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Shear Wall Design Manual

ACI 318-11

Shear Wall
Design Manual
ACI 318-11
For ETABS 2013

ISO ETA032913M30 Rev. 0


Berkeley, California, USA

March 2013

Copyright
Copyright Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2013
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ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN
ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT
ADDRESSED.
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RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

Shear Wall Design


1

Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3

1.4
1.5
1.6

Notation
Design Station Locations
Default Design Load Combinations
1.3.1 Dead Load Component
1.3.2 Live Load Component
1.3.3 Roof Live Load Component
1.3.4 Snow Load Component
1.3.5 Wind Load Component
1.3.6 Earthquake Load Component
1.3.5 Combinations that Include a Response Spectrum
1.3.6 Combinations that Include Time History Results
1.3.9 Combinations that Include Static Nonlinear
Results
Shear Wall Design Preferences
Shear Wall Design Overwrites
Choice of Units

1-2
1-8
1-8
1-9
1-10
1-10
1-10
1-10
1-10
1-10
1-11
1-13
1-13
1-14
1-14

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

Pier Design
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2

Wall Pier Flexural Design


Designing a Simplified C & T Pier Section
Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing
Pier Section
2.1.3 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio
2.1.4 Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section
2.2 Wall Pier Shear Design
2.2.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity
of the Leg
2.3 Wall Pier Boundary Elements
2.3.1 Details of Check for Boundary Element
Requirements
2.3.2 Transverse Reinforcement for Boundary
Elements

2-8
2-17
2-18
2-20
2-20
2-24
2-24
2-27

Spandrel Design
3.1

3.2

Spandrel Flexural Design


3.1.1 Determine the Maximum Factored Moments
3.1.2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing
Spandrel Shear Design
3.2.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity
3.2.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing

Appendix A Supported Design Codes


Appendix B Shear Wall Design Preferences
Appendix C Design Procedure Overwrites
Appendix D Analysis Sections and Design Sections
Bibliography

ii

2-2
2-2

3-1
3-2
3-2
3-10
3-11
3-12

Chapter 1
Introduction

This manual describes the details of the shear wall design and stress check
algorithms used by the program when the user selects the ACI 318-11 design
code. The various notations used in this manual are described in Section 1.1.
The design is based on loading combinations specified by the user (Section
1.2). To facilitate the design process, the program provides a set of default load
combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building
type structures.
The program performs the following design, check, or analysis procedures in
accordance with ACI 318-11 and IBC 2012 requirements:

Design and check of concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads (Chapter
2)

Design of concrete wall piers for shear (Chapter 2)

Consideration of the boundary element requirements for concrete wall piers


using an approach based on the requirements of Section 21.9.6 in ACI 31811 (Chapter 2)

Design of concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure (Chapter 3)

Design of concrete wall spandrels for shear (Chapter 3)


1-1

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

The program provides detailed output data for Simplified pier section design,
Uniform pier section design/check, and Section Designer pier section
design/check (Chapter 4).

1.1.

Notation
Following is the notation used in this manual.

1-2

Acv

Net area of a wall pier bounded by the length of the wall pier,
Lp, and the web thickness, tp, in2

Ag

Gross area of a wall pier, in2

Ah-min

Minimum required area of distributed horizontal reinforcing


steel required for shear in a wall spandrel, in2/inch

As

Area of reinforcing steel, in2

Asc

Area of reinforcing steel required for compression in a pier


edge member, or the required area of tension steel required to
balance the compression steel force in a wall spandrel, in2

Asc-max

Maximum area of compression reinforcing steel in a wall pier


edge member, in2

Asf

The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the


concrete compression force in the extruding portion of the
concrete flange of a T-beam, in2

Ast

Area of reinforcing steel required for tension in a pier edge


member, in2

Ast-max

Maximum area of tension reinforcing steel in a wall pier edge


member, in2

Av

Area of reinforcing steel required for shear, in2 / in

Avd

Area of diagonal shear reinforcement in a coupling beam, in2

Notation

Chapter 1 Introduction

Av-min

Minimum required area of distributed vertical reinforcing steel


required for shear in a wall spandrel, in2 / in

Asw

The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the


concrete compression force in a rectangular concrete beam, or
for balancing the concrete compression force in the concrete
web of a T-beam, in2

A's

Area of compression reinforcing steel in a spandrel, in2

B1, B2...

Length of a concrete edge member in a wall with uniform


thickness, in

Cc

Concrete compression force in a wall pier or spandrel, lbs

Cf

Concrete compression force in the extruding portion of a Tbeam flange, lbs

Cs

Compression force in wall pier or spandrel reinforcing steel, lbs

Cw

Concrete compression force in the web of a T-beam, lbs

D/C

Demand/Capacity ratio as measured on an interaction curve for


a wall pier, unitless

DB1

Length of a user-defined wall pier edge member, in. This can


be different on the left and right sides of the pier, and it also
can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier.

DB2

Width of a user-defined wall pier edge member, in. This can be


different on the left and right sides of the pier, and it also can
be different at the top and the bottom of the pier.

Es

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel, psi

IP-max

The maximum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a


pier with a Section Designer section, unitless

IP-min

The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a


pier with a Section Designer section, unitless

Notation

1-3

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

1-4

LBZ

Horizontal length of the boundary zone at each end of a wall


pier, in

Lp

Horizontal length of wall pier leg, in. This can be different at


the top and the bottom of the pier

Ls

Horizontal length of wall spandrel, in

LL

Live load

Mn

Nominal bending strength, lb-in

Mu

Factored bending moment at a design section, lb-in

Muc

In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing, the factored


bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple
between the concrete in compression and the tension steel, lb-in

Muf

In a wall spandrel with a T-beam section and compression


reinforcing, the factored bending moment at a design section
resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression in
the extruding portion of the flange and the tension steel, lb-in

Mus

In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing, the factored


bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the tension steel, lb-in

Muw

In a wall spandrel with a T-beam section and compression


reinforcing, the factored bending moment at a design section
resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression in
the web and the tension steel, lb-in

OC

On a wall pier interaction curve the distance from the origin to


the capacity associated with the point considered, in

OL

On a wall pier interaction curve the distance from the origin to


the point considered, in

Pb

The axial force in a wall pier at a balanced strain condition, lbs

Notation

Chapter 1 Introduction

Pleft

Equivalent axial force in the left edge member of a wall pier


used for design, lbs. This may be different at the top and the
bottom of the wall pier.

Pmax

Limit on the maximum compressive design strength specified


by ACI 318-08, lbs

Pmax Factor

Factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive


design strength, unitless. The ACI 318-08 specifies this factor
to be 0.80. This factor can be revised in the preferences.

Pn

Nominal axial strength, lbs

Po

Nominal axial load strength of a wall pier, lbs

Poc

The maximum compression force a wall pier can carry with


strength reduction factors set equal to one, lbs

Pot

The maximum tension force a wall pier can carry with strength
reduction factors set equal to one, lbs

Pright

Equivalent axial force in the right edge member of a wall pier


used for design, lbs. This may be different at the top and the
bottom of the wall pier.

Pu

Factored axial force at a design section, lbs

PCmax

Maximum ratio of compression steel in an edge member of a


wall pier, unitless

PTmax

Maximum ratio of tension steel in an edge member of a wall


pier, unitless

RLL

Reduced live load

Ts

Tension force in wall pier reinforcing steel, lbs

Vc

The portion of the shear force carried by the concrete, lbs

Vn

Nominal shear strength, lbs

Notation

1-5

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

1-6

Vs

The portion of the shear force in a spandrel carried by the shear


reinforcing steel, lbs

Vu

Factored shear force at a design section, lbs

WL

Wind load

Depth of the wall pier or spandrel compression block, in

a1

Depth of the compression block in the web of a T-beam, in

bs

Width of the compression flange in a T-beam, in. This can be


different on the left and right ends of the T-beam.

Distance from the extreme compression fiber of the wall pier or


spandrel to the neutral axis, in

dr-bot

Distance from the bottom of the spandrel beam to the centroid


of the bottom reinforcing steel, in. This can be different on the
left and right ends of the beam.

dr-top

Distance from the top of the spandrel beam to the centroid of


the top reinforcing steel, in. This can be different on the left and
right ends of the beam.

ds

Depth of the compression flange in a T-beam, in. This can be


different on the left and right ends of the T-beam.

dspandrel

Depth of the spandrel beam minus the cover to the centroid of


the reinforcing, in

fy

Yield strength of steel reinforcing, psi. This value is used for


flexural and axial design calculations.

fys

Yield strength of steel reinforcing, psi. This value is used for


shear design calculations.

f 'c

Concrete compressive strength, psi. This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations.

Notation

Chapter 1 Introduction

f 'cs

Concrete compressive strength, psi. This value is used for shear


design calculations.

f's

Stress in compression steel of a wall spandrel, psi.

hs

Height of a wall spandrel, in. This can be different on the left


and right ends of the spandrel.

pmax

Maximum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Section


Designer section that is designed (not checked), unitless.

pmin

Minimum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Section


Designer section that is designed (not checked), unitless.

tp

Thickness of a wall pier, in. This can be different at the top and
bottom of the pier.

ts

Thickness of a wall spandrel, in. This can be different on the


left and right ends of the spandrel.

DL

The sum of all dead load cases

LL

The sum of all live load cases

RLL

The sum of all reduced live load cases

The angle between the diagonal reinforcing and the longitudinal axis of a coupling beam

Unitless factor defined in Section 10.2.7.3 of the code

Reinforcing steel strain, unitless

Reinforcing steel strain in a wall pier, unitless

's

Compression steel strain in a wall spandrel, unitless

Strength reduction factor, unitless

Strength reduction factor for bending and tension controlled


cases, unitless. The default value is 0.9.

Notation

1-7

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

1.2.

Strength reduction factor for bending plus high axial compression in a concrete pier, unitless. The default value is 0.7.

vns

Strength reduction factor for shear in a nonseismic pier or


spandrel, unitless. The default value is 0.85.

vs

Strength reduction factor for shear in a seismic pier or spandrel,


unitless. The default value is 0.6.

Modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of light-weight concrete, all relative to normal weight
concrete of the same compressive strength. It is equal to 1 for
normal weight concrete.

