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Section de

Microtechnique
2006-2007

TRAVAUX DE MASTER
prsents dans la section de
microtechnique
Slection non exhaustive

LISTE DES PROJETS


Laboratoire d'Optique Applique, Prof. Ren Salath
Switching of surface properties by applying an alternating Electric field on interdigitated
structured electrodes, Bambad Afra

Laboratoire d'Optique Biomdicale, Prof. Theo Lasser


Combined OCT and fluorescence imaging, Cdric Blatter
Denoising of MRS Signals Using Wavelet Methods, Nicole Brschweiler

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Laboratoire dImagerie Biomdicale, Prof. Michal Unser


Fitting of 3D-PSF models to fluorescent microbead stacks, Raphael Frey
Deconvolution en 3D Une extension ImageJ, Guillaume Schmit

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Laboratoire de Microsystmes, Prof. Martin Gijs


Development of a Microfluidic Chip Including a Nanochannel for Resistive Pulse Detection,
Mariam Benabderrazik
Realization of a microfluidic chip for optical detection of glucose / oxygen, Jonas Flueckiger
Laboratoire de Microsystmes, Prof. Philippe Renaud
Cration dun modle physiologique pour lamlioration de lencodage de la musique dans les
implants cochlaires (IC), Florent Cosandier
Design, Fabrication et Caractrisation de micro-miroirs MEMS actionnement magntique,
Camille Gabioud
Design and Fabrication of a Test Board for Electrophysiology Monitoring and MLS Dielectric
Spectroscopy of Neurons on a 120-Electrodes MEA Biochip, David Schmid
Intgration de biocapteurs on chip pour lanalyse dchantillons deau contamine en arsenic,
Jol Theytaz

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Laboratoire des microsystmes pour les technologies spatiales, Prof. Herbert Shea
Biologically inspired micro-drill for future planetary exploration, Franois Gulat

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Laboratoire de Production Microtechnique, Prof. Jacques Jacot


Conception dune nouvelle mire de calibration pour des systmes de vision, Lionel Flaction
Systme de vision pour le contrle dtat de surface de lames par scattering, Jonas Hiller
Mesure 3D par vision pour composants SMD gomtrie complexe, Stefan Perren
Concept of a sensor system for pastic film metallization, Stefan Schibli

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Laboratoire de Production Microtechnique, Prof. Peter Ryser


Characterization of a magnetic control system for a glucose biosensor, Cline Ramoni
Data fusion module, Patrick Schoeneich

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Laboratoire de Systmes Robotiques, Prof. Hannes Bleuler


Design and development of a haptic interface for assistive manipulation of an electrostatic contactless gripper, Benjamin Burns,
Alternative Power Sources for Airplane Electrical Systems, Felipe Diaz
Investigation on material removal process in SACE glass machining Design of a force
measuring set-up, Pascal Maillard
Modeling of an optical MEMS, Yoram Mass
Formal parameter estimation of active magnetic bearings, Selim Megzari
Modular all-terrain ingenious platform, Florian Vaussard

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Laboratoire de Systmes Robotiques, Prof. Reymond Clavel


Scanner 3D pour l'analyse de semelles, Daniel Drig
Dispositif de plusieurs micros robots mobiles contrls par un projecteur, Christophe Groux
Caractrisation et optimisation dune machine parallle 3-axes dultra-haute prcision
articulations flexibles : concept MinAngle, Philipp Kobel
Ralisation dun Delta linaire pour lassemblage horloger, Jrme Parent
Porte trocart partie active NeuroGlide, Michal Sigrist
Conception and Construction of a 3 DOF Optical Precision Sensor Integrated in Micro-Robots,
Leos Urbanek
Porte-endoscope lames flexibles (structure Trilame), Marc Weibel

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Laboratoire de Systmes Intelligents, Prof. Dario Floreano


In Silico Evolution of Biochemical Networks, Fanny Riedo
Biologically Inspired Swarms of MAVs for Radio Communication Relay, Laurent Winkler

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Laboratoire de nanophotonique et mtrologie, Prof. Olivier Martin


Simulation of Long-Range Surface Plasmons with the Finite Element Method,
Claudio Dellagiacoma
Calculs des forces gnres par des plasmons de surface sur des nano fils en or, Elodie Lamothe

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Laboratoire d'Actionneurs Intgrs, Prof. Yves Perriard


SwissCube inertia wheel assembly mechanical part, Gavrilo Bozovic
Lost step detection on a stepper motor, Sbastien Huberti
SwissCube Inertia Wheel Assembly Electronics, Omar Scaglione
Precise Velocity Control of a Hard Disk Drive, Jan Stoeckli

Sunraycing-Optimisation du moteur lectrique, Alex Vulliemin

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Institut de Production et Robotique, Prof. Marcel Jufer


EPFL Sunraycing Team: Project Management, Fundraising & Logistics, Friedrich Michael

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Laboratoire de Microtechnique UNINE, Prof. Nico de Rooij


Infrared Lock-In Thermography (LIT) of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells, Lucie Castens
Online calibration method for an in situ ATP measurement device, Lukas Glutz

