AECL5852
ATOMIC ENERGY 
mj& & 
L'ÉNERGIE ATOMIQUE 

OFCANADA LIMITED 
^Kj 
r 
DU CANADA LIMITÉE 
"FLOWINDUCED VIBRATIONOF
NUCLEAR POWER STATION COMPONENTS"
by
M.J. PETTIGREW
Presented at the 90th Annual Congress of the
Engineering
Institute of Canada, Halifax, Nova Scotia, October 48, 1976
Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Chalk River, Ontario
September 1977
"FLOWINDUCED VIBRATION OF NUCLEAR POWER STATION COMPONENTS"*
M.J.
by
Pettigrew,
H.C.S.M.E.
^Presented at the 90th Annual Congress of the Engineering Institute of Canada, Halifax, Nova Saotia, October 48, 1976.
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Chalk River, Ontario
KOJ 1J0
Septerriber 1977
AECL5852
"VIBRATIONS ENGENDREES PAR L'ECOULEMENT DES F.LUIDES DANS LES COMPOSANTS DES CENTRALES ELECTRONUCLEAIRES"*
par
M.J. Pettigrew
Plusieurs composants des centrales électronucléaires CANDU** sont sujets à des vitesses d'écoulement des fluides relativement grandes en régime liquide ou biphasé (eau/vapeur). Le combustible nucléaire dans les canaux de combustible et les faisceaux de tubes dans les générateurs de vapeur sont des composants typiques. Souvent on augmente les vitesses d'écoule ment pour améliorer le rendement des composants, par example, pour obtenir un meilleur échange calorifique dans les canaux de combustible. Pour des raisons économiques on préférerait spécifier des composants plus petits ou éliminer des éléments de structure, par example, on utilise des tubes de petits diamètres pour réduire l'inventaire d'eau lourde. De grandes vitesses d'écoulement et une réduction des éléments de structure peuvent causer des problèmes de vibrations. CetL? communication traite des problèmes et analyses de vibrations des composants des centrales électronucléaire engendrées par les écoulements.
L'usure par frottement, la fatigue, le bruit acoustique et les difficultées opérationelles sont les problèmes causés par les vibrations. On examine de récents problèmes comme l'usure de tubes de générateur de vapeur.
Les écoulements dans les composants nucléaires peuvent être parallèles ou trans versaux . Dans les canaux à combustible l'écoulement est surtout par allèle. L'écoulement est transversal et liquide au travers des faisceaux de tubes d'échangeurs de chaleur tandis qu'il est aussi transversal mais biphasé dans la région des générateurs de vapeur où les tubes sont coudés en U. On discute des mécanismes d'excitation dominants en écoulement parallèle et transversal. Eh écoulement parallèle on considère deux méchanismes principaux qui sont l'excitation aléatoire due à la turbulence de l'écoulement et l'instabilité fluidelastique. En écoulement transversal on considère en plus le détachement périodique des tourbillons. Notre méthode d'analyse des composants nucléaires est présentée. L'analyse des vibrations des générateurs de vapeur est donnée en example.
Nos études courrantes sur les vibrations engendrées par les écoulements sont décrites. Ceci inclus l'étude du comportement vibratoire des éléments de combustible nucléaire dans un réacteur expérimental.
On conclu que, même si le travail de recherches n'est pas encore terminé, la plupart des problèmes de vibrations peuvent être évités, pourvu que les composants nucléaires sont analyses au stage de la conception et que ces analyses sont appuyées par des études expérimentales au besoin. On n'a pas encore rencontré de situations où les vibrations ont sérieusement limité l'ingénieur au stage de la conception.
* Cormuniaation présentée au BOieme congrès annuel de l'Institut canadien des ingénieurs, Halifax, NouvelleEaosse, octobre 48, 1976.
** CANDU  CANada Deuterium Uranium.
L'Energie
Atomique
du
Canada, Limitée
Chalk
River,
Ontario
Canada ,
KOJ 1J 0
Septembre
1977
AECL5852
"FLOWINDUCED
VIBRATION
STATION
by M.J. Pettigrew, M.C. S.M.E. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River Nuslear Laboratories
OF NUCLEAR
POWER
ABSTRACT
COMPONENTS"*
Several components of CANDU** nuclear power stations are subjected to relatively high flow velocities in either liquid or twophase (steam/water) flow. Typical of such components are the nuclear fuel in the fuel channels and tube bundles in the steam generators. Often higher component performance, requires higher flow velocities, for instance, to improve heat transfer in fuel channels. Economics sometimes dictates smaller components or minimum structural constraints, for example small diameter tubes are used in steam generators to minimize heavy water inventory. High flow velocities and decreased structural rigidity could lead to problems due to excessive flowinduced vibration. This paper generally treats the problems and the analyses related to flowinduced vibration of nuclear power station components.
Frettingwear, fatigue, acoustic noise and operational difficulties are the problems caused by flowinduced vibration. Some recent problems such as fretting of Jteam generator tubes are reviewed.
Flow in nuclear components may be parallel or transverse. In fuel channels the
Liquid crossflow exists in heat
flow is mainly parallel to the fuel elements.
exchanger tube bundles and Ubend tube regions of steam generators are sub jected to twophase crossflow. The vibration excitation mechanisms predominant in parallel and transverse flow are discussed and formulated. In parallel flow two basic vibration excitation mechanisms are considered, namely random excitation due to flow turbulence and fluidelastic instability. The above and periodic wake shedding are considered in crossflow.
Our approach to the vibration analysis of nuclear components is presented. This is illustrated by the vibration analysis of steam generator designs.
Current investigations related to flowinduced vibration are outlined. This includes the experimental study of the inreactor vibration behaviour of fuel elements.
It is concluded that, although there are still areas of uncertainty, most flow induced vibration problems can be avoided provided that nuclear components are properly analysed at the design stage and that the analyses are supported by adequate testing and development work when required. There has been no case yet where vibration considerations have seriously constrained the designer.
* Presented at the 90th Annual Congress of the Engineering Institute of Canada, Halifax, Nova Saotia, Ootobev 408, 1976.
** CANDU  CANada Deuterium Uranium.
Chalk River, Ontario KOJ 1J0 September 1977
AECL5852
CONTENTS
Page 

