotions

which
and

body

the

process

James

by

which

die

but
or

madman

intellectual

impulses

sensory

; and

organs

When

even

such

consider

we

with
of

the

definite perceptions

the

instances

theory

comes
be-

the diffused

that the

emotion
and

me

pistolat

somewhat

perception of

On
me

the

be, as

cold

shall

some

perturbation of

no

consciousness.

stage of

intellectual

neutral

perception that
in

first

arises,cannot

this moment

at

presents

system itself

its

the

this awakens
motor

In

"cold

intellectual

neutral

or

to

It follows

whole.

I have

emotional

ance
primary originin a disturbsystem, which is propagated over

it is,a

says

is due

connexion

in

has

nervous

as

tent
ex-

sensory impulses,
identified with the
be directly

evident.

organicdisturbance
the

the

ideas,the inadequacy

stillmore

of the

for

themselves.

arise

some

of health

nervous

the internal

reason

organic sensations

the

as

disturbance

for that

it cannot

well

the

as

case

allow for the direct

must

on

ceded
pre-

nervous
specific

the state

as

we

to

such

far

so

causes

of

effect of
and

such

to

in

so

enter

of disturbance

doubt

no

produce

do

which

present in the

is not

system, which

nervous

use

this

on

occasion, be

specialkind

accompany,

organic sensations.
organic sensations can

the

bath, ought

either

must

state

of all

mood

of

douche, or

sensations

organic

that the

emotional

an

cold

emotional.

be

theory to

291

the
here

madman

other

and

day
ceral
vis-

hand,

too, I have
as

ception."
per-

an

presenting

292

[BK.

PSYCHOLOGY.

the

pistol;but this
organic disturbance.
the two

time

it

Now

for the difference

is followed

what

intellectual

in.,

is the

i.,

difference

in the two

iv.

by general

perceptionswhich

in their result

CH.

tween
be-

accounts

cases

On

the

side,the perceptionof the presented


physiological
turbance
pistolmust correspond to an intense and diffused disof neural
equilibrium; for otherwise there is
for the intense and diffused disturbance
nothing to account
of organic equilibrium. On
the other
hand, the
mere
day does not
recognitionthat I shall die some
balance
to cause
nervous
so
as
an
organic
upset my
shock.
the psychicalside,what
Now
on
corresponds
disturbance
neural
which
to the original
pre-conditions
the organic disturbance
?
If the correlated
psychical
is not

state

of the

nature

of

emotion, what

can

it be ?

It is

that organic sensations


perfectlyarbitraryto suppose
have
a
mystic efficacywhich can belong to no
sensations.
in the
other
After
all, they only occur
same
way as other sensations : they arise like the rest
only through stimulation of the brain by impulses passing
If they contribute
to proalong afferent nerves.
duce
it can
or
heighten emotion
only be because they
turbance
dishelp to excite an intense and widespread nervous
in the world
But
there
is no
reason
why
impressionscoming from external objects should not
do so if
In fact they must
operate in the same
way.
for the organic disturbance
to account
at all,
are
we
and

this agrees

with

what

we

may

call the

normal,

sophisticate
un-

precedes
essentially
is nothing in
its expression. There
and pre-conditions
the perceptionof a bear, as such, to produce symptoms
the
of fear arise only when
The
of fear.
symptoms
view,

that

emotion

293

EMOTIONS.

" 2.]

sight of

bear

startles

either

man,

it is

because

big animal approaching, or because


vious
preexperience has taught him to apprehend it as
dangerous. In any case, it is not the visual perception,
as
character,which is essential.
such, but its startling
The
only mode of attemptingto escape this confusion
is by saying that the organic disturbance
arisesin the
in a mechanical
On
first instance
this theory
way.
certain innate
there are
or
acquired physiological
precertain
visual or other
owing to which
arrangements
Such
a view
perceptionsset up organic disturbances.
with the facts.
Emotions
is irreconcilable
accompanied
occasioned
not
are
organic disturbance
by marked
merely by the perceptionof certain objects. They are
occasioned
which
only by occurrences
powerfully
further
thwart
tendencies.
or
pre-existingconative
does
A
feel fear merely because
he sees
not
man
a
strange and

bear, but
man

his life is threatened, and

because

has will he

give for

his life."

The

"

all that

theory of

James

simply ignoresthis relation of the circumstances which


to
produce emotion
pre-existingconative tendencies.
According to this theory,it is the mere
sightof a kitten
in the mother-cat.
which
excites anger
being removed
Parental
affection has
nothing to do with it. But
obviouslythe interference with parental instinct is a
most

essential constituent

of the

emotional

state.

It is

disturbance
which
directlyaccompanied by a nervous
If the
precedes and conditions the organic reaction.
casioned
ocorganic disturbances accompanying emotion were
in

theory they
nervous

the
would

centres.

mechanical
arise
But

way

from

the

assumed

excitement

organic shock

in

James's

of the
of

lower

emotion

PSYCHOLOGY.

