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MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
ChE 410, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
LABORATORY II
HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF A
DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

Date of Experiment

: 14.11.2004

Submission of Report: 23.12.2004


Submitted to

: Dr.Grkem KIRBA

Submitted by

: TUE 12
Bener Yeginolu
Egemen Uar
Onur Aksoy
Sinan nceler
ANKARA, 2004

ABSTRACT
In double pipe heat exchanger experiment, it is desired to
investigate the effect of Reynolds Number on the individual heat transfer
coefficients and to the performances of two different types of flow (cocurrent and counter current) during the heat exchange in the double pipe
system.
During the experiment, firstly co-current flow is examined and
different temperatures at different positions in the pipes, are collected as
raw data. After that, the type of flow is changed by reversing the valves
and the temperatures are recorded again. At the same time, the flowrate
of the condensate which comes from the steam condenser, is recorded.
These raw data can be seen in appendix.
The main equipments are a steam condenser which supplies the hot
water for the double pipe exchanger which consists of a cold stream
flowing through the inner tube, and a hot stream flowing through the outer
one, and the control panel. Temperatures at the specified positions and the
valves can be obtained from the control panel.
Main results obtained from this experiment can be summarized as,
with the increasing pressure drop, mass flow rate, Reynolds Number, log
mean temperature, individual heat transfer coeffcient and the turbulance
of the flow increase for the cold stream whereas all these parameters are
kept constant for hot stream as the pressure drop in the hot stream is kept
constant during the experiment. It is known that heat transfer is directly
proportional with the overall heat transfer coefficient and log mean
temperature. So, it can be concluded that with the increasing turbulance
of the flow, the amount of heat transfer increases. The quantitative data
can be obtained in results and discussion section.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page #
1.Nomenclature...............................................1
2.Introduction..................................................2
3.Experimental Methods....................................3
4.Results&Discussion.........................................5
5.Conclusions...................................................11
6.References....................................................12
7.Appendices....................................................13

NOMENCLATURE
PC

Pressure Difference in the cold stream

PH

Pressure difference in the hot stream

TLM

Log Mean Temperature Difference

Overall heat transfer coefficient

Reh

Reynolds Number of the hot stream

Rec

Reynolds Number of the cold stream

Prh

Prondtl Number of the hot stream

Prc

Prondtl Number of the cold stream

Nuh

Nusselt Number of the hot stream

Nuc

Nusselt Number of the cold stream

THin

Inlet Temperature of the hot stream

THout

Outlet Temperature of the hot stream

TCin

Inlet temperature of the cold stream

TCout

Outlet temperature of the cold stream

Vcond

Volume of the condansate

cond

Density of the condansate

Mcond

Mass flow rate of the condansate

Mc

Mass flow rate of the cold stream

Mh

Mass flow rate of the hot stream

THmean

Mean temperature of the hot stream

TCmean

Mean temperature of the cold stream

Viscosity of the cold stream

Viscosity of the hot stream

kh

Thermal conductivity of hot stream

kc

Thermal conductivity of cold stream

hh

Heat transfer coefficient of hot stream

hc

Heat transfer coefficient of cold stream

Heat

INTRODUCTION
Heat

exchangers

are

classified

in

accordance

to

their

flow

configurations, mixing and their construction. A double pipe type is used


both co- and counter- flow manner. This equipment is a simple closed type
heat exchanger, in which one pipe is placed in the other. The one used in
experiment has three passes.
The aims of the experiment are to observe effect of Reynolds
number on the individual heat transfer coefficient and compare the effect
of co-current and counter-current.
In the experimental procedure, both in co-current and countercurrent, the cold streams flow rate is changed where hot streams kept
constant in the turbulent region. Orifice pressure readings are used to
relate determine cold and hot stream flow rates with the calibration
equation formerly obtained. Also, condensate flow rate is measured to
obtain total energy used in the experiment as both energy transferred to
cold stream and energy lost. With these measurements, individual heat
transfer coefficients and performances of co-current and counter-current
flow arrangements.
As additional background, the double pipe heat exchanger is closed
type exchanger. In this type of exchanger, the hot and cold fluids do not
come into direct contact with each other. Theory of the equipment is that,
the energy exchanged flows from one fluid to the outer surface of the pipe
by forced convection, through the pipe wall by conduction, and then from
the inside surface of the pipe to the second fluid by forced convection. The
flow can either be co-current or counter current. The double pipe heat
exchanger is a simple but useful apparatus, because it can be constructed
from standard parts.