1. INTRODUCTION 
2 

2. FLOWINDUCED VIBRATION PROBLEMS 
3 

3. FLOW CONSIDERATIONS IN NUCLEAR STATION COMPONENTS 
5 

4. VIBRATION EXCITATION MECHANISMS IN AXIAL FLOW 
8 

Fluidelastic Instability 
8 

Forced Vibration 
. 
10 

5. VIBRATION EXCITATION MECHANISMS IN CROSSFLOW 
17 

1) Forced Vibration 
17 

2) Fluidelastic Instability 
18 

Periodic Wake Shedding Resonance 
20 

6. VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR COMPONENTS 
21 

7. CURRENT VIBRATION STUDIES Vibration Behaviour of Nuclear Fuel in Reactor 
25 

Vibration Damping and Support Dynamics of Heat Exchanger Tubes 
26 

Other Vibration and Related Studies Currently Underway 
27 

8. CONCLUDING REMARKS 
28 

REFERENCES 
30 

FIGURES 
, 
35 
1.
2
INTRODUCTION Several components of CANDU* nuclear power stations are subjected to relatively high flow velocities. Typical of such components are the nuclear fuel bundles in the fuel channels and the tube bundles of steam generators and heat exchangers. Often higher component performance requires higher flow velocities, for instance, to improve heat transfer in fuel channels. Economics sometimes dictates smaller components or minimum structural con straints, for example small diameter tubes are used in steam generators to minimize the inventory of expensive heavy water. High flow velocities and decreased struc tural rigidity could lead to problems due to excessive flowinduced vibration. Such problems could seriously affect the performance and reliability of nuclear power stations.
The above is best illustrated by an example. Fretting wear due to vibration of one of the many tubes in a steam generator could result in leakage of heavy water primary coolant into the secondary system. A station shutdown lasting a few days would be required for repairs, This is very undesirable in terms of lost production and of radiation exposure limitation of maintenance personnel. Although an effective tube plugging technique has been developed ^{1} ' ^{2} in preparation for the unlikely event of a tube failure, it is much preferable to avoid vibration problems altogether. This can be achieved by proper flowinduced vibration analysis of nuclear station com ponents at the design stage.
This paper is a general outline of our work in the area of flowinduced vibration. Some recent vibration
* CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium)
3
problems are reviewed. Flowinduced vibration excitation mechanisms are discussed. The paper outlines our approach and techniques to analyse nuclear power station components from a flowinduced vibration point of view. The prevention of flowinduced vibration problems is emphasized. Some current vibration studies are described.
FLOWINDUCED VIBRATION PROBLEMS The problems related to flowinduced vibration are gener ally frettingwear, fatigue, acoustic noise and operational difficulties. Figures la and b show a case of steam gene rator tube frettingwear which occurred in the Douglas Point nuclear power station ^{3} . The "U" bend tubes near the outlet are subjected to high velocity twophase (steam/water) flow. In a few of the Douglas Point steam generators the "U" bend tubes were not supported at the top and vibrated with sufficient amplitude to contact each other resulting in the frettingwear shown on Fig. la. Vibration of the "U" bend tubes also caused fretting at the location of nearby supports. In one tube the fretting was extensive enough to cause leakage as shown on Figure, lb.
In most of the steam generators the "U" bend tubes were supported at the top and no fretting problem occurred. This problem could have been prevented simply by providing for adequate tube supports.
A case of heat exchanger tube frettingwear is shown in Figure 2. He.e the frettingwear occurred at the location of lacing metal strips which were added to provide addi tional support near the inlet where flow velocities are relatively high. The problem was attributed to the com bination of excessively loose lacing of the metal strips and partial blockage of the inlet which resulted in much
4
hlgher than expected flow velocities in the region of
the damage". Avoidance of inlet blockage and the
replacement of the lacing strips by proper support plates
were the corrective actions taken in this case.
Frettingwear was observed on the top fuel bundles in 40% of the high flow fuel channels of the Gentilly1 nuclear power station. Figure 3 is a photograph of
typical fretting damage taken through an optical magnifier during "hot cell" examination. Figure 4 is a simplified flow diagram of the Gentilly1 station which is of the CANDUBLW* type. The fuel bundles (Fig. 5) are assembled in the form of a string held together with a central sup
porting tube. The latter is
flux suppressor and at the bottom by a spring assembly. The strings are inserted in upward flow vertical fuel channels as shown on Figure 6. They are attached at the
terminated at the top by a
bottom and free at the top of the fuel channels.
flow gradually becomes twophase as boiling occurs along
the fuel and reaches i 16% steam quality near the top. —2 —1
.s . The fretting
The
The mass flux is typically 4400 kg.m
problem was attributed to transverse flowinduced vibra tion of the fuel strings. Unexpectedly some of the flux suppressors were assembled eccentrically. This caused the fuel strings to be bent and promoted frettingwear. The corrective measures taken were to as.ure the concentric assembly of the fuel and to increase fuel string flexural rigidity to reduce vibration.
We now consider an example where flowinduced vibration could have lead to operational difficulties. In the Gentilly1 station, control absorber guide tubes are cantilevered and suspended vertically in the calandria as
* BLW (Boiling Light Water)
 "5
shown on Figure 7. They extend past the horizontal
booster fuel rods. The absorber guide tubes were directly exposed to the submerged jet flow emerging
from the booster rod
outlet.
During prototype testing
the absorber guide tubes vibrated severely. In the reactor core this would have resulted in local reactivity disturbances which could have caused operational problems. The designers avoided the problems altogether by providing a protective shroud attached to four adjacent calandria tubes as shown on Figure 7a.
We have encountered other problems such as excessive acoustic noise due to flow control valve dynamics and fatigue cracking due to noiseinduced vibration of steam discharge nozzles. So far all our flowinduced vibration problems have been solved by simple design modifications or changes in operational conditions.
3. FLOW CONSIDERATIONS IN NUCLEAR STATION COMPONENTS Consider the simplified flow diagram of a typical CANDU PHW* nuclear power station as shown on Figure 8. Most
stations in Canada are of that type.
Starting at the
primary pumps, the heavy water coolant flows in the headers, into the feeder pipes leading to each fuel
channel. The fuel channels are horizontal. The flow in the channels is essentially axial to the fuel bundles.
Flow velocities
The
bundles are held down in the channel by gravity forces. They are not held together by me.chanical means although they are pushed together against a downstream stop by hydraulic forces. This is different than the string type fuel bundle assembly of vertical CANDUBLW fuel channels.
in the order of 9 m/s are typical.
* PHW  (Pressurized Heavy Water)
6
The fuel bundles may be partly subjected to crossflow during refuelling operations when they .are moved past the inlet or outlet feeders. In Pickering and earlier stations, the flow remains liquid throughout the fuel channels. In post Bruce stations and to some extent in Bruce the coolant is allowed to boil and downstream fuel bundles and outlet feeders are subjected to some two phase (steam/water) flow. For example in Gentilly2 and Point Lepreau, the average channel outlet quality is expected to be around 4%. These stations are sometimes called CAFDUBHW*.
The outlet feeders are coupled to main headers which lead to the steam generators. Figure 9 shows a typical recirculating type steam generator. All flow situations are possible in this component. Heavy water flows in the tubes at varying conditions from 5% steam quality to subcooled liquid. The tubes are subjected to liquid
cross—flow in the preheater section and in the recirculated water entrance region near the tubesheet. The saturated
water then flows
steam quality at the top. Thus liquid and twophase
axial flow exists along the tubes. Twophase cross flow is predominant at the top of the "U" tube region
where the mass flux is typically 300 kg m~*.s
up and gradually boils, to reach 15  20%
.
There are many heat exchangers in a nuclear station, e.g. the moderator heat exchangers. The tubes of heat exchangers are mostly subjected to crossflow particularly near inlets and outlets. The steam produced by the steam generators is
* CANDUBHW  (Boiling Heavy Water)
our
ICro
7
condensed after going through the turbine. The condenser is an enormous heat exchanger whose tubes are exposed to high velocity steam flow. The immersion heaters located at the bottom of the pressurizer are another category of interesting components. The heater elements are exposed to incoming liquid or twophase flow during station startup and out going liquid flow during shutdown. Flowinduced vibration of the calandria tubes may also be possible. They are subjected to some moderator crossflow and may be exposed to submerged jet for example near the effluent of booster fuel rods.
Thus from a flowinduced vibration point of view, nuclear station components are essentially cylindrical structures or bundles of cylinders subjected to axial or transverse
flow. "The flow may be internal or external to the cylinders and it may b e liquid, vapour or twophase. This is outlined on Table 1. The first task in any flowinduced vibration
analysis is to define the flow nuclear component under study.
conditions prevailing in the
TABLE 1: Possible Flow Conditions in Nuclear Power Stations
«1
STATION COMPONENTS
% g
•3 «
Ë e
ë
01
s
41
(H
1 ii
sa tu
i 1 S
l/
1
a a
zz
J
Yes
/
Ho
/
/
Fuel 
Channel 
M 
w 

Feeder 
Pipe 

Fuel 
(Normally 
/ 

I During Loading 

Calandria Tube 
/ 

Control Rod 
,/ 

Steam 
Entrance 
,' 