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Space Center, Prof. Maurice Borgeaud


System Engineering and development and test of the ADCS breadboard for SwissCube,
Bastien Despont
SwissCube structural design and flight system configuration, Guillaume Roethlisberger

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Laboratoire de gestion et procds de production, Prof. Rmy Glardon


Identification des stratgies commerciales dune entreprise par les modles de files dattente,
Mohammed-Bilal Chaabi
Optimisation du processus de gestion dans un rseau collaboratif suisse-chinois et dveloppement
d'une mthode d'valuation pour des nouveaux membres, Mario Greber
Recherche de paramtres pour le frittage slectif par laser de poudres mtalliques,
Raphal Mollien
Analyse des paramtres oprationnels pour la fabrication par SLS dpreuves de contraintes
rsiduelles, Julien Moulin
Laboratoire des outils informatiques pour la conception et la production en mcanique,
Prof. Paul Xirouchakis
Simplified tilt, Frdric Rochat

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Laboratoire dautomatique, MER Denis Gillet


Collective motion stabilization and recovery strategies, Piyawat Kaewkerd
Virtual See-Through, Mabillard Jean
Laboratoire de mesure et d'analyse des mouvements, Prof. Kamiar Aminian
Mesure de la cinmatique 3D du genou par la fusion de capteurs inertiels et magntiques,
Julien Chardonnens
Effet de la rupture du LCA sur la biomcanique du genou : Mesures in vivo et analyses par
lments finis, Cyntia Duc
Movement analysis in horses, Stefan Marti

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Laboratoire d'lectronique gnrale, Prof. Michel Declercq


Capteur de courant avec interface PC, David Stalder

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Laboratoire d'lectronique gnrale, Prof. Adrian Ionescu


Conception et Simulation dun Transistor Effet de Champs Nanolectromcanique,
Christoph Eggimann

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Laboratoire d'optolectronique des matriaux, Prof. Libero Zuppiroli


Mlanges de lumire de LED et dOLED pour lclairage : tudes de spectres et conception de
sources hybrides, Pierre-Yves Vannay

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Laboratoire de traitement des signaux, Prof. Pierre Vandergheynst


Approximate pyramidal filter banks on the 2-sphere, Olivier Blanc

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Laboratoire de modlisation systmique, Prof. Hubert Kirrmann


Real Time Control Design & Implementation for a Riderless Bicycle, Amine Merdassi

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Abstract of Master project

February 23, 2007

SWITCHING OF SURFACE PROPERTIES BY APPLYING AN ALTERNATING


ELECTRIC FIELD ON INTERDIGITATED STRUCTURED ELECTRODES
Student :

Bambad Afra

Supervisors :

M. Jenke, P. Hoffmann (STI-APL-NRG)

Nano-structuring Research Group, Advanced Photonics Laboratory, EPFL


Project objective:
The goal of this project is to modify surface properties by means of applying an electric
field on embedded electrodes. Some of the potential applications are: moving and
handling of cells or particles in micro/nano fluidics, electrically switching of adhesion, etc.
We are developing electrodes that introduce the possibility to create alternating electric
fields that are homogeneous in time and 2D-space along the fabricated electrode
surface. This new property allows us to explore non-linear properties of water-molecules
in order to modify their interaction with the surface; and hence creating the possibility to
modify surface wetting properties.

Fig.2: Zoomed up image of the corner of an


electrode (left) and image of a wafer with 30
large-surface electrodes (right).

Fig.1: Finite element simulation results of


potential field on a plane perpendicular to
electrodes

Techniques employed:
APL-NRG: FEM simulations, contact angle measurements.
CMI: KOH-etching, Ti / Pt evaporation. Ti / Pt and SiO2 RF sputtering; RF-Plasma
etching, Wet-oxide etching (BHF)
Funding source: EPFL

STI-IOA-LOB

Abstract Master Thesis

February 23rd 2007

Combined OCT and fluorescence imaging


Cdric Blatter, Section Microtechnique
Assistants:

Bachmann Adrian, Villiger Martin

Supervisor:

Prof. Leitgeb Rainer

Professor:

Lasser Theo

This project presents the design, realization


and testing of a frequency domain
fluorescence lifetime imaging system
(FLIM) combined with an existing optical
coherence tomography (OCT) setup. The
goal is to achieve enhanced contrast
measuring biological samples due to the
complementarity of the two techniques.
The developed modular system design
allows probing a large variety of biological
samples. The fluorescence is excitated either
by a red laser diode or an interferometric
light source in the blue, using acousto-optic
modulators. The emitted light is coupled into
a multimode fiber and detected by a PMT or
alternatively directly by an APD placed
behind a pinhole. The OCT and FLIM
system image the sample through the same
objective and
acquire the signals
simultaneously (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Scheme of the FLIM system

The detected signal contains a DC part and a


high frequency modulation. The latter is
analysed by means of a lock-in amplifier.

The fluorescence lifetime can then be


determined using the measured data.
For characterizing the system, fluorescent
beads of 4m diameter were dispersed in a
volume of agarose and measured with the
combined system. The 2D fluorescence
image almost perfectly corresponds to the
OCT structure. For visualization, the region
of interest in the 3D OCT image is projected
along the optical axis (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Top: DC fluorescence image. Center:


projected OCT signal of the region observed by the
FLIM system. Bottom: combined image of both
methods. 100!m x 950!m.