294

arises

[BK.

CH.

in., i.,

iv.

from

impressionswhich excite the highei


in an
The
centres
nervous
especiallyintense way.
lower
centres
nervous
are
most
are
just those which
in a calm and equable manner.
stable,and which behave
They discharge automatic functions which are matters
of routine.
ascribe
them
We
cannot
to
widespread
and
deed
irregularperturbationsof the whole system. InProfessor
tradicts
Dewey, who advocates this theory,cononly

himself
the

he

when

interruptionof

emotion

says that

normal

and

arises from

habitual, co-ordinations.

Such

interruptionsare occurrences
the higher centres, and
involve
intense consciousness, not by

"

which
are

cold

essentially
accompanied by

and

neutral

ceptions.
per-

this questioninterminably.
might go on discussing
I shall only draw
and
attention
to
one
point more
of the organic
then leave it. I refer to the variability
the same
and
emotion
symptoms in what is specifically
in different emotions.
This is already
their similarity
recognised as regards motor
expressions. Thus Mr.
Lloyd Morgan, who in general accepts James's theory
is specially
without
criticism,yet denies that what
characteristic of emotion
as
such, takes its originin the
elements.
Take
of a young
the case
motor
frightened
On land he runs
and perhaps crouches
moorhen.
away,
We

"

in

the

rushes

quietly under
activities

common

catches

And

the

involved

different;must
too

in

yet

not
we

emotional

sightof

the
bank
in

he

water

and

dives,

there

and

comes

stays still.

and

diving
the activity-feelings
be very
them
must
surely suppose
element.
a
Again, when
worm

running

and

runs

hard

up

to

secure

The

are

very
different

to have

moorhen

it,the

295

EMOTIONS.

" 2.]

must,
activity-feelings
similar

very

would

one

be

suppose,

experienced when

those

to

such,

as

moorhen

the

And
vigorouslyaway from a goose.
yet in the
in the other
he
he is frightened and
case
one
case
associated
Here
similar activity-feelings
is not.
are
This contenstates." *
with wholly different emotional
tion
to me
to be perfectly
justified.There is
appears
indeed
an
identityin the general trend or direction of
kind
of emotion.
the activitydisplayed in a certain
kind
of identity
be reduced
to any
But this cannot
or
in the actual movements
the joint-,
or
tendon-,
similarity
But
and
muscle-sensations
arisingfrom them.
Lloyd
that visceral sensato suppose
tions
Morgan and others seem
in the same
emotion
at least are
fairlyconstant
runs

on

different

Now

the

is

problem

in

obscure

an

different

circumstances.

; for

one

visceral

difficult to

are

distinct

and

occasions

investigate.But so far
experiencecan be made, it seems

appeal to

as

sations
sen-

any
that

less similar in different emoor


tions,
may be more
in the same
and variable
emotion.
The
Maori

they also

of

women

purposes
that

Zealand

New

enjoy

themselves

stranger would

human

suppose

doleful

for

they meet
by squealing and

traveller

grief. One
night by the most

intense

what

when

them

to

tells how

he

cries,and

crying,so
in

be

was

went

festive

state

roused
out

to

of
at
see

in

misery. He found that it


a
a
woman
was
rejoicingover
meeting with her longthe respiratory
Here
lost son.
changes and increased
in the lachrymal glands were
secretion
the natural expression
of joy. Consider, too, the different expressions
for anger.

creature

was

is "white"

There
*

Habit

and

anger

Instinct, p.

and
201.

"red"

anger.

296

PSYCHOLOGY.

circulation

The
two

of

the

[BK.

blood

different

be

must

in., i.,

CH.

iv.

in

the

cases.

This

criticism leaves

Professor

James

would

which

We

like

be

the thesis with

It would

starts.

admitted.

be

must

untouched

tion
imagine what an emothe organic sensations

cannot

apart from

it includes.

Even

in

this thesis

that

seem

which

transient

faint and

tional
emo-

to be
experiences,the organic element
appears
present. It accompanies a slighttouch of irritation or
a
slighttinge of contempt, as it accompanies intense
disdain
wild fury.* The difference
to be only
or
seems

of

one

is

essential

an

which
sole

factor

call

we

factor.

with

in

But

degree.

emotional,

or

tendencies.

far

the

as

in the

primary

conditions,the

primary disturbance,
organic reaction,cannot
is therefore
an
dent
indepen-

the
It

constitution

of

of the

source

lies in

emotion

for Professor

case

James

there

and

its

nutrition,so

referred

to

sensory

that

the

from

impulses coming

organic

(1)
brain

effect

whole

so

stronger.

seems

two

are

In

emotion.

the

points to be considered.
organic changes may directlyinvolve the
But

turbance
dis-

primary

This

the

factor

with the
equilibrium, connected
of ing
hindrance
in specialways
pre-exist-

of
pre-condition
regarded as its effect.

be

connexion

in

mental

conative

being

arises

involves

states

that it is the

admit

not

emotion

ideas,it

perceptions and

furtherance

do

we

the

of those

constitution

in the

Where

of

admittingthat organic sensation

The

itself

cannot

the

be

internal

i
*

Of

to the

visible
even

overt

course

in

intense
but

and

external

expressional
observer,

emotions.

internal

respiration.