Genera 
"U" tub e 
/ 

tors 

Ptehee'—r 
/ 

Elseirhere 
/ 

Heat Exchangers 
/ 

Condenser 
J 
/ j
/ z
/ /
/
/ /
/ /
/ J
/
/
/ /
/ /
/
/
8
VIBRATION EXCITATION MECHANISMS IN AXIAL FLOW In axial flow we consider two flowinduced vibration excitation mechanisms, namely: fluidelastic instability and forced vibration response to random excitation due to flow turbulence. Other excitation mechanisms such as selfexcited vibration ^{5} and parametric vibration ^{1} " ^{7} have been suggested. However we have not yet needed to consider them. For a comprehensive review of this topic, the reader is referred to Paldoussis ^{8} .
Fluidelastio Instability Fluidelastic instabilities result from the interaction between hydrodynamic forces and the motion of structures. For cylinders in axial flow, the pertinent hydrodynamic forces ^{9} are the frictional forces, the fluid acceleration forces and in some cases the drag forces (e.g., cylinders with one free end). Instabilities appear in the form of either buckling or flutterlike oscillations. Figure 10 shows a flexible cylinder experiencing fourth mode buckling while being subjected to confined liquid flow. Fluidelastic instabilities are possible with both internal and external liquid flow. In spite of some experimental efforts ^{1}^{0} , we have not yet confirmed that instabilities are possible in twophase axial flow. To be conservative we assume they exist in our analyses.
The fluidelastic behaviour of cylindrical structures in
axial flow has been formulated by Paldoussis ^{8} ' ^{9} . The dynamic response y at a time t of a uniform cylinder diameter D, length L, flexural rigidity £1, mass and hydrodynamic mass m and M respectively, subjected to an axial velocity U is governed by:
of
9
 î ^{C} T ^ Hlf6)Lx} â_I _ _{{}_{6}_{T}_{o} _{+}
3x
^{2}
3x
^{D}
^{D}
3t
^{c}
i _{(}_{1} _ _{ô}_{)}_{e} ; _{M} U ^{2} _{}}
iîj _{=}_{0} .
^
3x*
In this equation, x is a point along the cylinder, y is an internal damping coefficient, €„ is the axial frictional force coefficient, T is an externally imposed tension, C' is a downstream end base drag
coefficient, C is the normal frictional force coefficient and C _{D} represents a viscous damping coefficient at zero flow velocity. Finally, 6= 0 corresponds to the case where the downstream end Is free to move axially and S «
1 when it is not.
For U^ 0, solution of this equation yields
the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the system, which are complex. By varying U one may determine the critical flow velocities for fluidelastic instabilities and the corres ponding mode shapes associated with these instabilities.
In a very approximate way, critical velocities for fluid elastic instability may be formulated in terms of the nondimensional velocity
u
 OL /MT U
(2)
For a given mode it is desirable to keep u much lower than the critical value to avoid instability. In general
if u is lower than unity there should be no problem ^{8} ' ^{1}^{1} .
In a nuclear component where M
and V may be fixed for
10
other considerations, instability problems may be avoided by increasing the flexural rigidity El or increasing the number of support points (e.g., decreasing L) .
Fortunately, critical velocities for fluidelastic insta bilities are much higher than the axial flow velocities normally encountered in nuclear components. For instance
the critical velocity of a typical steam generator tube is
in the order of 100 m/s. The relatively
flexible and heavy fuel strings of CANDUBLW fuel channel are the exception for which the possibility of fluid
elastic instabilities must be considered ^{1}^{1} .
long, very
Forced Vibration Nuclear components may respond to 1) excitation forces that are of mechanical origin and are structurally trans mitted, or 2)boundary layer pressure fluctuations that are generated by the fluid. Structurally transmitted forces may be generated by rotating machinery such as pumps or the turbinegenerator or by other components with moving parts such as control valves and fuelling machines. It is also possible that the flowinduced vibration response of other components such as the feeder pipes be structurally transmitted to for example the fuel bundles. It is very difficult to evaluate structur ally transmitted forces as they are not characterized by the component under consideration. They depend on the overall system to which the component is integrated. Fortunately we have not experienced vibration problems due to structurally transmitted vibration.
Fluidborne pressure fluctuations may be divided in two groups, namely: far field and near field. Far field disturbances are generated by upstream components such
li
as pumps, valves, elbows and headers and are transmitted by the fluid. Pressure fluctuations due to far field sources would generally be broadband in nature except for those generated by pumps. These would be at a fre
quency related to the pump speed times the number of impeller
vanes.
as the fluid dynamic behaviour of the overall system needs to be understood. Far field disturbances are insignificant in twophase flow as they are quickly attenuated by the inherently high damping of twophase mixtures. This is
fortunate since twophase flow induced vibrations are generally more severe.
Such forces are again very difficult to formulate
Near field disturbances are generated locally by the fluid as it flows around the component of interest. They may be generated in a number of ways such as general turbulence, swirl, crossflow components, flow regime changes and nucleate boiling. The result is a broadband random
pressure
ponents. At a given time, the pressure is not uniform around the periphery of a component. This results in a net time varying force which excites the component to vibrate. It may be shown with the assistance of
References 12, 13 and 14, that the mean square response
~2
y (x) of a unidimensional continuous uniform cylindrical structure to distributed random forces g(x,t) may be expressed by:
field acting at the surface of cylindrical com
12
^{y}^{2}^{(}^{x}^{)} ^{=} EET^77V^ ^{)} / H _{r} (f)H _{s} (f)cos[e _{r} (f)e _{s} (f)]
r
s
J J
J
J 4> _{r} (x)
r
r
s
m
f> _{s} (x') R(x,x',f) dx dx' df
(3)
where: 1) the spatial correlation density function R(x,x',f) is defined by
R(x,x',f) = 2 f T>a
^
/" i(x,t) g(x',t+T) dt _{e} " ^{j}^{(}^{2}^{i}^{r}^{f}^{)} dT
(4)
2) the frequency response function is
^{a} ' ^{<}^{f}^{>} ?—A
r
•• ^{<}^{5}^{>}
Ç _{r} is the damping ratio at the r of H _{r} (f).
mode and 6
^{r}
is the argument
3) <f> (x) and <f>(x) represent the normal mode of
mode, and
r
s
i.
vibration of the structure for the r
.,
and s
4) x and x* are points on the structure and T is
a uifference in time t.
For the above derivation we assume that the damping is small
and that it does not introduce coupling between modes to
justify modal analysis. The natural modes are normalized
so that
m <j>_ ^{2} (x) dx = 1
(6 )
where the total mass per unit length m = m
+ M.
13
"lonsider now the fundamental mode only of a lightly
lamped lamped simply simply supported supported cy cylinder (i.e., <f> (x) = (2/£m)
sin (TTX/A).
If we assume:
1) that the random force field is homogeneous, the power
spectral density function of the force S(g) is independent
of location, i.e.,
R(x,x',f) =• R'(x.x') S(g)
' ^{(}^{7}^{)}
and 2) that both S(g) and the spatial correlation R'(x,x') are fairly independent of frequency near the fundamental frequency of the cylinder, we can show that the space and frequency term» in Equation 3 may be separated and that:
H _{g} (f)j cos U(f )  e _{s} (f) df =
Ïïf _{x} /4Ç
(8)
substituting Equation 6, 7 and 8 in 3 we get for x = 1/2 (i.e., midspan):
7 (ft/2)=
^{L}
16
2
m
<S>
f _{1}
ir Ç
where ip _{t} is a ratio of
effective cylinder length over
actual length and is a measure of the spatial correlation
of the forcing function.
\p is defined as:
*L " lï f f
o
o
*1 ^{<}^{X}^{)} *1< ^{X} '> R'^^.x ^{1} ) dx dx'
(9)
(10)
14
Equation 9 is very similar to that derived by Gorman ^{1}^{5} ' ^{1}^{6} and Reavis . Similarly if we define a peripheral spatial
correlation ratio IJJ such that D
response may be expressed in terms of the power spectral density S(p) of the random pressure field p(x,t).
2
2
i^
S(p) = S(g), the
If we further assume that the random excitation forces are completely spatially correlated (i.e., R'(x,x') = 1) we obtain from Equation 6, 9 and 10:
, 
S(g) 

