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Reservoir Fluids

PETE 310
Lecture# 2
Alkanes

Old Assignment
Read MCain pages 1-12 (Monday),
12-22 for today

Chemical Bonds and


Chemical Compounds
The shells or orbits which contain the
electrons have characteristic occupancy
capacity
The first three contain 2, 8, and 8 (or
18) respectively
Atoms tend to combine chemically
forming either ionic or covalent bonds
so that the outer orbits are complete

The Ionic Bond


Sodium Has An Excess Electron, Chlorine Lacks One

Na

Cl

The Ionic Bond


Orbits become complete by donation (acceptance)
of an electron

Na

POSITIVE ION

Cl

NEGATIVE ION

The Covalent Bond


Orbits become complete by sharing electrons

C
H

H
H

C
H

Covalent & Ionic Bonds

Hydrocarbons
(homologous series)
Alkanes
Alkenes
Aliphatics
Hydrocarbons

Aromatics
(Arenes)

Alkynes
Cyclic
Aliphatics

Hydrocarbon Compounds
Homologous Series

A group of molecules which have similar


chemical properties
and a gradation in physical properties.
All members conform to a general formula.

Alkanes

General formula CnH2n+2


(Saturated hydrocarbons)
Have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
for the number of carbons
(ie, all the C - C bonds are single bonds)

Components of Typical Petroleum


Gases

Typical Crude Oil Fractions

Alkanes Family
Physical Properties

Alkanes
See additional properties from text
book
Combustion Reaction

Names
Names according to n (n= total number of carbon atoms)
n
1 Methane
2 Ethane
3 Propane
4 Butane
5 Pentane
6 Hexane
7 Heptane
8 Octane
9 Nonane
10 Decane
11 Undecane
12 Dodecane
13 Tridecane
14 Tetradecane
15 Pentadecane
16 Hexadecane
17 Heptadecane
18 Octadecane
19 Nonadecane
20 Icosane

21 Henicosane

n
22 Docosane
23 Tricosane
24 Tetracosane
25 Pentacosane
26 Hexacosane
27 Heptacosane
28 Octacosane
29 Nonacosane
30 Triacontane
31 Hentriacontane
32 Dotriacontane
33 Tritriacontane
40 Tetracontane
50 Pentacontane
60 Hexacontane
70 Heptacontane
80 Octacontane
90 Nonacontane
100 Hectane
132 Dotriacontahectane

Covalent Bonds: Single,


Double, Triple

H3C
H2C

HC

CH3
CH2

CH

ethane

ethene (ethylene)

ethyne (acetylene)

Nomenclature
Rules & Examples Text Book
Identify longest continuous chain
(parent chain)

Identify substitute groups and


numbering system
Consider Symmetry

Additional Resources (Examples)

Nomenclature
Identify longest continuous chain
(parent chain)
H3C

CH3

HC
CH2

CH3

H2C
CH2
H2C
CH2
H3C

CH2

CH

CH2

CH2

CH2

H3C

H2C

CH2

CH2

CH3

Nomenclature
Identify substitute groups and
numbering system
H3C
H3C

CH2
HC
CH2
CH2
H3C

CH3

CH

CH2
CH2

CH2

Nomenclature
Rules & Examples Consider Symmetry
CH3
H3C

CH2

CH2

CH2

H2C

CH

CH2

CH2

H3C

HC

CH3

H3C

CH2

CH3

CH2
H2C

H2C

CH2
CH2

H2C

H2C

CH
CH2

H3C

H3C

CH3

IUPAC Naming compounds


H3C

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2

CH
H3C

CH3
CH2

CH3
H3C

HC
CH2

CH

CH2
CH2

http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/

CH

CH3

Two or more double (triple)


bonds & Functional Groups
H2C
C

H2C

1,2 propadiene

CH2

C
CH

HC

CH3
C

C
C

CH

1,ethene,3-butyne

2,3, butadietyne

Exercises: Naming
Compounds
CH2

CH2

CH

CH2

4,10 tridecadiene

HC

CH2
C

CH

CH2

3,9 tridecadiene

CH
CH

CH3

CH

CH2

CH2

CH

CH2

H3C

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH
CH2

H3C

4, ethyl, 7, pentene, 10, butyne

CH3
CH2

Exercises: Naming
Compounds
H2C

CH
C

2,2 pentadiene

CH3
CH2

Internet resources
learn & have fun
http://www.acdlabs.com/

Homework Due Friday


Always check syllabus
Always check learning objectives
file
Problems from text book McCain