The understanding of this experiment is as follows, experience the


application of the heat transfer theory, make the necessary calculations,
see the effect of flow rate to the transferred heat and compare co-current
and counter-current flow in the aspect of performance.

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
In the double pipe heat exchanger experiment, as told before, the
main aim is to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on the individual
heat transfer coefficients and to the performances of co-current and
counter current flow heat transfer in a double pipe heat exchanger.
While doing these, the double pipe heat exchanger that is
constructed in the Tark Somers Lab (Unit Operations Lab) is used. There
are 3 double pipes in the heat exchanger. Each of the pipes is 3.15 meters
in length. The inner pipe dimesion is 1 Sch. 40 steel pipe and the outer
pipe dimension is 2 Sch. 40 steel pipe. The detailed diagram of the
equipment can be seen from the photograph that is taken in the laboratory
in the appendix.
Cold water passes in the inner pipe and the hot steam passes in the
outer pipe of the exchanger. The cold water at 15C approximately is
supplied from the universities own supplies and the hot steam at 62C
approximately is supplied from the heating system of the university are
entered to the equipment. Some small changes can be seen in the
temperatures of these utilities due to the changes in ambient conditions.
In the first part of the experiment, the equipment is set to co-current
flow. The flowrate of the cold water that enters to the exchanger is
changed by the valve that is located just prior of the inlet. Four separate
runs are made for different P values (10,15,20 and 25). The manometer
readings for both orificemeters during each run at suitable time intervals
are taken. The mass flowrates for the streams are calculated by the

calibration equation which can be found in the sample calculations part.


The attainment for steady state is waited during each runtime after
changing the flow rate of the cold stream. The temperatures are changed
while reading them from the control panel. One decimal point can be seen
in the control panel so the steady-state is checked by waiting for the
fluctuations change only one decimal. Also the steam flowrate is
determined by measuring the flowrate of the condensate from the steam
heater.
In the second part of the experiment, the equipment is set to
counter current flow. The same procedure that is done for the co-current
flow is followed. The flowrates are set with the same P values that are set
for the first part.

RESULTS and DISCUSSION


1. OBTAINING RAW DATA
At the beginning of the experiment, the type of the flow is
determined as co-current. After that, by changing the pressure drop
through the pipe that the cold stream flows, raw data is collected and
stated below in table 1. Later on the same procedure is followed to obtain
the raw of counter current flow and table 2 is formed.
Table 1. Effect of Pressure Drop on Temperature(co-current flow)
For Co-Current Flow
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8

Temp(C) @
P=10
61,7
58
55
51,7
14,8
20,5
24,9
27,7

Temp(C) @
P=15
62,9
58,5
55,2
51,4
14,9
19,7
23,5
26,2

Temp(C) @
P=20
63
58,6
55,3
51,4
15
19,4
22,8
25,3

Temp(C) @
P=25
62,3
58,1
54,7
50,8
15,1
19,1
22,1
24,6

Table 2. Effect of Pressure Drop on Temperature (counter current


flow)
For Counter Current
Flow
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8

Temp(C) @
P=10
63,2
59,8
56,6
52,1
29,6
25
20,6
15,5

Temp(C) @
P=15
62,8
59
55,8
51,1
27,2
23,3
19,6
15,1

Temp(C) @
P=20
62,8
58,8
55,4
50,6
25,8
22,3
19
15,3

Temp(C) @
P=25
62,3
58,2
54,8
50,2
25
21,7
18,7
15,6

These tables shows that as pressure drop increases through the


pipe, the temperature difference in the hot stream increases and the
temperature difference in the cold stream decreases.

Figure 2. Temperature profile vs. tube length graph for co-current


flow

10

Figure 3. Temperature profile vs. tube length graph for counter-current flow

11

Hot streams are indicated as red lines in these figures while the cold
streams are indicated as dark blue. Temperature profiles in both of the
diagrams are just as they are expected. It can be summarized from these
diagrams that, the temperature of

both the hot and cold streams in

counter current flow increase much more than they do in co-current flow.
3.