Furthermore,
green
algae
(Valonia
utricularis) exhibiting autofluorescence was
imaged (Figure 3). This validated the
systems capability to obtain additional
contrast on biological samples due to the
fluorescence lifetime. The promising results
demonstrated the complementary nature of
the two techniques enhancing the functional
imaging capabilities of OCT and open up
new perspectives in biomedical imaging.

Figure 3: Fluorescence lifetime image of a biological


sample. Combination of lifetime based on
demodulation (H) and DC intensity (V) coded in
HSV:0.5ns
4ns.

BIG

Summary of the Masters project

23rd February 07

Denoising of MRS Signals Using Wavelet Methods


Nicole Brschweiler, Microengineering
Assistants: Ildar Khalidov and Florian Luisier (EPFL), Anke Henning and Betina Schnepf
(ETHZ)
Professors:

Unser Michael (EPFL), Bsiger Peter (ETHZ)

Project Description
In vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
(MRS) is a non-invasive method that
provides wealthy information on the
metabolites of the subject. It can be used to
monitor biochemical changes in tumors,
stroke and epilepsy.

The denoising algorithms were compared


using the standard SNR and the weakest
level of detection as a performance measure
specific to MRS. It was further investigated
if the denoising of MRS signals would lead
to a better quantification of the metabolite
concentrations.
A further task of the project was to create a
Graphical User Interface. The GUI allows
the user to perform zero- and first-order
phase correction, and to denoise the MRS
signals using one of the investigated wavelet
methods.
Results

Fig. 1: Noisy MR-Spectrum (in blue) and


denoised spectrum (in red). The denoising was
done using the SURE-algorithm and a Haar
wavelet.

The validation showed that the recently


developed SURE algorithm presented a
better performance in almost all the
experiences. It further could be noticed, that
the denoising algorithms performed better
on the real-valued spectrum than on the
complex FID.

In this master project, denoising algorithms


based on wavelets were applied to MRS
signals. Besides the already well known
wavelet shrinkage method, also a recently
developed
SURE-algorithm
was
implemented. The denoising was done on
the complex FID and the real spectrum using
standard wavelets and the newly developed
Exponential Spline Wavelet.
Prior to the validation of the denoising
methods, the influence of the poles of the
ESWs had to be investigated.

Fig. 2: Part of the User Interface allowing


performing zero- and first-order phase
correction.

LIB

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23.02.2007

Fitting of 3D-PSF models to fluorescent microbead stacks


Raphael Frey, Section Microtechnique
Assistants:

Cdric Vonesch, Franois Aguet

Professeur:

Michael Unser

Introduction

Modle dune PSF 3D

Pour comprendre les processus cellulaires


lchelle molculaire, la recherche dans le
domaine biologique dpend largement de la
microscopie optique. Dans quelques cas
mme des appareilles sophistiqus comme la
microscope confocal ne fournissent pas une
rsolution suffisante. Dans ces cas on va
traiter ces images par des processus de
traitement dimage par exemple avec une
algorithme de dconvolution. Pour une
dconvolution optimale on a besoin de
connatre les proprits de formation
dimages dun microscope. Ces proprits
se laissent bien dcrire par la rponse
impulsionelle (point-spread function PSF)
du systme optique du microscope. De plus
on peut obtenir une telle rponse en
regardant des billes fluorescentes sous un
microscope. Une telle PSF est montr dans
la Figure 1 ( gauche).

Une PSF analytique dcoule de la thorie de


Maxwell sur les ondes lectromagntique.
Dans sa forme finale la PSF se laisse dcrire
avec la formule suivante :

Figure 1 : Limage dune bille fluorescent section


x-z ( gauche) et la simulation dune PSF (
droite)

Si on pouvait adapter une PSF analytique


aux images pris par le microscope, on aurait
accs aux caractristiques du systme
optique.

Equation1 : Equation pour une PSF, o r et z


reprsentent les coordonnes cylindrique, NA
reprsente louverture numrique de lobjective,
W est laberration sphrique de lobjective et ! est
le rayon maximale de la pupille dentre. J0 est
une fonction de Bessel.

Adaptation de la PSF un stack 3D des


billes fluorescente
Dans la suite on essaie de minimiser lerreur
quadratique entre des acquisitions relles et
la PSF analytique. On a essay de trouver ce
minimum de lerreur avec un algorithme
dcrite par Newton/Raphson. Finalement
ctait possible de trouver avec cet
algorithme les paramtres cls dun systme
optique. Notamment la position dune bille,
son amplitude, et louverture numrique et
laberration sphrique de lobjective utilis.
Au cas montr dans la Figure 1 par exemple,
on a trouv les valeurs suivantes : NA=1.477
et W=-363nm. La valeur nominal de NA
tait 1.45.