Reinforcing steel stress in a wall pier, psi

Design Station Locations


The program designs wall piers at stations located at the top and bottom of the
pier only. To design at the mid-height of a pier, break the pier into two separate
"half-height" piers.
The program designs wall spandrels at stations located at the left and right ends
of the spandrel only. To design at the mid-length of a spandrel, break the
spandrel into two separate "half-length" spandrels. Note that if a spandrel is
broken into pieces, the program will calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing separately for each piece. The angle used to calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing for each piece is based on the length of the piece, not
the length of the entire spandrel. This can cause the required area of diagonal
reinforcing to be significantly underestimated. Thus, if a spandrel is broken
into pieces, calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing separately by
hand.

1.3.

Default Design Load Combinations


The design load combinations automatically created by the program for concrete shear wall design are given by the following equations (ACI 9.2.1).

1-8

Design Station Locations

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.4D

(ACI 9-1)

1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5Lr


1.2D + 1.0L + 1.6Lr

(ACI 9-2)
(ACI 9-3)

1.2D + 1.6(0.75 PL) + 0.5Lr

(ACI 9-2, 13.7.6.3)

1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S


1.2D + 1.0L + 1.6S

(ACI 9-2)
(ACI 9-3)

0.9D 1.0W
1.2D + 1.0L + 0.5Lr 1.0W
1.2D + 1.6Lr 0.5W

(ACI 9-6)
(ACI 9-4)
(ACI 9-3)

1.2D + 1.6S 0.5W


1.2D + 1.0L + 0.5S 1.0W

(ACI 9-3)
(ACI 9-4)

0.9D 1.0E
1.2D + 1.0L + 0.2S 1.0E

(ACI 9-7)
(ACI 9-5)

In the preceding Equations,

1.3.1.

= The sum of all dead load load cases defined for the model.

= The sum of all live load load cases defined for the model. Note
that this includes roof live loads as well as floor live loads.

Lr

= The sum of all roof live load load cases defined for the model.

= The sum of all snow load load cases defined for the model.

= Any single wind load load case defined for the model.

= Any single earthquake load load case defined for the model.

Dead Load Component


The dead load component of the default design load combinations consists of
the sum of all dead loads multiplied by the specified factor. Individual dead
load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations.

Default Design Load Combinations

1-9

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

See the description of the earthquake load component later in this chapter for
additional information.

1.3.2.

Live Load Component


The live load component of the default design load combinations consists of
the sum of all live loads, both reducible and unreducible, multiplied by the specified factor. Individual live load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations.

1.3.3.

Roof Live Load Component


The live load component of the default design load combinations consists of
the sum of all roof live loads (unreducible), multiplied by the specified factor.

1.3.4.

Snow Load Component


The snow load component of the default design load combinations consists of
the sum of all snow loads, multiplied by the specified factor. Individual live
load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations.

1.3.5.

Wind Load Component


The wind load component of the default design load combinations consists of
the contribution from a single wind load case. Thus, if multiple wind load cases
are defined in the program model, each of ACI Equations 9-3, 9-4 and 9-6 will
contribute multiple design load combinations, one for each wind load case that
is defined.

1.3.6.

Earthquake Load Component


The earthquake load component of the default design load combinations consists of the contribution from a single earthquake load case. Thus, if multiple
earthquake load cases are defined in the program model, each of ACI Equations 9-5 and 9-7 will contribute multiple design load combinations, one for
each earthquake load case that is defined.

1-10

Default Design Load Combinations

Chapter 1 Introduction

The earthquake load cases considered when creating the default design load
combinations include all static load cases that are defined as earthquake loads
and all response spectrum cases. Default design load combinations are not
created for time history cases or for static nonlinear cases.

1.3.7.

Combinations That Include a Response Spectrum


In the program all response spectrum cases are assumed to be earthquake load
cases. Default design load combinations are created that include the response
spectrum cases.
The output from a response spectrum is all positive. Any design load
combination that includes a response spectrum load case is checked for all
possible combinations of signs on the response spectrum values. Thus, when
checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel, the response spectrum
contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a
positive shear and then a second time as a negative shear. Similarly, when
checking moment in a wall spandrel, the response spectrum contribution of
moment to the design load combination is considered once as a positive
moment and then a second time as a negative moment. When checking the
flexural behavior of a two-dimensional wall pier or spandrel, four possible
combinations are considered for the contribution of response spectrum load to
the design load combination. They are:

+P and +M

+P and M

P and +M

P and M

where P is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier. Similarly,
eight possible combinations of P, M2 and M3 are considered for threedimensional wall piers.
Note that based on the above, ACI Equation 9-5 with negative sign for earthquake is redundant for a load combination with a response spectrum, and similarly, ACI Equation 9-7 with negative sign for earthquake is redundant for a
load combination with a response spectrum. For this reason, the program
Default Design Load Combinations

1-11

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

creates default design load combinations based on ACI Equations 9-5 and 9-7
with only positive sign for earthquake for response spectra. Default design load
combinations using ACI Equations 9-5 and 9-7 with negative sign for earthquake are not created for response spectra.

1.3.8.

Combinations that Include Time History Results


The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any time history results. Therefore, user-defined load combinations should include time history forces.
When a design load combination includes time history results, the design can
be for the envelope of those results or for each step of the time history. The
type of time history design can be specified in the shear wall design preferences (Appendix B).
When envelopes are used, the design is for the maximum of each response
quantity (axial load, moment, and the like) as if they occurred simultaneously.
Typically, this is not the realistic case, and in some instances, it may be unconservative. Designing for each step of a time history gives the correct correspondence between different response quantities, but designing for each step can
be very time consuming.
When the program gets the envelope results for a time history, it gets a maximum and a minimum value for each response quantity. Thus, for wall piers it
gets maximum and minimum values of axial load, shear and moment; and for
wall spandrels, it gets maximum and minimum values of shear and moment.
For a design load combination in the program shear wall design module, any
load combination that includes a time history load case in it is checked for all
possible combinations of maximum and minimum time history design values.
Thus, when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel, the time history
contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a
maximum shear and then a second time as a minimum shear. Similarly, when
checking moment in a wall spandrel, the time history contribution of moment
to the design load combination is considered once as a maximum moment and
then a second time as a minimum moment. When checking the flexural behavior of a wall pier, four possible combinations are considered for the contribution of time history load to the design load combination. They are:

1-12

Default Design Load Combinations

Chapter 1 Introduction

Pmax and Mmax

Pmax and Mmin

Pmin and Mmax

Pmin and Mmin

where P is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier.
If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it,
that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories, regardless of what is specified for the Time History Design item in the
preferences.

1.3.9.

Combinations That Include Static Nonlinear Results


The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any static nonlinear results. Therefore, user-defined load combinations should include static
nonlinear results.
If a design load combination includes a single static nonlinear case and nothing
else, the design is performed for each step of the static nonlinear analysis. Otherwise, the design is only performed for the last step of the static nonlinear
analysis.

1.4.

Shear Wall Design Preferences


The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier
and spandrel elements. Appendix B identifies shear wall design preferences for
the code.
Default values are provided for all shear wall design preference items. Thus, it
is not required that preferences be specified. However, at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable.

Shear Wall Design Preferences

1-13

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

1.5.

Shear Wall Design Overwrites


The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those
piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. The overwrites for piers and
spandrels are separate. Appendix C identifies the shear wall overwrites for the
code. Note that the available overwrites change depending on the pier section
type (Uniform Reinforcing, General Reinforcing, or Simplified C and T).
Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. Thus, it is
not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least
review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are
acceptable. When changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies
the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned, that
is, to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed.

1.6.

Choice of Units
For shear wall design in this program, any set of consistent units can be used
for input. Also, the system of units being used can be changed at any time.
Typically, design codes are based on one specific set of units.
The code is based on Pound-Inch-Second units. For simplicity, all equations
and descriptions presented in this manual correspond to pound-inch-second
units unless otherwise noted.
The Display Unit preferences allow the user to specify special units for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing. The special units specified for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing can be changed anytime.
The choices available in the Display Units preferences for the units associated
with an area of concentrated reinforcing are in2, cm2, mm2, ft2 and m2. The
choices available for the units associated with an area per unit length of distributed reinforcing are in2/ft, cm2/m, mm2/m, in2/in, cm2/cm, and so on.

1-14

Shear Wall Design Overwrites

Chapter 2
Pier Design

This chapter describes how the program designs and checks concrete wall piers
for flexural and axial loads when the ACI 318-11 option is selected. First we
describe how the program designs piers that are specified by a Simplified C &
T Section. Next we describe how the program checks piers that are specified by
a Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section or General Section (i.e., Section Designer).
Then we describe how the program designs piers that are specified by a
Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section or General Section (Section Designer).
This chapter also describes how the program designs each leg of concrete wall
piers for shear when the ACI 318-11 option is selected. Note that in this
program the user cannot specify shear reinforcing and then have the program
check it. The program only designs the pier for shear and reports how much
shear reinforcing is required. The shear design is performed at stations at the
top and bottom of the pier.
This chapter also describes the design of boundary zone elements for each pier
in accordance with ACI Section 21.9.6 when a seismic load case is present in
wall design load combinations.

2-1

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

2.1

Wall Pier Flexural Design


For both designing and checking piers, it is important to understand the local
axis definition for the pier. Access the local axes assignments using the Assign
menu.

2.1.1

Designing a Simplified C & T Pier Section


This section describes how the program designs a pier that is assigned a
simplified section. The geometry associated with the simplified section is
illustrated in Figure 2-1. The pier geometry is defined by a length, thickness,
and size of the edge members at each end of the pier (if any).