y 
(H/2) = —, 
3 
2 
(11) 
4TT f _{x} ^{J} in
^
This equation may be useful to make a first outside guess at forced random vibration response. Obviously if the random forces are not well correlated, the vibration response would be much less.
The main difficulty here is to determine the statistical properties of the forcing function,that is its spatial correlation density function R(x,x',f) for all the configurations of interest. Gorman has measured values
of ty _{T} , (f»_ and S(p) for some typical
figurations ^{1}^{5} ' ^{1}^{6} ' ^{1}^{8} . Using the
fuel element con
above measured values,
he has had remarkable success in predicting the vibration response of a fuel element in axial twophase flow simulated by air/water mixtures ^{1}^{6} . Predicted and measured vibration amplitudes are compared on Figure 11.
As shown on Figure 11 the vibration response is maximum at a simulated steam quality of approximately 15%. We have done further testing in steam/water flow where much higher qualities were achieved ^{1}^{9} . The results on Figure 12 show two maxima in the vibration response vs steam quality curves. This is explained in terms of twophase flow
15
regime changes as follows: At low steam quality, bubbly/slug flow regime exists and the vibration amplitude increases with increasing quality until it reaches a maximum. This is reasonable since higher vibration amplitudes are expected at the higher velocities related to higher steam qualities. The maximum amplitude corresponds to the start of the transition between bubbly/slug and annular flow regime. As the quality is increased, annular flow regime is estab lished. This flow regime is presumably less turbulent and the vibration amplitude reaches a minimum. As the quality is increased further, the flow velocity and con sequently the vibration amplitude increases again to reach another maximum. This maximum corresponds to the transition between annular flow and dispersed/fog flow regime. The vibration amplitude decreases again to a minimum as fog flow regime is established.
We have studied the effect of subcooled and bulk nucleate
boilin g at the surface of a cylinder on its vibration response ^{1}^{9} .
Nucleate boiling does not contribute significantly to
vibration excitation for typical cylindrical structures.
It should be apparent by now that predicting the vibration response of nuclear components subjected to random pressure fields is not always simple. Several researchers have developed semiempirical expressions which may be useful for some axial liquid flow problems. The expression developed by Païdoussis ^{8} is relatively successful as shown on Figure 13 where it is compared to experimental data. Paldoussis' expression converted te dimen&ional form is:
Y
A
^  5x10
K
4
_{a}
_{V} 25 _{(}_{l}
.65,
.2.2
M
1.47
/m , 0.67
M
1 + 4M/m
(12)
16
where Y is defined as the "maximum" amplitude, K is a proportionality constant, a is the dimensionless first mode eigenvalue, V is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and D, the hydraulic diameter. K = 1 for laboratory controlled conditions with minimum far field disturbances. For nuclear power station components K = 5 is more realistic,
In Equation 12 the velocity exponent is 1.85.
This is
reasonable since fluid forces are generally related to
velocity squared. The vibration amplitude is directly
related to L * /(El)' . Again this makes sense as it is
comparable to the deflection of beams under distributed
loading. The latter depends on L /El. We have found in
many practical cases in liquid flow that vibration is
roughly proportional to velocity squared. The above is
not much affected by the nondimensional velocity term
u
seen earlier, the velocity in most nuclear components
is much lower than the critical velocity for instability,
thus U<< 1 and
2 = ML 2 U 2 /El in the denominator of Equation 12.
2
the term u is not significant.
As
The flow vs vibration response relationship is somewhat different in twophase flow. We have found that for equivalent qualities, the vibration response is roughly proportional to flow velocities ^{1}^{8} ' ^{1}^{9} as shown on Figure 14, This unexpected behaviour is attributed to flow regime consideration. For instance the spatial correlation may be reduced at higher flows as the scale of turbulence becomes finer.
The simple relationships expressed above may be very useful to the designer. They should permit him to roughly compare different designs or to estimate the effect of changes in operational conditions.
17
5. VIBRATION EXCITATION MECHANISMS IN CROSSFLOW Generally in crossflow induced vibration problems, we consider three basic flowinduced vibration excitation mechanisms: 1) forced vibration, where the cylinders are forced to vibrate by random excitation due to flow turbulence; 2) fluidelastic instability, where the fluid forces are related to the relative motion between cylinders in such a way that coupling and instability results; and, 3) reso nance, where the natural frequency of the cylinders coin cides with the frequency of periodic wake shedding.
We have observed the first two excitation mechanisms in both liquid and twophase crossflow. Periodic wake shedding resonance is possible in liquid flow but has not been observed in twophase flow. Either it does not exist or it is dominated by the response to random flow excitation. Hence we do not consider it.
1) Foraed Vibration We treat the problem of forced vibration response due to random crossflow turbulence in the same manner as for axial flow. The vibration response may be estimated using Equation 3. Here again the difficulty is to deter mine the statistical properties of the forcing function due to crossflow turbulence. Gorman ^{2}^{0} has done this in
some typical configurations of heat exchanger tube bundles by direct measurements. We have also deduced the forcing
function from the vibration
response ^{2}^{1} ' ^{2}^{2} . Much more
information is needed in this area. However in cases where forcing function information is lacking, the analy tical techniques to predict vibration response may still be used advantageously. For instance the vibration response of a prototype component may be compared to that
18
of an existing nuclear station component exposed to similar flow conditions.
Vibration response to random flow turbulence is usually not a serious problem in liquid crossflow. Other flow induced vibration excitation mechanisms are generally the limiting criteria. This is not true however in two phase crossflow where the turbulence is inherently much stronger.
As in axial flow, the random vibration response in cross flow is approximately related to velocity in twophase
flow
and to velocity squared in liquid flow ^{2}^{1} ' ^{2}^{2} .
2) Fluide las tic Instability
The fluidelastic instability phenomena is somewhat different in crossflow than in axial flow. In a bundle of cylinders, the hydrodynamic forces on one cylinder are affected by the motion of neighbouring cylinders. This creates an interaction between hydrodynamic forces and the motion of cylinders. When the energy absorbed by the cylinders from the unsteady part of the hydrodynamic forces exceeds that dissipated by damping during one cycle of motion, fluidelastic instabilities occur. This situation is possible when the flow velocity is sufficiently high. Theoretically the motion of the cylinders should increase indefinitely. However in practice it is limited by non linearities such as the presence of neighbouring cylinders. This results in severe rattling and possible damage. For an isolated circular cylinder there is no interaction and
hence no instability
a noncircular body as interaction between fluid forces and torsional motion may occur. We have found ^{2}^{2} that
fluidelastic instabilities are possible in both liquid and twophase crossflow.
of this type.
This is not true for
19
The critical velocity V _{r}_{c} at which
fluidelastic insta
bility occurs in the s be expressed as:
vibration mode of a cylinder may

V = Ke f
I
S /(2pm
J f
2
^{X} l
S c> ^{2}
>
(x)dx)
J
J
1/2
(13)
where c is the viscous damping coefficient, K, is a factor determined experimentally, p is the fluid density and
x _{1} , x. define the length over which subjected to flow.
the cylinder is
Equation (13) is a generalized expression derived from Connor's formulation ^{2}^{3} of fluidelastic instability in a
single array of cylinders .
velocity and is equal to V _{a}_{c} p/(pD) in which V
V is the reference critical gap
is the
free stream velocity (i.e., velocity taken as if there were no cylinders), p is the pitch of the tube bundle and D the cylinder outside diameter. If the cylinders are exposed to crossflow over their entire length, knowing that c = Airmfç, Equation 13 reduces to Connors' expression
V _{r}_{c} /fD = K(m6/pD ^{2} ) ^{J}^{s}
(14)
in which the logarithmic decrement <5 = 2irç.
Connors obtained a value of K = 9.9 for a single array of
cylinders in air flow.
We found K = 6.6 for cylinder
bundles of p/D = 1.5 in liquid and twophase crossflow ^{2}^{2} (see Figure 15). More recently Gorman ^{2} * has found lower bound values around .K 3/ 5 for more closely packed bundles (p/D  1.36). We consider good design practice to keep the actual velocity below the critical velocity by a reasonable margin to allow for uncertainties. Thus we use K » 3.3 for design purposes.
20
'Peviodio Wake Shedding Résonance The periodic formation of vortices downstream of an isolated cylinder in crossflow is a Classical phenomena called Karman vortex shedding. The frequency of vortex formation is defined in terms of a Strouhal Number S ~ FD/V where S is usually ^ 0.2. What happens in closely packed bundles of cylinders is not so well understood. Three mechanisms which could lead to periodic forces may be postulated as shown on Figure 16, namely:
1) Vortex shedding ^{2}^{5} ; The formation of vortices should, however, be much affected by the close proximity of adjacent and particularly downstream cylinders. 2) Buffeting; Periodic forces may arise on a given cylinder a:, it is being
subjected to the vortices generated by the upstream cylinder. 3) Turbulent theory ^{2}^{6} ; The argument here is that the scale of turbulence is controlled by the geometry of the cylinder bundle configuration. For a given flow velocity, same
scale turbulence leads to narrow band turbulent to some degree of periodicity.
forces and
Whatever the mechanism, periodic wake shedding forces could result in a resonance problem if their frequencies coincide with one of the natural frequencies of the cylinders.
The peak
mode of vibration of a cylindrical structure is given by:
vibration amplitude Y
at resonance for the r
C _{T} pDV ^{2} (x) 
<> 
(x) 
dx 
(15 
) 

