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EXERCISE 1

TIME LAG EARTH FAULT RELAY TEST

EXERCISE 1

TIME LAG EARTH FAULT RELAY TEST


LEARNING OUTCOME
1.

To identify the setting of Time Lag Earth Fault Relays. (C2-LO2)

2.

To study the protection of equipment and system by relays in conjunction


with operation Low Voltage Switch Board. (P5-LO5)

3.

To explain briefly how the test is conducted. (A2-LO9)

CONTENT
1.1

THEORY

Earth fault relay is a relay which is sense the faults between the phase and
Earth. Function of the earth fault relay is to operate for the leakage currents to
earth. There are two types of earth fault relays depending up on the
configuration:
a. Residual current earth fault relay
b. Sensitive earth fault relay
When earth fault the sum of the 3 phase CT's current are unbalanced that time
relay acts. The earth fault relay is a secondary relay which is connected to the
current transformers of the object to be protected.
On detection of a fault, the relay will start, trip the circuit breaker and provide
alarms, in accordance with the application and the configured relay functions.

Figure 1.1: Time Lag Earth Fault Relays.

1.2

EQUIPMENT LIST

1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4

Low Voltage Switchboard


Multimeter
Hand Tools
Secondary Current Injection Test Set

1 unit
1 unit
Necessary
1 unit

ACTIVITIES
Activity 1 (Minimum Current Pick-Up Start)
1.

Tests on Time Lagged Earth Fault Protection Relay are carried out using
the Secondary Current Injection Test Set with the wiring connections as
shown in Figure 1.2.

2.

The relay earth fault element is connected to the Secondary Current


Injection Test Set.

3.

Before the tests, ensure that the primary circuit of CTs is de-energized.

4.

Supply the EFR with external 240V source.

5.

Set up the Secondary Current Injection Test Set at 0 - 10 A; 0 - 240 V AC


operation.

6.

Increase the output current of the test set gradually until the earth fault
element picks up. Record the starting or pick-up current reading in the
test report as shown in Table 1.1.

Activity 2 (Timing Checks With Test Settings)


1.

The following tests are carried out to verify the relay operating times under
various test settings. Connect a relay trip contact to Secondary Current
Injection Test Set timer terminals. Referred to Figure 1.3.

2.

Switch on the Secondary Current Injection Test Set and set the output
current to 1.3 x Io (tripping current setting).

3.

Switch off the test set with control knob remaining in the set position.
Switch the Secondary Current Injection Test Set to the Test position to
inject the set current and start the timer at the same time.

4.

After the relay trip contact has operated, record the relay operating time in
the above-mentioned test in the test report as shown in Table 1.1.

5.

Switch off test set.

6.

Repeat the relay operation timing tests with current injected set at 2.0 x Io
to 5.0 x Io and record the corresponding relay operating times.

7.

Finally, disconnect all wiring between test set and relay and ensure that all
connections to relay are returned to the normal operational conditions.

Figure 1.2: Minimum Current Pick-up Start Test circuit.

Figure 1.3: Timing Check Test circuit

Table 1.1: Time Lag Earth Fault Relay Test Report.


Relay Details:
Make:
Type:
Serial no:

Rated Amps: In
Auxiliary supply:
CT Ratio :

Relay setting:
Type of
Protection
E/F DTL
Curve =

Final setting
Setting
Setting
value
Io>
TMS

Test setting
Type of
protection
E/F DTL
Curve =

Setting
Io>
TMS

1. Minimum current to check relay pickup/start function with test setting.


Inject
Current reading with test setting
(A)

Earth fault

2 .Timing checks with test settings.


Current injected for E/F (A)
1.3 X Io>
=
2.0 X Io>
=
3.0 X Io>
=
4.0 X Io>
=
5.0 X Io>
=

Tripping Circuit
Remarks
Tested by
Date

:
:
:
:

E/F (s)

Setting
value

Figure 1.4: Connect the testing wiring.

Figure 1.5: Ready to test.

Figure 1.6: Typical EFR circuit.

Activity 3 (Questions)
1.

Briefly explain the function of Earth Fault Relay (EFR).

2.

Briefly explain the purpose of minimum current relay pickup start check.

REFERENCE
1.

Paul Gill; Electrical Power Equipment Maintenance & testing; Taylor &
Francis (1998).

2.

Robert W. Seaton; William H. Ubert; Switchgear & Control Handbook (3th


Edition); McGraw Hill )1998).