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1.

CSSR (CALL SETUP SUCCESS RATE)


Definition: Rate of calls going until TCH successful assignment
2. SCR (SUCCESSFULL CALL RATE)
Definition: Rate of calls going until normal release that is not interrupted by SDCCH DROP, neither by assignment
failures, and neither by CALL DROP.
3. CALL DROP RATE (CDR)
Definition: Rate of all losses of TCH connections during a call in relation to the number of successful Call Setups
4. HOSR (HAND OVER SUCCESS RATE)
Definition: Successful internal and external outgoing handovers of total number of internal and external outgoing
handover attempts
5. PSR (PAGING SUCCESS RATE)
Definition: Rate of successful paging attempts of total number of paging attempts.The formula is based on NSS
point of view (based on MSC or LAC)
6. LOCATION UPDATE SUCCESS RATE
Definition: Successful location update attempts of total number of location update attempts. The formula is based
on NSS point of view.
7. SDCCH BLOCK RATE
Definition: SDCCH congestion of total number of SDCCH seizure attempts
8. SDCCH DROP RATE
Definition: Dropped SDCCH connections of total number of SDCCH connections without TCH congestion.
9. TCH ASSIGNMENT BLOCK RATE
Definition: Rate of TCH unsuccessful seizures during assignment procedure due to congestion
10. TCH Assignment Failure Rate (exclude blocking)
Definition: Rate of RTCH seizure failed (system + radio) during normal assignment procedure over the total amount
of RTCH request for normal assignment procedure
11. EMD (Erlang Minute per Drop)
Definition: Total of Erlang minutes (TCH occupation) in one period measurement per drop call (after TCH
Assignment).
12. TCH Availability
Definition: Available TCH of total number of defined TCH
13. RACH Success Rate
Definition : Rate of Successful RACH over the total number of channel required message received
Definition RSCP,RSSI and Ec/Io
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Hello Friends Here I try to simplify these three Terms of UMTS
RSCP: The Received Signal Code Power (RSCP) is the collected RF energy after the correlation / descrambling
process, usually given in dBm. Only this code power is of interest for the following receiver stages when judging on
the quality of the reception.
Ec/Io: This is the ratio of the received energy per chip (= code bit) and the interference level, usually given in dB. In
case no true interference is present, the interference level is equal to the noise level.
Because of the system gain (see 1), the interference level can be higher than the wanted signal level. Therefore, at
the coverage border, the value of Ec/I0 is usually negative.
RSSI: The Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is a value that takes into account both RSCP and Ec/I0. It is
usually given in dBm and can be calculated as follows: RSSI [dBm] = RSCP [dBm] - Ec/I0 [dB]
You can get full information from here
Dropped Call(TCH Drop-SDCCH Drop)-TCH Drop Analysis
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Step to check TCH Drop Analysis.


1. Radio Link Time-Out
Every time a SACCH message can not be decoded the radio link time-out counter is decreased by 1. If the message
can be decoded the counter is incremented by 2. However, the value can not exceed the initial value. The initial
value is set by the parameter RLINKT for radio link time-out in the mobile station and by RLINKUP for timeout in the
BSC. If the mobile moves out of coverage and no measurement reports are received in the BSC, there will be a radio
link time-out and the message Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, unspecified) is sent to the mobile station
and the SACCH is deactivated in the BTS. A Clear Request message is sent to the MSC. To be sure that the mobile
has stopped transmitting, the BSC now waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call
can be established on the channel.
Download LTE and WCDMA Documents
2. Layer 2 Time-Out
If the BTS never get an acknowledge on a Layer 2 message after the time T200XN200, the BTS will send Error
Indication (cause: T200 expired) to the BSC, which will send Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, timer
expired) to the mobile station and a Clear Request to the MSC. The SACCH is deactivated and the BSC waits RLINKT
SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can use the channel. This is only valid if the call is in
steady state, i.e. not during handover or assignment.

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3. Release Indication
When the BTS received a layer 2 DISC frame from the mobile it replies with a Layer 2 UA frame to the mobile
station and a Release Indication to the BSC. The system does only react on Release Indication if it is received during
a normal disconnection situation. If such a message is received unexpectedly this will usually cause radio link timeout or timer T200 expiration as the mobile station stops the transmitting of measurement reports. It is also possible
that the release will be normal depending on when the Release Indication is received.
Download HSPA and LTE Advance Documents
4. MSC Time-Out
Normal Release:
If the MSC never received a response on a message (e.g. Identity Request) and there is no radio link time-out or
layer 2 time-out, the MSC will send a Clear Command to the BSC. The time-out is depending on the message. When
receiving Clear Command, the BSC will send a Channel Release (cause: normal release) and then deactivates the
SACCH.
Reject (only SDCCH):
If the MSC never receives a response on the first message after Establish Indication, the MSC will send a reject
message. If the connection was a Location Update it will be a Location Update Reject (cause: network failure) and if
the connection was a mobile originating call (CM Service Request) a CM Service Reject (cause: network failure) will
be sent. The MSC will then send a Clear Command to the BSC and the call is cleared by Channel Release (cause:
normal release).
5. Assignment to TCH
Before sending an Assignment Command from the BSC at TCH assignment, the following two criterion have to be
fulfilled:
a. There must be a TCH channel available, i.e. no congestion
b. The locating algorithm must have received at least one valid measurement report.
If either of the criterion is not fulfilled, Assignment Command will not be sent and a Channel Release (cause:
abnormal release, unspecified) will be sent to the mobile station and a Clear Request to the MSC.
Download LTE and WCDMA Documents
TCH Drop reason (1)
The classification of TCH Drop Reasons are arranged in the order of priority:
1.Excessive Timing Advance
2.Low Signal Strength
3.Bad Quality
4.Sudden Loss of Connection
5.Other Reasons
Excessive Timing Advance
The TCH Drop counters due to Excessive Timing Advance will pegged when the during the time of disconnection,
the last Timing Advance value recorded was higher than the TALIM Parameter. This drop reason is commonly
apparent to isolated or island sites with a wide coverage area.
Action:
Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < "63"
Solution:
Set TALIM to a value close to 63.
Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power, etc. for co-channel cells.
TCH Drop Reasons (2)
Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink or Both Links
The drops counters due to Low Signal Strength will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last
Measurement Report before the call dropped is below the LOWSSDL and/or LOWSSUL Thresholds. LOWSSDL and