Airf _{r} c 
/ 
L 
r 
•/o
where: C _{T} is the dynamic lift coefficient attributed to
Li
periodic wake shedding and V(x) is the flow velocity dis tribution at any point along the cylinder.
21
We normally assume for conservatism that at resonance the periodic forces are spatially correlated.
In our experience we have not observed periodic wake shedding resonance for tubes inside a tube bundle. We
have mostly encountered it for upstream tubes ^{2}^{0} , that is
in the first and to a lesser extent row (see Figure 17). We have found
based on the free stream velocity V to be generally less
than unity.
shedding frequency in terms of a predictable criterion such
as the Strouhal No., fd/V.
Thus we assume resonance in the
analysis whenever this mechanism appears possible.
in the second tube the lift coefficient C^
We have not yet been able to correlate the wake
6. VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR COMPONENTS The first step in the vibration analysis of a nuclear component is to define its dynamic parameters, that is:
stiffness or flexural rigidity, mass including the hydro dynamic mass and both structural and viscous damping. Oncfc these are known the natural frequencies f . and mode shapes <(>.(x) may be calculated. Then the vibration response may be predicted.
Take for example the case of a nuclear steam generator.
A typical steam generator tube and the flow conditions
to which it is subjected is shown on Figure
18.
From
a mechanical dynamics point of view "U" tubes are simply multispan beams clamped at the tubesheet and held at the bafflesupports with varying degree of constraint. The latter is dependent on support geometry and parti cularly tubetosupport clearance. To be conservative we assume the intermediate supports to be essentially
hinged.
between tube and support to keep our analysis linear.
We do not yet take into account the clearance
22
The tube dynamics is completely defined by knowing m, c, El, H and the boundary conditions (i.e., the support locations). We assume that either the damping coefficient c or the damping ratio Ç be independent of frequency. Typical values for c are 0.040.07 kg rad/cm.s and 0.25 0.5 kg rad/cm«s in liquid and twophase flow respectively. These correspond roughly to Ç = 0.02 and Ç = 0.08 at typical tube frequencies.
Based on Equations 3, 13 and 15 we have developed a computer program called "PIPEAU" to predict the vibration response of multispan tube bundles. The program first calculates the mode shapes <$>.(x.) and the natural frequencies f. (i.e., eigenvalue solution) using a method similar to that suggested by Darnley ^{2}^{7} . Then the response and the critical velocities for fluidelastic instability are estimated.
For the example shown on Figure 18 the threshold velocity for instability in the Ubend region (between supports 6
and
be 3.3 times the actual velocity. A similar calculation
for the inlet region (between supports 0 and 4) where m =
0.53 kg/m and
entered from a high mode oscillation, at a threshold velocity more than 5 times the actual velocity.
12) where m = 0.42 kg/m and Ç = 0.08 is calcualted to
t, = 0.028 shows that instability would be
Calculations of tube response to random excitation are shown on Figure 19. Two sections of the tube described on Figure 18 are subjected to different flow conditions and thus to forcing functions of different power spectral densities and spatial correlations. The first few modes are considered in the response.
23
Ideally our approach to the vibration analysis of heat exchanger and steam generator designs should be that out lined on Figure 20. That is: starting from an initial
design, given the flow conditions (1); the flow distribution and velocities are calculated (2) ; this indicates the excitation mechanisms and permits the formulation of the
forcing function g(x,t) (3); the
the system (tube bundle) which needs to be defined in
terms of f , <j>.(x), ç (4); then the
in the form of y(x,f), the dynamic stresses cr(x,f) and
the forces at
is to predict fatigue and fretting damage
latter is the input to
response is calculated
the supports F(x,f) (5); the next step
(6) ; this
leads to the last step which is to either accept (7) or modify the design depending on whether or not there are problems. The response calculation technique described earlier essentially links (3) to (5). We are not yet at this ideal stage. It is sometimes difficult to determine flow velocities in complex threedimensional flow path particularly in twophase flow. We do not yet have enough information to formulate the forcing function in all cases. We would like more tube damping numbers. It is desirable to express the tubetotube support dynamics in terms of the statistical properties of the impact forces. This will likely prove to be the criterion governing the vibration fretting relationship. Finally we need to understand better the vibrationfretting relationship for different materials in various relevant environments.
Our practical approach to design analysis is as follows:
1) avoid fluidelastic instabilities; 2) make sure the tube response to random excitation is low enough to avoid fretting or fatigue problems; and 3) avoid periodic wake shedding resonance or demonstrate it is not a problem.
24
When our response calculation technique is not sufficient to satisfy the above specifications we can use it to compare the design under study to that of an existing satisfactory design. The calculation technique is then used as a normalization tool. Alternately we can test a model of the region in doubt ^{2}^{1} . It is also possible to conduct a fretting endurance test on a single tube sub jected to the vibration response we estimate using our response calculation technique. If the heat exchanger component is easily accessible after installation in the reactor system, we can measure its vibration behaviour and take corrective action subsequently if necessary. For this purpose we have developed in collaboration with a manufacturer a very sensitive biaxial accelerometer probe that can be inserted in the tubes during operation (see Figure 21).
A similar approach may be used to analyse other nuclear station components. For instance we have developed a comprehensive computer model for the dynamics of CANDUBLW type fuel strings in collaboration with Paidoussis ^{1}^{8} . The model analyses the stability of a fuel string and predicts its forced vibration response. The model is based on a matrix type formulation analogous to Equation 1 to suit the system of discrete fuel bundles. Currently a dynamic model for CANDUPHW fuel bundles in horizontal fuel channels is being developed at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment ^{2}^{8} ' ^{2}^{9} .
25
CURRENT VIBRATION STUDIES Vibration Behaviour of Nuclear Fuel in Reactor
Vibration studies of nuclear fuels are usually conducted in out of reactor adiabatic test facilities. Under actual reactor conditions, the mechanical characteristics of the fuel are affected by thermal expansion of, in particular, the U0_ fuel pellets. Also, under diabatic conditions, additional flowinduced vibration excitation sources are possible, e.g. enhanced crossflow between fuel bundle subchannels due to possible enthalpy imbalance. We have studied the effect of inreactor conditions on typical CANDUBLW fuel bundles in the experimental reactor NRU at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories ^{3}^{8} .
A string of five fuel bundles was inserted in a two phase test loop simulating a CANDUBLW fuel channel as shown on Figure 22. Fuel vibrations were measured with in tegral lead weldable strain gauges installed on seven typically located fuel elements. Figure 23 shows a typical strain gauge installation on a fuel bundle. Measurements were taken over a wide range of flow conditions, i.e., from 0 to 100% fuel power (0 to 100 W/cm ^{2} heat flux),
from 70 C of subcooling to 25% steam quality, at pressures of 28 to 90 bars, and at mass fluxes up to 4600kgm — 2—1 ^s .
Steam was generated by the fuel and/or added at the inlet of the test section from external boilers.
We investigated in particular the effect of fuel power. The natural frequency of fuel elements increases rapidly by roughly 50% during the first reactor startup as shown on Figure 24. During the first shutdown it decreases quickly down to 75% power and remains essentially constant at lower power. The second startup and serond shutdown.
26
are somewhat similar to the first shutdown. This behaviour is explained in terms of fuel rigidity increase due to fuel pellet expansion with power. During the first shut down and subsequent cycles the frequency vs power relation ship is different than during the first startup because then the fuel sheath has already been deformed plastically by the first startup. Then it takes a higher reactor
power for the fuel to expand increase its rigidity.
firmly in the sheath and to
The fuel element vibration behaviour is much dependent on fuel history. This is attributed to change in rigidity, internal damping and boundary conditions due to UO. pellets expansion inside the Fuel sheath, element bowing and other geometrical changes. This is shown on Figure 25 where vibration spectra taken at different times under essentially similar conditions are compared for a typical fuel element.
We have found that fuel element vibration amplitudes were generally small being less than 10 vim RMS under normal CANDUBLW operating conditions.
Vibration Damping and Support Dynamias of Heat Exchanger Tubes We are currently studying the damping behaviour of heat
exchanger tubes. The experiments are done on tubes of different diameters ranging from 0.75 to 2.5 mm. The tubes are installed in the trough shown on Figure 26 where they
in any other fluids to study
the effect of viscosity. Single and multispan tubes are tested with both idealized or realistic heat exchanger supports. The effect of frequency is explored by varying span length. To obtain the damping values, we use both the simple logarithmic decrement technique and the frequency response method.
can be immersed in water or
27
Typical vibration damping results are shown on Figure 27 for a simply supported 12.7 mm diameter heat exchanger tube. The net viscous damping due to water decreases with frequency.
We are now preparing tests to study the dynamics of the tubeto—tube support interaction. This is particularly important when the tubetosupport clearance is significant. Our intentions are to measure the statistical properties
of the impact
supports when realistic vibration amplitudes are simulated. We plan to use this information to correlate
forces generated by the tubes at the tube
vibration response and frettingwear data.
Other Vibration and Related Studies Currently Underway We have discussed above two typical vibration studies related to nuclear components. Other experimental and analytical investigations are underway, such as:
1) Vibration vs Fretting Relationship: This is the subject of an extensive program for both nuclear fuel
and heat exchanger materials ^{3}^{1} ' ^{3}^{2} . The effects of
parameters such as frequency, clearance, amplitude and impact forces are investigated in both laboratory and realistic environments.
several
2) Analytical Modelling of the Dynamics of Tubeto Support Interaction: An analytical model is being deve loped to treat the problem of tubetotube support impacting in heat exchangers ^{3}^{3} . It takes into considera tion the nonlinearity due to tubetotube support clea rance.
3) Vibration of Heat Exchanger Tube in Liquid CrossFlow:
This work ^{2}^{1} * is continuing. Several different triangular and square heat exchanger tube bundle geometries have
28
been studied. We are now investigating the effect of irregularities such as the presence of sealing strips, sealing rods and tube free lanes on neighbouring tube vibration response.
4) Vibration of Tube Bundles in TwoPhase CrossFlow:
We are preparing further experiments in support of steam generator designs. Airwater mixtures will be used to simulate steam/water twophase flow.
5) Dynamics of Flexible Cylinder in Confined Flow:
Further experiments are underway particularly to explore the dynamics and stability of flexible cylinders subjected to twophase axial flow.
6) Nuclear Fuel Dynamic Parameters: Tests have been done to determine fuel bundle and fuel string dynamic parameters such as dynamic stiffness, viscous damping, hydrodynamic mass and structural damping. We are preparing further tests particularly to study hydrodynamic mass and damping in twophase flow.
8. CONCLUDING REMARKS
It is concluded that, although there are still areas of uncertainty, most flowinduced vibration problems can be avoided. This requires that nuclear components be properly analysed at the design stage and that the analyses bd supported by adequate testing and development work. There has been no case yet where vibration considerations have seriously constrained the designer. Although some times difficult to analyse, vibration problems usually require simple solutions.
29
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Many people have contributed to the work discussed in this paper. Among those are R.I. Hodge, R.B. Turner, A.O. Campagna, P. Tiley, Y. Sylvestre, J. Platten and P.L. Ko of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories; I. Oldaker of the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment; M.P. Paldoussis of McGill University; D.G. Gorman of the University of Ottawa and C.F. Forrest and N.L. Carlucci of Westinghouse Canada Ltd. The author is very grateful to all.
REFERENCES
30
1. R.I . Hodge, 
J.E . 
LeSurf, 
J.W. 
Hilborn , 

