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ACI 318-11

Shear Wall

Design Manual

ACI 318-11

For ETABS 2013

Berkeley, California, USA

March 2013

Copyright

Copyright Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2013

All rights reserved.

The CSI Logo, SAP2000, ETABS, and SAFE are registered trademarks of

Computers & Structures, Inc. Watch & LearnTM is a trademark of Computers &

Structures, Inc.

The computer programs SAP2000 and ETABS and all associated documentation are

proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with

Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of

documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers &

Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any

means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written

permission of the publisher.

Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers & Structures, Inc.

www.csiberkeley.com

info@csiberkeley.com (for general information)

support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support)

DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE

DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER,

THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS

EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON

THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.

THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL

DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC

ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN

ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT

ADDRESSED.

THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY

A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST

INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL

RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1

Introduction

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

Notation

Design Station Locations

Default Design Load Combinations

1.3.1 Dead Load Component

1.3.2 Live Load Component

1.3.3 Roof Live Load Component

1.3.4 Snow Load Component

1.3.5 Wind Load Component

1.3.6 Earthquake Load Component

1.3.5 Combinations that Include a Response Spectrum

1.3.6 Combinations that Include Time History Results

1.3.9 Combinations that Include Static Nonlinear

Results

Shear Wall Design Preferences

Shear Wall Design Overwrites

Choice of Units

1-2

1-8

1-8

1-9

1-10

1-10

1-10

1-10

1-10

1-10

1-11

1-13

1-13

1-14

1-14

Pier Design

2.1

2.1.1

2.1.2

Designing a Simplified C & T Pier Section

Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing

Pier Section

2.1.3 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio

2.1.4 Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section

2.2 Wall Pier Shear Design

2.2.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity

of the Leg

2.3 Wall Pier Boundary Elements

2.3.1 Details of Check for Boundary Element

Requirements

2.3.2 Transverse Reinforcement for Boundary

Elements

2-8

2-17

2-18

2-20

2-20

2-24

2-24

2-27

Spandrel Design

3.1

3.2

3.1.1 Determine the Maximum Factored Moments

3.1.2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing

Spandrel Shear Design

3.2.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity

3.2.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing

Appendix B Shear Wall Design Preferences

Appendix C Design Procedure Overwrites

Appendix D Analysis Sections and Design Sections

Bibliography

ii

2-2

2-2

3-1

3-2

3-2

3-10

3-11

3-12

Chapter 1

Introduction

This manual describes the details of the shear wall design and stress check

algorithms used by the program when the user selects the ACI 318-11 design

code. The various notations used in this manual are described in Section 1.1.

The design is based on loading combinations specified by the user (Section

1.2). To facilitate the design process, the program provides a set of default load

combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building

type structures.

The program performs the following design, check, or analysis procedures in

accordance with ACI 318-11 and IBC 2012 requirements:

Design and check of concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads (Chapter

2)

using an approach based on the requirements of Section 21.9.6 in ACI 31811 (Chapter 2)

1-1

The program provides detailed output data for Simplified pier section design,

Uniform pier section design/check, and Section Designer pier section

design/check (Chapter 4).

1.1.

Notation

Following is the notation used in this manual.

1-2

Acv

Net area of a wall pier bounded by the length of the wall pier,

Lp, and the web thickness, tp, in2

Ag

Ah-min

steel required for shear in a wall spandrel, in2/inch

As

Asc

edge member, or the required area of tension steel required to

balance the compression steel force in a wall spandrel, in2

Asc-max

edge member, in2

Asf

concrete compression force in the extruding portion of the

concrete flange of a T-beam, in2

Ast

member, in2

Ast-max

member, in2

Av

Avd

Notation

Chapter 1 Introduction

Av-min

required for shear in a wall spandrel, in2 / in

Asw

concrete compression force in a rectangular concrete beam, or

for balancing the concrete compression force in the concrete

web of a T-beam, in2

A's

B1, B2...

thickness, in

Cc

Cf

Cs

Cw

D/C

a wall pier, unitless

DB1

be different on the left and right sides of the pier, and it also

can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier.

DB2

different on the left and right sides of the pier, and it also can

be different at the top and the bottom of the pier.

Es

IP-max

pier with a Section Designer section, unitless

IP-min

pier with a Section Designer section, unitless

Notation

1-3

1-4

LBZ

pier, in

Lp

the top and the bottom of the pier

Ls

LL

Live load

Mn

Mu

Muc

bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple

between the concrete in compression and the tension steel, lb-in

Muf

reinforcing, the factored bending moment at a design section

resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression in

the extruding portion of the flange and the tension steel, lb-in

Mus

bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the tension steel, lb-in

Muw

reinforcing, the factored bending moment at a design section

resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression in

the web and the tension steel, lb-in

OC

the capacity associated with the point considered, in

OL

the point considered, in

Pb

Notation

Chapter 1 Introduction

Pleft

used for design, lbs. This may be different at the top and the

bottom of the wall pier.

Pmax

by ACI 318-08, lbs

Pmax Factor

design strength, unitless. The ACI 318-08 specifies this factor

to be 0.80. This factor can be revised in the preferences.

Pn

Po

Poc

strength reduction factors set equal to one, lbs

Pot

The maximum tension force a wall pier can carry with strength

reduction factors set equal to one, lbs

Pright

used for design, lbs. This may be different at the top and the

bottom of the wall pier.

Pu

PCmax

wall pier, unitless

PTmax

pier, unitless

RLL

Ts

Vc

Vn

Notation

1-5

1-6

Vs

reinforcing steel, lbs

Vu

WL

Wind load

a1

bs

different on the left and right ends of the T-beam.

spandrel to the neutral axis, in

dr-bot

of the bottom reinforcing steel, in. This can be different on the

left and right ends of the beam.

dr-top

the top reinforcing steel, in. This can be different on the left and

right ends of the beam.

ds

different on the left and right ends of the T-beam.

dspandrel

the reinforcing, in

fy

flexural and axial design calculations.

fys

shear design calculations.

f 'c

Concrete compressive strength, psi. This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations.

Notation

Chapter 1 Introduction

f 'cs

design calculations.

f's

hs

and right ends of the spandrel.

pmax

Designer section that is designed (not checked), unitless.

pmin

Designer section that is designed (not checked), unitless.

tp

Thickness of a wall pier, in. This can be different at the top and

bottom of the pier.

ts

left and right ends of the spandrel.

DL

LL

RLL

The angle between the diagonal reinforcing and the longitudinal axis of a coupling beam

's

cases, unitless. The default value is 0.9.

Notation

1-7

1.2.

Strength reduction factor for bending plus high axial compression in a concrete pier, unitless. The default value is 0.7.

vns

spandrel, unitless. The default value is 0.85.

vs

unitless. The default value is 0.6.

Modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of light-weight concrete, all relative to normal weight

concrete of the same compressive strength. It is equal to 1 for

normal weight concrete.

The program designs wall piers at stations located at the top and bottom of the

pier only. To design at the mid-height of a pier, break the pier into two separate

"half-height" piers.

The program designs wall spandrels at stations located at the left and right ends

of the spandrel only. To design at the mid-length of a spandrel, break the

spandrel into two separate "half-length" spandrels. Note that if a spandrel is

broken into pieces, the program will calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing separately for each piece. The angle used to calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing for each piece is based on the length of the piece, not

the length of the entire spandrel. This can cause the required area of diagonal

reinforcing to be significantly underestimated. Thus, if a spandrel is broken

into pieces, calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing separately by

hand.

1.3.

The design load combinations automatically created by the program for concrete shear wall design are given by the following equations (ACI 9.2.1).

1-8

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.4D

(ACI 9-1)

1.2D + 1.0L + 1.6Lr

(ACI 9-2)

(ACI 9-3)

1.2D + 1.0L + 1.6S

(ACI 9-2)

(ACI 9-3)

0.9D 1.0W

1.2D + 1.0L + 0.5Lr 1.0W

1.2D + 1.6Lr 0.5W

(ACI 9-6)

(ACI 9-4)

(ACI 9-3)

1.2D + 1.0L + 0.5S 1.0W

(ACI 9-3)

(ACI 9-4)

0.9D 1.0E

1.2D + 1.0L + 0.2S 1.0E

(ACI 9-7)

(ACI 9-5)

1.3.1.

= The sum of all dead load load cases defined for the model.

= The sum of all live load load cases defined for the model. Note

that this includes roof live loads as well as floor live loads.

Lr

= The sum of all roof live load load cases defined for the model.

= The sum of all snow load load cases defined for the model.