BIG

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23.02.2007

Deconvolution en 3D Une extension ImageJ


Guillaume Schmit, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Cdric Vonesch

Professeur:

Unser Michael

Lors de ce projet, une extension permettant


de dconvoluer des images 2D et 3D a t
dveloppe pour le logiciel libre de
traitement dimages "ImageJ". Il permettra
ainsi de dconvoluer des stacks dimages
souvent utiliss en microscopie biomdicale.
La dconvolution est une tape importante
dans le traitement dimages biologiques,
puisquelle permet damliorer la qualit des
images en faisant ressortir les dtails qui ont
t rendus flous par le systme optique du
microscope tout en attnuant le bruit
introduit par les capteurs optiques.

la transforme de Fourier discrte parmi les


plus rapides.
Le plugin fournit galement les fonctionnalits ncessaires la quantification des
performances dun algorithme ; il permet par
exemple dvaluer les SERs (rapport signal
sur erreur), et den fournir un fichier lisible
par Matlab, facilitant ainsi la visualisation de
lvolution temporelle des performances. Ce
dernier aspect a galement permis de
comparer efficacement les performances des
diffrents algorithmes implments.

Linterface graphique de lextension


Les
algorithmes
de
dconvolution
implments sont dun ct les algorithmes
classiques tels que lalgorithme de
Landweber ou lalgorithme de ThikonovMiller, et de lautre ct des algorithmes
plus rcents comme ForWaRD, ou
lalgorithme de Richardson-Lucy.
Des fonctionnalits supplmentaires ont galement t introduites. Il est ainsi possible
dappliquer le processus de dconvolution
avec la configuration actuelle seulement sur
une petite rgion slectionne de limage,
afin den tester les performances sans perte
de temps excessive. Dautre part, le plugin
(programm en Java) offre la possibilit
dutiliser la librairie FFTW (www.fftw.org),
une librairie C fournissant une excution de

Limage "mri-stack" convolue par un cube


et bruite dun bruit gaussien
(BSNR0=40dB), et sa version dconvolue
par une mthode de moindres carrs
rgularise, optimise par un estimateur
non-biais de risque.
Finalement, nous pouvons affirmer que le
plugin dvelopp constitue une alternative
conomiquement intressante (car gratuite)
aux chercheurs et laborantins ncessitant
un logiciel permettant de dconvoluer des
images bi- ou tridimensionnelles.

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STI/IMM/LMIS2

Abstract of the Master Thesis

Oct. 2006 March 2007

Development of a Microfluidic Chip Including a


Nanochannel for Resistive Pulse Detection
Mariam Benabderrazik, Microengineering
Assistant:

Christophe Yamahata (Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Japan)

Professors:

Martin Gijs (EPFL); Hiroyuki Fujita (University of Tokyo)

Motivation
Kumemura et al. have demonstrated the
isolation and trapping of a single double
stranded DNA molecule in a microfluidic chip
[1]. However, the detection of DNA molecule
was achieved by fluorescent imaging. The
purpose of this project was to develop a
microfluidic chip capable of performing this
detection electrically in order to further
automate and enhance the reproducibility of
these experiments.
Working principle and fabrication
The resistive-pulse detection method (Coulter
counter principle) has been implemented in a
miniaturized fluidic device (Fig. 1). The
polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, containing a nanochannel (down to 200 200 nm2
cross-section) and large microstructures, was
obtained by moulding. The master was
fabricated by electron-beam direct writing
(nanostructures) and SU-8 photolithography
(high aspect ratio microstructures).
PDMS
Tested solution

Nanochanel

Figure 2: Resistive-pulse measurements.

Characterization
When a bead goes through the nanochannel,
the resulting change of resistance can be
detected with a Current Amplifier. An
example of the typical measurements obtained
with this setup is illustrated in Fig. 3.

Reservoir
Electrodes on glass

Glass

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the device.

For the characterization of the system, we


have used polystyrene beads of different
diameters in combination with nanochannels
of various sizes. A constant DC voltage was
applied across the nanochannel through
integrated platinum electrodes (Fig. 2).

Figure 3: Measurements of current amplitudes


compared with theory.
Inset: Current pulse of a 20 nm bead in case of a
300 300 nm2 nanochannel (case 3).
[1] Momoko Kumemura et al. Single DNA isolation and
trapping in a microfluidic device (Article submitted), 2007.

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IMM LMIS2

Summary of master project

23rd februray 2007

Realization of a microfluidic chip for optical detection of glucose / oxygen


Jonas Flueckiger, microtchnique
Supervision: Jean-Baptiste Orhan
Professor:

Martinus Gijs

Accurate measurement of blood glucose


concentration is essential in the diagnosis and
longterm management of diabetes. During the
last years a lot of different detection principles
have been proposed.
The detection principle presented in this work is
based on an enzymatic reaction where glucose is
degraded to water and hydrogen peroxide
(H2 O2). This reaction takes place in a first
microchannel where the enzyme Glucose
Oxidase (GOx) is immobilized on the channel
wall. H2 O2 decomposes spontaneously to water
(H2 O) and oxygen (O2). The amount of produced
dissolved oxygen is then detected in the second
microchannel by fluorescence quenching of an
oxygen
sensitive
ruthenium
complex
[Ru(dpp)3]2+.