Figure 2-1: Typical Wall Pier Dimensions Used for Simplified Design

A simplified T and C pier section is always planar (not three-dimensional). The


dimensions shown in the figure include the following:
2-2

Wall Pier Flexural Design

Chapter 2 Pier Design

The length of the wall pier is designated Lp. This is the horizontal length of
the wall pier in plan.
The thickness of the wall pier is designated tp. The thickness specified for
left and right edge members (DB2left and DB2right) may be different from
this wall thickness.
DB1 represents the horizontal length of the pier edge member. DB1 can be
different at the left and right sides of the pier.
DB2 represents the horizontal width (or thickness) of the pier edge
member. DB2 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier.
The dimensions illustrated are specified in the shear wall overwrites (Appendix
C), and can be specified differently at the top and bottom of the wall pier.
If no specific edge member dimensions have been specified by the user, the
program assumes that the edge member thickness is the same as the thickness
of the wall, and the program determines the required length of the edge
member. In all cases, whether the edge member size is user-specified or
program-determined, the program reports the required area of reinforcing steel
at the center of the edge member. This section describes how the programdetermined length of the edge member is determined and how the program
calculates the required reinforcing at the center of the edge member.
Three design conditions are possible for a simplified wall pier. These
conditions, illustrated in Figure 2-2, are as follows:
The wall pier has program-determined (variable length and fixed width) edge
members on each end.
The wall pier has user-defined (fixed length and width) edge members on
each end.
The wall pier has a program-determined (variable length and fixed width)
edge member on one end and a user-defined (fixed length and width) edge
member on the other end.

Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-3

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

Design Condition 1
Wall pier with uniform thickness and
ETABS-determined (variable length)
edge members

Design Condition 3
Wall pier with a user-defined edge
member on one end and an ETABSdetermined (variable length) edge
member on the other end

Design Condition 2
Wall pier with user-defined edge
members

Note:
In all three conditions, the only
reinforcing designed by ETABS is that
required at the center of the edge
members

Figure 2-2: Design Conditions for Simplified Wall Piers

2.1.1.1

Design Condition 1

Design condition 1 applies to a wall pier with uniform design thickness and
program-determined edge member length. For this design condition, the design
algorithm focuses on determining the required size (length) of the edge members, while limiting the compression and tension reinforcing located at the
center of the edge members to user-specified maximum ratios. The maximum
ratios are specified in the shear wall design preferences and the pier design
overwrites as Edge Design PC-Max and Edge Design PT-Max.
Consider the wall pier shown in Figure 2-3. For a given design section, say the
top of the wall pier, the wall pier for a given design load combination is
designed for a factored axial force Pu-top and a factored moment Mu-top.
The program initiates the design procedure by assuming an edge member at the
left end of the wall of thickness tp and width B1-left, and an edge member at the
right end of the wall of thickness tp and width B1-right. Initially B1-left = B1-right =
tp.
The moment and axial force are converted to an equivalent force set Pleft-top and
Pright-top using the relationships shown in the following equations. (Similar
equations apply to the bottom of the pier.)
2-4

Wall Pier Flexural Design

Chapter 2 Pier Design

0.5Lp
0.5tp

0.5tp

tp
tp

tp

B1-left

B1-right
B2-right

B2-left

B3-right

B3-left
Lp
CL
Wall Pier Plan
Pleft-top

Pu-top

Pright-top

Mu-top

Left edge member

Right edge member

Top of
pier

Mu-bot
Pleft-bot

Pu-bot

Bottom
of pier
Pright-bot

Wall Pier Elevation


Figure 2-3: Wall Pier for Design Condition 1
Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-5

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

P=
left-top

=
Pright-top

Pu top
2
Pu top
2

M u top

( Lp 0.5B1left 0.5B1right )

M u top

( Lp 0.5B1left 0.5B1right )

For any given loading combination, the net values for Pleft-top and Pright-top could
be tension or compression.
Note that for dynamic loads, Pleft-top and Pright-top are obtained at the modal level
and the modal combinations are made, before combining with other loads. Also
for design loading combinations involving SRSS, the Pleft-top and Pright-top forces
are obtained first for each load case before the combinations are made.
If any value of Pleft-top or Pright-top is tension, the area of steel required for
tension, Ast, is calculated as:
Ast =

P
.
t f y

If any value of Pleft-top or Pright-top is compression, for section adequacy, the area
of steel required for compression, Asc, must satisfy the following relationship.
Abs=
( P)

( Pmax Factor ) c [0.85 fc' ( Ag Asc ) +

f y Asc ]

(ACI 10.3.6.2)

where P is either Pleft-top or Pright-top, Ag = tpB1 and the Pmax Factor is defined in the
shear wall design preferences (the default is 0.80). In general, we recommend
the use of the default value. From the preceding equation,

Asc =

Abs ( P )
0.85 f c' Ag
( Pmax Factor ) c
f y 0.85 f c'

If Asc calculates as negative, no compression reinforcing is needed.


The maximum tensile reinforcing to be packed within the tp times B1 concrete
edge member is limited by:
Ast -max = PTmax t p B1.
2-6

Wall Pier Flexural Design

Chapter 2 Pier Design

Similarly, the compression reinforcing is limited by:


Asc -max = PCmax t p B1.

If Ast is less than or equal to Ast-max and Asc is less than or equal to Asc-max, the
program will proceed to check the next loading combination; otherwise the
program will increment the appropriate B1 dimension (left, right or both,
depending on which edge member is inadequate) by one-half of the wall
thickness to B2 (i.e., 1.5tp) and calculate new values for Pleft-top and Pright-top
resulting in new values of Ast and Asc. This iterative procedure continues until
Ast and Asc are within the allowed steel ratios for all design load combinations.
If the value of the width of the edge member B increments to where it reaches a
value larger than or equal to Lp /2, the iteration is terminated and a failure
condition is reported.
This design algorithm is an approximate but convenient algorithm. Wall piers
that are declared overstressed using this algorithm could be found to be
adequate if the reinforcing steel is user-specified and the wall pier is accurately
evaluated using interaction diagrams.

2.1.1.2

Design Condition 2

Design condition 2 applies to a wall pier with user-specified edge members at


each end of the pier. The size of the edge members is assumed to be fixed; that
is, the program does not modify them. For this design condition, the design
algorithm determines the area of steel required in the center of the edge
members and checks if that area gives reinforcing ratios less than the userspecified maxi-mum ratios. The design algorithm used is the same as described
for condition 1; however, no iteration is required.

2.1.1.3

Design Condition 3

Design condition 3 applies to a wall pier with a user-specified (fixed


dimension) edge member at one end of the pier and a variable length (programdetermined) edge member at the other end. The width of the variable length
edge member is equal to the width of the wall.

Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-7

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

The design is similar to that which has previously been described for design
conditions 1 and 2. The size of the user-specified edge member is not changed.
Iteration only occurs on the size of the variable length edge member.

2.1.2

Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section


When a General Reinforcing or Uniform Reinforcing pier section is specified
to be checked, the program creates an interaction surface for that pier and uses
that interaction surface to determine the critical flexural demand/capacity ratio
for the pier. This section describes how the program generates the interaction
surface for the pier and how it determines the demand/capacity ratio for a given
design load combination.
Note: In this program, the interaction surface is defined by a series of PMM interaction curves that are equally spaced around a 360-degree circle.

2.1.2.1

Interaction Surface

In this program, a three-dimensional interaction surface is defined with


reference to the P, M2 and M3 axes. The surface is developed using a series of
interaction curves that are created by rotating the direction of the pier neutral
axis in equally spaced increments around a 360-degree circle. For example, if
24 PMM curves are specified (the default), there is one curve every 15 degrees
(360/24 curves = 15). Figure 2-4 illustrates the assumed orientation of the
pier neutral axis and the associated sides of the neutral axis where the section is
in tension (designated T in the figure) or compression (designated C in the
figure) for various angles.
Note that the orientation of the neutral axis is the same for an angle of and
+180. Only the side of the neutral axis where the section is in tension or
compression changes. We recommend that 24 interaction curves (or more) be
used to define a three-dimensional interaction surface.
Each PMM interaction curve that makes up the interaction surface is
numerically described by a series of discrete points connected by straight lines.
The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear
strain about the neutral axis on the section of the pier. Details of this process
are described later in the section entitled "Details of the Strain Compatibility
Analysis."
2-8

Wall Pier Flexural Design

Interaction curve is
for a neutral axis
parallel to this axis
Pier section

T C

Chapter 2 Pier Design


Interaction curve is
for a neutral axis
parallel to this axis
3

Pier section

a) Angle is 0 degrees

b) Angle is 45 degrees

Interaction curve is
for a neutral axis
parallel to this axis

45

Interaction curve is
for a neutral axis
parallel to this axis

Pier section

Pier section
2

C T

b) Angle is 225 degrees

a) Angle is 180 degrees

225

Figure 2-4: Orientation of the Pier Neutral Axis for Various Angles

By default, 11 points are used to define a PMM interaction curve. This number
can be changed in the preferences; any odd number of points greater than or
equal to 11 can be specified, to be used in creating the interaction curve. If an
even number is specified for this item in the preferences, the program will
increment up to the next higher odd number.
Note that when creating an interaction surface for a two-dimensional wall pier,
the program considers only two interaction curvesthe 0 curve and the 180
curveregardless of the number of curves specified in the preferences.
Furthermore, only moments about the M3 axis are considered for twodimensional walls.

2.1.2.2

Formulation of the Interaction Surface

The formulation of the interaction surface in this program is based consistently


on the basic principles of ultimate strength design (ACI 10.2, 10.3). The
program uses the requirements of force equilibrium and strain compatibility to
Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-9

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

determine the nominal axial and moment strength (Pn, M2n, M3n) of the wall
pier. This nominal strength is then multiplied by the appropriate strength
reduction factor, , to obtain the design strength (Pn, M2n, M3n) of the pier.
For the pier to be deemed adequate, the required strength (Pu, M2u, M3u) must
be less than or equal to the design strength.
(Pu, M2u, M3u) (Pn, M2n, M3n)
The effect of the strength reduction factor, , is included in the generation of
the interaction surface. The value of used in the interaction diagram varies
from compression-controlled to tension-controlled based on the maximum
tensile strain in the reinforcing at the extreme edge, t (ACI 9.3.2).
Sections are considered compression-controlled when the tensile strain in the
extreme tension steel is equal to or less than the compression-controlled strain
limit at the time the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of
c.max, which is 0.003. The compression-controlled strain limit is the tensile
strain in the reinforcement at balanced strain condition, which is taken as the
yield strain of the steel reinforcing, fy /E (ACI 10.3.3).
Sections are tension-controlled when the tensile strain in the extreme tension
steel is equal to or greater than 0.005, just as the concrete in compression
reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.003 (ACI 10.3.4).
Sections with t between the two limits are considered to be in a transition
region between compression-controlled and tension-controlled sections (ACI
10.3.4).
When the section is tension-controlled, a factor for tension-control case is
used. When the section is compression-controlled, a factor for compressioncontrol case is used. When the section falls into the transition region, is
linearly interpolated between the two values (ACI 9.3.2), as shown in the
following:
c
if t

0.005 t

c = t (t c )
if < t 0.005, where (ACI 9.3.2)

0.005 y

if t 0.005
t
t = for tension controlled sections,
2-10

Wall Pier Flexural Design

Chapter 2 Pier Design

which is 0.90 by default

(ACI 9.3.2.1)

c = for compression controlled sections


= 0.65 (by default) for wall sections
with tied reinforcement.