= Any single wind load load case defined for the model.

= Any single earthquake load load case defined for the model.

The dead load component of the default design load combinations consists of

the sum of all dead loads multiplied by the specified factor. Individual dead

load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations.

1-9

See the description of the earthquake load component later in this chapter for

additional information.

1.3.2.

The live load component of the default design load combinations consists of

the sum of all live loads, both reducible and unreducible, multiplied by the specified factor. Individual live load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations.

1.3.3.

The live load component of the default design load combinations consists of

the sum of all roof live loads (unreducible), multiplied by the specified factor.

1.3.4.

The snow load component of the default design load combinations consists of

the sum of all snow loads, multiplied by the specified factor. Individual live

load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations.

1.3.5.

The wind load component of the default design load combinations consists of

the contribution from a single wind load case. Thus, if multiple wind load cases

are defined in the program model, each of ACI Equations 9-3, 9-4 and 9-6 will

contribute multiple design load combinations, one for each wind load case that

is defined.

1.3.6.

The earthquake load component of the default design load combinations consists of the contribution from a single earthquake load case. Thus, if multiple

earthquake load cases are defined in the program model, each of ACI Equations 9-5 and 9-7 will contribute multiple design load combinations, one for

each earthquake load case that is defined.

1-10

Chapter 1 Introduction

The earthquake load cases considered when creating the default design load

combinations include all static load cases that are defined as earthquake loads

and all response spectrum cases. Default design load combinations are not

created for time history cases or for static nonlinear cases.

1.3.7.

In the program all response spectrum cases are assumed to be earthquake load

cases. Default design load combinations are created that include the response

spectrum cases.

The output from a response spectrum is all positive. Any design load

combination that includes a response spectrum load case is checked for all

possible combinations of signs on the response spectrum values. Thus, when

checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel, the response spectrum

contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a

positive shear and then a second time as a negative shear. Similarly, when

checking moment in a wall spandrel, the response spectrum contribution of

moment to the design load combination is considered once as a positive

moment and then a second time as a negative moment. When checking the

flexural behavior of a two-dimensional wall pier or spandrel, four possible

combinations are considered for the contribution of response spectrum load to

the design load combination. They are:

+P and +M

+P and M

P and +M

P and M

where P is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier. Similarly,

eight possible combinations of P, M2 and M3 are considered for threedimensional wall piers.

Note that based on the above, ACI Equation 9-5 with negative sign for earthquake is redundant for a load combination with a response spectrum, and similarly, ACI Equation 9-7 with negative sign for earthquake is redundant for a

load combination with a response spectrum. For this reason, the program

Default Design Load Combinations

1-11

creates default design load combinations based on ACI Equations 9-5 and 9-7

with only positive sign for earthquake for response spectra. Default design load

combinations using ACI Equations 9-5 and 9-7 with negative sign for earthquake are not created for response spectra.

1.3.8.

The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any time history results. Therefore, user-defined load combinations should include time history forces.

When a design load combination includes time history results, the design can

be for the envelope of those results or for each step of the time history. The

type of time history design can be specified in the shear wall design preferences (Appendix B).

When envelopes are used, the design is for the maximum of each response

quantity (axial load, moment, and the like) as if they occurred simultaneously.

Typically, this is not the realistic case, and in some instances, it may be unconservative. Designing for each step of a time history gives the correct correspondence between different response quantities, but designing for each step can

be very time consuming.

When the program gets the envelope results for a time history, it gets a maximum and a minimum value for each response quantity. Thus, for wall piers it

gets maximum and minimum values of axial load, shear and moment; and for

wall spandrels, it gets maximum and minimum values of shear and moment.

For a design load combination in the program shear wall design module, any

load combination that includes a time history load case in it is checked for all

possible combinations of maximum and minimum time history design values.

Thus, when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel, the time history

contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a

maximum shear and then a second time as a minimum shear. Similarly, when

checking moment in a wall spandrel, the time history contribution of moment

to the design load combination is considered once as a maximum moment and

then a second time as a minimum moment. When checking the flexural behavior of a wall pier, four possible combinations are considered for the contribution of time history load to the design load combination. They are:

1-12

Chapter 1 Introduction

where P is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier.

If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it,

that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories, regardless of what is specified for the Time History Design item in the

preferences.

1.3.9.

The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any static nonlinear results. Therefore, user-defined load combinations should include static

nonlinear results.

If a design load combination includes a single static nonlinear case and nothing

else, the design is performed for each step of the static nonlinear analysis. Otherwise, the design is only performed for the last step of the static nonlinear

analysis.

1.4.

The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier

and spandrel elements. Appendix B identifies shear wall design preferences for

the code.

Default values are provided for all shear wall design preference items. Thus, it

is not required that preferences be specified. However, at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable.

1-13

1.5.

The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those

piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. The overwrites for piers and

spandrels are separate. Appendix C identifies the shear wall overwrites for the

code. Note that the available overwrites change depending on the pier section

type (Uniform Reinforcing, General Reinforcing, or Simplified C and T).

Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. Thus, it is

not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least

review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are

acceptable. When changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies

the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned, that

is, to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed.

1.6.

Choice of Units

For shear wall design in this program, any set of consistent units can be used

for input. Also, the system of units being used can be changed at any time.

Typically, design codes are based on one specific set of units.

The code is based on Pound-Inch-Second units. For simplicity, all equations

and descriptions presented in this manual correspond to pound-inch-second

units unless otherwise noted.

The Display Unit preferences allow the user to specify special units for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing. The special units specified for concentrated and distributed areas of reinforcing can be changed anytime.

The choices available in the Display Units preferences for the units associated

with an area of concentrated reinforcing are in2, cm2, mm2, ft2 and m2. The

choices available for the units associated with an area per unit length of distributed reinforcing are in2/ft, cm2/m, mm2/m, in2/in, cm2/cm, and so on.

1-14

Chapter 2

Pier Design

This chapter describes how the program designs and checks concrete wall piers

for flexural and axial loads when the ACI 318-11 option is selected. First we

describe how the program designs piers that are specified by a Simplified C &

T Section. Next we describe how the program checks piers that are specified by

a Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section or General Section (i.e., Section Designer).

Then we describe how the program designs piers that are specified by a

Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section or General Section (Section Designer).

This chapter also describes how the program designs each leg of concrete wall

piers for shear when the ACI 318-11 option is selected. Note that in this

program the user cannot specify shear reinforcing and then have the program

check it. The program only designs the pier for shear and reports how much

shear reinforcing is required. The shear design is performed at stations at the

top and bottom of the pier.

This chapter also describes the design of boundary zone elements for each pier

in accordance with ACI Section 21.9.6 when a seismic load case is present in

wall design load combinations.

2-1

2.1

For both designing and checking piers, it is important to understand the local

axis definition for the pier. Access the local axes assignments using the Assign

menu.

2.1.1

This section describes how the program designs a pier that is assigned a

simplified section. The geometry associated with the simplified section is

illustrated in Figure 2-1. The pier geometry is defined by a length, thickness,

and size of the edge members at each end of the pier (if any).

Figure 2-1: Typical Wall Pier Dimensions Used for Simplified Design

dimensions shown in the figure include the following:

2-2

The length of the wall pier is designated Lp. This is the horizontal length of

the wall pier in plan.

The thickness of the wall pier is designated tp. The thickness specified for

left and right edge members (DB2left and DB2right) may be different from

this wall thickness.

DB1 represents the horizontal length of the pier edge member. DB1 can be

different at the left and right sides of the pier.

DB2 represents the horizontal width (or thickness) of the pier edge

member. DB2 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier.

The dimensions illustrated are specified in the shear wall overwrites (Appendix

C), and can be specified differently at the top and bottom of the wall pier.

If no specific edge member dimensions have been specified by the user, the

program assumes that the edge member thickness is the same as the thickness

of the wall, and the program determines the required length of the edge

member. In all cases, whether the edge member size is user-specified or

program-determined, the program reports the required area of reinforcing steel

at the center of the edge member. This section describes how the programdetermined length of the edge member is determined and how the program

calculates the required reinforcing at the center of the edge member.

Three design conditions are possible for a simplified wall pier. These

conditions, illustrated in Figure 2-2, are as follows:

The wall pier has program-determined (variable length and fixed width) edge

members on each end.

The wall pier has user-defined (fixed length and width) edge members on

each end.

The wall pier has a program-determined (variable length and fixed width)

edge member on one end and a user-defined (fixed length and width) edge

member on the other end.