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Reliability , 
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Presente d 
a t 
th e 
XIX Nuclea r 
Congress 
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March 
1974 , 
als o 
Atomic 
Energy 
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Steam 

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i n 

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of
Heat
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Experience
Tubes",
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Internationa l Symposium on Vibratio n Problems i n Industry ,
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Keswick, U.K. 1973 . 

4 R.I . . Hodge, P.L . Ko, 
and A.O. 
Campagna, 

Personal Communication, 
Aug. 1976 . 

5 E.P . . Quinn, "Vibratio n 
o f 
Fuel 
Rods 
i n 
Paralle l Flow", 

U.S . Atomic Energy Commission 
Report 
GEAP4059 (1962) . 

6 Y.N . . Chen, "Flowinduce d Vibration s 
i n 
Tube Bundle 
Heat 
Exchangers 
with Cross 
and Paralle l 
Flow. 
Part 
1: 
Paralle l 

Flow", Symposium 
on Flowinduced 
i n 
Heat 

Exchangers , 
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ASME 5 76 6 Vibratio n (1 9 70) . 
7. 
M.P. Pal'doussis , "Stabilit y of Flexibl e Slende r Cylinder s 

i n 
Pulsatil e 
Axia l 
Flow", 
J . 
of 
Sound 
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Vibration , 

42 
(1) , 111 
(1975). 

8. 
M.P. Païdoussis , "The Dynamical 
Behaviou r of Cylindrica l 

Structure s 
i n 
Axia l Flow", Annals o f Nuclear Scienc e 
and 

Engineering, 
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1, 
No. 
2, 
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83106 
(1974). 

9. 
M.P. ?aïd?y»sif» , "Dynamics of Cylindrica l Structure s 

Subjecte d t o 
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of 
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10. 
M.J. Pettigrew , M.P. Païdoussis , "Dynamics and Stabilit y 
of Flexibl e 
Cylinder s 
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t o Liquid and TwoPhase 

Axia l 
Flow 
i n 
Confined 
Annul!", 
Paper D2/6 , 3rd 
Interna  
tiona l
Conference
on
Structural
Mechanics
in
Reactor
Technology , London, 
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Sept , 
15 , 
1975 , 
als o 
Atomic 

Energy 
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AECL5502 
(1975) . 
Si 
11 M.P. Païdoussis , "Mathematical Model fo r . 
the Dynamics 

of an 
Articulate d Strin g of 
Fuel Bundles 
in 
Axial 
Flow", 

Paper D2/5 presented at the 
3rd Internationa l Conference 

on Structura l Mechanics U.K., Sept. 15, 1975. i n 
Reactor Technology in 
London, 

12 W.T. . Thomson, 
"Vibratio n Theory and 
Applications" , 

PrenticeHall , 
Englewood Cliffes , N.J. , 1965. 

13 L. . Meirovitch , 
"Analytica l 
Methods in 
Vibration" , 

Macraillan Company, N.Y. , 1967 . 

14 S.H . . Crandall , 
and W.D. Mark, "Random 
Vibratio n 
i n 

Mechanical Systems", Academic Press , 
N.Y., 
1963. 

15 D.J . Gorman, "The Role o f Turbulence . 
i n the 
Vibratio n 

of Reactor Fuel 
Elements in 
Liquid Flo"", 
Atomic 

Energy 
of Canada 
Limited Report AiîCL3371 
(1969) . 

16 D.J . . Gorman, "An 
Analytica l 
an d Experimenta l 

Investigatio n 
of 
the Vibration of Cylindrical Reactor 

Fuel Elements 
in 
Twophase 
Paralle l Flow", 
J. Nuclear 

Science 
Engineering 44. 
277290 (1971). 

17 J.R . Reavis , "Vibratio n . 
Correlatio n fo r Maximum 
Fuel  

element 
Displacement in 
Paralle l Turbulent 
Flow", 

J. Nuclear Science Engineering 38, 6369 
(1969). 

18 D.J . . Gorman, "Experimenta l 
and Analytica l 
Study 
o f 

Liquid 
and TwoPhase FlowInduced Vibratio n 
i n Reactor 
Fuel Bundles" , 
ASME Paper 
75PVP52, 
2nd Nationa l Congress 

on 
Pressur e 
Vessel s 
and Piping , 
San 
Francisco , June 
2327 , 

19 75. 

19 . 
M.J. Pettigre w 
and 
D.J . Gorman, 
"Experimenta l Studie s 

on 
Flow Induced 
Vibratio n 
to 
Support 
Steam Generator 

Design , Part 
1: 
Vibration 
of 
a 
Heated 
Cylinder in Two 

Phase Axial Flow", 
Paper 
No. 
424 , 
Internationa l 

Symposium on 
Vibratio n Problem s 
i n 
Industry , Keswick , 

U.K. 1973 , als o 
Atomic Energy 
of 
Canada Limited Report 

AECL4514 (1973) . 