(ACI 9.3.2.2)

In cases involving axial tension, the strength reduction factor, , is by default


equal to t. The strength reduction factors c and t can be revised in the
preferences and the overwrites (Appendix B).
The theoretical maximum nominal compressive force that the wall pier can
carry, assuming the c factor is equal to 1, is designated Poc and is given by.
Poc = [0.85f'c (Ag As) + fyAs]

(ACI 10.3.6)

The theoretical maximum nominal tension force that the wall pier can carry,
assuming the t factor is equal to 1, is designated Pot and is given by.
Pot = fyAs
If the wall pier geometry and reinforcing is symmetrical in plan, the moments
associated with both Poc and Pot are zero. Otherwise, a moment associated will
be with both Poc and Pot.
The code limits the maximum compressive design strength, cPn, to the value
given by Pmax
Pmax = 0.80cPoc = 0.80[0.85f'c (Ag As) + fyAs]

(ACI 10.3.6.2)

Note that the equation defining Pmax reduces Poc not only by a strength
reduction factor, c, but also by an additional factor of 0.80. In the preferences,
this factor is called the Pmax Factor, and different values for it can be specified, as
required. In all code designs, it is prudent to consider this factor to be 0.80 as
required by the code.
Note: The number of points to be used in creating interaction diagrams can be specified in the shear wall preferences.

As previously mentioned, by default, 11 points are used to define a single


interaction curve. When creating a single interaction curve, the program
includes the points at Pb, Poc and Pot on the interaction curve. Half of the
Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-11

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between


Pb and Poc at approximately equal spacing along the Pn axis. The other half of
the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur
between Pb and Pot at approximately equal spacing along the Pn axis. Here Pb
is the nominal axial capacity at the balanced condition.
Figure 2-5 shows a plan view of an example two-dimensional wall pier. Notice
that the concrete is symmetrical but the reinforcing is not symmetrical in this
example. Figure 2-6 shows several interaction surfaces for the wall pier
illustrated in Figure 2-5.
12'-6"
12 spaces at 1'-0" = 12'-0"

3"

2-#6

2-#9
2-#9

1'

3"

# 5@12 o.c.,
each face, except
as noted

fc = 4 ksi
fy = 60 ksi

Figure 2-5: Example Two-Dimensional Wall Pier With Unsymmetrical


Reinforcing

Note the following about Figure 2-6:


Because the pier is two-dimensional, the interaction surface consists of two
interaction curves. One curve is at 0 and the other is at 180. Only M3
moments are considered because this is a two-dimensional example.
In this program, compression is negative and tension is positive.
The 0 and 180 interaction curves are not symmetric because the wall pier
reinforcing is not symmetric.
The smaller interaction surface (drawn with a heavier line) has both the
strength reduction factors and the Pmax Factor, applied as specified by the
code.
The dashed line shows the effect of setting the Pmax Factor to 1.0.

2-12

Wall Pier Flexural Design

Chapter 2 Pier Design

The larger interaction surface has both the strength reduction factor and the
Pmax,Factor set to 1.0.
The interaction surfaces shown are created using the default value of 11
points for each interaction curve.

Figure 2-6 : Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 2-5

Figure 2-7 shows the 0 interaction curves for the wall pier illustrated in Figure
2-5. Additional interaction curves are also added to Figure 2-7.
The smaller, heavier curve in Figure 2-7 has the strength reduction factor and
the Pmax,Factor as specified in ACI 318-11. The other three curves, which are
plotted for = 0.65, 0.9 and 1.0, all have Pmax,Factor of 1.0. The purpose of
showing these interaction curves is to explain how the program creates the
interaction curve. Recall that the strength reduction factors 0.65 and 0.9 are
actually c and t, and that their values can be revised in the preferences as
required.

Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-13

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

Figure 2-7: Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 2-5

2.1.2.3

Details of the Strain Compatibility Analysis

As previously mentioned, the program uses the requirements of force


equilibrium and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial strength
and moment strength (Pn, M2n, M3n) of the wall pier. The coordinates of these
points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain on the section of the
wall pier.
Figure 2-8 illustrates varying planes of linear strain such as those that the
program considers on a wall pier section for a neutral axis orientation angle of
0 degrees.
In these planes, the maximum concrete strain is always taken as 0.003 and the
maximum steel strain is varied from 0.003 to plus infinity. (Recall that in this
program compression is negative and tension is positive.) When the steel strain
is 0.003, the maximum compressive force in the wall pier, Poc, is obtained
from the strain compatibility analysis. When the steel strain is plus infinity, the
maximum tensile force in the wall pier, Pot, is obtained. When the maximum

2-14

Wall Pier Flexural Design

Chapter 2 Pier Design

steel strain is equal to the yield strain for the reinforcing (e.g., 0.00207 for fy =
60 ksi), Pb is obtained.
Varying
neutral axis
locations
+
0.000
-0.003

Varying Linear Strain Diagram

Plan View of Wall Pier


Figure 2-8: Varying Planes of Linear Strain

Figure 2-9 illustrates the concrete wall pier strain, stress, and force that is
obtained from a strain compatibility analysis of a typical plane of linear strain
shown in Figure 2-8. In Figure 2-9 the compressive stress in the concrete, Cc, is
calculated (ACI 10.2.7.1).
Cc = 0.85f'c1ctp

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

In Figure 2-8, the value for maximum strain in the reinforcing steel is assumed.
Then the strain in all other reinforcing steel is determined based on the
assumed plane of linear strain. Next the stress in the reinforcing steel is
calculated as follows, where s is the strain, Es is the modulus of elasticity, s
is the stress, and fy is the yield stress of the reinforcing steel.
s = sEs fy

(ACI 10.2.4)

Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-15

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

12

13

11 10

0.85f'c

Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Cs Cs Cs Cs

Cc

a = 1c

Stress Diagram

12s

11s 10
s

9s 8
s
7s 6 5
s
s

4s 3
s

2s 1
s

tp

Linear Strain Diagram

= 0.003

13s

Plan View of Wall Pier


Figure 2-9: Wall Pier Stress-Strain Relationship

The force in the reinforcing steel (Ts for tension or Cs for compression) is
calculated by:
Ts or Cs = sAs
For the given distribution of strain, the value of Pn is calculated by.
Pn = (Ts Cc Cs) Pmax
In the preceding equation, the tensile force Ts and the compressive forces Cc
and Cs are all positive. If Pn is positive, it is tension, and if it is negative, it is
compression.
2-16

Wall Pier Flexural Design

Chapter 2 Pier Design

The value of M2n is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the
forces about the pier local 2 axis. Similarly, the value of M3n is calculated by
summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 3 axis. The
forces whose moments are summed to determine M2n and M3n are Cc, all of
the Ts forces and all of the Cs forces.
The Pn, M2n and M3n values calculated as described in the preceding
paragraph make up one point on the wall pier interaction diagram. Additional
points on the diagram are obtained by making different assumptions for the
maximum steel strain; that is, considering a different plane of linear strain, and
repeating the process.
When one interaction curve is complete, the next orientation of the neutral axis
is assumed and the points for the associated new interaction curve are
calculated. This process continues until the points for all of the specified curves
have been calculated.

2.1.3

Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio


Refer to Figure 2-10, which shows a typical two-dimensional wall pier
interaction diagram. The forces obtained from a given design load combination
are Pu and M3u. The point L, defined by (Pu, M3u), is placed on the interaction
diagram, as shown in the figure. If the point lies within the interaction curve,
the wall pier capacity is adequate. If the point lies outside of the interaction
curve, the wall pier is overstressed.
As a measure of the stress condition in the wall pier, the program calculates a
stress ratio. The ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the
location of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL
(extended outward if needed) intersects the interaction curve. The
demand/capacity ratio, D/C, is given by D/C = OL / OC where OL is the
"distance" from point O (the origin) to point L and OC is the "distance" from
point O to point C. Note the following about the demand/capacity ratio:
If OL = OC (or D/C = 1), the point (Pu, M3u) lies on the interaction curve
and the wall pier is stressed to capacity.
If OL < OC (or D/C < 1), the point (Pu, M3u) lies within the interaction
curve and the wall pier capacity is adequate.
Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-17

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

If OL > OC (or D/C > 1), the point (Pu, M3u) lies outside of the interaction
curve and the wall pier is overstressed.
The wall pier demand/capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the
stress condition of the wall with respect to the capacity of the wall.
The demand/capacity ratio for a three-dimensional wall pier is determined in a
similar manner to that described here for two-dimensional piers.

Figure 2-10: Two-Dimensional Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio

2.1.4

Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section


When a General Reinforcing pier section is specified to be designed, the
program creates a series of interaction surfaces for the pier based on the
following items:
The size of the pier as specified in Section Designer.
The location of the reinforcing specified in Section Designer.
The size of each reinforcing bar specified in Section Designer relative to the
size of the other bars.

