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  About the UNIVERSE

  About the CERN
  About the LHC
  The word Universe derives from the Old French word Univers, which
in turn derives from the Latin word universum. The Latin word was
used by Cicero and later Latin authors in many of the same senses as
the modern English word is used.

  The Latin word derives from the poetic contraction Unvorsum — first
used by Lucretius in Book IV (line 262) of his De rerum natura (On
the Nature of Things) .

  It connects un, uni (the combining form of unus, or "one") with vorsum,
versum (a noun made from the perfect passive participle of vertere,
meaning "something rotated, rolled, changed").
  The Universe is defined as everything that physically exists: the entirety
of space and time, all forms of matter, energy and momentum, and the
physical laws and constants that govern them.

  The cosmos, The world or Nature are the different names of universe
used in different contexts.

  Current interpretations of astronomical observations indicate that the

age of the Universe is 13.73 ( ± 0.12) billion(109) years, and that the
diameter of the observable Universe is at least 93 billion light years,
or 8.80 × 1026 meters.

  (1 light year= 9.4607 × 10 12 km (nearly 6 trillion miles))

SIZE of the universe:
  The Universe is very large and possibly infinite in volume; the observable
matter is spread over a space at least 93 billion light years across. For
comparison, the diameter of a typical galaxy is only 30,000 light-years,
and the typical distance between two neighboring galaxies is only 3
million light-years.

  As an example, our Milky Way galaxy is roughly 100,000 light years in


  There are probably more than 100 billion (1011) galaxies in the
observable universe.
  Typical galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million (107)
stars up to giants with one trillion (1012) stars, all orbiting the galaxy's
center of mass.
Composition of universe:
  The Universe is old and evolving. The most precise estimate of the Universe's age is
13.73±0.12 billion years old, based on observations of the cosmic microwave
background radiation.
  Independent estimates (based on measurements such as radioactive dating) agree, although
they are less precise, ranging from 11–20 billion years to 13–15 billion years.
  The universe has not been the same at all times in its history; for example, the relative
populations of quasars and galaxies have changed and space itself appears to have expanded.
This expansion accounts for how Earth-bound scientists can observe the light from a galaxy
30 billion light years away, even if that light has traveled for only 13 billion years; the very
space between them has expanded.
  This expansion is consistent with the observation that the light from distant galaxies has been
  the photons emitted have been stretched to longer wavelengths and lower frequency during
their journey. The rate of this spatial expansion is accelerating, based on studies of Type Ia
supernovae and corroborated by other data.
  The present overall density of the Universe is very low, roughly
9.9 × 10−30 grams per cubic centimeter.
  This mass-energy appears to consist of 73% dark energy, 23%
cold dark matter and 4% ordinary matter.
  The universe is believed to be mostly composed of dark energy
and dark matter . Only ≈4% of the universe is ordinary matter, a
relatively small perturbation.
  The properties of dark energy and dark matter are largely
unknown. Dark matter gravitates as ordinary matter, and thus
works to slow the expansion of the Universe; by contrast, dark
energy accelerates its expansion.
  The elementary particles from which the Universe is
constructed are Six leptons and six quarks, which
comprise most of the matter; for example, the protons and
neutrons of atomic nuclei are composed of quarks, and the
ubiquitous(omnipresent) electron is a lepton.
  These particles interact via the gauge bosons, each
corresponding to a particular type of gauge symmetry. The
Higgs boson (as yet unobserved) is believed to confer mass
on the particles with which it is connected. The graviton,
a supposed gauge boson for gravity.
12 things that makes up
  According to the prevailing Standard Model of physics, all
matter is composed of three generations of leptons and
quarks, both of which are fermions.
  These elementary particles interact via at most three
fundamental interactions: the electroweak interaction
which includes electromagnetism and the weak nuclear
force; the strong nuclear force described by quantum
chromodynamics; and gravity, which is best described at
present by general relativity.
relative fractions:
  The relative fractions of different chemical elements —
particularly the lightest atoms such as hydrogen,
deuterium and helium — seem to be identical
throughout the universe and throughout its observable
  The Universe appears to have no net momentum and
angular momentum. The absence of net charge and
momentum would follow from accepted physical laws
(Gauss's law and the non-divergence of the stress-energy-
momentum pseudo tensor, respectively).