CALCULATION

OF

INDIVIDUAL

AND

OVERALL

HEAT

COEFFICIENTS
After the raw data for both type of flow is obtained, by using the
correlation

M = 8.114 (P)0.51 , mass flow rates of cold and hot streams

are found. The mean temperatures are obtained due to T m = (Tin + Tout)/2
for the streams. Physical properties of water(k c, c, Pr) are obtained
according to this mean temperature and Reynolds Number (Re = 4M / ( *
Di * )) are found for cold and streams are determined. Then with the
appropriate ranges of these physical properties, Nusselt Number(Nu =
0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.4) is found to go further and find individual heat transfer
coefficients(h = Nu * k / Di).
Finally, overall heat transfer coefficient is found by using the
individual heat transfer coefficients and diameters of the pipes(U = 1/
( 1/hh + Do,inner/( Di,inner *hc )) where subscripts h and o indicate hot and cold
streams respectively. The results of these parameters can be found at the
end of the results and discussion section in table 3.
4. HEAT FLUX CALCULATIONS
For each run, the inlet and outlet temperatures of the streams are
found from table1 and Tlm= ((Th,in - Tc,in ) (Th,out - Tc,out)) / ln((Th,in - Tc,in ) /
(Th,out - Tc,out)) correlation and the overall heat transfer coefficent (U) is
used, to obtain heat flux at the specific positions of the pipes. (q' = U
Tlm). This heat flux can also be calculated by using the mass flow rates (q

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= M* Cpav*T) where subscript av indicates that average of inlet and outlet


temperatures is used for the heat capacity of the water. These results can
also be found in table3.
5. CALCULATION OF HEAT LOSS TO THE SURROUNDINGS
As it is mentioned earlier, heat fluxes of both cold and hot streams
can be found either by using (q' = U Tlm) or (q = M* Cpav*T). If qh
indicates the heat flux of hot stream where q c indicates the heat flux of
cold stream, then heat loss to the surroundings can be found by q loss' = qh'
- qc' . After that percantage of the heat loss are found easily by
proportioning the heat loss to the heat flux of hot stream (qloss' / qh' *100).
Next step is the determination of the amount of heat loss. It can be
said that the heat required for heating the feed water to the heater from
room temperature to an higher temperature is equal to the heat released
from condensate minus the heat loss to the surroundings(M h Cpav,h Th =
Mcond Hlatent - Qloss). The mass flow rate of the hot stream is found in earlier
calculations and Cp value is obtained at the average of the inlet and outlet
temperatures of the hot stream. Hlatent is obtained from the literature and
Mcond = Vcond / , where is the specific volume the water at 100 0C and
found from literature again. Finally Qloss = Mcond Hlatent+ Mh Cpav,h Th
equation is used and amount of heat loss is determined. All of these
quantitative results can be seen in table 3 below.

Table 3. Whole Results of the experiment


Cocurrent
PC (cmHg)
Ph (cmHg)

Countercurrent

1.run

2.run

3.run

4.run

1.run

2.run

3.run

4.run

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

15,000

15,000

15,000

15,000

15,000

15,000

15,000

15,000

T1(C)

61,700

62,900

63,000

62,300

63,200

62,800

62,800

62,300

T2(C)

58,000

58,500

58,600

58,100

59,800

59,000

58,800

58,200

T3(C)

55,000

55,200

55,300

54,700

56,600

55,800

55,400

54,800

13

T4(C)

51,700

51,400

51,400

50,800

52,100

51,100

50,600

50,200

T5(C)

14,800

14,900

15,000

15,100

29,600

27,200

25,800

25,000

T6(C)

20,500

19,700

19,400

19,100

25,000

23,300

22,300

21,700

T7(C)

24,900

23,500

22,800

22,100

20,600

19,600

19,000

18,700

T8(C)

27,700

26,200

25,300

24,600

15,500

15,100

15,300

15,600

250,000

250,000

250,000

250,000

250,000

250,000

250,000

250,000

3,950

3,780

3,820

4,030

4,050

4,200

4,150

4,040

63,291

66,138

65,445

62,035

61,728

59,524

60,241

61,881

986,200

986,200

986,200

986,200

986,200

986,200

986,200

986,200

0,062

0,065

0,065

0,061

0,061

0,059

0,059

0,061

0,438

0,538

0,623

0,698

0,438

0,538

0,623

0,698

0,538

0,538

0,538

0,538

0,538

0,538

0,538

0,538

294,400

293,700

293,300

293,000

295,700

294,300

293,700

293,450

0,606

0,604

0,603

0,601

0,607

0,606

0,604

0,604

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,001

0,001

6,600

6,800

6,900

7,100

6,400

6,600

6,800

6,800

VCond(ml)
time(s)
Vcond(ml/s)
cond(kg/m3)
Mcond(kg/s)
MC(kg/s)
Mh(kg/s)
Tcmean(K)
kC(W/mK)
C(Ns/m2)
PrC
ReC
NuC
Th,mean(K)
kh(W/mK)
h(Ns/m2)
Prh
Reh
Nuh
hC
hh
U
Tlm
QC'(J/kgm2)
QC'(J/kgm2)
Cpc(J/kgK)
Cph(J/kgK)
Qh'(J/kgm2)
Qloss'(J/kgm2)
%heat loss