2-18

Wall Pier Flexural Design

Chapter 2 Pier Design

The interaction surfaces are developed for eight different ratios of reinforcingsteel-area-to-pier-area. The pier area is held constant and the rebar area is
modified to obtain these different ratios; however, the relative size (area) of
each rebar compared to the other bars is always kept constant.
The smallest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear
wall design preferences as Section Design IP-Min. Similarly, the largest of the
eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design
preferences as Section Design IP-Max.
The eight reinforcing ratios used are the maximum and the minimum ratios
plus six more ratios. The spacing between the reinforcing ratios is calculated as
an increasing arithmetic series in which the space between the first two ratios is
equal to one-third of the space between the last two ratios. Table 1 illustrates
the spacing, both in general terms and for a specific example, when the
minimum reinforcing ratio, IPmin, is 0.0025 and the maximum, IPmax, is 0.02.
Table 2-1 The Eight Reinforcing Ratios Used by the Program
Curve

Ratio

Example

IPmin
IPmax IPmin
IPmin +
14

0.0025

0.0038

IPmin +

7 IPmax IPmin

3
14

0.0054

IPmax IPmin
IPmin + 4

14

0.0075

IPmax IPmin
IPmin + 6

14

0.0100

IPmin +

25 IPmax IPmin

3
14

0.0129

IPmax IPmin
IPmin + 11

14

0.0163

IPmax

0.0200

After the eight reinforcing ratios have been determined, the program develops
interaction surfaces for all eight of the ratios using the process described earlier
in the section entitled "Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier
Section."
Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-19

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

Next, for a given design load combination, the program generates a


demand/capacity ratio associated with each of the eight interaction surfaces.
The program then uses linear interpolation between the eight interaction
surfaces to determine the reinforcing ratio that gives an demand/capacity ratio
of 1 (actually the program uses 0.99 instead of 1). This process is repeated for
all design load combinations and the largest required reinforcing ratio is
reported.
Design of a Uniform Reinforcing pier section is similar to that described herein
for the General Reinforcing section.

2.2

Wall Pier Shear Design


The wall pier shear reinforcing is designed leg by leg (panel by panel) for each
of the design load combinations. The following steps are involved in designing
the shear reinforcing for a particular wall pier section for a particular design
loading combination.
Determine the factored forces Pu, Mu and Vu that are acting on a leg of the
wall pier section. Note that Pu and Mu are required for the calculation of Vc.
Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be carried by the concrete of the leg
(panel).
Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear
force.
Step 1 needs no further explanation. The following two sections describe in
detail the algorithms associated with the Steps 2 and 3.

2.2.1

Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity of the Leg


Given the design force set Pu, Mu and Vu acting on a wall pier section, the shear
force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated using the minimum from the
following two equations (ACI 11.9.6).
N d
3.3 f c t p ( 0.8 L p ) + u
Vc =
4 Lp

2-20

Wall Pier Shear Design

(ACI 11-27)

Chapter 2 Pier Design

L p 1.25 f c

Vc 0.6 f c +
M

Abs u

Vu

+ 0.2

Nu
Lp t p

Lp

ACI Equation 11-28 does not apply if


t d
p

M
Abs u
Vu

Lp

(ACI 11-28)

is negative or zero, or if

Vu is zero.
In the preceding equations, Nu is the axial force, and Nu is positive for
compression and negative for tension. The effective shear depth, d, is taken as
follows:
d = 0.8 Lp

(ACI 11.9.4)

A limit of 100 psi on


f c

f c

is imposed,

100 psi

(ACI 11.1.2)

If the tension is large enough that ACI Equation 11-27 or 11-28 results in a
negative number, Vc is set to zero.
f

c
terms in this
Note that the term that is used as a multiplier on all
chapter is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to light-weight concrete.
It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. This factor is specified in the
concrete material properties.

Given Vu and Vc, the required shear reinforcement of area/unit length is


calculated as follows:
The shear force is limited to a maximum of
Vmax =

(10

f c tcp d , where

(ACI 11.9.3)

= 0.8Lp

(ACI 11.9.4)

The required horizontal shear reinforcement per unit spacing, Av /s, is calculated as follows:
Wall Pier Shear Design

2-21

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

If Vu (Vc 2 ) ,
Av
= Pt ,min tcp ,
s

(ACI 11.9.9.1)

else if Vc < Vu Vmax ,


Av (Vu Vc )
,
=
f ys d
s

(ACI 11.9.9.1, 11.1.1)

Av
Pt ,min t p
s

(ACI 11.9.9.2, 14.3.3, 21.9.2.1)

else if Vu > Vmax ,


a failure condition is declared. (ACI 11.4.7.9)
In the preceding equations, the strength reduction factor is taken as 0.75 for
non-seismic cases ms (ACI 9.3.2.3), and as 0.6 for seismic cases vs (ACI
9.3.4.a). However, those values may be overwritten by the user if so desired.
If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax, the shear wall section
should be increased in size (ACI 11.9.3, 21.9.4.4).
The minimum horizontal volumetric shear rebar ratio, Pt,min, is taken as
follows:
Pt, min = 0.0025

(ACI 11.9.8, 14.3.3(b), 21.9.2.1)

In addition, the ratio of vertical shear reinforcement to gross concrete area of

horizontal section, Pc, Pc = Asc

( s t ) ) , is calculated as follows:
v p

If Vu (Vc 2 ) ,
Pc = 0.0015
else if Vu > (Vc 2 ) ,

2-22

Wall Pier Shear Design

(ACI 11.9.8, 14.3.2)

Chapter 2 Pier Design

h
Pc = 0.0025 + 0.5 2.5 w

Lp

Pt

( Pc 0.0025 ) 0.0025

(ACI 11.9.9.4, 11.9.8, 14.3.2)

Av
st p

(ACI 11.9.9.4)

where,
A

Pt = max v , Pt ,min
st p

(ACI 11.9.9.4, 11.9.8)

hw = story height, and


Lp = length of the shear wall panel.
For shear design of special seismic wall pier legs for seismic load, the
procedure given in this section is modified with the following exceptions.
The concrete shear capacity is taken as follows (ACI 21.9.4.1):
Vc = c f c Acv

(ACI 21.9.4.4.1)

where,
3.0

=
c 2.0

interpolated

for hw L p 1.5,
for hw L p > 2.0,

(ACI 21.9.4.4.1)

for 1.5 < hw L p < 2.0.

Acv = Lptp

(ACI 21.9.4.4)

The maximum shear that can be carried by the wall segment irrespective of
the amount of reinforcing bar provided is taken as follows (ACI 21.9.4.4):
Vmax = 8 f c Lptp

(ACI 21.9.4.4)

The expression for required shear rebar is modified as follows:

Wall Pier Shear Design

2-23

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

Av Vu c f cL p t p vs
=
s
f ys L p

(ACI 21.9.4.1)

If Vu exceeds f c ( L p t p ) , the Pt,min and Pc,min is modified as follows:


Pt,min

= 0.0025

(ACI 21.9.2.1)

Pc,min

= 0.0025

(ACI 21.9.2.1)

The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values, obtained from each design
load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and
associated design load combination name.
The pier horizontal shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program
are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum shear rebar
requirements to satisfy spacing consideration must be investigated
independently of the program by the user.

2.3

Wall Pier Boundary Elements


This section describes how the program considers the boundary element
requirements for each leg of concrete wall piers using ACI 318-11/IBC 2012
when the Special Structural Wall option is chosen. The program uses an
approach based on the requirements of Section 21.9.6 of ACI 318-11. The
program does not compute boundary zone requirement when maximum
extreme fiber compressive stress is less than 0.2 f c (ACI 21.9.6.3). When the
extreme fiber compressive stress is equal to or greater than 0.2 f c (ACI
21.9.6.2), the program also checks ACI Section 21.9.6.2 and reports the
boundary zone requirement when the depth of the compression zone exceeds a
limit (ACI 21.9.6.2).
Note that the boundary element requirements are considered separately for
each design load combination that includes seismic load.

2.3.1

Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements


The following information is made available for the boundary element check:

2-24

Wall Pier Boundary Elements

Chapter 2 Pier Design

The design forces Pu, Vu, and Mu for the pier section.
The story height, hw, length of the wall pier panel, Lp, the gross area of the
pier, Ag, and the net area of the pier, Acv. The net area of the pier is the area
bounded by the web thickness, tp, and the length of the pier. (Refer to Figure
2-3 earlier in this chapter for an illustration of the dimensions Lp and tp.)
The program also computes the design displacement u by multiplying the
displacement from load combination with the Cd factor provided in the shear
wall design preferences (Appendix C).
The area of reinforcement in the pier, As. This area of steel is calculated by
the program or it is provided by the user.
The material properties of the pier, f c and fy.
The symmetry of the wall pier (i.e., the left side of the pier is the same as the
right side of the pier). Only the geometry of the pier is considered, not the
reinforcing, when determining if the pier is symmetrical. Figure 2-11 shows
some examples of symmetrical and unsymmetrical wall piers. Note that a
pier defined using Section Designer is assumed to be unsymmetrical, unless
it is made up of a single rectangular shape.

Figure 2-11 Example Plan Views of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Wall Piers

Using this information, the program calculates the maximum compressive


stress at extreme fiber of concrete pier for the specified load combination.

Wall Pier Boundary Elements

2-25

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

After the compressive stress at the extreme fiber of the concrete pier is known,
the program calculates the following quantities that are used to determine the
boundary zone requirements. These quantities are: bc, 0.2 f c , u / hw, c.
When the extreme fiber compressive stress, bc, exceeds0.2 f c, boundary
elements are required (ACI 21.9.6.3), or when the neutral axial depth
calculated from the factored axial force and nominal moment strength are
consistent with design displacement, u, and exceed the following limit:
c

lw

(ACI 21.9.6.2)

600 ( u /hw )

where,
u = u , elastic analysis

Cd
.
I

(ASCE 7-10 12.8-15)

Cd = The deflection amplification factor as taken from ASCE 7-10 Table


12.2-1. It is input in the preferences.
I = The Importance factor determined in accordance with Section
11.5.1. It is input in the preferences.
u hw 0.007

(ACI 21.9.6.2(a))

boundary elements are required (ACI 21.9.6.2).


The program also reports the largest neutral axis depth for each leg and the
boundary zone length computed using ACI 21.9.6.4(a) when the boundary
zone is Not Needed. This information is provided so the user can satisfy the
requirement of ACI Section 21.9.6.4(a) and 21.9.6.5 when the longitudinal
reinforcement ratio at the wall boundary is greater than 400/f y .
If boundary elements are required, the program calculates the minimum
required length of the boundary zone at each end of the wall, LBZ, which is
calculated as follows:
LBZ = max {c 2, c 0.1Lw }.

2-26

Wall Pier Boundary Elements

(ACI 21.9.6.4(a))

Chapter 2 Pier Design

Figure 2-12 illustrates the boundary zone length LBZ.