But

movements,

may

be

what

organic changes,

absent

or

in

other

bodily changes

slight, and

sometimes

is not
this overt
pression,
eximportant
tion
affecting for example the circula-

is

" 2.]

297

EMOTIONS.

Ladd
Professor
allow for what
(2) We must
sides
The
impulses,besurplus excitation."
sensory
producing the specialsensations correspondingto
or
specificcharacter,also tend to produce a more

organs.
calls

"

their

less diffused

excitement

of

kind, which

vague

be

may

in their specialqualities.
differing
ter
This surplusexcitation may
be analogous in its characwith perceptions
arises in connexion
to that which

similar for sensations

its

have

James's

both
and

distinctive

that

the

of the

like

said

in

the

neural

the

neural

process

I understand

and

these

before

changes

the

connected

emotion
with

no

appreciable

of

the

initial
of

which
As
Thus
the

is

is

says,
his

on

this

rate

with

with

according

exciting

which

fact.

because

by

turn

way

feeling
"the

phrase,
exciting fact,"

means

view

of

gives

in the

But
the

he

does

other

of

these

the

on

that

of

they

as

follow
follow

an

it sets
to

the

centres

as

fact

indeed

being

vous
ner-

and

has

speak
the

ception
per-

excitement.

organic changes

mental

they occur
directly

body;
system

initial

The

does

up

as

consciousness

to mental

rise

the

nervous

lower

emotion

refer

give

changes

bodily changes

forms

of

organs

the

to an

perception

of backstroke

as

is,whether

which

James

not

in

According
James,
him, the primary nervous

react

rise

that

to

to

excitement

the

follow

consciousness

consciousness

emotion.

backstroke

of

regarded

question

correlated

are

itself; and
be

may

real

in consciousness.

perception

the

itself

direction

admitted

discharge

not

The

changes
a

be

may

disturbances

is

and

expression

Emotion
is in his view
the
begin.
re-impression following expression.

concomitant

in their

he

by

exciting

an

so:

produce

must

neural

and

aspect

one

dispute this,

not

can

the

excitement

fact

first

must

is not

this

It

if it could

complete

the

I do

Velocity

time.

occurrence.

at any

or

of

him,

disturbance

same

disturbance

constituent

essential

primary

the

kind,

emotional

an

and

neural

primary

The

of

exist

not

in

by saying

but

locally separate
part
excitement
by brain

occasioned
and

original

statement

emotion

is a

modified

it in its most

emotion,

the

less

or

more

with

but

brain

The

changes

been

it means.

motion,

logically

could

aspects

of

way.

both

expression

sense

different
the

this

organic

process

of

definitely what

aspects

two

of health.*

is another.

emotion

the

state

James's

correct

pre-condition

to know

be

to

; and

organism

this

is not

annoying

text, I deal

the

viour
beha-

the

recently

would

Some

in

bad

has

In

others.

of which

connected

not

emotion

form.

occurrence

be

may

and

expression

I should

but

of

theory

himself

by

either
in

of irritation may

mood

emotional

the

primary source
a companion, or

of

of

that

ideas,so

or

excitement.

is the
the
that

emotion.

perception
excites

of

them,

PSYCHOLOGY.

298

Relation

"3.

[BK.

Pleasure-

to

in., i.,

and

Pain

en.

iv.

Conation.

"

"

emotion

involves a
essentially
direction
of activity,
mental
characteristic end
or
or
bodily. Anger tends to destroy or disable its object;
tions
fear,to avoid or evade it. The relation of specialemois not so definite as their conative
to pleasure-pain
emotions
are
invariablypleasant and
aspect. Some
agreeable
others
unpleasant; grief for instance is always disand
joy agreeable. So fear is constantly
be either pleadisagreeable. But other emotions
sant
may
A surprise
or
unpleasant,accordingto circumstances.
unwelcome.
be either welcome
or
Anger is
may
it is impotent; but when
it
highly disagreeablewhen
it may
itself on
the enemy,
be intensely
wreak
can
is
agreeable. In general we may say that an emotion
agreeable or disagreeable according as the conative
involved
in it are
thwarted
tendencies
or
gratified.In
of the case
fear and
grief,they are from the nature

Every special kind

fact

the

not

that
in

distinctive

is

resonance

this

it.

