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PHYSICS PROJECT

Topic:- Applications Of Various


Class XII - A
Components in an Electrical Circuit.
Model:- Single Cycle Timer.
Made By :- Sourya Basu

INDEX
1. Certificate
2. Acknowledgment
3. Aim
4. Introduction
5. Theory
6. Circuit materials and
diagram
7. Working

8. Bibliography

Aim
To observe the
applications of various
loads like capacitors,
transistors, diodes relays
and rectifiers in a cycle
timer circuit.

INTRODUCTION
Electronics have a vast use in our lives. They
store our money, monitor your heartbeats
carry the sound of your voice into other
people's homes, bring airplanes into land and
guide cars safely to their destination. It's
amazing to think just how many things "they"
actually do. "They" are electrons: tiny
particles within atoms that march around
defined paths known as circuits carrying
electrical energy. One of the greatest things
people learned to do in the 20th century was
to use electrons to control machines and
process information. The electronics
revolution, as this is known, accelerated the
computer revolution and both these things
have transformed many areas of our lives.
Electronic circuits are at the heart of any
electrical device. One such circuit discussed
here is the working of 'ON' and 'OFF' relay

switch that cycle at a selected rate. These are


useful for light displays, flashers, beacons,
greenhouses, aquariums, photography,
science projects, lab testing and any other
application that needs time controlled ON-OFF
switching.

THEORY
An electric circuit is a path which electrons
from a voltage or current source flow. Electric
current flows in a closed path called an electric
circuit. The point where those electrons enter
an electrical circuit is called the "source" of
electrons. The point where the electrons leave
an electrical circuit is called the "return" or
"earth ground". The exit point is called the
"return" because electrons always end up at
the source when they complete the path of an
electrical circuit.
Relays: - relay is an electromagnetic switch
operated by a relatively small electric current
that can turn on or off a much larger electric
current. The heart of a relay is an
electromagnet (a coil of wire that becomes a
temporary magnet when electricity flows

through it). You can think of a relay as a kind of


electric lever: switch it on with a tiny current
and it switches on ("leverages") another
appliance using a much bigger current.
Working:- When power flows through the first circuit (1),

it activates the electromagnet (brown), generating a


magnetic field (blue) that attracts a contact (red) and
activates the second circuit (2). When the power is
switched off, a spring pulls the contact back up to its
original position, switching the second circuit off again.
This is an example of a "normally open" (NO) relay: the
contacts in the second circuit are not connected by
default, and switch on only when a current flows through
the magnet. Other relays are "normally closed" (NC; the
contacts are connected so a current flows through them
by default) and switch off only when the magnet is
activated, pulling or pushing the contacts apart. Normally
open relays are the most common.
How a relay links two circuits together: - On the left
side, there's an input circuit powered by a switch or a
sensor of some kind. When this circuit is activated, it

feeds current to an electromagnet that pulls a metal


switch closed and activates the second, output circuit (on
the right side). The relatively small current in the input
circuit thus activates the larger current in the output
circuit:

1. The input circuit (black loop) is switched off and no


current flows through it until something (either a
sensor or a switch closing) turns it on. The output
circuit (blue loop) is also switched off.
2. When a small current flows in the input circuit, it
activates the electromagnet (shown here as a red
coil), which produces a magnetic field all around it.
3. The energized electromagnet pulls the metal bar in
the output circuit toward it, closing the switch and
allowing a much bigger current to flow through the
output circuit.
4. The output circuit operates a high-current appliance
such as a lamp or an electric motor.

Transistors- A transistor is a semiconductor


device used to amplify and switch electronic
signals and electrical power. It is composed of
semiconductor material with at least three
terminals for connection to an external circuit.
One of the major transistor classes are the
bipolar junction transistors(BJT). Both NPN and
PNP are bipolar junction transistors (BJTs). BJTs
are current-controlled transistors that allow for
current amplification.
A current input into the base of the transistor
allows for a much larger current across the emitter
and collector leads. NPN and PNPs are exactly the
same in their function, they provide amplification
and/or switching capability.

HOW A TRANSISTOR WORKS:-

NPN Transistor

An NPN transistor receives positive voltage at the


collector terminal. This positive voltage to the
collector allows current to flow across from the

collector to emitter, given that there is a sufficient


base current to turn the transistor on.
How a NPN transistor works: As you increase
current to the base of a NPN transistor, the
transistor is turned on more and more until it
conducts fully from collector to emitter. And as you
decrease current to the base of a NPN transistor,
the transistor turns on less and less, until the
current is so low, the transistor no longer conducts
across collector to emitter, and shuts off.