2-3

Design Condition 1

Wall pier with uniform thickness and

ETABS-determined (variable length)

edge members

Design Condition 3

Wall pier with a user-defined edge

member on one end and an ETABSdetermined (variable length) edge

member on the other end

Design Condition 2

Wall pier with user-defined edge

members

Note:

In all three conditions, the only

reinforcing designed by ETABS is that

required at the center of the edge

members

2.1.1.1

Design Condition 1

Design condition 1 applies to a wall pier with uniform design thickness and

program-determined edge member length. For this design condition, the design

algorithm focuses on determining the required size (length) of the edge members, while limiting the compression and tension reinforcing located at the

center of the edge members to user-specified maximum ratios. The maximum

ratios are specified in the shear wall design preferences and the pier design

overwrites as Edge Design PC-Max and Edge Design PT-Max.

Consider the wall pier shown in Figure 2-3. For a given design section, say the

top of the wall pier, the wall pier for a given design load combination is

designed for a factored axial force Pu-top and a factored moment Mu-top.

The program initiates the design procedure by assuming an edge member at the

left end of the wall of thickness tp and width B1-left, and an edge member at the

right end of the wall of thickness tp and width B1-right. Initially B1-left = B1-right =

tp.

The moment and axial force are converted to an equivalent force set Pleft-top and

Pright-top using the relationships shown in the following equations. (Similar

equations apply to the bottom of the pier.)

2-4

0.5Lp

0.5tp

0.5tp

tp

tp

tp

B1-left

B1-right

B2-right

B2-left

B3-right

B3-left

Lp

CL

Wall Pier Plan

Pleft-top

Pu-top

Pright-top

Mu-top

Top of

pier

Mu-bot

Pleft-bot

Pu-bot

Bottom

of pier

Pright-bot

Figure 2-3: Wall Pier for Design Condition 1

Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-5

P=

left-top

=

Pright-top

Pu top

2

Pu top

2

M u top

( Lp 0.5B1left 0.5B1right )

M u top

( Lp 0.5B1left 0.5B1right )

For any given loading combination, the net values for Pleft-top and Pright-top could

be tension or compression.

Note that for dynamic loads, Pleft-top and Pright-top are obtained at the modal level

and the modal combinations are made, before combining with other loads. Also

for design loading combinations involving SRSS, the Pleft-top and Pright-top forces

are obtained first for each load case before the combinations are made.

If any value of Pleft-top or Pright-top is tension, the area of steel required for

tension, Ast, is calculated as:

Ast =

P

.

t f y

If any value of Pleft-top or Pright-top is compression, for section adequacy, the area

of steel required for compression, Asc, must satisfy the following relationship.

Abs=

( P)

f y Asc ]

(ACI 10.3.6.2)

where P is either Pleft-top or Pright-top, Ag = tpB1 and the Pmax Factor is defined in the

shear wall design preferences (the default is 0.80). In general, we recommend

the use of the default value. From the preceding equation,

Asc =

Abs ( P )

0.85 f c' Ag

( Pmax Factor ) c

f y 0.85 f c'

The maximum tensile reinforcing to be packed within the tp times B1 concrete

edge member is limited by:

Ast -max = PTmax t p B1.

2-6

Asc -max = PCmax t p B1.

If Ast is less than or equal to Ast-max and Asc is less than or equal to Asc-max, the

program will proceed to check the next loading combination; otherwise the

program will increment the appropriate B1 dimension (left, right or both,

depending on which edge member is inadequate) by one-half of the wall

thickness to B2 (i.e., 1.5tp) and calculate new values for Pleft-top and Pright-top

resulting in new values of Ast and Asc. This iterative procedure continues until

Ast and Asc are within the allowed steel ratios for all design load combinations.

If the value of the width of the edge member B increments to where it reaches a

value larger than or equal to Lp /2, the iteration is terminated and a failure

condition is reported.

This design algorithm is an approximate but convenient algorithm. Wall piers

that are declared overstressed using this algorithm could be found to be

adequate if the reinforcing steel is user-specified and the wall pier is accurately

evaluated using interaction diagrams.

2.1.1.2

Design Condition 2

each end of the pier. The size of the edge members is assumed to be fixed; that

is, the program does not modify them. For this design condition, the design

algorithm determines the area of steel required in the center of the edge

members and checks if that area gives reinforcing ratios less than the userspecified maxi-mum ratios. The design algorithm used is the same as described

for condition 1; however, no iteration is required.

2.1.1.3

Design Condition 3

dimension) edge member at one end of the pier and a variable length (programdetermined) edge member at the other end. The width of the variable length

edge member is equal to the width of the wall.

2-7

The design is similar to that which has previously been described for design

conditions 1 and 2. The size of the user-specified edge member is not changed.

Iteration only occurs on the size of the variable length edge member.

2.1.2

When a General Reinforcing or Uniform Reinforcing pier section is specified

to be checked, the program creates an interaction surface for that pier and uses

that interaction surface to determine the critical flexural demand/capacity ratio

for the pier. This section describes how the program generates the interaction

surface for the pier and how it determines the demand/capacity ratio for a given

design load combination.

Note: In this program, the interaction surface is defined by a series of PMM interaction curves that are equally spaced around a 360-degree circle.

2.1.2.1

Interaction Surface

reference to the P, M2 and M3 axes. The surface is developed using a series of

interaction curves that are created by rotating the direction of the pier neutral

axis in equally spaced increments around a 360-degree circle. For example, if

24 PMM curves are specified (the default), there is one curve every 15 degrees

(360/24 curves = 15). Figure 2-4 illustrates the assumed orientation of the

pier neutral axis and the associated sides of the neutral axis where the section is

in tension (designated T in the figure) or compression (designated C in the

figure) for various angles.

Note that the orientation of the neutral axis is the same for an angle of and

+180. Only the side of the neutral axis where the section is in tension or

compression changes. We recommend that 24 interaction curves (or more) be

used to define a three-dimensional interaction surface.

Each PMM interaction curve that makes up the interaction surface is

numerically described by a series of discrete points connected by straight lines.

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear

strain about the neutral axis on the section of the pier. Details of this process

are described later in the section entitled "Details of the Strain Compatibility

Analysis."

2-8

Interaction curve is

for a neutral axis

parallel to this axis

Pier section

T C

Interaction curve is

for a neutral axis

parallel to this axis

3

Pier section

a) Angle is 0 degrees

b) Angle is 45 degrees

Interaction curve is

for a neutral axis

parallel to this axis

45

Interaction curve is

for a neutral axis

parallel to this axis

Pier section

Pier section

2

C T

225

Figure 2-4: Orientation of the Pier Neutral Axis for Various Angles

By default, 11 points are used to define a PMM interaction curve. This number

can be changed in the preferences; any odd number of points greater than or

equal to 11 can be specified, to be used in creating the interaction curve. If an

even number is specified for this item in the preferences, the program will

increment up to the next higher odd number.

Note that when creating an interaction surface for a two-dimensional wall pier,

the program considers only two interaction curvesthe 0 curve and the 180

curveregardless of the number of curves specified in the preferences.

Furthermore, only moments about the M3 axis are considered for twodimensional walls.

2.1.2.2

on the basic principles of ultimate strength design (ACI 10.2, 10.3). The

program uses the requirements of force equilibrium and strain compatibility to

Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-9

determine the nominal axial and moment strength (Pn, M2n, M3n) of the wall

pier. This nominal strength is then multiplied by the appropriate strength

reduction factor, , to obtain the design strength (Pn, M2n, M3n) of the pier.

For the pier to be deemed adequate, the required strength (Pu, M2u, M3u) must

be less than or equal to the design strength.

(Pu, M2u, M3u) (Pn, M2n, M3n)

The effect of the strength reduction factor, , is included in the generation of

the interaction surface. The value of used in the interaction diagram varies

from compression-controlled to tension-controlled based on the maximum

tensile strain in the reinforcing at the extreme edge, t (ACI 9.3.2).

Sections are considered compression-controlled when the tensile strain in the

extreme tension steel is equal to or less than the compression-controlled strain

limit at the time the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of

c.max, which is 0.003. The compression-controlled strain limit is the tensile

strain in the reinforcement at balanced strain condition, which is taken as the

yield strain of the steel reinforcing, fy /E (ACI 10.3.3).

Sections are tension-controlled when the tensile strain in the extreme tension

steel is equal to or greater than 0.005, just as the concrete in compression

reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.003 (ACI 10.3.4).

Sections with t between the two limits are considered to be in a transition

region between compression-controlled and tension-controlled sections (ACI

10.3.4).