deny

this

theory
Just

discharge;
a

factor

grieved

and

at

Sorrow

grieved.
the

grief

pleasure

overbalance

pleasant.

the

only

does

the
over

pain

it,so
which

time

the
to

of

loss

of

tender

grief.

may

His

ness.
consciousdue

primary

emotion

is

wholly

originate

in

to
vous
ner-

due

primary

itself

the
be

beloved

grief

the

grief,"but
luxury.
pleased
object
and

reminiscences,
But

to

to
vous
ner-

rectly
di-

is not

condition.
of

"luxury
he

last

organic

wholly
the

while

the

said

emotion.

him

to

organic
has

the

motor

excitement

antecedent

constitute

the

of

theory

according
tendons,

and

be

would

to

nothing

Bain

preceding

of his

nervous

the

as

not

same

due

an

writer

is
that

emotion.

belonging

with

do

primary

thing

the

joints

there

dispute

formed

as

bodily changes

the

it,but

is such

There
of

by

in

and

would

excitement

is

to

nothing

following

few

counterpart

this

mean

present

counted

muscles,

has

re-impressions

the

be

not

fully

consciousness

from

discharge

in

mental

must

motor

as

and

is

does

Very

factor

to be

seems

he

all.

at

James;
there

also

re-impressions

theory

as

if

If

us.

essential

an

But

resonance,
whole

his

clearly

as

excites

of

in

and

A
to

person

may

this
for

be

may
that

know
be

ence
exist-

mere

he

accompanied
pleasure

itself

is

may
never

is

obstructed; when
In

also.

ceases

the

by

299

EMOTIONS.

"" 4, 5.]

very

the

obstruction

joy, on

the

nature

of

other

hand, they are

conditions

the

emotion

the

ceases,

which

fied
gratision
occa-

it.

" 4.

Ultimate

Emotion

Qualitative Differences.
"

forms
involves
specific
correspondingly
be explained
cannot
specifickinds of feeling which
ments.
resultants
or
as
complicationsof more
simple eleaway
have
emotion
is
said that a specific
When
we
characterised
by a certain trend or direction of activity,
that it is accompanied by certain kinds of organic sensation,
and the like,though
that it is pleasantor painful,
Each
be true, it is not exhaustive.
all this may
specific
kind
of emotion
has also something in it peculiarand
of feeling-attitude
It is a unique kind
undefinable.
observes
James
towards
an
:
object. As Professor
in

"

its various

There

infinite

are

excitements

emotional

are."

of colour
of
of
be

an
feeling,
pleasure or

resolved

It stands

"5.

out

emotion

actual

dispositionis
kind

of

Thus

the

emotion

which
Besides
has

in

tones

are

its

the

distinct

as

no

as

various
tions
sensa-

specificquality

own

doubt

Dispositions.
state

of

"

also

persistenttendency
in

the

presence

emotion

An

consciousness

cat, after having its tail

of

;
to

an

feel

ways
is al-

emotional
a

certain

certain

object.
pulled frequentlyby
a

ever
tendency to feel angry whenthe child approaches it. We
have
pointed out
of emotion
the originalconditions
rather cerare
tain
general kinds of situation than specificpersons

child,has

that

and

feeling-tone
pain. But its peculiarcolouringcannot
into mere
pleasantnessor unpleasantness.
irreducible.
as
a fact unique and

Emotional
an

shades

permanent

300

PSYCHOLOGY.

or

things.

to

be

But

in the

connected
of

anger

the

of

the

emotional

the

occasions.

thing as

child

form

who

of

formed

neither

felt.

Such

the

love, indicate
emotions.

at
to

the

emotion

feel the

emotional
Sentiments

proach
ap-

In

the
this

way

selves
them-

appropriate
the

not

is

same

actual

an

the

with

it

the child

tendency

permanent

whenever

On

ing,
child,mean-

the

sees

child

Fear.

kinds

of

therefore

We

typicalforms,
deal
at

the

Interests*

or

various

to

with

mood

dislikes

cat

of anger

Analysis of

task.

the

higher levels of mental


ideas and
concepts play a prominent part,
called
are
dispositions
very complex, and are

life,wnere

all the

come

the

it has

that

neighbourhood.