  Some speculative theories have proposed that this

universe is but one of a set of disconnected universes,
collectively denoted as the multiverse, altering the
concept that the universe encompasses everything.
  By definition, there is no possible way for anything in
one universe to affect another; if two "universes" could
affect one another, they would be part of a single
  Planets are lumps of gas and rock held close to a star by the force of
gravity. We live on planet Earth going round star Sun, along with
eight other planets. Together these are called the solar system.
  Because stars form in dark clouds of dust and molecules in open star
clusters, it is difficult to watch them form. So the story of how planets
formed which we have just given has not been confirmed by
  About 20 planets have been discovered near Sun-like stars, although
they are hard to see.
  Looking for planets near a star is a bit like trying to watch
a moth flying around a spotlight which is pointing at you --
you get dazzled by the light.
  Galaxy is an island of billions of stars, separated from other galaxies by a
vast ocean of almost empty space.

  The Milky Way Galaxy, is the one we know best, the one where we live.
But we should not forget that, scattered far and wide across the Universe,
there are billions of other galaxies, probably very similar to ours.
  Galaxies are either spiral (about 70% of galaxies - similar to the Milky
Way) or elliptical (about 30%). A few are other shapes. It is not clear how
the different shapes arose.

  Spirals are probably more interesting than elliptical, since stars are formed
continuously in them. It is probably this which has allowed life to form in
the spiral galaxy where we live.
  A star (such as the Sun) is a ball of gas which has, at its heart, a
nuclear fusion reactor. It is important to know something about how
stars work, for several reasons.

  One star, the Sun, is the source of almost all the energy used by
living things, including humans. We could not survive without it.
  If we could copy the energy of Sun in a small and controlled way,
we believe we could obtain a great deal of energy on Earth without
creating a lot of pollution.

  Stars are the places where large atoms are built. Past generations of
stars formed the gas and dust from which the planets and life were

  The name CERN:CERN is the European Organization

for Nuclear Research. The name is derived from the
acronym for the French Conseil Europ_en pour la
Recherche Nucl_aire, or European Council for
Nuclear Research, a provisional body founded in 1952
with the mandate of establishing a world-class
fundamental physics research organization in Europe.
  At that time, pure physics research concentrated on
understanding the inside of the atom, hence the word
theme of cern
  When the Organization officially came into being in 1954,
the Council was dissolved, and the new organization was
given the title European Organization for Nuclear
Research, although the name CERN was retained.
  Today, our understanding of matter goes much deeper than
the nucleus, and CERN’s main area of research is particle
physics ,the study of the fundamental constituents of
matter and the forces acting between them. Because of this,
the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to
as the European Laboratory for Particle Physics.
organization of cern
  CERN is run by 20 European Member States, but many non-
European countries are also involved in different ways. Scientists
come from around the world to use CERN’s facilities.
  The current Member States are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the
Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the
Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United
  Member States have special duties and privileges. They make a
contribution to the capital and operating costs of CERN’s
programs, and are represented in the Council, responsible for all
important decisions about the Organization and its activities.
financial aid to cern
  Some states (or international organizations) for which membership is
either not possible or not yet feasible are Observers. Observer status
allows non-Member States to attend Council meetings and to receive
Council documents, without taking part in the decision-making procedures
of the Organization.
  Scientists from some 580 institutes and universities around the world use
CERN’s facilities.

  Physicists and their funding agencies from both Member and non-Member
States are responsible for the financing, construction and operation of the
experiments on which they collaborate. CERN spends much of its budget
on building new machines (such as the Large Hadron Collider), and it
only partially contributes to the cost of the experiments.
cern in depth...
  Observer States and Organizations currently involved in
CERN programs are: the European Commission, India, Israel,
Japan, the Russian Federation, Turkey, UNESCO and the

 Non‐Member States currently involved in CERN programs:    
Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, 
Brazil,  Canada,  Chile,  China,  Colombia,  Croatia,  Cuba, 
Cyprus,  Estonia,  Georgia,  Iceland,  Iran,  Ireland,  Lithuania, 
Mexico,  Montenegro,  Morocco,  New  Zealand,  Pakistan, 
Peru, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, 
Taiwan, Thailand, Ukraine and Vietnam. 
employment at cern
  CERN employs just around 2500 people. The
Laboratory’s scientific and technical staff designs and
builds the particle accelerators and ensures their
smooth operation. They also help prepare, run, analyze
and interpret the data from complex scientific
  Some 8000 visiting scientists, half of the world’s
particle physicists, come to CERN for their research.
They represent 580 universities and 85 nationalities.