When the section is tension-controlled, a factor for tension-control case is

used. When the section is compression-controlled, a factor for compressioncontrol case is used. When the section falls into the transition region, is

linearly interpolated between the two values (ACI 9.3.2), as shown in the

following:

c

if t

0.005 t

c = t (t c )

if < t 0.005, where (ACI 9.3.2)

0.005 y

if t 0.005

t

t = for tension controlled sections,

2-10

(ACI 9.3.2.1)

= 0.65 (by default) for wall sections

with tied reinforcement.

(ACI 9.3.2.2)

equal to t. The strength reduction factors c and t can be revised in the

preferences and the overwrites (Appendix B).

The theoretical maximum nominal compressive force that the wall pier can

carry, assuming the c factor is equal to 1, is designated Poc and is given by.

Poc = [0.85f'c (Ag As) + fyAs]

(ACI 10.3.6)

The theoretical maximum nominal tension force that the wall pier can carry,

assuming the t factor is equal to 1, is designated Pot and is given by.

Pot = fyAs

If the wall pier geometry and reinforcing is symmetrical in plan, the moments

associated with both Poc and Pot are zero. Otherwise, a moment associated will

be with both Poc and Pot.

The code limits the maximum compressive design strength, cPn, to the value

given by Pmax

Pmax = 0.80cPoc = 0.80[0.85f'c (Ag As) + fyAs]

(ACI 10.3.6.2)

Note that the equation defining Pmax reduces Poc not only by a strength

reduction factor, c, but also by an additional factor of 0.80. In the preferences,

this factor is called the Pmax Factor, and different values for it can be specified, as

required. In all code designs, it is prudent to consider this factor to be 0.80 as

required by the code.

Note: The number of points to be used in creating interaction diagrams can be specified in the shear wall preferences.

interaction curve. When creating a single interaction curve, the program

includes the points at Pb, Poc and Pot on the interaction curve. Half of the

Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-11

Pb and Poc at approximately equal spacing along the Pn axis. The other half of

the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur

between Pb and Pot at approximately equal spacing along the Pn axis. Here Pb

is the nominal axial capacity at the balanced condition.

Figure 2-5 shows a plan view of an example two-dimensional wall pier. Notice

that the concrete is symmetrical but the reinforcing is not symmetrical in this

example. Figure 2-6 shows several interaction surfaces for the wall pier

illustrated in Figure 2-5.

12'-6"

12 spaces at 1'-0" = 12'-0"

3"

2-#6

2-#9

2-#9

1'

3"

# 5@12 o.c.,

each face, except

as noted

fc = 4 ksi

fy = 60 ksi

Reinforcing

Because the pier is two-dimensional, the interaction surface consists of two

interaction curves. One curve is at 0 and the other is at 180. Only M3

moments are considered because this is a two-dimensional example.

In this program, compression is negative and tension is positive.

The 0 and 180 interaction curves are not symmetric because the wall pier

reinforcing is not symmetric.

The smaller interaction surface (drawn with a heavier line) has both the

strength reduction factors and the Pmax Factor, applied as specified by the

code.

The dashed line shows the effect of setting the Pmax Factor to 1.0.

2-12

The larger interaction surface has both the strength reduction factor and the

Pmax,Factor set to 1.0.

The interaction surfaces shown are created using the default value of 11

points for each interaction curve.

Figure 2-6 : Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 2-5

Figure 2-7 shows the 0 interaction curves for the wall pier illustrated in Figure

2-5. Additional interaction curves are also added to Figure 2-7.

The smaller, heavier curve in Figure 2-7 has the strength reduction factor and

the Pmax,Factor as specified in ACI 318-11. The other three curves, which are

plotted for = 0.65, 0.9 and 1.0, all have Pmax,Factor of 1.0. The purpose of

showing these interaction curves is to explain how the program creates the

interaction curve. Recall that the strength reduction factors 0.65 and 0.9 are

actually c and t, and that their values can be revised in the preferences as

required.

2-13

Figure 2-7: Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 2-5

2.1.2.3

equilibrium and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial strength

and moment strength (Pn, M2n, M3n) of the wall pier. The coordinates of these

points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain on the section of the

wall pier.

Figure 2-8 illustrates varying planes of linear strain such as those that the

program considers on a wall pier section for a neutral axis orientation angle of

0 degrees.

In these planes, the maximum concrete strain is always taken as 0.003 and the

maximum steel strain is varied from 0.003 to plus infinity. (Recall that in this

program compression is negative and tension is positive.) When the steel strain

is 0.003, the maximum compressive force in the wall pier, Poc, is obtained

from the strain compatibility analysis. When the steel strain is plus infinity, the

maximum tensile force in the wall pier, Pot, is obtained. When the maximum

2-14

steel strain is equal to the yield strain for the reinforcing (e.g., 0.00207 for fy =

60 ksi), Pb is obtained.

Varying

neutral axis

locations

+

0.000

-0.003

Figure 2-8: Varying Planes of Linear Strain

Figure 2-9 illustrates the concrete wall pier strain, stress, and force that is

obtained from a strain compatibility analysis of a typical plane of linear strain

shown in Figure 2-8. In Figure 2-9 the compressive stress in the concrete, Cc, is

calculated (ACI 10.2.7.1).

Cc = 0.85f'c1ctp

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

In Figure 2-8, the value for maximum strain in the reinforcing steel is assumed.

Then the strain in all other reinforcing steel is determined based on the

assumed plane of linear strain. Next the stress in the reinforcing steel is

calculated as follows, where s is the strain, Es is the modulus of elasticity, s

is the stress, and fy is the yield stress of the reinforcing steel.

s = sEs fy

(ACI 10.2.4)

2-15

12

13

11 10

0.85f'c

Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Cs Cs Cs Cs

Cc

a = 1c

Stress Diagram

12s

11s 10

s

9s 8

s

7s 6 5

s

s

4s 3

s

2s 1

s

tp

= 0.003

13s

Figure 2-9: Wall Pier Stress-Strain Relationship

The force in the reinforcing steel (Ts for tension or Cs for compression) is

calculated by:

Ts or Cs = sAs

For the given distribution of strain, the value of Pn is calculated by.

Pn = (Ts Cc Cs) Pmax

In the preceding equation, the tensile force Ts and the compressive forces Cc

and Cs are all positive. If Pn is positive, it is tension, and if it is negative, it is

compression.

2-16

The value of M2n is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the

forces about the pier local 2 axis. Similarly, the value of M3n is calculated by

summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 3 axis. The

forces whose moments are summed to determine M2n and M3n are Cc, all of

the Ts forces and all of the Cs forces.

The Pn, M2n and M3n values calculated as described in the preceding

paragraph make up one point on the wall pier interaction diagram. Additional

points on the diagram are obtained by making different assumptions for the

maximum steel strain; that is, considering a different plane of linear strain, and

repeating the process.

When one interaction curve is complete, the next orientation of the neutral axis

is assumed and the points for the associated new interaction curve are

calculated. This process continues until the points for all of the specified curves

have been calculated.

2.1.3

Refer to Figure 2-10, which shows a typical two-dimensional wall pier

interaction diagram. The forces obtained from a given design load combination

are Pu and M3u. The point L, defined by (Pu, M3u), is placed on the interaction

diagram, as shown in the figure. If the point lies within the interaction curve,

the wall pier capacity is adequate. If the point lies outside of the interaction

curve, the wall pier is overstressed.

As a measure of the stress condition in the wall pier, the program calculates a

stress ratio. The ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the

location of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL

(extended outward if needed) intersects the interaction curve. The

demand/capacity ratio, D/C, is given by D/C = OL / OC where OL is the

"distance" from point O (the origin) to point L and OC is the "distance" from

point O to point C. Note the following about the demand/capacity ratio:

If OL = OC (or D/C = 1), the point (Pu, M3u) lies on the interaction curve

and the wall pier is stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or D/C < 1), the point (Pu, M3u) lies within the interaction

curve and the wall pier capacity is adequate.

Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-17

If OL > OC (or D/C > 1), the point (Pu, M3u) lies outside of the interaction

curve and the wall pier is overstressed.

The wall pier demand/capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the

stress condition of the wall with respect to the capacity of the wall.

The demand/capacity ratio for a three-dimensional wall pier is determined in a

similar manner to that described here for two-dimensional piers.

2.1.4

When a General Reinforcing pier section is specified to be designed, the

program creates a series of interaction surfaces for the pier based on the

following items:

The size of the pier as specified in Section Designer.

The location of the reinforcing specified in Section Designer.

The size of each reinforcing bar specified in Section Designer relative to the

size of the other bars.

2-18

The interaction surfaces are developed for eight different ratios of reinforcingsteel-area-to-pier-area. The pier area is held constant and the rebar area is

modified to obtain these different ratios; however, the relative size (area) of

each rebar compared to the other bars is always kept constant.