" 6.

iv.

things,as

on

actuallyfeeling angry

but

moment,

in its

that the

it is

that

not

as

say

CH.

disposition
persists
the emotion
itself is being
nor
hate
and
liking and disliking,
rather than actual
dispositions

emotional

We

The

; but

i.,

manifest

emotion

mood.

mood

words

which

dispositionis

affection of consciousness
when

connected

actual

emotional

or

pulls its tail.

emotional

An
an

be

to

comes

m.,

experience they

specificpersons

are
dispositions

in

of

course

with
cat

[BK.

emotion
for

select

fear

"

To

"

and

other

with

some

later

stage, when

analyse
endless

an

special treatment

modes
we

be

would

We

anger.

and

describe

come

two

shall have
of
to

emotional
treat

sion
occaperience
ex-

of idea-

distinguishedfrom perceptualactivity.
conative
In fear,as in all painfulfeeling,
tendency is

tional

at

once

be

of

as

excited

and

obstructed.

specialkind.
adjustment more

It

or

See

be

the

conation

must

cal
tendency to practiimperativelydemanded
by

must

less

But
a

bk. iv.,ch. ix.," 5.

which

fear

cause

obtrusive

otherwise

not

must

that

serious

fear

must

their

in

be

avoided

aggressiveor
occasion

The

consciousness

as

with

evaded

or

the

Thus

nature.

character.

before

come

be

can

of

practicalemergency

conditions

of

301

EMOTIONS.

" 6.]

thing
some-

and

ease

certainty.
The
experiencemust invade consciousness in a more
less violent and persistent
or
tively
way so as to call imperafor a practical
adjustmentto the situation. At the
be of a nature
time it must
to destroyefficiency,
same
disable
and
the activity
which
it exto disorganise
cites.
"

It may
that fear is

nothing but
This

from

seem

of

this account

the

always disadvantageous,and that


in the struggle for
drawback
a
is

inference

it

matter

be

can

existence.

Fright often serves


rather
than
the frightenedprey.
the predatory animal
by small shot,
"Many birds, though scarcelywounded
fall to the ground as though struck
by lightning,
panting
with
use

wide

of the

partiallytrue.

mouth."*

open

paralysingeffect

their

Seal-hunters

of

when

But
even
prey.
result
the
motionless

frightin
terror

often make

order

strikes

to

secure

animal

an

is not

always disadvantageous.
likelyto escape notice.
By becoming quiescentit is more
and bodilyperturbation are
mental
Where
not violent
of effective
enough to deprive the animal of all power
hides itself. So far as these
or
action,it takes to flight
of escape

movements

of

fear,they

are

evasion

or

to

be

are

the

explained

when
principlethat psychicalactivity,
in certain

it

can

directions,diverts
find.
*

Hudson,

Thus

an

Naturalist

direct

sion
expres-

the

on

its way

general
is barred

itself into whatever

animal
in

La

disabled
Plata,

ch.

by
xv.

fear

nel
chanfrom

PSYCHOLOGY.

302

[BK. in., i., CH.

iv.

positiveand

of adjustment, will
complex modes
the circumstances
have
to flight. Now
recourse
may
is the best course
such that flight
the only
be actually
or
more

that

course

that

animals

of fact when

thing they

dog

that

derives

runs

extent

some

from

a
an

indeed

time

presence

the

run
can

from

advantage.

an

away

do.

But

scared

at

In

fear

point

hide, it is generally

or

this is not
the

always

noise of

so.

cracker,

of mind

readinesa
rushes

so

excitement

The

accelerate

animal

this is so, the

doing. Further, fright is to


in escapdisadvantage to an animal even
ing

enemy.

may

and

is
flight

away

benefit

no

When

use.

itself in

expresses

the best

of

be

can

of

of

its movements.
is

more

But

same

ness
Watchful-

diminished.

are

wildly into

emotion

at the

less lost.

or

resource

the

Thus

the

danger which
other
danger of

it is

a
strivingto avoid, or into some
yet
old fox may
The game
be but little
moT"e
deadly nature.
in escaping from
the hunters
influenced
by fear when
command
of all kinds
of cunit displaysits wonderful
ning
and keenness
of perception.
its wariness
resources,
Whyte-Melvillesays of such a fox : His heart like his
multum
in parvo,
little body was
tough, tameless, and
as
strong as brandy." As regards the general question
of fear,we
the whole
it
of the utility
say that on
may
of preservation
from
But
is a means
injuryand death.
and
in part defeats itself,
it is rather a clumsy means,
the emotion
is very violent.
As Mosso
when
especially
The
do
the perilbecomes, the more
remarks
:
graver
harmful
mal
to the anithe reactions which
are
positively
in efficacy.
and
We
might
prevailin number
"

"

almost

say

substance

that

which

nature

should

had
be

not

been

excitable

able

to

enough

frame
to

com-

303

EMOTIONS.