21797,598 25477,983 28931,300 31800,942 23779,198 26528,622 29504,197 33390,989


144,635

165,830

184,655

201,457

153,164

169,246

186,483

205,890

329,850

330,300

330,350

329,700

330,800

330,100

329,850

329,400

0,650

0,650

0,650

0,650

0,650

0,650

0,650

0,650

0,000

0,000

0,000

0,000

0,000

0,000

0,000

0,000

21,700

21,700

21,700

21,700

21,700

21,700

21,700

21,700

16319,942 16319,942 16319,942 16319,942 16319,942 16319,942 16319,942 16319,942


184,708

184,708

184,708

184,708

184,708

184,708

184,708

184,708

3290,112

3759,812

4179,698

4544,890

3489,893

3849,954

4228,060

4668,072

6285,888

6285,888

6285,888

6285,888

6285,888

6285,888

6285,888

6285,888

2159,699

2352,624

2510,429

2637,730

2244,023

2387,604

2527,796

2678,755

34,181

35,384

35,945

35,676

35,079

35,800

36,143

35,933

73820,557 83245,517 90237,152 94103,108 78717,224 85475,344 91362,968 96255,964


23809,037 25647,031 27071,644 27978,545 26023,831 27462,750 27597,307 27684,034
4180,000

4180,000

4180,000

4180,000

4180,000

4180,000

4180,000

4180,000

4600,000

4600,000

4600,000

4600,000

4600,000

4600,000

4600,000

4600,000

24754,156 28467,280 28714,821 28467,280 27477,113 28962,363 30200,071 29952,529


945,120

2820,249

1643,177

488,735

1453,283

1499,613

2602,763

2268,495

3,818

9,907

5,722

1,717

5,289

5,178

8,618

7,574

14

CONCLUSIONS
For the first part of the experiment co-current flow and later on
counter current flow are examined. The sequence of the pressure drops in
the cold stream are 10,15,20, and 25 mmHg respectively while the
pressure drop of the hot stream is kept constant during the experiment at
15 mmHg. These adjustments of pressure drops surely and continuously
changed the results in inlet and outlet temperatures of the streams, the
mass flow rates of the cold stream, so the Reynolds Numbers, the
individual and overall heat transfer coefficients, heat fluxes of the streams,
and finally the heat loss to the surroundings.
According to the changes in the pressure drop through the pipe,the
varying Reynolds Number for the cold stream are found as 21.798,
25.478, 28.931, 31.801 for the co-current flow and 23.779, 26.529,
29.504, 33.391 for the counter current flow which points out that the type
of flow remained constant at turbulent region. The individual heat transfer
coefficients of the cold stream also varied and the results are 3290, 3760,
4180, 4545 for the co-current flow and 3490, 3850, 4228, 4668 for the
counter current flow, in the units of W/m 2K. As the mass flow rate of the
hot stream is kept constant, the Reynolds Number and the individual heat
transfer coefficient for the hot stream did not change and are kept
constant at 16.320 and 6286 respectively.
It can be concluded that, an increase in pressure drop increase the
mass flow rate, Reynolds Number so the turbulance of the flow, T lm,
individual and overall heat transfer coefficients. When the equation
Q=U*Tlm is thought, the increase in the U and T lm increase the heat

15

transfer. Finally it can be said that, the more the flow gets turbulent, the
more heat transfer can be obtained.

REFERENCES
1. Mc Cabe, W.L., J.C. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Operations of Chemical
Engineering, 4th ed., Mc Graw Hill, N.Y. (1986) Chapter 11, Principles of
Heat Flow in Fluids.
2. F. P. Incropera, D. P. De Witt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer,
5th ed., Wiley, N.J. (2002) Chapter 11, Heat Exchangers
3. Perry, R.H. and D. Green, Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 7 th
ed., Mc Graw Hill, N.Y. (1997) Section 11, Heat Transfer Equipment.