The smallest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear

wall design preferences as Section Design IP-Min. Similarly, the largest of the

eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design

preferences as Section Design IP-Max.

The eight reinforcing ratios used are the maximum and the minimum ratios

plus six more ratios. The spacing between the reinforcing ratios is calculated as

an increasing arithmetic series in which the space between the first two ratios is

equal to one-third of the space between the last two ratios. Table 1 illustrates

the spacing, both in general terms and for a specific example, when the

minimum reinforcing ratio, IPmin, is 0.0025 and the maximum, IPmax, is 0.02.

Table 2-1 The Eight Reinforcing Ratios Used by the Program

Curve

Ratio

Example

IPmin

IPmax IPmin

IPmin +

14

0.0025

0.0038

IPmin +

7 IPmax IPmin

3

14

0.0054

IPmax IPmin

IPmin + 4

14

0.0075

IPmax IPmin

IPmin + 6

14

0.0100

IPmin +

25 IPmax IPmin

3

14

0.0129

IPmax IPmin

IPmin + 11

14

0.0163

IPmax

0.0200

After the eight reinforcing ratios have been determined, the program develops

interaction surfaces for all eight of the ratios using the process described earlier

in the section entitled "Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier

Section."

Wall Pier Flexural Design

2-19

demand/capacity ratio associated with each of the eight interaction surfaces.

The program then uses linear interpolation between the eight interaction

surfaces to determine the reinforcing ratio that gives an demand/capacity ratio

of 1 (actually the program uses 0.99 instead of 1). This process is repeated for

all design load combinations and the largest required reinforcing ratio is

reported.

Design of a Uniform Reinforcing pier section is similar to that described herein

for the General Reinforcing section.

2.2

The wall pier shear reinforcing is designed leg by leg (panel by panel) for each

of the design load combinations. The following steps are involved in designing

the shear reinforcing for a particular wall pier section for a particular design

loading combination.

Determine the factored forces Pu, Mu and Vu that are acting on a leg of the

wall pier section. Note that Pu and Mu are required for the calculation of Vc.

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be carried by the concrete of the leg

(panel).

Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear

force.

Step 1 needs no further explanation. The following two sections describe in

detail the algorithms associated with the Steps 2 and 3.

2.2.1

Given the design force set Pu, Mu and Vu acting on a wall pier section, the shear

force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated using the minimum from the

following two equations (ACI 11.9.6).

N d

3.3 f c t p ( 0.8 L p ) + u

Vc =

4 Lp

2-20

(ACI 11-27)

L p 1.25 f c

Vc 0.6 f c +

M

Abs u

Vu

+ 0.2

Nu

Lp t p

Lp

t d

p

M

Abs u

Vu

Lp

(ACI 11-28)

is negative or zero, or if

Vu is zero.

In the preceding equations, Nu is the axial force, and Nu is positive for

compression and negative for tension. The effective shear depth, d, is taken as

follows:

d = 0.8 Lp

(ACI 11.9.4)

f c

f c

is imposed,

100 psi

(ACI 11.1.2)

If the tension is large enough that ACI Equation 11-27 or 11-28 results in a

negative number, Vc is set to zero.

f

c

terms in this

Note that the term that is used as a multiplier on all

chapter is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to light-weight concrete.

It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. This factor is specified in the

concrete material properties.

calculated as follows:

The shear force is limited to a maximum of

Vmax =

(10

f c tcp d , where

(ACI 11.9.3)

= 0.8Lp

(ACI 11.9.4)

The required horizontal shear reinforcement per unit spacing, Av /s, is calculated as follows:

Wall Pier Shear Design

2-21

If Vu (Vc 2 ) ,

Av

= Pt ,min tcp ,

s

(ACI 11.9.9.1)

Av (Vu Vc )

,

=

f ys d

s

Av

Pt ,min t p

s

a failure condition is declared. (ACI 11.4.7.9)

In the preceding equations, the strength reduction factor is taken as 0.75 for

non-seismic cases ms (ACI 9.3.2.3), and as 0.6 for seismic cases vs (ACI

9.3.4.a). However, those values may be overwritten by the user if so desired.

If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax, the shear wall section

should be increased in size (ACI 11.9.3, 21.9.4.4).

The minimum horizontal volumetric shear rebar ratio, Pt,min, is taken as

follows:

Pt, min = 0.0025

( s t ) ) , is calculated as follows:

v p

If Vu (Vc 2 ) ,

Pc = 0.0015

else if Vu > (Vc 2 ) ,

2-22

h

Pc = 0.0025 + 0.5 2.5 w

Lp

Pt

( Pc 0.0025 ) 0.0025

Av

st p

(ACI 11.9.9.4)

where,

A

Pt = max v , Pt ,min

st p

Lp = length of the shear wall panel.

For shear design of special seismic wall pier legs for seismic load, the

procedure given in this section is modified with the following exceptions.

The concrete shear capacity is taken as follows (ACI 21.9.4.1):

Vc = c f c Acv

(ACI 21.9.4.4.1)

where,

3.0

=

c 2.0

interpolated

for hw L p 1.5,

for hw L p > 2.0,

(ACI 21.9.4.4.1)

Acv = Lptp

(ACI 21.9.4.4)

The maximum shear that can be carried by the wall segment irrespective of

the amount of reinforcing bar provided is taken as follows (ACI 21.9.4.4):

Vmax = 8 f c Lptp

(ACI 21.9.4.4)

2-23

Av Vu c f cL p t p vs

=

s

f ys L p

(ACI 21.9.4.1)

Pt,min

= 0.0025

(ACI 21.9.2.1)

Pc,min

= 0.0025

(ACI 21.9.2.1)

The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values, obtained from each design

load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and

associated design load combination name.

The pier horizontal shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program

are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum shear rebar

requirements to satisfy spacing consideration must be investigated

independently of the program by the user.

2.3

This section describes how the program considers the boundary element

requirements for each leg of concrete wall piers using ACI 318-11/IBC 2012

when the Special Structural Wall option is chosen. The program uses an

approach based on the requirements of Section 21.9.6 of ACI 318-11. The

program does not compute boundary zone requirement when maximum

extreme fiber compressive stress is less than 0.2 f c (ACI 21.9.6.3). When the

extreme fiber compressive stress is equal to or greater than 0.2 f c (ACI

21.9.6.2), the program also checks ACI Section 21.9.6.2 and reports the

boundary zone requirement when the depth of the compression zone exceeds a

limit (ACI 21.9.6.2).

Note that the boundary element requirements are considered separately for

each design load combination that includes seismic load.

2.3.1

The following information is made available for the boundary element check:

2-24

The design forces Pu, Vu, and Mu for the pier section.

The story height, hw, length of the wall pier panel, Lp, the gross area of the

pier, Ag, and the net area of the pier, Acv. The net area of the pier is the area

bounded by the web thickness, tp, and the length of the pier. (Refer to Figure

2-3 earlier in this chapter for an illustration of the dimensions Lp and tp.)

The program also computes the design displacement u by multiplying the

displacement from load combination with the Cd factor provided in the shear

wall design preferences (Appendix C).

The area of reinforcement in the pier, As. This area of steel is calculated by

the program or it is provided by the user.

The material properties of the pier, f c and fy.

The symmetry of the wall pier (i.e., the left side of the pier is the same as the

right side of the pier). Only the geometry of the pier is considered, not the

reinforcing, when determining if the pier is symmetrical. Figure 2-11 shows

some examples of symmetrical and unsymmetrical wall piers. Note that a

pier defined using Section Designer is assumed to be unsymmetrical, unless

it is made up of a single rectangular shape.

Figure 2-11 Example Plan Views of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Wall Piers

stress at extreme fiber of concrete pier for the specified load combination.

2-25

After the compressive stress at the extreme fiber of the concrete pier is known,

the program calculates the following quantities that are used to determine the

boundary zone requirements. These quantities are: bc, 0.2 f c , u / hw, c.

When the extreme fiber compressive stress, bc, exceeds0.2 f c, boundary

elements are required (ACI 21.9.6.3), or when the neutral axial depth

calculated from the factored axial force and nominal moment strength are

consistent with design displacement, u, and exceed the following limit:

c

lw

(ACI 21.9.6.2)

600 ( u /hw )

where,

u = u , elastic analysis

Cd

.

I

12.2-1. It is input in the preferences.

