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PROGRESS AND CHALLENGES OF

PRODUCING SUPER YIELDING HYBRID


BASMATI RICE IN KENYA
DR. PAUL NJIRUH NTHAKANIO
FUNDED / COLLABORATORS
NCST, TUK, UoN, NIB, KARI

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1
Background : rice production in Kenya
In Kenya rice is mainly grown in Mwea, Ahero,
Bunyala, West Kano, Yala Swamp (MoA, 2011)
About 98% of Mwea rice is Basmati.
By year 2030 Kenya population is expected to
be 60.0million.

1.2 Rice Situation in Kenya


Table1. Source: NCPB and Department of Land, Crops Development and
Management, USDA

Year

2006

2030

2050

Kenya Population

38m

60m

??

Production (Tones)

64,840

??

??

Area (ha)

23,106

??

??

1.3 Food security is a major Problem


High yielding varieties (HYV) dwarf rice
varieties have reached breeding plateau
(Kropff et al., 1994).
Green revolution technology now need reinnovation.
Low yield per hectare of Basmati rice (4.1ha)
(Ministry of Agriculture, 2010).

1.4 Heterosis and Food Security


Hybridization has been used to increase rice yield per
hectare (Jinks, 1983; Zhang, 2010 ; Yuan, 1994).
To make a cross Male and female parents are needed.
a) Female need to have non-viable male gametes so that
they can be crossed with another variety.
b) Male parent: need to have viable pollen.

1.4 Male emasculation


Main methods include genetic emasculation
using
a) Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines
b) EGMS (PGMS and TGMS)
PGMS photoperiod sensitive genic male
sterile lines.
TGMS - thermosentive genic male sterile lines

1.5 Objective
Use hybrid rice technology to raise yield
i) Introduce EGMS in Kenya and test for
their adaptability
ii) Develop Basmati with EGMS gene
iii) Produce hybrid by crossing EGMS-Basmati
with conventional Basmati.

2. MATERIALS
EGMS included; Photoperiod sensitive male sterile
(PGMS) rice and Thermosentive genic male sterile
lines.
PGMS Rice
i) V1 - IR-73827-23-76-15-7S
ii) V3 - IR-75589-31-27-8-33S
TGMS Rice
i) V2 - IR-77271-42-5-4-36S

Basmati370

3. METHODS
3.1 Test for EGMS adaptability
Sowing of EGMS
Growth at Sterility and assess spikelet fertility
Growth under fertility inducing conditions and
assess spikelet fertility

3.1.1 Sowing of EGMS in greenhouse

a
b
Fig. 1 EGMS growing in a greenhouse. Fig. a and b show
EGMS and the greenhouse respectively

3.1.2 Complete male sterile EGMS

a
b
c
Fig. 2 EGMS under sterility inducing conditions. Fig a shows EGMS
growing in paddy trough, Fig.b is a sterile panicle while Fig.c is pollen from
sterile panicle.

3.1.3 Reversion of EGMS to fertility

a
b
Fig. 3. EGMS grown in fertility inducing conditions . Fig. a,b&c
shows EGMS rice plant, panicles and pollen from plants grown
under fertility inducing conditions respectively with grains.

3.2 Evaluation of spikelet fertility


Table. 1. Pollen and seed set rate of EGMS under SIC and FIC. LDL, HT, NDL and NT
refer to long day-light length, High temperature, Normal day-light length and normal
temperature respectively.

1
2
3

1
2
3
1
2
3

Rice line

Treatment

V1PGMS
V2TGMS
V3PGMS
Average
V1PGMS
V2TGMS
V3 PGMS
Average
V1PGMS
V2TGMS
V3PGMS
Average

LDL + HT
LDL + HT
LDL + HT

HT +NDL
HT +NDL
HT +NDL
NT +NDL
NT+NDL
NT+NDL

Fertile Pollen (blue black


staining pollen) %
0
1
0
0.33
0
0
0
0
64
60
55
59.67

Average
Seed set per panicle %
0
3
0
1
0
2
0
0.67
45
30
26
33.67

3.3 Production of hybrid seeds.

a
b
c
Fig. 4 Hybrid rice. Fig. a show hybrid rice. Fig. a and c shows hybrid rice
plants with deep anthocyanin at the base of the plant.

3.4 Doubled haploid

Fig. 5 Calli from anthers of hybrid plants.

Challenges
Quality traits in Basmati are under recessive
gene control
Daylength in the tropics 12hours, not long
enough to induce sterility gene particularly in
PGMS
Temperature fluctuation : may not completely
induce complete sterility.
Incompatibility of Basmati male restorer lines
with EGMS

Challenges continues
Recalcitrance in regenerating plants from F1
between EGMS and Basmati calli
Albinism in regenerants

Summary of achievements
EGMS - were very adaptable in Kenya
First hybrids have been realized
Recombinant inbreed aimed at developing
EGMS genes in Basmati background is at 3rd
forth generation
Very good response anthers to callusing

Conclusion
Production of hybrid using EGMS has been
very success in greenhouse. Thus use of hybrid
rice seeds is very promising

Acknowledgement
National Council for Science and Technology
Collaborating institutions (TUK, UoN, NIB,
KARI)

THANK YOU