Fig. 1: Detection of fluorescence intensity change by


means of optical fibers. The ruthenium complex is
immobilized on the channel wall. SEM picture of
microchannels in SU-8.

This fluorochrome is immobilized in the same


way on the channel wall as the GOx in the first
channel. The fluorescence intensity change
which is correlated to the oxygen concentration
in the fluid according to the Stern-Volmer
equation is measured by means of optical fibers.
The optical detection of oxygen was the main
part of this project.

The chip design was realized using SU-8


photolithography techniques. This structure was
then used as master for replica molding to
transfer
the
pattern
onto
a
poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surface. The
three dimensional fluidic network is build up by
bonding of different PDMS layers.
An integral part of the project was the channel
wall surface modification process or the
immobilization of the ruthenium complex and
the enzyme GOx. Through a sol-gel process a
borosilicate glass coating was applied which
contained the molecules. The sol-gel process is a
relatively straightforward way through a set of
simple chemical reactions and involves the
transition of a system from a liquid (a colloidal
suspension) called sol into a solid (a network in
a continuous liquid) called gel. The gel was
dried out by a temperature treatment. The
advantage of this process is the fact that
enzymes or other temperature sensitive
molecules can be immobilized in the resulting
solid matrix because the temperature does not
exceed 200 C during the treatment. The
properties of the coating were investigated by
atomic force measurement (AFM), contact angle
measurement (sessile drop method) and
diffusion measurement. The fluorescence
intensity response was tested by exposing the
coating containing the ruthenium complex to
alternating O2-N2 environment.

Fig. 2: Fluorescence intensity response to an alternating


N2-O 2 environment.

12

LMIS4

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23.03.2007

Cration dun modle physiologique pour lamlioration de lencodage de la


musique dans les implants cochlaires (IC)
Florent Cosandier, Section Microtechnique
Assistants:

Fei Chen, Tian Guan

Professeurs: Yuan-Ting Zhang, Philippe Renaud


Ce projet a t ralis luniversit chinoise
de Hong Kong (CUHK), dans le laboratoire
dingnierie biomdicale. Le but principal du
projet est de crer un modle physiologique de
la cochle humaine afin de pouvoir simuler et
comparer diffrents algorithmes de codage de
linformation, musicale en particulier.
Dans un premier temps, un modle
anatomique fidle de la cochle humaine
(scala tympani) est cre partir de donnes
telles que le rayon moyen de lorgane pour
chaque section, ou encore de lquation
paramtrique de la fibre centrale de la cochle.

toutes les autres stratgies sont drives, ou


presque.

Schma block de la stratgie propose


Une nouvelle stratgie est en outre propose.
Baptise VirtuMobEL, elle bnficie de trois
amliorations : un banc de filtres passe-bande
frquences de coupure variables au cours du
temps, un banc de filtres passe-bas
frquence

Modle de la cochle humaine


Ensuite, une matrice est dtermine partir du
modle anatomique. Elle contient les
coefficients dattnuation du courant des
lectrodes pour chacun des nerfs auditifs,
bass sur les distances nerfs/lectrodes. Aussi,
le courant somm sur un nerf va gnrer un
PA. A partir des PAs, un signal sonore est
reconstruit conformment lorganisation
tonotopique de la cochle.
Paralllement, diffrents types de stratgies
pulsatiles de codage des ICs sont implmentes, galement avec Matlab. Notamment
le Continuous Interleaved Sampling, dont

Dplacement de llectrode virtuelle


de coupure variable sur les canaux et enfin un
algorithme qui dplace virtuellement les lectrodes vers le centre de densit de puissance
du canal par ajout dun courant ngatif
diffrentiel sur les lectrodes adjacentes. De
plus, le courant est ainsi mieux focalis.

13

CMI-LMIS4

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Design, Fabrication et Caractrisation de micro-miroirs MEMS


actionnement magntique
Camille Gabioud, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Faouzi Khechana

Professeur:

Renaud Philippe

Les micro-miroirs suscitent un intrt


croissant dans de nombreuses applications:
scanner de code-barres, micro projection,
tomographie
optique
(OCT)
ou
spectroscopie optique. Les spcifications de
ces miroirs sont: large bande passante,
planit du miroir, grand angle de dflexion
du miroir et faible consommation.
Ce projet sest concentr sur les miroirs
actionnement magntique: la loi de Laplace
r r
r
F = ! Il " B est applique par linteraction
dun champ magntique permanent et dune
boucle de courant dispose sur le plateau du
miroir.

Photo SEM du miroir 1D


Les dimensions des miroirs obtenus varient
entre 800x800m2 et 2x2mm2. Ils
fonctionnent des frquences de rsonance
entre 3kHz et 21kHz et parviennent des
angles optiques jusqu 40.

Miroir actionn par Laplace

.
Miroir encapsul dans un circuit
magntique permanent
Simulation FEM du miroir 2D
Seuls les miroirs un axe de rotation ont t
fabriqus en salle blanche et caractriss. Ils
ncessitent un procd de trois masques
seulement,
et
sont
en
silicium
monocristallin.