" 6.]

and
and
the brain
spinal marrow,
yet which
pose
should not be so excited by exceptional stimulation
as
to

overstep in its reactions

which

of the

useful to the conservation

are

We

bounds
physiological

those

now

may

which

conditions

the

enumerate

creature."

ate
gener-

fear.

is,when
bodilypain produced by wounds
kind of
intense, accompanied by the same
sufficiently
kind
of disablement
impotent excitement, the same
mental
of bodily and
activitywhich is characteristic
laboured
efforts to escape,
ing,
breathof fright. Wild
expressions of
trembling, etc., are
palpitation,
Now
actual bodilypain as well as of strong fear.
we
find not
the
only analogy but geneticrelation between
When
has previously
states.
two
an
object which
caused
pain is again perceived,the emotional tone is
of fear,unless fear is displacedor overpowered by
one
has
This
suggested to Herbert
Spencer the
anger.
theory that the fear consists in the revival of bygone
painful sensations produced by the object feared.
can
testifythat the psychical
Everyone," he says,
called fear consists of mental
state
representationsof
that
painful results." f Against this view we
urge
the painfulsensations vary greatlyin specific
whereas
of fear which
the emotion
stantial
they generate is subquality,
(a)

Actual

"

"

differs

identical,and
them

from

that the

than

they

emotion

disagreeablethan
is supposed to be
*

La

Paura,

of fear

each

in

other

is sometimes

more

its character
we

urge

violent

also

and

originalexperiences of which it
revival,or mental representation.

the
a

Appendice,

of Psychology,

from

do

more

p.

295; quoted

vol. ii.,pp. 483-484.

and

translated

by James,

f Psychology,

" 213.

ciples
Prin-

304

[BK.

PSYCHOLOGY.

What

i.,

CH.

iv.

perience
reallyto happen when a previousexpain gives rise on a subsequent occasion

appears
of

emotion

of

to

the

child,attracted

it and

in.,

is

badly

fear, may

by

the

burnt

in

be

illustrated

brightness of
consequence.

as

follows.

flame, grasps

Subsequently,

seeingthe flame, he feels fear. The emotional tone


of the prebelongs to the present perception because
vious
painfulsensation inflicted by the perceived object.
The
painfulsensation,when it actuallyoccurred,
original
which
occurred
was
one
as
part of a perceptual activity
in all its aspects. The
and continuous
painfulsensation
not
was
merely superadded to the visual perceptionof
the object as a separate and
isolated event, it was
an
continuous
The
integralphase of the same
process.
the sensation
of burning form
visual perception and
and the same
object. The
part of the perceptionof one
of the burning pain must
therefore
make
advent
a profound
in the
character
of the perceptual
difference
which
process as a whole, and in the total disposition
behind
it. Hence,
the experience as
whole
leaves
a
when
the object is again seen, the mere
sightof it,even
before previous painfulexperiences
recur, will be a profoundly
different state of perceptual consciousness
from
existed.
have been
if they had never
The
what it would
will be
attitude will be essentially
modified.
There
motor
from
avoid the flame,instead of
a tendency to retreat
or
ment
excitegrasping it. Further, a state of diffused nervous
analogous to that which
accompanied the actual
burning will be re-excited ; and this will overflow the
perficial
organism as a whole, producing constriction of the sublood-vessels,palpitation,trembling, and the
like,with the correspondingorganicsensations.
on

" 6.]

305

EMOTIONS.

(b)

this

That

becomes

when

clearer

of

account
we

the

is

matter

consider

that

fear

correct

arises in

through experienceof previouspain


suddenness
the
or
or
or
intensity,
injury. The mere
combined
suddenness
and intensity,
of an impressionare
other

than

ways

sufficient to

fear.

cause

loud

noise

for which

we

are

Many
unprepared startles us with momentary alarm.
help being scared by a reverberating
people cannot
peal of thunder, though they know that it is harmless.
Of course
much
or
depends on the nervous
organisation
its state
It is extremely easy to
at a given time.
on
startle a hare or a rabbit.
noise will give
Even
a slight
of alarm
if we
us
a disagreeableshock
are
half-asleep.
In some
pathologicalstates the patientis liable to be
frightenedby almost anything.Fledgelingsshrink down
in the nest when
a
or
object suddenly
strange animal
approaches,though they may show no uneasiness when
their deadliest enemy
as
approaches them unobtrusively
snakes do.
A piece of paper
blown
suddenlyby the
is as great an objectof terror to a young
wind
bird as a
buzzard
with
death
in its talons."*
sweeping down
The
sudden
currence
approach of an object,the abrupt oc"

of
is

there

an

intense

demand

sensation,stimulate

for

action

to

practical adjustment

to

the

obtrusive

time its very suddenness


experience. At the same
and
or
startle,so that
intensitydisconcert
efficient reaction is impossible. This is the more
spicuously
conthe impressionis not
den
only sudso, where
Mere
but unfamiliar.
or
unfamiliarity
ness,
strangesuddenness
or
apart from
exceptionalintensity,
.

suffice

to

cause

Psijcfi.

fear

Hudson,

even

Naturalist

in
in

a
La

violent
Plata,

eh.

form.

The

v.

20

306

[BK. in.,

PSYCHOLOGY.

gorillabrought home
Loango expedition much
young

by

the

disliked

i.,

members

CH.