  The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is being built in a

circular tunnel 27 km in circumference. The tunnel is
buried around 50 to 175 m. underground. It straddles
the Swiss and French borders on the outskirts of

  To smash protons moving at 99.999999% of the

speed of light into each other and so recreate
conditions a fraction of a second after the big bang.
The LHC experiments trying and working out what
happened then.
  In a search for signatures of supersymmetry, dark
matter and the origins of mass.
  The LHC is designed to collide two counter rotating beams of
protons or heavy ions. Proton-proton collisions are foreseen at an
energy of 7 TeV per beam.

  The beams move around the LHC ring inside a continuous

vacuum guided by magnets.

  The magnets are superconducting and are cooled by a huge

cryogenics system. The cables conduct current without resistance
in their superconducting state.

  The beams will be stored at high energy for hours. During this
time collisions take place inside the four main LHC experiments.
  For most of the ring, the beams travel in two separate vacuum pipes,
but at four points they collide in the hearts of the main experiments,
known by their acronyms: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb.
  The experiments’ detectors will watch carefully as the energy of
colliding protons transforms fleetingly into a plethora of exotic
  The detectors could see up to 600 million collision events per second,
with the experiments scouring the data for signs of extremely rare
events such as the creation of the much-sought Higgs boson.
cryogenics in lhc:

  To reach the high magnetic field required, high

currents are needed. To avoid excessive resistive losses,
the magnets are superconducting. A huge cryogenics
system is required to produce the liquid helium needed
to keep the magnets cold.
  The cables of the magnets are of a very special design
and conduct current without resistance in their
superconducting state

  Superconducting sextupole and decapole spool pieces

amounting to half of the total LHC requirement for
corrector magnet equipment are being supplied by INDIA.

  In addition, India will supply LHC magnet support jacks

and quench heater power supplies.
  Circuit breakers are being supplied by Russia, but India
remains responsible for the necessary electronics.







  A Toroidal LHC Apparatus.

  ATLAS is one of two general-purpose detectors at the

LHC. It will investigate a wide range of physics,
including the search for the Higgs boson, extra
dimensions, and particles that could make up dark

  A Large Ion Collider Experiment

  For the ALICE experiment, the LHC will collide lead

ions to recreate the conditions just after the Big Bang
under laboratory conditions. The data obtained will
allow physicists to study a state of matter known as
quark‑gluon plasma, which is believed to have
existed soon after the Big Bang.

  Compact Muon Solenoid

  The CMS experiment uses a general-purpose detector

to investigate a wide range of physics, including the
search for the Higgs boson, extra dimensions, and
particles that could make up dark matter. Although it
has the same scientific goals as the ATLAS
experiment, it uses different technical solutions and
design of its detector magnet system to achieve these.

  Large Hadron Collider beauty

  The LHCb experiment will help us to understand why

we live in a Universe that appears to be composed
almost entirely of matter, but no antimatter.
  It specialises in investigating the slight differences
between matter and antimatter by studying a type
of particle called the 'beauty quark', or 'b quark'.
facts regarding lhc...
  Research in particle physics can throw up a torrent of
experimental data within a short space of time. For
example, the data recorded by each of the big
experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be
enough to fill around 100 000 DVDs every year!
  The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN near
Geneva is the largest scientific instrument on the planet.
When it began into operation in 2008, it produced
roughly 15 Petabytes(1015) (15 million Gigabytes) of data
annually, which thousands of scientists around the world
were involved to access and analyze.
  The mission of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid
(WLCG) project is to build and maintain a data
storage and analysis infrastructure for the entire high
energy physics community that will use the LHC.

  This gigantic LHC project may pay way to many

hidden natural phenomenon supporting and
formulating the early remains of universe under the
assistance of CERN.