I = The Importance factor determined in accordance with Section

11.5.1. It is input in the preferences.

u hw 0.007

(ACI 21.9.6.2(a))

The program also reports the largest neutral axis depth for each leg and the

boundary zone length computed using ACI 21.9.6.4(a) when the boundary

zone is Not Needed. This information is provided so the user can satisfy the

requirement of ACI Section 21.9.6.4(a) and 21.9.6.5 when the longitudinal

reinforcement ratio at the wall boundary is greater than 400/f y .

If boundary elements are required, the program calculates the minimum

required length of the boundary zone at each end of the wall, LBZ, which is

calculated as follows:

LBZ = max {c 2, c 0.1Lw }.

2-26

(ACI 21.9.6.4(a))

2.3.2

Where special boundary elements are required by ACI Sections 21.9.6.2 or

21.9.6.3, the program computes and reports the total cross-sectional area of

rectangular hoop reinforcement as follows (ACI 21.9.6.4(c), 21.6.4.4(b)):

Ash s = 0.09t p f c f yt

(ACI 21-5)

Where special boundary elements are not required by ACI Sections 21.9.6.2 or

21.9.6.3, and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio at the wall boundary is

greater than 400/f y , the user should independently satisfy the requirements of

ACI Sections 21.6.4.1(c), 21.6.4.2, and 21.9.6.5.

2-27

Chapter 3

Spandrel Design

This chapter describes how the program designs concrete shear wall spandrels

for flexure and shear when ACI 318-11 is the selected design code. The

program allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections for

shear wall spandrels. Note that the program designs spandrels at stations

located at the ends of the spandrel. No design is performed at the center (midlength) of the spandrel. The program does not allow shear reinforcing to be

specified and then checked. The program only designs the spandrel for shear

and reports how much shear reinforcing is required.

3.1

In this program, wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and

shear only. Effects caused by any axial forces, minor direction bending, torsion

or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investigated by

the user independent of the program. Spandrel flexural reinforcing is designed

for each of the design load combinations. The required area of reinforcing for

flexure is calculated and reported only at the ends of the spandrel beam.

The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcing for a particular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a

particular station.

3-1

3.1.1

In the design of flexural reinforcing for spandrels, the factored moments for

each design load combination at a particular beam station are first obtained.

The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and the maximum

negative factored moments obtained from all of the design load combinations.

3.1.2

In this program, negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the

beam is always designed as a rectangular section.

In this program, positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such cases,

the beam may be designed as a rectangular section, or as a T-beam section. To

design a spandrel as a T-beam, specify the appropriate slab width and depth

dimensions in the spandrel design overwrites (Appendix C).

The flexural design procedure is based on a simplified rectangular stress block,

as shown in Figure 3-1. The maximum depth of the compression zone, cmax, is

calculated based on the limitation that the tensile steel tension shall not be less

than s,min, which is equal to 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3.4):

cmax =

c ,max

c ,max + s ,min

(ACI 10.2.2)

where,

3-2

c,max = 0.003

(ACI 10.2.3)

s,min = 0.005

(ACI 10.3.4)

given by

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

amax = 1cmax

f 4000

=

0.85 0.05 c

1

, 0.65 1 0.85

1000

(ACI 10.2.7.3)

It is assumed that the compression depth carried by the concrete is less than or

equal to amax. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at amax,

the program calculates an area of compression reinforcement assuming that the

additional moment is carried by compression reinforcing and additional tension

reinforcing.

The procedure used by the program for both rectangular and T-beam sections

is given in the subsections that follow.

3.1.2.1

Refer to Figure 3-1. For a rectangular beam with tensile side reinforcement

only, the factored moment, Mu, is resisted by a couple between the concrete in

Spandrel Flexural Design

3-3

follows.

a

=

M u Cc dspandrel

2

Where Cc = 0.85b f c ats and dspandrel is equal to hs dr-bot for positive bending

and hs dr-top for negative bending.

In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, Mu (i.e., designing top

or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a.

2

a =dspandrel dspandrel

2M u

0.85 f c b ts

(ACI 10.2)

The program uses the preceding equation to determine the depth of the compression block, a. The depth of the compression block, a, is compared with

amax.

If a amax (ACI 10.3.4, 10.3.5), the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

As =

Mu

b f y dspandrel

2

The steel is placed at the bottom for positive moment and at the top for negative moment.

Note: The program reports the ratio of top and bottom steel required in the web area.

When compression steel is required, those ratios may be large because there is no limit

on them. However, the program reports an overstress when the ratio exceeds 4%.

If a > amax, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.4, 10.3.5) and

is calculated as follows:

3-4

The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by

Cc = 0.85 fcamax t s .

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

and the tension steel, Muc, is given by

a

M uc =

b Cc dspandrel max .

2

compression steel and the additional tension steel, Mus, is given by

M=

Mu Muc

us

Cs =

Mus

.

dspandrel dr

Referring to Figure 3-1, the strain in the compression steel, 's, is given by

c ,max ( c d r )

.

s =

c

f s = Es s =

c ,max Es ( c d r )

c

The term dr in the preceding equations is equal to dr-top for positive bending

and equal to dr-bot for negative bending. The term c is equal to amax 1.

The total required area of compression steel, A's, is calculated using the following equation.

As =

Cs

b ( f s 0.85 f c )

3-5

The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete

web, Asw, is:

Asw =

M uc

b f y dspandrel max

2

The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel, Asc, is:

Asc =

M us

b f y ( dspandrel d r )

and hs dr-top for negative bending. dr is equal to dr-top for positive bending and

dr-bot for negative bending.

The total tension reinforcement As is given by.

=

As Asw + Asc

beam and total compression reinforcement As' at the top for positive bending

and vice versa for negative bending.

3.1.2.2

T-beam action is considered effective for positive moment only. When designing T-beams for negative moment (i.e., designing top steel), the calculation of

required steel is as described in the previous section for rectangular sections.

No T-beam data is used in this design. The width of the beam is taken equal to

the width of the web.

For positive moment, the depth of the compression block, a, and the method

for calculating the required reinforcing steel relates the compression block

depth, a, as previously described in Section 3.1.2, to the depth of the T-beam

flange, ds. See Figure 3-2.

3-6

If a ds, the subsequent calculations for the reinforcing steel are exactly

the same as previously defined for rectangular section design. However, in

that case, the width of the compression block is taken to be equal to the

width of the compression flange, bs. Compression reinforcement is provided when the dimension a exceeds amax.

If a > ds, the subsequent calculations for the required area of reinforcing

steel are performed in two parts. First, the tension steel required to balance

the compressive force in the flange is determined, and second, the tension

steel required to balance the compressive force in the web is determined. If

necessary, compression steel is added to help resist the design moment.

The remainder of this section describes in detail the design process used by the

program for T-beam spandrels when a > ds.

Refer to Figure 3-2. The protruding portion of the flange is shown crosshatched. The compression force in the protruding portion of the flange, Cf, is

given by.

=

C f 0.85 fc ( bs t s ) ds

Note: T-beam action is considered for positive moment only.

The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the

concrete flange, Asf, is:

Asf =

Cf

fy

The portion of the total moment, Mu, that is resisted by the flange, Muf, is given

by.

d

M uf =

b C f dspandrel s

2

Therefore, the balance of the moment to be carried by the web, Muw, is given

by

M=

Mu Muf

uw

3-7

Figure 3-2: Design of a Wall Spandrel with a T-Beam Section, Positive Moment

The web is a rectangular section of width ts and depth hs for which the design

depth of the compression block, a1, is recalculated as:

2

a1 =dspandrel dspandrel

2 M uw

.

0.85 f c b ts

If a1 amax, no compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates

the area of tension steel for balancing the compression force in the concrete

web, Asw, using the following equation.

Asw =

M uw

b f y dspandrel 1

2

A

=

Asf + Asw .

s

The total tension reinforcement, As, is to be placed at the bottom of the beam

for positive bending.

3-8

reinforcing is computed as follows.

The depth of the concrete compression block, a, is set equal to a = amax.

The compressive force developed in the web concrete alone is given by

Cw = 0.85 fcat s .

The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete web in compression and the tension steel, Muc, is given by

a

M uc =

b Cw dspandrel .

2

compression steel and the tension steel, Mus, is given by:

M

=

Muw Muc .

us

Referring to Figure 3-2, the force carried by the compression steel, Cs, is

given by:

Cs =

M us

dspandrel d r-top

c ,max ( c d r-top )

.

s =

c

f s E=

=

s s

c ,max Es ( c d r-top )

c

The required area of compression steel, As', is calculated using

3-9

As =

Cs

b f s

The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete

web, Asw, is:

Asw =

M uc

b f y dspandrel

2

The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression steel, Asc, is:

Asc =

M us

b f y ( dspandrel d r-top )

As = Asf + Asw + Asc .

and total compression reinforcement, As' at the top of the beam.