Figure 2-12: Illustration of Boundary Zone Length, LBZ

2.3.2

Transverse Reinforcement for Boundary Elements


Where special boundary elements are required by ACI Sections 21.9.6.2 or
21.9.6.3, the program computes and reports the total cross-sectional area of
rectangular hoop reinforcement as follows (ACI 21.9.6.4(c), 21.6.4.4(b)):
Ash s = 0.09t p f c f yt

(ACI 21-5)

Where special boundary elements are not required by ACI Sections 21.9.6.2 or
21.9.6.3, and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio at the wall boundary is
greater than 400/f y , the user should independently satisfy the requirements of
ACI Sections 21.6.4.1(c), 21.6.4.2, and 21.9.6.5.

Wall Pier Boundary Elements

2-27

Chapter 3
Spandrel Design

This chapter describes how the program designs concrete shear wall spandrels
for flexure and shear when ACI 318-11 is the selected design code. The
program allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections for
shear wall spandrels. Note that the program designs spandrels at stations
located at the ends of the spandrel. No design is performed at the center (midlength) of the spandrel. The program does not allow shear reinforcing to be
specified and then checked. The program only designs the spandrel for shear
and reports how much shear reinforcing is required.

3.1

Spandrel Flexural Design


In this program, wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and
shear only. Effects caused by any axial forces, minor direction bending, torsion
or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investigated by
the user independent of the program. Spandrel flexural reinforcing is designed
for each of the design load combinations. The required area of reinforcing for
flexure is calculated and reported only at the ends of the spandrel beam.
The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcing for a particular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a
particular station.
3-1

Shear Wall Design Manual ACI 318-11

Determine the maximum factored moment Mu.

Determine the required flexural reinforcing.

These steps are described in the following sections.

3.1.1

Determine the Maximum Factored Moments


In the design of flexural reinforcing for spandrels, the factored moments for
each design load combination at a particular beam station are first obtained.
The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and the maximum
negative factored moments obtained from all of the design load combinations.

3.1.2

Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing


In this program, negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the
beam is always designed as a rectangular section.
In this program, positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such cases,
the beam may be designed as a rectangular section, or as a T-beam section. To
design a spandrel as a T-beam, specify the appropriate slab width and depth
dimensions in the spandrel design overwrites (Appendix C).
The flexural design procedure is based on a simplified rectangular stress block,
as shown in Figure 3-1. The maximum depth of the compression zone, cmax, is
calculated based on the limitation that the tensile steel tension shall not be less
than s,min, which is equal to 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3.4):
cmax =

c ,max
c ,max + s ,min

(ACI 10.2.2)

where,

3-2

c,max = 0.003

(ACI 10.2.3)

s,min = 0.005

(ACI 10.3.4)

Spandrel Flexural Design

Chapter 3 Spandrel Design

Figure 3-1 Rectangular Spandrel Beam Design, Positive Moment

The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, amax, is


given by
(ACI 10.2.7.1)

amax = 1cmax

where 1 is calculated as follows:


f 4000
=
0.85 0.05 c
1
, 0.65 1 0.85
1000

(ACI 10.2.7.3)

It is assumed that the compression depth carried by the concrete is less than or
equal to amax. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at amax,
the program calculates an area of compression reinforcement assuming that the
additional moment is carried by compression reinforcing and additional tension
reinforcing.
The procedure used by the program for both rectangular and T-beam sections
is given in the subsections that follow.

3.1.2.1

Rectangular Beam Flexural Reinforcing

Refer to Figure 3-1. For a rectangular beam with tensile side reinforcement
only, the factored moment, Mu, is resisted by a couple between the concrete in
Spandrel Flexural Design

3-3

Shear Wall Design Manual ACI 318-11

compression and the tension in reinforcing steel. This expression is given as


follows.
a

=
M u Cc dspandrel
2

Where Cc = 0.85b f c ats and dspandrel is equal to hs dr-bot for positive bending
and hs dr-top for negative bending.
In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, Mu (i.e., designing top
or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a.
2
a =dspandrel dspandrel

2M u
0.85 f c b ts

(ACI 10.2)

The program uses the preceding equation to determine the depth of the compression block, a. The depth of the compression block, a, is compared with
amax.

3.1.2.1.1 Tension Reinforcing Only Required


If a amax (ACI 10.3.4, 10.3.5), the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by
As =

Mu

b f y dspandrel
2

The steel is placed at the bottom for positive moment and at the top for negative moment.
Note: The program reports the ratio of top and bottom steel required in the web area.
When compression steel is required, those ratios may be large because there is no limit
on them. However, the program reports an overstress when the ratio exceeds 4%.

3.1.2.1.2 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required


If a > amax, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.4, 10.3.5) and
is calculated as follows:

3-4

Spandrel Flexural Design

Chapter 3 Spandrel Design

The depth of the concrete compression block, a, is set equal to a = amax.


The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by
Cc = 0.85 fcamax t s .

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression


and the tension steel, Muc, is given by
a

M uc =
b Cc dspandrel max .
2

Therefore, the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the


compression steel and the additional tension steel, Mus, is given by
M=
Mu Muc
us

The force carried by the compression steel, Cs, is given by


Cs =

Mus
.
dspandrel dr

Referring to Figure 3-1, the strain in the compression steel, 's, is given by
c ,max ( c d r )
.
s =
c

The stress in the compression steel, f 's, is given by


f s = Es s =

c ,max Es ( c d r )
c

(ACI 10.2.2, 10.2.3, 10.2.4)

The term dr in the preceding equations is equal to dr-top for positive bending
and equal to dr-bot for negative bending. The term c is equal to amax 1.
The total required area of compression steel, A's, is calculated using the following equation.
As =

Cs
b ( f s 0.85 f c )

Spandrel Flexural Design

3-5

Shear Wall Design Manual ACI 318-11

The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete
web, Asw, is:
Asw =

M uc

b f y dspandrel max
2

The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel, Asc, is:
Asc =

M us

b f y ( dspandrel d r )

In the preceding equations, dspandrel is equal to hs dr-bot for positive bending


and hs dr-top for negative bending. dr is equal to dr-top for positive bending and
dr-bot for negative bending.
The total tension reinforcement As is given by.
=
As Asw + Asc

The total tension reinforcement As is to be placed at the bottom of the spandrel


beam and total compression reinforcement As' at the top for positive bending
and vice versa for negative bending.

3.1.2.2

T-Beam Flexural Reinforcing

T-beam action is considered effective for positive moment only. When designing T-beams for negative moment (i.e., designing top steel), the calculation of
required steel is as described in the previous section for rectangular sections.
No T-beam data is used in this design. The width of the beam is taken equal to
the width of the web.
For positive moment, the depth of the compression block, a, and the method
for calculating the required reinforcing steel relates the compression block
depth, a, as previously described in Section 3.1.2, to the depth of the T-beam
flange, ds. See Figure 3-2.

3-6

If a ds, the subsequent calculations for the reinforcing steel are exactly
the same as previously defined for rectangular section design. However, in
that case, the width of the compression block is taken to be equal to the

Spandrel Flexural Design

Chapter 3 Spandrel Design

width of the compression flange, bs. Compression reinforcement is provided when the dimension a exceeds amax.

If a > ds, the subsequent calculations for the required area of reinforcing
steel are performed in two parts. First, the tension steel required to balance
the compressive force in the flange is determined, and second, the tension
steel required to balance the compressive force in the web is determined. If
necessary, compression steel is added to help resist the design moment.

The remainder of this section describes in detail the design process used by the
program for T-beam spandrels when a > ds.
Refer to Figure 3-2. The protruding portion of the flange is shown crosshatched. The compression force in the protruding portion of the flange, Cf, is
given by.
=
C f 0.85 fc ( bs t s ) ds
Note: T-beam action is considered for positive moment only.

The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the
concrete flange, Asf, is:
Asf =

Cf
fy

The portion of the total moment, Mu, that is resisted by the flange, Muf, is given
by.
d

M uf =
b C f dspandrel s
2

Therefore, the balance of the moment to be carried by the web, Muw, is given
by
M=
Mu Muf
uw

Spandrel Flexural Design

3-7

Shear Wall Design Manual ACI 318-11

Figure 3-2: Design of a Wall Spandrel with a T-Beam Section, Positive Moment

The web is a rectangular section of width ts and depth hs for which the design
depth of the compression block, a1, is recalculated as:
2
a1 =dspandrel dspandrel

2 M uw
.
0.85 f c b ts

3.1.2.2.1 Tension Reinforcing Only Required


If a1 amax, no compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates
the area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the concrete
web, Asw, using the following equation.
Asw =

M uw

b f y dspandrel 1
2

The total tension reinforcement As is given by:


A
=
Asf + Asw .
s

The total tension reinforcement, As, is to be placed at the bottom of the beam
for positive bending.

3-8

Spandrel Flexural Design

Chapter 3 Spandrel Design

3.1.2.2.2 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required

If a1 > amax, compression reinforcing is required. In that case, the required


reinforcing is computed as follows.
The depth of the concrete compression block, a, is set equal to a = amax.
The compressive force developed in the web concrete alone is given by
Cw = 0.85 fcat s .

The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete web in compression and the tension steel, Muc, is given by
a

M uc =
b Cw dspandrel .
2

Therefore, the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the


compression steel and the tension steel, Mus, is given by:
M
=
Muw Muc .
us

Referring to Figure 3-2, the force carried by the compression steel, Cs, is
given by:
Cs =

M us
dspandrel d r-top

The strain in the compression steel, s', is given by


c ,max ( c d r-top )
.
s =
c

The stress in the compression steel, fs', is given by

f s E=
=
s s

c ,max Es ( c d r-top )
c

The term c is equal to amax 1 .


The required area of compression steel, As', is calculated using

Spandrel Flexural Design

3-9

Shear Wall Design Manual ACI 318-11

As =

Cs
b f s

The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete
web, Asw, is:
Asw =

M uc

b f y dspandrel
2

The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel, Asc, is:
Asc =

M us

b f y ( dspandrel d r-top )

The total tension reinforcement As is given by


As = Asf + Asw + Asc .

The total tension reinforcement, As is to be placed at the bottom of the beam,


and total compression reinforcement, As' at the top of the beam.

3.2

Spandrel Shear Design


The program allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections
for wall spandrels. The shear design for both of these types of spandrel sections
is identical.
The wall spandrel shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load
combinations. The required area of reinforcing for vertical shear is calculated
only at the ends of the spandrel beam.
In this program, wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and
shear forces only. Effects caused by any axial forces, minor direction bending,
torsion or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investigated by the user independent of the program.