Le facteur de qualit mesur varie entre 250


et
500,
selon
limportance
de
lamortissement d lair autour du miroir.
Les miroirs sont trs rsistants et sont
aisment encapsulables.

14

LMIS4

Rsum de Travail Pratique de Master

23.02.2007

Design and Fabrication of a Test Board for Electrophysiology Monitoring and MLS
Dielectric Spectroscopy of Neurons on a 120-Electrodes MEA Biochip
David Schmid, Section Microtechnique
Assistants:

Marc Heuschkel, Shady Gawad

Professeur:

Philippe Renaud

This project describes the conception, design


and fabrication of a test-board for ElectroPhysiology (EP) and Dielectric Spectroscopy
(DS) monitoring of living cells on a 60-120
electrodes multi-electrode array (MEA)
biochip. The aim is to combine two
monitoring techniques into a high content
screening platform.
The test-board has different configurations,
which have to be analysed to find the best
concept for each monitoring principle. One
configuration is the multiplexed EP
measurement where the signal enters an
analog multiplexer non-amplified or after a
pre-amplification stage. A classic EP stage is
as well implemented to compare the new
concept to the existing one. A differential and
a simple dielectric spectroscopy stage are also
mounted to measure the physical aspects of
the cell. The stimulation of the cell can be
done through the large ground electrode in
each well. The signal can either be created
with a LCR meter or by a maximum length
sequence (MLS).

Resulting test-board including chip-holder


and different EP and DS recording concepts
on one single platform.

It is possible to stimulate each electrode


separately for evoked EP recording or to
measure the specific resistance of all
electrodes.
The adaptor PCB and the test-board have been
realized and a program for control of the
digital outputs has been written.
Preliminary tests have shown that the
multiplexers work well but that still some
debugging work has to be done to fully
characterize the resulting system.

Modified MEA biochip interface (PCB) for


compatibility with the test-board.

15

LMIS4

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

Le 23 fvrier 2007

Intgration de biocapteurs on chip pour lanalyse dchantillons deau


contamine en arsenic
Jol Theytaz, Section Microtechnique
Assistants:

Ronit Marabi, Thomas Braschler

Professeur:

Renaud Philippe

A lheure actuelle, de larges populations


utilisent de leau potable contamine par des
concentrations darsenic beaucoup trop
leves. Afin dobtenir des mesures de
concentration darsenic prcises et aisment
rptables, le Dpartement de Microbiologie
Fondamentale de lUNIL a dvelopp des
capteurs biologiques bactriens qui ragissent
spcifiquement larsenic contenu dans leau
en produisant des protines de marquage
facilement dtectables, comme par exemple la
GFP. La production de GFP est donc
contrle par la quantit darsenic rencontre,
et les mesures de concentration sobtiennent
en mesurant les intensits de fluorescence
mises par les bactries.

Fig. 1 Principe de fonctionnement des chips filtres.


A) Chargement des biocapteurs contre le filtre. B)
Induction du tas de biocapteurs avec un flux deau
contamine.

Lobjectif principal du projet consistait


intgrer des biocapteurs producteurs de GFP
dans des chips microfluidiques, afin
deffectuer des mesures de concentration
darsenic contenu dans des chantillons deau.
Dans cette optique, plusieurs chips offrant
diffrentes
mthodes
dinduction
des
biocapteurs ont t fabriqus. La technique la
plus mise en application consiste accumuler
les biocapteurs dans une chambre de dtection
grce limplmentation de filtres on chip,
puis de les induire avec lchantillon
contamin (Fig. 1). La fabrication des filtres
est possible grce lutilisation de zones
sacrificielles en Si amorphe, qui sont sous
grave en fin de procd, crant ainsi les

mailles des filtres. La taille des mailles tant


contrlable,
les filtres se montrent
redoutablement efficaces pour le pigeage des
bactries, ainsi que pour leur induction (Fig.
2). Par ailleurs, les chips tant destins une
utilisation au Dpartement de Microbiologie
de lUNIL, un nouveau dispositif dutilisation
des chips, simple et adapt au microscope
confocal disposition, a t dvelopp.

Fig. 2 Image normale ( gauche) et image en


fluorescence ( droite) d'une chambre de dtection
charge en biocapteurs.

Les diffrents chips raliss ont t tests avec


les biocapteurs producteurs de GFP, et
plusieurs courbes de mesure dintensit de
fluorescence ont t tablies. Ces mesures
sont effectues soit en fonction de la dure
dinduction pour une concentration donne
(Fig. 4), soit en fonction de la concentration
pour un temps dinduction donn. La
calibration de ces mesures est discute et
diverses propositions damlioration sont
exposes.

Fig. 3 Intensit de fluorescence mise par les


biocapteurs pigs dans une chambre de dtection en
fonction de la dure d'induction pour un chantillon
d'eau contamine en arsenic une concentration de 1
uM.

16

STI IMM - LMTS

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 Fvrier 2007

Biologically inspired micro-drill for future planetary exploration


Franois Gulat, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Samuel Rosset

Professeur:

Herbert R. Shea

There is interest in digging and sampling for


astrobiological research (for example
biomarker detection). A difficulty of drilling
in
low
gravity
environment
with
conventional methods is the high axial force
needed.
A biomimetic drill has been design, inspired
from wood wasp ovipositor. Two parts are
sliding against each other in a reciprocal and
cyclic motion. One part provides reaction
force to drive the other into the ground
without any external force.