3.2

The program allows consideration of rectangular sections and T-beam sections

for wall spandrels. The shear design for both of these types of spandrel sections

is identical.

The wall spandrel shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load

combinations. The required area of reinforcing for vertical shear is calculated

only at the ends of the spandrel beam.

In this program, wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and

shear forces only. Effects caused by any axial forces, minor direction bending,

torsion or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investigated by the user independent of the program.

3-10

The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a

particular station.

1. Determine the factored shear force Vu.

2. Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be carried by the concrete.

3. Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear

force.

Note: In the overwrites, Vc can be specified to be ignored (set to zero) for spandrel

shear calculations.

Step 1 needs no further explanation. The following two sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with Steps 2 and 3.

3.2.1

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is given by

Vc = 2 f c ts dspandrel

(ACI 11.2.1.1)

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated using the following

equation when the spandrel is subjected to axial compression.

Nu

Vc =2 1 +

2000 Ag

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated using the following

equation when the spandrel is subjected to axial tension. Nu is negative for tension.

Nu

Vc =

2 1 +

0

ft d

500 Ag c s spandrel

(ACI 11.2.2.3)

3-11

Note that an overwrite is available that can be used to ignore the concrete contribution to the shear strength of the spandrel. If this overwrite is activated, the

program sets Vc to zero for the spandrel.

In all of the preceding cases, a limit on

fc 100 psi

(ACI 11.1.2)

Note: The term that is used as a multiplier on all fc terms in this manual

is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to light-weight concrete. It is

equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. This factor is specified in the concrete

material properties.

3.2.2

One of the terms used in calculating the spandrel shear reinforcing is dspandrel,

which is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the

tension steel. For shear design, the program takes dspandrel to be equal to the

smaller of hs dr-top and hs dr-bot.

3.2.2.1

In this entire subsection the term is equal to vns for nonseismic spandrels and

to vs for seismic spandrels.

Given Vu and Vc, the required force to be carried by the shear reinforcing, Vs, is

given by (ACI 11.1.1).

Vs = Vn Vc =

Vu

Vc

11.4.7.9).

Given Vs, initially calculate the required vertical shear reinforcing in area per

unit length (e.g., in2/in) for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels (as indicated in the preferences). Note that additional requirements that are checked

3-12

for both seismic and nonseismic wall spandrels are given by the following equation (ACI 11.4.7.2):

Av

=

s

Vs

Vu Vc

=

f ys dspandrel f ys dspandrel

(ACI 11.4.7.2)

Note: The output units for the distributed shear reinforcing can be set in the

Display Units preferences.

The following additional checks also are performed for both seismic and nonseismic spandrels.

When

Ls

dspandrel

Vs 8 fc ts dspandrel ,

(ACI 11.4.7.9)

When

Ls

dspandrel

> 4 and

Vu

> 0.5Vc (ACI 11.4.6.1), the minimum areas of

Av -min

t

50ts

=

0.75 f c s

s

f ys

f ys

Ah-min

= 0.

s

When

Ls

dspandrel

> 4 and

(ACI 11.4.6.3)

(ACI 11.4.6.3)

Vu

0.5Vc , the minimum areas of vertical and hori

Av -min Ah-min

= = 0.

s

s

(ACI 11.4.6.3)

Note: When calculating the Ls /dspandrel term, the program always uses the

smallest value of dspandrel that is applicable to the spandrel.

3-13

When

Ls

dspandrel

V=

n

Vu

10 f c ts dspandrel

(ACI 11.7.3)

For this condition, the minimum areas of horizontal and vertical shear reinforcing in the spandrel are:

Av -min = 0.0025ts

(ACI 11.7.4.1)

Ah-min = 0.0025ts .

(ACI 11.7.5.2)

3.2.2.2

For seismic spandrels only, in addition to the requirements of the previous subsection, an area of diagonal shear reinforcement in coupling beams is also calLs

culated when

4 using the following equation (ACI 21.9.7.2).

dspandrel

Avd =

Vu

,

2 (s ) f ys sin

(ACI 21-9)

sin =

0.8hs

L2s + (0.8hs ) 2

where hs is the height of the spandrel and Ls is the length of the spandrel.

In the output, the program reports the diagonal shear reinforcing as required or

not required (i.e., optional). The diagonal shear reinforcing is reported as required when Vu > 4 f c dbspandrel and Ls dspandrel 2 (ACI 21.9.7.2, 21.9.7.3).

3-14

Appendix A

Supported Design Codes

Only one design code may be used in any one design run. That is, it is not

possible to design some walls and spandrels for one code and others for a

different code in the same design run. However, it is possible to perform

different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the

analysis.

The program supports the following shear wall design codes and more:

ACI 318-11

CSA A23-3-94

ACI 318-08

Eurocode 2-2004

ACI 318-05

ACI 318-02

ACI 318-99

NZS 3101-06

AS 3600-09

Singapore CP 65-99

BS 8110-97

TS 500-2000

BS 8110-89

UBC97

CSA A23-3-04

Indian IS 456-2000

A-1

Appendix B

Shear Wall Design Preferences

The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier

and spandrel elements. Table B1 identifies shear wall design preferences for

ACI 318-11. Default values are provided for all shear wall design preference

items. Thus, it is not required that preferences be specified. However, at least

review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are

acceptable. Refer to the program Help for an explanation of how to change a

preference.

Table B1 Shear Wall Preferences

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value

Description

Design Code

program

shear wall elements (wall piers and

spandrels)

Phi (Tension

Controlled)

>0

0.9

a wall pier or spandrel in tension controlled

section.

Phi

(Compression

Controlled)

>0

0.65

compression in a wall pier.

Phi (Shear

and/or Torsion)

>0

0.75

wall pier or spandrel for a nonseismic

condition.

Phi (Shear

Seismic)

>0

0.6

wall pier or spandrel for a seismic condition.

B-1

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value

Pmax Factor

>0

0.8

maximum compressive design strength.

Number of

Curves

24

curves used to create a full 360-degree

interaction surface (this item should be a

multiple of four). We recommend that you

use 24 for this item.

Number of

Points

11

11

curve in a wall pier interaction surface (this

item should be odd).

Edge Design

PT-max

>0

0.06

allowed in edge members, PTmax.

Edge Design

PC-max

>0

0.04

allowed in edge members, PCmax.

Section Design

IP-Max

Section

Design IP-Min

0.02

considered in the design of a pier with a

Section Designer section.

Section Design

IP-Min

>0

0.0025

Utilization Factor

Limit

>0

0.95

B-2

Description

in the design of a pier with a Section

Designer section.

Stress ratios that are less than or equal to

this value are considered acceptable.

Appendix C

Design Overwrites

The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those

piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. The overwrites for piers and

spandrels are separate. Tables C1 and C2 identify the shear wall overwrites for

piers and spandrels, respectively, for ACI 318-11. Note that the available

overwrites change depending on the pier section type (Uniform Reinforcing,

General Reinforcing, or Simplified T and C).

Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. Thus, it is

not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least

review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the

changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to

the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. Refer to the

program Help for an explanation of how to change the overwrites.

Table C-1: Pier Design Overwrites

Pier Overwrite

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value

Yes or No

Yes

Toggle for design of the pier when the

Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start

Design/Check command is clicked.

C-1

Pier Overwrite

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value

LL Reduction

Factor

Program

calculated,

>0

Program

calculated

Design is

Special Seismic

Yes or No

Yes

Pier Section

Type

Uniform

Reinforcing,

General

Reinforcing,

Simplified

T and C

Uniform

Reinforcing

A reducible live load is multiplied by this

factor to obtain the reduced live load.

Entering 0 for this item means that it is

program calculated. See the subsection

entitled "LL Reduction Factor" for more

information.

Toggle for design as seismic or nonseismic.

Additional design checks are performed for

seismic elements compared to nonseismic

elements. Also, in some cases, the strength

reduction factors are different.

This item indicates the type of pier. The

General Reinforcing option is not available

unless General pier sections have

previously been defined in Section

Designer.

Edge Bar Name Any defined bar

size

Varies

Edge Bar

Spacing

>0

12"

bars.

End/Corner Bar

Name

size

Varies

Clear Cover

>0

1.5"

Material

Any defined

concrete

material property

Varies

pier.

Check/Design

Reinforcing

Check or

Design

Design

is to be designed or checked.

The clear cover for the edge, end and

corners bars.

Section Bottom Any general pier

section defined

in Section

Designer

C-2

the list of

Designer that is assigned to the bottom of

the pier.