PNP Transistor

A PNP transistor receives positive voltage at the


emitter terminal. The positive voltage to the
emitter allows current to flow from the emitter to
the collector, given that there is no current flowing
into the base.

When there is current at the base, the transistor is


off and does not conduct to power the load
connected to it. When there is no current at the
base, the transistor is on and conducts across to
power on the output load.

Rectifier - A rectifier is an electrical device


that converts alternating current (AC), which
periodically reverses direction, to direct current
(DC), which flows in only one direction. The
process is known as rectification. The full wave
bridge rectifier has 4 leads. Two leads (on
opposite corners) accept incoming alternating
current, and the other two give Direct Current
out.

Logic Gates - A logic


gate is an elementary
building block of a digital
circuit. Most logic gates have two inputs and
one output. At any given moment, every
terminal is in one of the two binary conditions
low (0) or high (1), represented by different
voltage levels.

Logic gates are primarily


implemented using diodes or
transistors acting as electronic
switches, but can also be
constructed using vacuum
tubes, electromagnetic relays.

Different logic gates with their input and outputs

Diode - A diode is a simple electrical device that


allows the flow of current only in one direction. So
it can be said to act somewhat like a switch. A
specific arrangement of diodes can convert AC to
pulsating DC, hence it is sometimes also called as
a rectifier. It is derived from "di-ode " which means
a device having two electrodes.

Materials required: -

1. CD 4093
2. PC 547 NPN Transistors
3. 1 M Preset
4. 4.Capacitors
5. 5. Diodes
6. 6.Rectifier
7. 7. 5mm LED
8. 8. Carbon Film Resistors
9. 9. 12 VDC Relay

Circuit diagram:-

WORKING

In a single cycle on/off timer when you


press the start push button (P.B) the
relay will be turned on after preset time
and remains on for preset time.
When the P.B is pressed the latch
formed by N1,N2 will set pin 3 of N1 as
well as N5 high. It will start charging the
capacitor C2 via resistor 4. As soon as it
reaches 2/3 of supply voltage, pin 11 of
n8 will be low to switch on relay through
relay driving circuit formed by
transistors T1,T2.
Simultaneously it will reset the latch
through N3 and N6 as the latch is reset
pin 3 of n5 is low and pin 11 of n4 is
high. It will start charging the capacitor
c1 through p1 R3. As soon as it reaches
2/3 voltage pin 3 of n5 will be low and
output of n8 will be high to switch of
relay. This way the cycle completes and
repeats as P.B is pressed.

Materials required:

CD 4543 BCD to Seg. Decoder


CD 4510 Counter CD
4093 Quad NAND gate
Lt542 Display
capacitor (C1)
S/w1 Push button
Resistors

Circuit Diagram:-

WORKING
When S/W 1 push button is pressed hated
oscillator formed by n1,n2 start delivering
clock pulses to a clock input pin 15 of IC2.
The counter element is consisted of
synchronous BCD upward and seven
segmented decoder with latch and
display driver IC1 CD 4543 and common
anode display LT542.Pin 10 of IC2 is for
up/down count kept to ground for down
counting. Pin 9 is reset pin and also
connected to ground. Pin 6, 11,14,2 are
BCD output Q1, Q2,Q3,Q4 fed to
respective BCD input of IC1CD 4543. Out
of preset terminals P1, P2, P3 P3 pin12
and 13 are connected to supply through
r8 and pin 3,4 connected to get reset and
once again start counting from 6
downwards. Pin 1 PE is normally
connected to ground through 100k

resistor R13. Pin 5 is CI carry in connected


to ground pin7 is Co carry out which is
used to reset the counter every time it
reaches 0 through NAND gate N4. IC2
cd4543 receives BCD information from
IC2 at pin 5,3,2,3 as A,B,C,D. Pin 9 to 15
are seven outputs for display segments
connected to common anode display
segments connected to common anode LT
542 through resistor R1-R7.

ACKNOWLEDGEMEN
T
In accomplishment of this project
successfully, many people have best
owned upon me their blessings and the
heart pledged support, this time I am
utilizing to thank all the people who
have been concerned with the project.
Primarily I would like to thank my
principal Mrs. And physics teacher Mrs.
Sheetal Semwal, whose valuable
guidance has been the ones that helped
me patch this project and make it
complete. Her suggestions and
instructions have served as major
contributor towards the completion.

Lastly I would like to thank my


classmates who have helped me a lot.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
NCERT Physics Class 12
Physics Lab Manual
Internet links
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor
www.scribd.com
www.electronics-tutorials.ws