Tip of wood wasp ovipositor. Digging is


realized with a linear and reciprocating
movement of the two parts of the tip.

Thermal microactuators are used for the


motion. A current heats parallel arms and
expansion produces a displacement of the
drill. The reverse motion is obtained by
cooling the arms by conduction in the
substrate. Reciprocating movement is
obtained by successive heating and cooling
cycles of the parallel arms.
Displacements of 16 m in air and 25 m
can be reach.

SEM images of the microfabricated system :


one part of the drill is fixed and the second
part slides with a reciprocating movement
(left). The drill is moved by a thermal
microactuator. The parallel arms are heated
with a current flow and expansion produces
a displacement of the central beam (right).
14

displacement
of the tip

displacement [um]

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
0

SEM image of the microfabricated drill tips.

40

80

120 160 200 240 280


phase []

320 360

Displacement of the tip during one cycle for


actuation at 35 Hz in air. The drill moves
when arms are heating and comes back to
initial state when cooling.

17

LPM-IPR-STI

Resume de projet de Master

23 fevrier 2007

Conception dune nouvelle mire de calibration pour des syst`emes de vision


Lionel Flaction, Microtechnique
Assistants: Julien Gfeller, Mario Bellino
Professeur: Jacques Jacot
Lentreprise Ismeca Semiconductor SA basee a` la
Chaux-de-Fonds est specialisee dans la production
de machines de tri et demballage de composants
SMD. Elle souhaiterait diminuer le cout de fabrication des mires de calibration quelle propose a` ses
clients pour calibrer leur machine et caracteriser la
conformite de leurs composants.
Une mire de calibration a pour fonction de permettre lanalyse metrique dune image en servant
de reference-etalon. Elle contient generalement
plusieurs rep`eres de calibration(Points de reference
situes sur la mire). Par un algorithme de calibration, il est possible de determiner la resolution du
syst`eme, facteur liant le monde reel a` celui de
limage.
Afin de proposer une alternative financi`erement
acceptable, une recherche de methodes de fabrication a e te entreprise. Pour choisir efficacement
une methode de fabrication plutot quune autre,
une analyse de differents param`etres influencants la
resolution nous a permis de determiner les besoins
necessaires pour satisfaire les exigences du cahier
des charges de ce projet.
Par simulation numerique du processus de calibration, la precision avec laquelle la resolution a e te
determinee a pu e tre calculee afin destimer les performances des differentes methodes de fabrication.
Trois methodes de fabrication ont e te retenues
pour realiser les premiers prototypes de mires.
Il sagit de la serigraphie sur ceramique, de
lelectroformage et de lusinage chimique. Ces
methodes ont dune part lavantage doffrir la possibilite de realiser toute une serie de pi`eces en parall`ele, diminuant ainsi fortement leur cout de fabrication. Dautre part, elles assurent une bonne
repetabilite de fabrication. La figure 3.1 illustre
trois types de mires realises.

2mm

Figure 1: Mires a` nombre de rep`eres variant,


realisees par e lectroformage, usinage chimique et
serigraphie (de gauche a` droite).

Afin de caracteriser experimentalement leurs performances, une premi`ere serie de mesures de calibration a pu e tre effectuee dans lentreprise. Les
resultats obtenus sont positifs. Les trois methodes
de fabrication poss`edent les performances techniques necessaires pour garantir la precision de
resolution defini dans le cahier des charges. De
plus, les mires realisees permettent une calibration
sous trois e clairages differents, et ont un cout de fabrication environ 10 fois inferieur a` celui propose
dans le cahier des charges. Cependant, des mesures
supplementaires, notamment sur une machine de
controle de composants, doivent e tre effectuees afin
de guider notre choix sur lun ou lautre des ces
trois types de mires.

18

LPM-IPR-STI

Resume de projet de diplome

22 fevrier 2007

Syst`eme de vision pour le controle detat de surface de lames par scattering


Jonas Hiller, Microtechnique
Assistants: J. Gfeller, A. Dufaux
Professeur: Jacques Jacot
Lentreprise BTG a` Eclepens produit des lames
pour lindustrie du papier. Ces lames sont utilisees
lors de la fabrication du papier pour appliquer une
couche calcaire sur le papier de base. Cette e tape
est tr`es sensible aux defauts de surface de la lame.
Lors de leur fabrication, les lames passent par
une e tape de rectification, laissant des stries sur la
surface de la lame. Pour enlever ces stries et pour
garantir au client un bon e tat de surface, BTG polit
ces lames.
Ce projet consiste en la conception dun dispositif de controle de cet e tat de polissage. Comme
technique de mesure le scattering a e te empolye.
Elle consiste en lobservation de la reflexion dun
faisceau laser sur la surface a` controler.