LOWSSUL are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect the
behavior of calls. If both UL and DL Signal Strength are below the thresholds, only Drop due to Low SS BL will
pegged. Normally a call is dropped at the border of large rural cell with insufficient coverage. Bad tunnel coverage
cause many dropped calls as well as so called coverage holes. Bad indoor coverage will result in dropped calls.
Building shadowing could be another reason.
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Action:
Check coverage plots.
Check output power.
Check power balance and link budget.
Check if Omni site.
Check antenna configuration & type.
Check antenna installation.
Perform drive tests & site survey.
Check TRX/TS with high CONERRCNT.
Solution:
Add a repeater to increase coverage in for example a tunnel.
Change to a better antenna (with higher gain) for the base station.
Add a new base station if there are large coverage holes.
Block/Deblock TRX
TCH Drop Reasons (3)
Poor Quality on Down or Uplink or Both Links
The drops counters due to Bad Quality will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report
before the call dropped is above the BADQDL and/or BADQUL Thresholds. BADQDL and BADQUL (expressed in
DTQU) are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect the
behavior of calls. If both UL and DL Quality are above the thresholds, only Drop due to BAD Quality BL will pegged.
Problem on Bad Quality is usually associated with Co-channel Interference on BCCH or TCH. Faulty MAIO assignment
can cause frequency collisions on co-sited cells especially on 1x1 Reuse. External interference is also one possible
cause of problem on quality.

Action:
Check C/I and C/A plots.
Check Frequency Plan (Co-BCCH or Co-BSIC Problem).
Click Here to get Co BCCH and Co BSIC Finding Tool
Check MAIO, HOP, HSN parameters.
Check FHOP if correctly configured (BB or SY).
Check for External Interference.
Perform drive tests.
Solution:
Change BCCH frequency.
Change BSIC.
Change MAIO, HOP, HSN.
Change FHOP.
Record RIR or on-site Frequency Scanning to identify source of interference.
Use available radio features.
TCH Drop Reasons (4)
Sudden Loss of Connection
Drops due to Sudden Loss are drops that have not been registered as low signal strength, excessive timing
advance, bad quality or hardware (other) reasons, and the locating procedure indicates missing measurement
results from the MS.
There are some common scenarios that could lead to Sudden Loss of connections such as very sudden and severe
drops in signal strength, such as when subscribers enter into buildings, elevators, parking garages, etc., very
sudden and severe occurrence of interference, MS runs out of battery during conversation, Handover Lost, BTS HW
faults, Synchronization or A-bis link fault (transmission faults), and

MS Faults.
Action:
Check BTS Error Logs, Alarms and Fault Codes.
Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS.
Check Transmission Link (A-bis).
Check for DIP Slips.
Check LAPD Congestion.
Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Sudden Loss
Solution:
Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms.
Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT.
Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable.
Change RBLT with high DIP Slips.
Change CONFACT or increase Transmission Capacity
Investigate HO Lost Problem
TCH Drop Reasons (5)
TCH Drops due to Other Reasons
TCH drops due to Other Reasons are computed by subtracting the sum of drops due to Excessive TA, Low SS, Bad
Quality and Sudden Loss from the Total TCH Drop Counts. Drops due to Other Reasons are generally associated with
hardware problems, transmission link problems on A-bis, Ater or Ainterfaces, and sometimes Handover Lost.
Action:
Check BTS Error Logs.
Check Alarms and Fault Codes.
Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS.
Check Transmission Link (A-bis).
Check for DIP Slips.
Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Other Reasons
Solution:
Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms.
Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT.
Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable.
Change RBLT with high DIP Slips.
Investigate HO Lost Problem
Problem reason of drop in SDCCH
Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink
The reason for poor coverage could be too few sites, wrong output power, shadowing, no indoor coverage or
network equipment failure.
Action: Check coverage plots.Check output power. Perform drive tests. Check BTS error log
Solution: Add new sites. Increase output power. Repair faulty equipment.
Poor Quality on Down or Uplink
Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. Check frequency plan. Perform drive tests.
Solution: Change frequency. Use available radio features.
Too High Timing Advance
Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < style="font-weight: bold;">Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63.
Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power, etc. for cochannel cells.
Mobile Error
Some old mobiles may cause dropped calls if certain radio network features are used. Another reason is that the MS
is damaged and not working properly.
Action: Check MS fleet.
Solution: Inform operator.
Subscriber Behavior
Poorly educated subscribers could use their handsets incorrectly by not raising antennas, choosing illadvised
locations to attempt calls, etc.
Action: Check customer complaints and their MS.
Battery Flaw
When a subscriber runs out of battery during a conversation, the call will be registered as dropped call due to low

signal strength or others.


Action: Check if MS power regulation is used. Check if DTX uplink is used.
Congestion on TCH
The SDCCH is dropped when congestion on TCH.
Action: Check TCH congestion
Solution: Increase capacity on TCH or using features like Assignment to another cell, Cell Load Sharing, HCS,
Dynamic Half-Rate Allocation and FR-HR Mode Adaptation etc