Section

Designer piers

Appendix C Overwrites

Pier Overwrite

Item

Possible

Values

Section Top

section defined

in

Section

Designer

Check/Design

Reinforcing

Check or

Design

Default

Value

the list of

Designer, that is assigned to the top of the

pier.

Section

Designer piers

Design

is to be designed or checked.

ThickBot

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

Inputting 0 means the item is to be program

calculated.

LengthBot

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

Inputting 0 means the item is to be program

calculated.

DB1LeftBot

member on the left side of a wall pier,

DB1left.

DB2LeftBot

member on the left side of a wall pier,

DB2left. See Figure 1 in Shear Wall Design

Technical Note 6 Wall Pier Design Section.

See the subsection entitled "User-Defined

Edge Members" for more information.

DB1RightBot

Same as

DB1-left-bot

member on the right side of a wall pier,

DB1right.

DB2RightBot

Same as

DB2-left-bot

member on the right side of a wall pier,

DB2right.

ThickTop

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

tp. Inputting 0 means the item is to be

program calculated.

LengthTop

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

means the item is to be program calculated.

DB1LeftTop

member on the left side of a wall pier,

DB1left.

DB2LeftTop

member on the left side of a wall pier,

DB2left.

C-3

Pier Overwrite

Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value

DB1RightTop

Same as

DB1-left-bot

member on the right side of a wall pier,

DB1right.

DB2RightTop

Same as

DB2-left-bot

member on the right side of a wall pier,

DB2right.

Material

Any defined

concrete

material

property

Edge Design

PC-max

>0

Specified in

Preferences

reinforcing allowed in edge members,

PCmax.

Edge Design

PT-max

>0

Specified in

Preferences

allowed in edge members, PTmax.

Properties" in

Shear Wall

Design

Technical Note 6

Wall Pier Design

Section

Spandrel

Overwrite Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value

Design this

Spandrel

Yes or No

Yes

LL Reduction

Factor

Program

calculated,

>0

Program

calculated

Design is

Special Seismic

Yes or No

Yes

Additional design checks are performed for

seismic elements compared to nonseismic

elements. Also, in some cases the strength

reduction factors are different.

Length

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

the item is to be program calculated.

C-4

Toggle for design of the spandrel when the

Design menu > Shear Wall Design > Start

Design/Check command is clicked.

A reducible live load is multiplied by this

factor to obtain the reduced live load.

Entering 0 for this item means that it is

program calculated. See the subsection

entitled "LL Reduction Factor" later in this

Appendix for more information.

Appendix C Overwrites

Spandrel

Overwrite Item

Possible

Values

Default

Value

ThickLeft

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

spandrel, ts. Inputting 0 means the item is to

be program calculated.

DepthLeft

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

hs. Inputting 0 means the item is to be

program calculated.

CoverBotLeft

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

centroid of bottom reinforcing, dr-bot left on left

side of beam. Inputting 0 means the item is

to be program calculated as 0.1hs.

CoverTopLeft

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

top reinforcing, dr-top left on left side of beam.

Inputting 0 means the item is to be program

calculated as 0.1hs.

SlabWidthLeft

spandrel, bs.

SlabDepthLeft

spandrel, ds.

ThickRight

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

spandrel, ts. Inputting 0 means the item is to

be program calculated.

DepthRight

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

spandrel, hs. Inputting 0 means the item is

to be program calculated.

CoverBotRight

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

centroid of bottom reinforcing, dr-bot right on

right side of beam. Inputting 0 means the

item is to be program calculated as 0.1hs.

CoverTopRight

Program

calculated,

or > 0

Program

calculated

top reinforcing, dr-top right on right side of

beam. Inputting 0 means the item is to be

program calculated as 0.1hs.

SlabWidthRight

spandrel, bs.

SlabDepthRight

spandrel, ds.

C-5

Spandrel

Overwrite Item

Possible

Values

Material

Any defined

concrete

material

property

Consider Vc

Yes or No

C.1

Default

Value

See "Default

Material property associated with the

Design Material spandrel.

Property" in Shear

Wall Design

Technical Note 7

Wall Spandrel

Design Sections

Yes

shear capacity) when computing the

shear capacity of the spandrel.

LL Reduction Factor

If the LL Reduction Factor is program calculated, it is based on the live load

reduction method chosen in the live load reduction preferences. If you specify

your own LL Reduction Factor, the program ignores any reduction method

specified in the live load reduction preferences and simply calculates the

reduced live load for a pier or spandrel by multiplying the specified LL

Reduction Factor times the reducible live load.

Important Note: The LL reduction factor is not applied to any load

combination that is included in a design load combination (combo or combos).

For example, assume you have two static load cases labeled DL and RLL. DL

is a dead load and RLL is a reducible live load. Now assume that you create a

design load combination named DESCOMB1 that includes DL and RLL. Then

for design load combination DESCOMB1, the RLL load is multiplied by the

LL reduction factor. Next assume that you create a load combination called

COMB2 that includes RLL. Now assume that you create a design load

combination called DESCOMB3 that included DL and COMB2. For design

load combination DESCOMB3, the RLL load that is part of COMB2 is not

multiplied by the LL reduction factor.

C.2

When defining a user-defined edge member, you must specify both a nonzero

value for DB1 and a nonzero value for DB2. If either DB1 or DB2 is specified

as zero, the edge member width is taken as the same as the pier thickness and

the edge member length is determined by the program.

C-6

Appendix D

Analysis Sections and Design Sections

design sections when performing shear wall design. Analysis sections are

simply the objects defined in your model that make up the pier or spandrel

section. The analysis section for wall piers is the assemblage of wall and

column sections that make up the pier. Similarly, the analysis section for

spandrels is the assemblage of wall and beam sections that make up the

spandrel. The analysis is based on these section properties, and thus, the design

forces are based on these analysis section properties.

The design section is completely separate from the analysis section. Three

types of pier design sections are available. They are:

program automatically (and internally) creates a Section Designer pier

section of the same shape as the analysis section pier. Uniform reinforcing

is placed in this pier. The reinforcing can be modified in the pier

overwrites. The Uniform Reinforcing Section pier may be planar or it may

be three-dimensional.

For shear design and boundary zone checks, the program automatically

(and internally) breaks the analysis section pier up into planar legs and then

performs the design on each leg separately and reports the results

separately for each leg. Note that the planar legs are derived from the area

D-1

objects defined in the model, not from the pier section defined in Section

Designer. The pier section defined in Section Designer is only used for the

flexural design/check.

General Reinforcing Section: For flexural designs and/or checks, the pier

geometry and the reinforcing are defined by the user in the Section

Designer utility. The pier defined in Section Designer may be planar or it

may be three-dimensional.

For shear design and boundary zone checks, the program automatically

(and internally) breaks the analysis section pier into planar legs and then

performs the design on each leg separately and reports the results

separately for each leg. Note that the planar legs are derived from the area

objects defined in the model, not from the pier section defined in Section

Designer. The pier section defined in Section Designer is only used for the

flexural design/check.

Simplified Pier Section: This pier section is defined in the pier design

overwrites. The simplified section is defined by a length and a thickness.

The length is in the pier 2-axis direction and the thickness is in the pier 3axis direction.

In addition, you can, if desired, specify thickened edge members at one or

both ends of the simplified pier section. You cannot specify reinforcing in

a simplified section. Thus, the simplified section can only be used for

design, not for checking user-specified sections. Simplified sections are

always planar.

Only one type of spandrel design section is available. It is defined in the

spandrel design overwrites. A typical spandrel is defined by a depth,

thickness and length. The depth is in the spandrel 2-axis direction; the

thickness is in the spandrel 3-axis direction; and the length is in the

spandrel 1-axis direction. Spandrel sections are always planar.

In addition, you can, if desired, specify a slab thickness and depth, making

the spandrel design section into a T-beam. You cannot specify reinforcing

in a spandrel section. Thus, you can only design spandrel sections, not

check them.

D-2

The pier and spandrel design sections are designed for the forces obtained

from the program's analysis, which is based on the analysis sections. In other

words, the design sections are designed based on the forces obtained for the

analysis sections.

D-3

Bibliography

ACI, 2011. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11)

and Commentary, American Concrete Institute, 38800 Country Club Drive,

Farmington Hills, Michigan.

ASCE, 2010. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,

American Society of Civil Envineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston,

Virginia, 20191.

CSI, 2012. CSI Analysis Reference Manual, Computers and Structures, Inc.,

Berkeley, California, 94704.

ICC, 2009. International Building Code, International Code Council, Inc., 4051

West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois, 60478.

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