16

APPENDICES
1. Raw Data
Raw data obtained in the experiment is;

For Co-Current Flow


T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
For Counter-Current
Flow
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
Mcond(kg/s) (co

Mcond (kg/s)(counter)

Temp(C) @
P=10
61,7
58
55
51,7
14,8
20,5
24,9
27,7
Temp(C) @
P=10
63,2
59,8
56,6
52,1
29,6
25
20,6
15,5

Temp(C) @
P=15
62,9
58,5
55,2
51,4
14,9
19,7
23,5
26,2
Temp(C) @
P=15
62,8
59
55,8
51,1
27,2
23,3
19,6
15,1

Temp(C) @
P=20
63
58,6
55,3
51,4
15
19,4
22,8
25,3
Temp(C) @
P=20
62,8
58,8
55,4
50,6
25,8
22,3
19
15,3

Temp(C) @
P=25
62,3
58,1
54,7
50,8
15,1
19,1
22,1
24,6
Temp(C) @
P=25
62,3
58,2
54,8
50,2
25
21,7
18,7
15,6

0,062

0,065

0,065

0,061

0,061

0,059

0,059

0,061

2. Sample Calculation
For the first run of co-current flow

17

**Calculation of individual and overall heat transfer coefficients


The mass flow rate of the cold stream:
Mc = 8.114 (Pc)0.51
The value of Pc was measured as 10 cmHg
Mc = 8.114 (10)0.51 = 0.438 kg/s
Tin and Tout for the cold streams were measured as 14.8C and 27.7C,
respectively.
Tm = ( Tin + Tout )/2 = 294.4 K
The inner diameter of inner pipe which is 1'' Sch. 40 steel pipe is 26.64
mm (1
For water at 294.4K, (2)
kc = 0,606 W/mK
c = 0,001Ns/m2
Pr = 6,600
Re = 4Mc / ( Di c ) = 4 * 0.438 / ( * 26.64E-3 * 0.001 ) = 21797,598
Nuc = 0.023 Rec0.8 Pr0.4
Nuc = 0.023 * (21797,598)0.81 (6.6)0.4 = 144,635
Finally we can calculate hc,
hc = Nuc kc / Di = 144,635* 0.606 / 0.02664 = 3290,112 W/m2K
in a similar way hh can be calculated but;
Reh = 4 Mh / [ (Di + Do) h ] for the hot fluid.
Reh =16319,942
hh = 6285,888 W/m2K
Then overall heat transfre can be calculate as;
U = 1/( 1/hh + 1/ hc ) = 1/( 1/3290,112 + 1/6285,888) = 2159,699 W/m2K
**Calculation of Heat flux
The heat flux can be calculated as;
q' = U Tlm
Tlm = (Tin - Tout ) / ln(Tin/Tout)
where Tin = Th,in - Tc,in and

Tout = Th,out - Tc,out

18

For the first run of cocurrent flow, the temperatures of the streams were
measured as,
Th,in = 61.7C Th,out = 51.7C
Tc,in = 14.8C Tc,out = 27.7C
Tlm = 34,181 K
qc' = U Tlm = 2159,699 * 34,181 = 73820,557 W/m2
qc' can be also calculated by the heat transfer equation,
q = M Cpav T
Cpav at (14.8+27.7)/2 = 294.4 K is taken as 4180J/kgK (2)
Tc = Tc,out - Tc,in = 27.7 - 14.8 = 12.9 K
qc' = qc / A = Mc Cpav,c T / ( * 0.0334 * L )
where L = 3 * 3.15 m
qc' = 0.438 * 4180 * 12.9 / ( * 0.0334 * 3 * 3.15 ) = 23809,037 W/m2
**Calculation of heat fluxes to the surroundings
qh' = Mh Cpav,h Th
qh' = 24754,156W/m2
qloss' = qh' - qc' = 24754,156 - 23809,037 = 945,120 W/m2
% heat loss = qloss' / qh' *100 = % 3,818
**Energy balance around the steam heater
The heat required for heating the feed water to the heater from room
temperature to an higher temperature is equal to the heat released from
condensate minus the heat loss to the surroundings.That means;
Mh Cpav,h Th = Mcond Hlatent - Qloss
Hlatent = 2257 kJ/kg
The volume of the condensate for the first run was measured as 63,291ml/s
Mcond = Vcond *

where is the specific volume

Mcond = 63,291ml/s*0.000996kg/ml = 0,062kg/s


Cpav,h = 4200J/kgK (2)
Mh was calculated as 0,538 kg/s
Th = 61.7 14.8 = 46.9 K
19

Mh Cpav,h Th = Mcond Hlatent - Qloss


0.538 * 4200 * 46.9 = 0,062* 2257000 - Qloss
Qloss = 33958 W

3. Flow Diagram and Control Panel of DPHE

20