TV.

of

the

noises.

strange

rain

"Thunder,

the

and espefallingon the sky-light,


cially
the long-drawn note
of a pipe or trumpet threw
him
sudden
into such agitationas to cause
affection
a
of the digestiveorgans, and it became
expedient to keep
him at a distance." *
of unf amiliarity
The
kind
which
disturbed
the gorillaconsisted
so
apparently in mere
novelty.
Unfamiliaritymay, as I have said, consist in mere
novelty. But there is another kind of unfamiliarity
which
involves not only novelty but direct conflict with
ordinary experience. Strangeness of this sort may
An
cordant
cause
profound alarm.
experience may be so disof events
with the normal
to utterly
course
as
check

disorder

and

life and
process of conscious
of effective adjustment. In the
possibility

destroythe
of

the

human

beings the frightcaused by a ghostly


This is not so much
apparitionis a good illustration.
due
definite or indefinite anticipationof posito any
tive
case

evil

of the
character
utterly abnormal
experience. It lies so wholly outside the circle of
ordinary events, and is so completely opposed to the
of ordinary experience,that it destroysall
conditions
of mind.
It stimulates
intenselyby its
presence
time, owing to this very
strangeness, and at the same
theoretical and practical,
strangeness, all lines of activity,
are

to

as

the

obstructed.

overwhelming

terror

It is instructive
in

ghostly apparitionwith
*

R.

Hartmann,

of Psychology,

Anthropoid

the
the

contrast

this

of a
supposed presence
predominantly agreeable

Apes, p. 265; quoted

vol. ii.,p. 417 (note).

to

by James,

Principles

" 7.]

307

EMOTIONS.

experienceof reading or

listeningto

The

itself

actual

immediate

fact obtrudes

demands

actual,and

as

practicaladjustment
makes

tale of marvel.

to

yet by its

it,and

adjustmentimpossible. Where
this practical
need is not felt,the free play of imagination
liberated from the trammels
of ordinaryexperience
of delight.
may be a source
Animals
are
capable of analogous experiences.James
gives a good example.* A dog belonging to Professor
was
Brooks, the well-known
frightenedinto a
biologist,
of epileptic
fit by a bone
the
sort
across
being drawn
floor by a thread which
he did not see.
As James
marks,
reheart would
stop beating,if he perceived
any man's
the floor.
his chair slidingunassisted across
The
child manifests
this
" 7. Analysis of Anger.
emotion
at an
Anger initially
earlystage.
expresses
of violent motor
and satisfies itself by a peculiar form
discharge. Even at the outset it takes the form of an
The
resistance
effort to overcome
force.
by main
has acquired no
child who
definite mode
of
young
wreaking its passion,shows it by vague kicking and
which
by movements
antagoniseeach other,
struggling,
in external
resistance
which
and
encounter
objects.
The
development of cognitive consciousness
simply
restrict this diffused mobility within
to
serves
more
very

nature

such

"

"

definite channels.
his

plaything violentlyto

away,
thwarts
adult

child

The

breaks

or

in

it,or

in
the

the

later

ground,
of

case

his will,he kicks, pushes, or

may

find

some

satisfaction

furniture,and
destroying
*

he

stage throws
or

vol.

Even

the

his irritation in

nearlyalways has

Principles of Psychology,

it

who

person

strikes.

for

pushes

ii.,
p.

420.

strong

308

PSYCHOLOGY.

[BK. in.,

to break, crush,
disposition

Inasmuch

his

as

defined,his
crossed

deny

him

angry

man

thwarted.

But

is very

apt

to

wreak

more

cially
spe-

his desires
conditions

the

when

it is well
this satisfaction,

iv.

something.
enlightenedand

impulse will become


againstthe objectby which

or

CH.

rend

destructive

directed
are

or

become

has

anger

tear,

i.,

known

his anger

that
on

the

sive
inoffen-

dition
approximating to the conof the child.
Though the tendency to overcome
of bodily force
resistance by violent exertion
seems
always to play some
part in anger, yet with the advance
and
of intellectual development it gives place more
ideal satisfaction ; it becomes
to an
more
enough to
to imagine,that the opposing
even
know, or sometimes
forces have
This is of
been
crushed
by our agency.
of the growing importance
course
a direct consequence
of the life of ideas as compared with that of perception.

things or

But

impulse
be

thus

persons,

even

in the

ideal

satisfaction

of

anger

the

down

opposition may
to
extent
some
by wreaking it on other
those
which
ment.
resentimmediately awaken
relief afforded
under
by swearing comes
It is a breaking down
of the ideal barriers
social convention
or
religioussentiment
destroy

to

satisfied

objectsthan
The

this head.
which

or

break

up."*
find that their proneness
to animals,we
Turning now
to anger
sation
depends to a great degree on inherited organiand
general habits of life. Spencer observes:
The
destructive passion is shown
in a general tension
of the muscular
system, in gnashing of teeth and protrusion
in growls :
of claws, in dilated eyes and nostrils,

sets

"

Analytic

Psychology,

vol. ii.,pp.