3-10

Spandrel Shear Design

Chapter 3 Spandrel Design

The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a
particular station.
1. Determine the factored shear force Vu.
2. Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be carried by the concrete.
3. Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear
force.
Note: In the overwrites, Vc can be specified to be ignored (set to zero) for spandrel
shear calculations.

Step 1 needs no further explanation. The following two sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with Steps 2 and 3.

3.2.1

Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity


The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is given by
Vc = 2 f c ts dspandrel

(ACI 11.2.1.1)

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated using the following
equation when the spandrel is subjected to axial compression.

Nu
Vc =2 1 +
2000 Ag

f c ts dspandrel 3.5 f c ts dspandrel

(ACI 11.2.1.2, 11.2.2.1)


The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated using the following
equation when the spandrel is subjected to axial tension. Nu is negative for tension.

Nu
Vc =
2 1 +
0
ft d
500 Ag c s spandrel

(ACI 11.2.2.3)

Spandrel Shear Design

3-11

Shear Wall Design Manual ACI 318-11

Note that an overwrite is available that can be used to ignore the concrete contribution to the shear strength of the spandrel. If this overwrite is activated, the
program sets Vc to zero for the spandrel.
In all of the preceding cases, a limit on

fc is imposed as 100 psi.

fc 100 psi

(ACI 11.1.2)

Note: The term that is used as a multiplier on all fc terms in this manual
is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to light-weight concrete. It is
equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. This factor is specified in the concrete
material properties.

3.2.2

Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing


One of the terms used in calculating the spandrel shear reinforcing is dspandrel,
which is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the
tension steel. For shear design, the program takes dspandrel to be equal to the
smaller of hs dr-top and hs dr-bot.

3.2.2.1

Seismic and Nonseismic Spandrels

In this entire subsection the term is equal to vns for nonseismic spandrels and
to vs for seismic spandrels.
Given Vu and Vc, the required force to be carried by the shear reinforcing, Vs, is
given by (ACI 11.1.1).
Vs = Vn Vc =

Vu
Vc

If Vs as calculated exceeds 8 fc ts dspandrel , a failure condition is reported (ACI


11.4.7.9).
Given Vs, initially calculate the required vertical shear reinforcing in area per
unit length (e.g., in2/in) for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels (as indicated in the preferences). Note that additional requirements that are checked

3-12

Spandrel Shear Design

Chapter 3 Spandrel Design

for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels are given by the following equation (ACI 11.4.7.2):
Av
=
s

Vs
Vu Vc
=
f ys dspandrel f ys dspandrel

(ACI 11.4.7.2)

Note: The output units for the distributed shear reinforcing can be set in the
Display Units preferences.
The following additional checks also are performed for both seismic and nonseismic spandrels.

When

Ls

dspandrel

> 4 , the program verifies:

Vs 8 fc ts dspandrel ,

(ACI 11.4.7.9)

otherwise a failure condition is declared.

When

Ls

dspandrel

> 4 and

Vu
> 0.5Vc (ACI 11.4.6.1), the minimum areas of

vertical and horizontal shear reinforcing in the spandrel are as follows:


Av -min
t
50ts
=
0.75 f c s
s
f ys
f ys

Ah-min
= 0.
s

When

Ls

dspandrel

> 4 and

(ACI 11.4.6.3)

(ACI 11.4.6.3)
Vu
0.5Vc , the minimum areas of vertical and hori

zontal shear reinforcing in the spandrel are as follows (ACI 11.4.6.1):


Av -min Ah-min
= = 0.
s
s

(ACI 11.4.6.3)

Note: When calculating the Ls /dspandrel term, the program always uses the
smallest value of dspandrel that is applicable to the spandrel.

Spandrel Shear Design

3-13

Shear Wall Design Manual ACI 318-11

When

Ls

dspandrel
V=
n

4 , the program verifies:

Vu
10 f c ts dspandrel

(ACI 11.7.3)

otherwise a failure condition is declared.


For this condition, the minimum areas of horizontal and vertical shear reinforcing in the spandrel are:
Av -min = 0.0025ts

(ACI 11.7.4.1)

Ah-min = 0.0025ts .

(ACI 11.7.5.2)

Note: For nonseismic spandrels, Avd is reported as zero.

3.2.2.2

Seismic Spandrels Only

For seismic spandrels only, in addition to the requirements of the previous subsection, an area of diagonal shear reinforcement in coupling beams is also calLs
culated when
4 using the following equation (ACI 21.9.7.2).
dspandrel
Avd =

Vu
,
2 (s ) f ys sin

(ACI 21-9)

where s = 0.85 (ACI 9.3.4), and


sin =

0.8hs
L2s + (0.8hs ) 2

where hs is the height of the spandrel and Ls is the length of the spandrel.
In the output, the program reports the diagonal shear reinforcing as required or
not required (i.e., optional). The diagonal shear reinforcing is reported as required when Vu > 4 f c dbspandrel and Ls dspandrel 2 (ACI 21.9.7.2, 21.9.7.3).

3-14

Spandrel Shear Design

Appendix A
Supported Design Codes

Only one design code may be used in any one design run. That is, it is not
possible to design some walls and spandrels for one code and others for a
different code in the same design run. However, it is possible to perform
different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the
analysis.
The program supports the following shear wall design codes and more:

ACI 318-11

CSA A23-3-94

ACI 318-08

Eurocode 2-2004

ACI 318-05

Hong Kong CP 2004

ACI 318-02

Mexican RCDF 2004

ACI 318-99

NZS 3101-06

AS 3600-09

Singapore CP 65-99

BS 8110-97

TS 500-2000

BS 8110-89

UBC97

CSA A23-3-04

Indian IS 456-2000

A-1

Appendix B
Shear Wall Design Preferences

The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier
and spandrel elements. Table B1 identifies shear wall design preferences for
ACI 318-11. Default values are provided for all shear wall design preference
items. Thus, it is not required that preferences be specified. However, at least
review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are
acceptable. Refer to the program Help for an explanation of how to change a
preference.
Table B1 Shear Wall Preferences
Item

Possible
Values

Default
Value

Description

Design Code

Any code in the


program

Design code used for design of concrete


shear wall elements (wall piers and
spandrels)

Phi (Tension
Controlled)

>0

0.9

The strength reduction factor for bending in


a wall pier or spandrel in tension controlled
section.

Phi
(Compression
Controlled)

>0

0.65

The strength reduction factor for axial


compression in a wall pier.

Phi (Shear
and/or Torsion)

>0

0.75

The strength reduction factor for shear in a


wall pier or spandrel for a nonseismic
condition.

Phi (Shear
Seismic)

>0

0.6

The strength reduction factor for shear in a


wall pier or spandrel for a seismic condition.

B-1

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

Table B1 Shear Wall Preferences


Item

Possible
Values

Default
Value

Pmax Factor

>0

0.8

A factor used to reduce the allowable


maximum compressive design strength.

Number of
Curves

24

Number of equally spaced interaction


curves used to create a full 360-degree
interaction surface (this item should be a
multiple of four). We recommend that you
use 24 for this item.

Number of
Points

11

11

Number of points used for defining a single


curve in a wall pier interaction surface (this
item should be odd).

Edge Design
PT-max

>0

0.06

Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing


allowed in edge members, PTmax.

Edge Design
PC-max

>0

0.04

Maximum ratio of compression reinforcing


allowed in edge members, PCmax.

Section Design
IP-Max

Section
Design IP-Min

0.02

The maximum ratio of reinforcing


considered in the design of a pier with a
Section Designer section.

Section Design
IP-Min

>0

0.0025

Utilization Factor
Limit

>0

0.95

B-2

Description

The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered


in the design of a pier with a Section
Designer section.
Stress ratios that are less than or equal to
this value are considered acceptable.

Appendix C
Design Overwrites

The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those
piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. The overwrites for piers and
spandrels are separate. Tables C1 and C2 identify the shear wall overwrites for
piers and spandrels, respectively, for ACI 318-11. Note that the available
overwrites change depending on the pier section type (Uniform Reinforcing,
General Reinforcing, or Simplified T and C).
Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. Thus, it is
not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least
review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the
changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to
the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. Refer to the
program Help for an explanation of how to change the overwrites.
Table C-1: Pier Design Overwrites
Pier Overwrite
Item

Possible
Values

Default
Value

Design this Pier

Yes or No

Yes

Pier Overwrite Description


Toggle for design of the pier when the
Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start
Design/Check command is clicked.

C-1

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

Table C-1: Pier Design Overwrites


Pier Overwrite
Item

Possible
Values

Default
Value

LL Reduction
Factor

Program
calculated,
>0

Program
calculated

Design is
Special Seismic

Yes or No

Yes

Pier Section
Type

Uniform
Reinforcing,
General
Reinforcing,
Simplified
T and C

Uniform
Reinforcing

Pier Overwrite Description


A reducible live load is multiplied by this
factor to obtain the reduced live load.
Entering 0 for this item means that it is
program calculated. See the subsection
entitled "LL Reduction Factor" for more
information.
Toggle for design as seismic or nonseismic.
Additional design checks are performed for
seismic elements compared to nonseismic
elements. Also, in some cases, the strength
reduction factors are different.
This item indicates the type of pier. The
General Reinforcing option is not available
unless General pier sections have
previously been defined in Section
Designer.

Overwrites Applicable to Uniform Reinforcing Pier Sections


Edge Bar Name Any defined bar
size

Varies

The size of the uniformly spaced edge bars.

Edge Bar
Spacing

>0

12"

The spacing of the uniformly spaced edge


bars.

End/Corner Bar
Name

Any defined bar


size

Varies

Clear Cover

>0

1.5"

Material

Any defined
concrete
material property

Varies

The material property associated with the


pier.

Check/Design
Reinforcing

Check or
Design

Design

This item indicate whether the pier section


is to be designed or checked.

The size of end and corner bars.


The clear cover for the edge, end and
corners bars.

Overwrites Applicable to General Reinforcing Pier Sections


Section Bottom Any general pier
section defined
in Section
Designer

C-2

The first pier in Name of a pier section, defined in Section


the list of
Designer that is assigned to the bottom of
the pier.
Section
Designer piers

Appendix C Overwrites

Table C-1: Pier Design Overwrites


Pier Overwrite
Item

Possible
Values

Section Top

Any general pier


section defined
in
Section
Designer

Check/Design
Reinforcing

Check or
Design

Default
Value

Pier Overwrite Description

The first pier in Name of a pier section, defined in Section


the list of
Designer, that is assigned to the top of the
pier.
Section
Designer piers
Design

This item indicates whether the pier section


is to be designed or checked.