20 . 
S. Mirza and D.J . Gorman, "Experimental and Analytica l 
Correlatio n of Local Drivin g Force s and
Tube
Response
Liquid
Paper F6/5 , 2nd Conference
Berlin
Reactor
Flow
Induced
Vibratio n
on
of
Structura l
Heat
Exchangers" ,
Mechanics
Technology,
1973.
i n
i n
32
21. M.J. Pettigrew, J.L. Platten, Y. Sylvestre, "Experimental Studies on Flow Induced Vibration to Support Steam Generator Design, Part II: Tube Vibration Induced by Liquid Crossflow in the Entrance Region of a Steam Generator". Paper No. 424, International Symposium on Vibration Problems in Industry, Keswick, U.K. 1973, also Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Report AECL4515 (1973).
22. M.J. Pettigrew, D.J. Gorman, "Experimental Studies on Flow Induced Vibration to Support Steam Generator Design, Part iii: Vibration of Small Tube Bundles in Liquid and Twophase Crossflow", Paper No . 424 , International Symposium on Vibration Problems in Industry, Keswick, U.K. 1973, also Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Report AECL5804 (1977).
23. H.J. Connors, Jr., "Fluidelastic Vibration of Tube Arrays Excited by Cross Flow", Proceedings of the Symposium on Flow Induced Vibration in Heat Exchangers, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, New York, Dec. 1, 1970, pp. 4256.
24. D.J. Gorman, "Experimental Development of Design Criteria to Limit Liquid CrossFlow Induced Vibration in Nuclear Reactor Heat Exchange Equipment", J. Nuclear Science and Engineering 61, 324336 (1976).
25. Y.N. Chen, "Fluctuating Lift Forces of the Karman Vortex Streets on Single Circular Cylinders and in Tube Bundles, Part 1: The Vortex Street Geometry of the Single Circular Cylinder, Part 2: Lift Forces of Single Cylinders, Part 3: Lift Forces in Tube Bundles", ASME Transactions, Series B, J. of Engineering Industry, Vol. 94 (2), 603628 May 1972.
26. P.R. Owen, "Buffeting Excitation of Boiler Tube Vibration", J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 7 (4), 431439, 1965.
27. E.R. Darnley, "The Transverse Vibration of Beams and the Whirling of Shafts Supported at Intermediate Points", Phil. Mag. Vol. 41 (241), 56 Jan. 1921.
28. I.E. Oldaker, A.D. Lane, M.P. Pal'doussis and CF . Forrest, "An Overview of the Canadian Program to Investigate Vibration and Fretting in Nuclear Fuel Assemblies", May 1974. 73CSME89, EIC74Th; Nuc. 2 Engineering Journal, Fall, 19 74.
33
29 D.J . Jagannath, "A Model fe r Vibratio n of Nuclear . 
Fuel 

Bundles" 
(to 
be published). 

30 M.J. . 
Pettigre w and 
R.B . 
Turner, 
"The 
Inreacto r 

Vibration 
Behaviour 
of 
Nuclear Fuel", 
Paper 
D3/7, 
Inter  

nationa l 
Conference 
on 
Structural 
Mechanics 
in Reactor 

Technology, Berlin , 
Sept. 1973. 

31. P.L . 
Ko, 
"Impact Frettin g of Heat 
Exchanger 
Tubes", 
Atomic Energy 
of 
Canada Limited 
Report 
AECL4653 
(1973) . 

32 
. 
P.L . 
Ko, "Fundamental Studie s 
of 
Steam 
Generator 
and 

Heat 
Exchanger 
Tube Fretting" , 
publishe d 
i n AECL 

Research and 
Development i n Engineering , 
Winter 
1975 , 

Atomic Energy 
of 
Canada Limited 
Report 
AECL5310 
(1975) . 

33 . 
R.J. Rogers, R.J . Pick , "On the 
Dynamic 
Spatia l 
Response 
o f a Heat Exchanger Tube with Intermitten t Baffl e Contacts" ,
Nucl.
Engrg.
and
Design ,
36 ,
819 0
(1976) .
35
FIGURE la: FrettingWear of Steam Generator Tubes:
Fretting Damage at Midspan.
36
Figure lb: FrettlngWear of Steam Generator Tubes; Fretting Damage and Hole at Support Location.
37
FIGURE 2: Typical Example of Heat Exchanger Tube Fretting Wear,
38
FIGURE 3: Fretting Damage on Gentilly1 Fuel Bundle.
GENTILLY
^{N}^{u}^{c}^{l}^{e}^{a}^{r} ^{P}^{o}^{w}^{e}^{r} ^{S}^{t}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}
ORDINARY WATER 
I. 
•••.••! STEAM 
RIVER WATER 
liiiiii 
HELfUM GAS 
HEAVY WATER MODERATOR
TURBINEGENERATOR BUILDING
ELECTRICITY
RIVER WATER INTAKE BAY
FIGURE
4 :
Simplified
Flow Diagram of CANDUBLW Station.
^{R}^{I}^{V}^{E}^{R} ^{W}^{A}^{T}^{E}^{R} ^{O}^{U}^{T}^{L}^{E}^{T}
i
VO
I
_{G}_{6}_{N}_{T}_{I}_{L}_{L}_{Y} _{1}
CENTRALIZING PADS SPACERS BEARING PADS UO2 FUEL PELLETS ZIR.CALOY 4 SHEATH DELINEATING DISC END CAP END PLATE
PATTES DE CENTRAGE CALES D'ECARTEMENT
PATTES
PASTILLES
GAINE
DISQUES
Of
D'APPUI
DE
UO j
EN ZIRÇALOY
4
SEPARATION
BOUCHON D'EXTRÉMITÉ
PLAQUE D'EXTREMITE
SECTION THROUGH CENTRE OF FUEL BUNDLE
COUPE TRANSVERSALE
GRAPPE
PE
LA
COMBUSTIBLE
FIGURE 5: Gentilly1 Fuel Bundle.
O
I
FIGURE
6:
Sketc h
of
41
OUTLET
FUEL BUNDLE (^ Z7 kg x 1OJ
10.4
cm
CENTRAL
SUPPORTING
TUBE
PRESSURE
TUBE
SPRING
ISSEMBLV
SHIELD
y—PLUG
INLET
CANDUBLW Fue l
Channel ,
BOOSTER ROD
OUTLET NOZZLE
42 

GENTILLYÏ 

CALANDRIA 

ABSORBER 

SUIDE TUBE 

D 
_{2} 0 

D 
_{2} 0 

BOOSTER ROD 

NOZZLE 

TOP VIEW 
CALANDRIA TUBE
PROTECTIVE SHROUD
GUIDE TUBE
FIGURE 7a: Modification with Protective Shroud.
FIGURE
7:
Control Absorber Guide Tube in Gentilly1 Reactor Core.
REACTOR
BUILDING
_{I} 
_{I} 
_{M}_{O}_{D}_{E}_{R}_{A}_{T}_{O}_{R} 
_{J} 
 
 
ORDINARY WATER 
HEAVY
WATER
HELIUM
GAS
LAKE
WATER
TURBINE.GENERATOR
BUILDING
FIGURE 8: Simplified Flow Diagram of CANDUPHW Station.
MANWAY I N WATER BOX
(ALSO
44 
BEND RADIUS 
OF TUBES 

TUBE BUNDLE 

BAFFLE OR LATTICE BAR TUBE SUPPORTS 

PRIMARY (IN 
TUBES) 

SECONDARY (IN SHELL) 

PREHEAT SECTION 

(OR 
IE G I N U SHELL UNITSI 

DOWNCOMER 
OR 

FEED WATER 
NOZZLE 
PRIMARY CHANNEL COVER 

TUBE SHEET CLADDING 

DIVIDE* PLATE 
WATER BOX 
FIGURE 9:
Typical Nuclear Steam Generator.
45
FIGURE 10:
ClampedFree Cylinder with BulletShaped Downstream End Experiencing 4th Mode Buckling In Liquid Flow.
30 H 

LEGEND 

PREDICTED rms DISP 

25 

MEASURED rms OISP 

E 

20 

o 
TOTAL MASS FLOW 

CI 
RATE = 0.8fc kg/ s 

to 

o 

a 
15 

o 

IE 

I 

10 
10
20
I
30
40
ON
I
SIMULATED QUALITY {%) FIGURE 11 MEASURED AND PREDICTED VIBRATION AMPLITUDE vs SIMULATED STEAM QUALITY IN TWOPHASE AXIAL FLOW'•
00
0.5
3.Û
0.3
47 
Û.2 
MASS FLUX; 
47 g/(scm ^{2} ) 