96-97.

EMOTIONS.

" 7,]
and

these

that

expressionof
only rudiments
course

as

much

deserve
emotion
of

of

that

there

consists

in

implied that

actions

and

tearingand
the

destructive

protrusion of

place it is implied that

pany
accom-

two

are

which

developed activities.

more

teeth

Here

It is

expressionof

an

actions

notice.

Actual

untrue.

gnashing
second

of the

killingof prey."*

the

of

forms

weaker

are

309

anger

plication
imthe
are

This

is

rending may
passionas

the

claws.

the

In

is distinctive

be

of

this is not
But
the case.
The
predatory animals.
elephantis not a beast of prey, but can be easilyroused
rather
than
the hunting
to fury. It is the combative
instinct which
is essential.
Many
graminivorous
animals which
are
usuallypeacefulare highlydangerous
the combative
in the breeding season, when
impulse is
in

excited

connexion

with

the

sexual,

and

finds its

rivalry. In general we may say


that some
animals, such as the elephant,meet
danger
and oppositionby main
force ; others,such as the rabbit
and
Yet
others
hare, by flightand concealment.
bative
commostly resort to evasion and escape, but become
and
The
even
aggressiveat certain seasons.
combative
of that
tendency is the pre-disposingcause
proper

field in sexual

emotional

play takes
fury. Any

seizure
the

we

form

call anger.

All

animals

of

whose

mock-fightsmay be roused to
kind
of opposition,
striction
reany thwarting or
of psychical
It is the
cause
activity
may
anger.
the interference
more
likelyto do so the more
distinctly
the appearance
of coming from
wears
some
positive
from
external
and especially
other animal.
some
agency
We
be merely grieved at the loss of a valued
may
*

Principles

of Psychology,

vol. ii.,p. 546.

[BK.

PSYCHOLOGY.

310

object if
somebody
are

accidentallymislay it ourselves
something breaks it before our

we
or

apt

more

in., i.,

supposed that

be

to

of anger

emotion

the

It must

angry.

CH.

if

but

eyes

however

not

iv.

we

be

itself exclusively

vents

offendingobject. On the contrary the


is essentially
emotion
a
general impulse to crush and
of irritation
destroy. It fastens by preferenceon the cause
itself impartially
this it may
vent
on
; but failing
in its way.
It is only through
anything which comes
restricted and
experienceand education that it becomes
on

an

defined.

may

occasion

in another.

anger

conation

thwarts

obstruction

at

once

give

may

in

But

violence.

activityis

occasion

which

conditions

The

stimulated

fear

Any

rise to

outburst

mental

and

oppressionwhich in a timid
save
disorganisesall activities,
may

in

which
of

structiv
de-

bodily
Now

thwarted.

and

paralysesor
flightand concealment,

animal

one

condition

an

fear
and

in

the

creature

those

combative

of

animal

This
counter-aggression.
holds
good of actual bodily pain. The attitude of a
in bearing bodilypain is different accordingas he
man
of a
gives way to it or fightsagainstit. The smart
received in the heat of combat
wound
usuallyinfuriates
rouse

to

active resistance and

the combatant.

All

fierce

animals,

such

as

the lion

or

fiercelyaggressivewhen they are hurt.


tiger,become
illustration from insect life.
Belt suppliesan interesting
effect of a
The
he says :
ants
Speaking of leaf-cutting
of their
little corrosive
sublimate
sprinkled on one
and extermad
minate
them
is to make
paths in dry weather
another.
In a couple of hours, round
one
all biting each other;
balls of the ants will be found
"

...

and

individuals

numerous

have

others

while

work

for

most

is

stress

expressive

Many

which

emotions.
the

So

"

one-sided

of

the

the

of
the

in

author,

extreme

opening

the

with

mouth

of all forms
same

and

muscles
in

of
as

similar
*

Naturalist

t James,

the

breath
form

disgust.

those

these

and

vision

unfleshed

smile

in

Nicaragua,

Principles

; the

in

act

of

with

opening

precedes

with
cular
mus-

ejectingan

calls into

ive
express-

play

the

sucking the breast,

p. 79.

of Psychology,

the

to

goes

manner.

in

ing
rais-

opening

facial gesture

employed

time

listening,and

of the

counted
ac-

movements

which

the

is

the

eyebrows

better

constitutes

morsel

unsavory

the

fainter

from

according

come,

intensest

the

rapid catching of
effort."!

for

tions
ac-

sneer,

Similarlythe

utilityof

eye

or

attention,the

raising of

The
of

attack.

outward

the

of

teeth,

upper

survival

astonishment,

from

cases.

the

in

Habits.

snarl

the

as

the
a

lays

exciting analogous

large canines,
for

now)

eyebrows

mouth

same

the

do

(as dogs

as

had

ancestors

our

them

of

by Darwin

he

subject