Overwrites Applicable to Simplified T and C Pier Sections


ThickBot

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Wall pier thickness at bottom of pier, tp.


Inputting 0 means the item is to be program
calculated.

LengthBot

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Wall pier length at bottom of pier, Lp.


Inputting 0 means the item is to be program
calculated.

DB1LeftBot

Length of the bottom of a user-defined edge


member on the left side of a wall pier,
DB1left.

DB2LeftBot

Width of the bottom of a user-defined edge


member on the left side of a wall pier,
DB2left. See Figure 1 in Shear Wall Design
Technical Note 6 Wall Pier Design Section.
See the subsection entitled "User-Defined
Edge Members" for more information.

DB1RightBot

Same as
DB1-left-bot

Length of the bottom of a user-defined edge


member on the right side of a wall pier,
DB1right.

DB2RightBot

Same as
DB2-left-bot

Width of the bottom of a user-defined edge


member on the right side of a wall pier,
DB2right.

ThickTop

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Wall pier thickness at top of pier,


tp. Inputting 0 means the item is to be
program calculated.

LengthTop

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Wall pier length at top of pier, Lp. Inputting 0


means the item is to be program calculated.

DB1LeftTop

Length of the top of a user-defined edge


member on the left side of a wall pier,
DB1left.

DB2LeftTop

Width of the top of a user-defined edge


member on the left side of a wall pier,
DB2left.

C-3

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

Table C-1: Pier Design Overwrites


Pier Overwrite
Item

Possible
Values

Default
Value

DB1RightTop

Same as
DB1-left-bot

Length of the top of a user-defined edge


member on the right side of a wall pier,
DB1right.

DB2RightTop

Same as
DB2-left-bot

Width of the top of a user-defined edge


member on the right side of a wall pier,
DB2right.

Material

Any defined
concrete
material
property

Edge Design
PC-max

>0

Specified in
Preferences

Maximum ratio of compression


reinforcing allowed in edge members,
PCmax.

Edge Design
PT-max

>0

Specified in
Preferences

Maximum ratio of tension reinforcing


allowed in edge members, PTmax.

Pier Overwrite Description

See "Material Material property associated with the pier.


Properties" in
Shear Wall
Design
Technical Note 6
Wall Pier Design
Section

Table C-2 Spandrel Design Overwrites


Spandrel
Overwrite Item

Possible
Values

Default
Value

Design this
Spandrel

Yes or No

Yes

LL Reduction
Factor

Program
calculated,
>0

Program
calculated

Design is
Special Seismic

Yes or No

Yes

Toggle for design as seismic or nonseismic.


Additional design checks are performed for
seismic elements compared to nonseismic
elements. Also, in some cases the strength
reduction factors are different.

Length

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Wall spandrel length, Ls. Inputting 0 means


the item is to be program calculated.

C-4

Spandrel Overwrite Description


Toggle for design of the spandrel when the
Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start
Design/Check command is clicked.
A reducible live load is multiplied by this
factor to obtain the reduced live load.
Entering 0 for this item means that it is
program calculated. See the subsection
entitled "LL Reduction Factor" later in this
Appendix for more information.

Appendix C Overwrites

Table C-2 Spandrel Design Overwrites


Spandrel
Overwrite Item

Possible
Values

Default
Value

ThickLeft

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Wall spandrel thickness at left side of


spandrel, ts. Inputting 0 means the item is to
be program calculated.

DepthLeft

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Wall spandrel depth at left side of spandrel,


hs. Inputting 0 means the item is to be
program calculated.

CoverBotLeft

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Distance from bottom of spandrel to


centroid of bottom reinforcing, dr-bot left on left
side of beam. Inputting 0 means the item is
to be program calculated as 0.1hs.

CoverTopLeft

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Distance from top of spandrel to centroid of


top reinforcing, dr-top left on left side of beam.
Inputting 0 means the item is to be program
calculated as 0.1hs.

SlabWidthLeft

Slab width for T-beam at left end of


spandrel, bs.

SlabDepthLeft

Slab depth for T-beam at left end of


spandrel, ds.

ThickRight

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Wall spandrel thickness at right side of


spandrel, ts. Inputting 0 means the item is to
be program calculated.

DepthRight

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Wall spandrel depth at right side of


spandrel, hs. Inputting 0 means the item is
to be program calculated.

CoverBotRight

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Distance from bottom of spandrel to


centroid of bottom reinforcing, dr-bot right on
right side of beam. Inputting 0 means the
item is to be program calculated as 0.1hs.

CoverTopRight

Program
calculated,
or > 0

Program
calculated

Distance from top of spandrel to centroid of


top reinforcing, dr-top right on right side of
beam. Inputting 0 means the item is to be
program calculated as 0.1hs.

SlabWidthRight

Slab width for T-beam at right end of


spandrel, bs.

SlabDepthRight

Slab depth for T-beam at right end of


spandrel, ds.

Spandrel Overwrite Description

C-5

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

Table C-2 Spandrel Design Overwrites


Spandrel
Overwrite Item

Possible
Values

Material

Any defined
concrete
material
property

Consider Vc

Yes or No

C.1

Default
Value

Spandrel Overwrite Description

See "Default
Material property associated with the
Design Material spandrel.
Property" in Shear
Wall Design
Technical Note 7
Wall Spandrel
Design Sections
Yes

Toggle switch to consider Vc (concrete


shear capacity) when computing the
shear capacity of the spandrel.

LL Reduction Factor
If the LL Reduction Factor is program calculated, it is based on the live load
reduction method chosen in the live load reduction preferences. If you specify
your own LL Reduction Factor, the program ignores any reduction method
specified in the live load reduction preferences and simply calculates the
reduced live load for a pier or spandrel by multiplying the specified LL
Reduction Factor times the reducible live load.
Important Note: The LL reduction factor is not applied to any load
combination that is included in a design load combination (combo or combos).
For example, assume you have two static load cases labeled DL and RLL. DL
is a dead load and RLL is a reducible live load. Now assume that you create a
design load combination named DESCOMB1 that includes DL and RLL. Then
for design load combination DESCOMB1, the RLL load is multiplied by the
LL reduction factor. Next assume that you create a load combination called
COMB2 that includes RLL. Now assume that you create a design load
combination called DESCOMB3 that included DL and COMB2. For design
load combination DESCOMB3, the RLL load that is part of COMB2 is not
multiplied by the LL reduction factor.

C.2

User-Defined Edge Members


When defining a user-defined edge member, you must specify both a nonzero
value for DB1 and a nonzero value for DB2. If either DB1 or DB2 is specified
as zero, the edge member width is taken as the same as the pier thickness and
the edge member length is determined by the program.

C-6

Appendix D
Analysis Sections and Design Sections

It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and


design sections when performing shear wall design. Analysis sections are
simply the objects defined in your model that make up the pier or spandrel
section. The analysis section for wall piers is the assemblage of wall and
column sections that make up the pier. Similarly, the analysis section for
spandrels is the assemblage of wall and beam sections that make up the
spandrel. The analysis is based on these section properties, and thus, the design
forces are based on these analysis section properties.
The design section is completely separate from the analysis section. Three
types of pier design sections are available. They are:

Uniform Reinforcing Section: For flexural designs and/or checks, the


program automatically (and internally) creates a Section Designer pier
section of the same shape as the analysis section pier. Uniform reinforcing
is placed in this pier. The reinforcing can be modified in the pier
overwrites. The Uniform Reinforcing Section pier may be planar or it may
be three-dimensional.
For shear design and boundary zone checks, the program automatically
(and internally) breaks the analysis section pier up into planar legs and then
performs the design on each leg separately and reports the results
separately for each leg. Note that the planar legs are derived from the area
D-1

Shear Wall Design ACI 318-11

objects defined in the model, not from the pier section defined in Section
Designer. The pier section defined in Section Designer is only used for the
flexural design/check.

General Reinforcing Section: For flexural designs and/or checks, the pier
geometry and the reinforcing are defined by the user in the Section
Designer utility. The pier defined in Section Designer may be planar or it
may be three-dimensional.
For shear design and boundary zone checks, the program automatically
(and internally) breaks the analysis section pier into planar legs and then
performs the design on each leg separately and reports the results
separately for each leg. Note that the planar legs are derived from the area
objects defined in the model, not from the pier section defined in Section
Designer. The pier section defined in Section Designer is only used for the
flexural design/check.

Simplified Pier Section: This pier section is defined in the pier design
overwrites. The simplified section is defined by a length and a thickness.
The length is in the pier 2-axis direction and the thickness is in the pier 3axis direction.
In addition, you can, if desired, specify thickened edge members at one or
both ends of the simplified pier section. You cannot specify reinforcing in
a simplified section. Thus, the simplified section can only be used for
design, not for checking user-specified sections. Simplified sections are
always planar.
Only one type of spandrel design section is available. It is defined in the
spandrel design overwrites. A typical spandrel is defined by a depth,
thickness and length. The depth is in the spandrel 2-axis direction; the
thickness is in the spandrel 3-axis direction; and the length is in the
spandrel 1-axis direction. Spandrel sections are always planar.
In addition, you can, if desired, specify a slab thickness and depth, making
the spandrel design section into a T-beam. You cannot specify reinforcing
in a spandrel section. Thus, you can only design spandrel sections, not
check them.

D-2

Appendix D Analysis Section and Design Sections

The pier and spandrel design sections are designed for the forces obtained
from the program's analysis, which is based on the analysis sections. In other
words, the design sections are designed based on the forces obtained for the
analysis sections.

D-3

Bibliography

ACI, 2011. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11)
and Commentary, American Concrete Institute, 38800 Country Club Drive,
Farmington Hills, Michigan.
ASCE, 2010. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,
American Society of Civil Envineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston,
Virginia, 20191.
CSI, 2012. CSI Analysis Reference Manual, Computers and Structures, Inc.,
Berkeley, California, 94704.
ICC, 2009. International Building Code, International Code Council, Inc., 4051
West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois, 60478.

Bibliography - i