PRESSURE; 
D 2.86 
MN/m ^{2} 

A 3.55 
MN/m ^{2} 

O 4.23 
MN/m ^{2} 

0. Î 
O5.6 1 
MN/m ^{2} 

STEAM QUALITY; 
TO 65% MAX. 
FIGURE 12 :
b
1
9
FLOW VELOCITY
12
(m/ s )
Effec t
of
Steam
Qualit y
and
15
Pressure .
Vr
10 ^{1}
io ^{2}
lu" ^{3}
4
_{1}_{0}_{} ^{4}
1
 43 
1
W 5
Ai è
BURGREEN
QUINN
e t
SOGREAH
al
ROSTRÔM & ANDERSON
ca
PAIDOUSSIS
i
ID" ^{3}
10" ^{2} Ui.85 L ^{3} V(EI)8
5x10 ^{4} K a"*
+ML ^{2} U ^{2} /(EI))JD ^{2}  ^{2}
1
10 ^{1}
1 + 4M/m
FIGURE 13 AGREEMENT BETWEEN MEASURED AND PREDICTED VIBRATION RESPONSE INAXIAL FLOW USING PAIOOUSSIS SEMI  EMPIRICAL EXPRESSION
a.
en
t—
C£. "=C CO 2 :
= 3
SO
x
LLJ
o
1 .5
1 .0
49 
^{0}^{.}^{5} 
PRESSURE: 
Q 
4.23 
MN/m 
^{2} 

O 
5.61 
MN/m 
^{2} 

I 
I 
I 

50 
100 
150 
200 

MASS 
FLUX 
(g/(scm ^{2} )) 

FIGURE 
14 : 
Effect 
of 
Mass Flux and Pressure. 
moo
100
10
0.1
P/d
f(Hz)
S
C 
CONNORS 
1.41 
11.8 
 40 
0.008  0.16 

G 
GORMAN 8 MIRZA 1.33 
38 
0.112 

PI 
PETTIGREW 
1.5 
30 
0.156 

P2 
PETTIGREW 
1.6 
17 
0.168 

A 
• 
••LIQUI D 
FLOW 

^ 
^ 
3 
^ 
TWO PHASE: 

OAt>pO ^{A}^{I}^{R} 

X ^ 
S 
INSTABILITY NOT 

OSINGL E ROW 

ANORMAL TRIANGULAR 

>PARALLEL 
TRIANGULAR 

DNORMAL SQUARE 

O 
ROTATED 
SQUARE 
FIGURE
15 :
1.0
_{1}_{0}
V „: 
Approach 
velocity 
normal 

ized 
for 
uniform 
flow 

velocity 

100 
1000 
NonDimensional Presentation of Experimental Thresholds for Fluidelastic Instabilities.
O
I
v
51 
fr fry ^{5}
VORTEX SHEDDING S = fD/V
2)V
0
BUFFETING
OO
oo
TURBULENT
EDDIES
CONTROLLED BY GEOMETRY
FIGURE 16: Postulated Mechanisms for Periodic Excitation.
T
UJ
«a
i
a
z:
1.00
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
0
—
••• •
—
FIGURE 17:
1
1
0 . 2
//
O
MEAN
1
1
fi / ^
cT«L
6
/
rtO
\ j O
WATER
1
0. 4
VELOCITY
(m/s )
1
0. 6
1
o
i
'
1
0.8
Vibration Response of First Upstream Tube In Liquid CrossFlow ^{2}^{0} .
—
—
to
I
11
1.0m
53
OUTLET
CROSS FLOW
(20% QUALITY)
12
r ^{:}
o
CO
I
333 kg/5n*s>
CO 
\ CLEARANCE 

HOLES 

(PINNED 
, 

SUPPORTS) 
1 FIXED SUPPORTS
I» _{1}
•*
PARALLEL
FLOU
210
kg/m ^{2} s
(SATURATED
TO 20»
QUALITY)
INLET
CROSS FLOU
(SATURATED)
359
kg/4n ^{z} .s>
P
FIGUR E 18 : Typical Steam Generator Tube and Flow Conditions.
54
M M m
CROSS FU I EICI m i CM
SUPPORT *
«MS
«EWTION
0
.00 9
.»0
FOilCES 
.114 
(H) 
•<» 
TOTAL 
.190 
TOTAL 

RMS 
AMPLITUDE
1
.016
.019
.25!
012 .007
OSS
.111
164 .215
195 .106
HINDOU PARALLEL FLO! EXCITATION
ODE
1
2
J
FREQUENCY
«I
37.2
47.7
49.6
MOOES 1 TO3
SUPPORT 1
RMS
REACTION
FORCES
H
TOTAL
I0KL
«MS
(HPLITUDE
15
1 0
>
.mo
.119
.095
.174
_
4 
MODE 
FREQUENCY 

Hi 

.022 
1 
34.7 

.0» 
3 
«t.S 

.060 
I 
59.7 

.026 
4 
73.0 

.068 
MODES 1 TO4 

• 

0 
.090 

.209 
.200 
.113 

.352 
.352 
.095 

.«05 
LENGTH (m)
FIGURE 19:
Example of Tube Response Calculation.
55
STAR T
11
DESIGN: GEOMETRY, FLOW CONDITIONS Calculation of Flow Distribution and Velocities
EXCITATION MECHANISMS Excitation Forcing Function
SYSTEM: TUBE DYNAMICS Damping £, Modes <L(x) and Frequencies f.
RESPONSE CALCULATION y(x,f), O(x,f), F(x,f)
FRETTING & FATIGUE  VIBRATION RELATIONSHIP Damage Estimate
FIGURE
20 :
Ideal
YES
Approach
NO
I7
ACCEPTANCE
to
Design Analyses
of
Heat
Exchangers.
I
FIGUR E 21 : Biaxir?. Accelerometer Probe for Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration Measurements.
57 
147.40m 
— DECK PLATE 
146.79m 
TOP CLOSURE 
140.51
Q
139.27m —
138.81m —
136.89m —
136.78m —
136.40m=*
'—? » 
OUTLET 

HANGER ROD 

SG3 

SG2 

U118IKXX' ) 

STRAIN GAUGE 

LEADS 
SG191 SGI 93 

TOP INSTRUMENTED 
SG151 SG153 
G192 

• X 
^{1} 
BUNDLE 

SG152 

FUEL STRING 
SGI I I 

SGI 13 

SGI12 

PRESSURE TUBE (104 mm I.D.) 
U118HXX' ) 

'SPACER FOR LEADS •BOTTOM INSTRUMENTED BUNDLE 
SGI 5 

STRAIN GAUGE 

SPRING 

CENTRAL 
SUPPORT 
U118IKYY' ) 

STRAIN GAUGE LOCATION 

MIXER 

STEAM 
INLET 

FIGURE 
22: 
Strain Gauge 
Instrumented 

WATER 
INLET 
Fuel String 
Installed in 

Ul LOOD of 
Reactor 
NRU. 
FIGURE
23 :
Details
of Weldable Strain Gauge
Installatio n
on a Fuel Bundle.
00
~Z
u
§
£
70 r 
59 
60
55
5 0
45
40
35
50 

SG 1&3 U118I I SG 5 

OM 
SG 12&14 SG 15S17 SG 18S20 

* 
S3 151 U118I 

X 
SG 191 U118I 

VOADO* X 
: STARTUP 

^{:} SHUTDOWN 

50 
FIGURE
24 :
Fuel
Element
Natural
75
100
POWER(3!)
75
100
POWER(«)
Frequency vs Reactor
Power
7
u
rttcucNcr
i
en
o
FIGURE 25: Effect of Fuel History on Fuel Element ViDration Behaviour [SG No. 15, Liquid Flow, U118Il]
 61 
FIGURE 26: Heat Exchanger Tube Immersed in Trough to Study Vibration Damping.
1/1
LU
_ l
z
o
to
z
LLJ
o
o
o
a.
o.ior
0.01
0.001
_{1}_{0}
FIGURE
27 :
62
y = 0.756.X
TUBE
12.7 mm O.D. 304 S.S. TEMP.
19.4C
O AIR MEDIUM
• WATER MEDIUM NET VISCOUS DAMPING
100
fn(FREQUENCY) Hz
Typical Tube Vibration Damping Result s Showing
the
Effect
of
Frequency.
The International Standard Serial Number
ISSN 00670367
has been assigned to this series of reports.
To identify individual documents in the series we have assigned an AECLnumber.
Please refer to the AECLnumber when requesting additional copies of this document from
Scientific Document Distribution Office Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River, Ontario, Canada
KOJ1J0
Price $5.00 per copy
163877
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