La lumi`ere reflechie est projetee sur un e cran,


puis observee par une camera. Par une optique focalisant sur lecran, la reflexion de la lumi`ere laser correspond a` la transformee de Fourier optique
TFO de la topographie de la lame. Par la projection inclinee sur lecran, les stries du polissage et
de la rectification apparaissent comme des courbes,
presentant des intensites variant selon letat de polissage de la lame. Un programme analyse les param`etres importants de limage, en derive les caracteristiques de la surface et les enregistre dans un
fichier protocole.

Figure 3: Images pour un e tat de polissage mauvais


et bon.

Figure 1: Principe simplifie du scattering :


Reflexion du laser sur la surface dune lame
presentant des stries de rectification et de polissage.

Figure 2: Principe optique pour mesurer une grande


zone de la lame.

Des tests ont montre, quavec la technique du


scattering il est possible de differencier une lame
bien polie dune mauvaise et meme dattribuer des
e tats de polissage intermediaires aux lames. Effectuant la TFO de la surface, le scattering permettrait
meme une detection de defauts comme des piqures
et des rayures sur la lame.
Le prototype realise est installe en ligne apr`es
le processus de polissage et effectue des mesures
environ cinq fois par seconde.
Les mesures e tant tr`es sensibles a` letat de proprete des lames, il faut installer un syst`eme de nettoyage fiable avant le controle par le scattering.
Le scattering est une technique de mesure tr`es
robuste, facile a` implementer et bon marche. Elle
permet de faire des mesures rapides et repetitives,
meme sur des lames en mouvement. Cette solution
remplit ainsi toutes les exigences posees par BTG.

19

LPM-IPR-STI

Resume de projet de Master

23 fevrier 2007

Mesure 3D par vision pour composants SMD a` geometrie complexe


Stefan Perren, Microtechnique
Assistant: Julien Gfeller
Professeur: Jacques Jacot

re
m
i
lu

str
uc
tur

ati

lu

m
i

re

camra

on

nn
aalplP

Figure 1: Principe de la mesure 3D par projection


de lumi`ere structuree.
La figure 1 montre le principe de la projection de
lumi`ere structuree pour la mesure de la troisi`eme
dimension. La nouvelle modelisation se base sur le
fait quun point de mesure dans lespace est defini
par lintersection de deux objets geometriques. Il
sagit de lintersection entre un plan, qui correspond a` une rangee de pixels de lelement structurant, et une droite correspondant a` un pixel de
la camera (voir figure 2). En utilisant un algorithme de lancer de rayons exacts (Exact Ray
Tracing) pour determiner ces objets geometriques
dans lespace, on prend directement en compte les
param`etres geometriques et optiques (par exemple
les aberrations) du syst`eme.
Les param`etres suivants et leur influence sur la
resolution de mesure en hauteur ont e te analyses :
langle entre laxe optique de projection et la verticale
la telecentricite, les aberrations optiques, la pro-

Figure 2: Intersection entre un plan et une droite.


fondeur de champ et la fonction de transfert de
modulation du syst`eme optique
la resolution et la discretisation en intensite de
lelement structurant la lumi`ere et de la camera
Il a pu e tre demontre que la resolution en hauteur
se trouve entre deux limites : une limite superieure
definie par la discretisation spatiale de lelement
structurant ainsi quune limite inferieure donnee
par le nombre de niveaux de gris de la camera. La
valeur exacte de la resolution depend du montage
choisi et doit e tre determinee experimentalement.
Le demonstrateur realise permet de faire des premiers tests de repetabilite et de precision bases sur
le nouveau mod`ele. Des series de mesures dune
difference de hauteur de 100m (figure 3) ont
demontrees que lon se trouve entre les deux limites predites.
120
100
80

z [m]

Ce projet consiste en la modelisation et lanalyse


dun syst`eme de mesure 3D par vision pour des
composants SMD a` geometrie complexe. Lentreprise Ismeca souhaitant avoir a` disposition un appareil de mesure tridimensionnel flexible et performant, un nouveau mod`ele pour le caracteriser a
e te developpe. De plus, linfluence des param`etres
inherents au syst`eme sur la resolution de mesure
a e te analysee. Il sagit des param`etres lies a` la
geometrie et au syst`eme optique ainsi que des caracteristiques de lelement structurant la lumi`ere et
de la camera.

60
40
20
0
20
0

10

20

30

40

mesure

50

60

70

80

Figure 3: Deux series de mesure a` deux hauteurs


differentes (z = 100m), precision : 7m.

20

21

IPR-LPM

Abstract of Master Project

22 February 2007

Characterization of a magnetic control system for a glucose biosensor


Cline Ramoni, Microengineering
Assistants:
Professor:

Julien Chassot, Sadasing Kowlessur, Eric Meurville


Peter Ryser

Introduction
LPM is currently developing an implantable
glucose biosensor that would be an
alternative to painful finger pricking
operation performed several times a day by
diabetic patients in order to determine the
exact amount of insulin they should take.
The capsule contains a sensitive liquid
whose viscosity changes straightforwardly
with the variation of the concentration of
glucose that permeates from the surrounding
tissue interstitial fluid through a selective
nanoporous membrane. This viscosity can
then be measured by a rotating magnet
immersed in this liquid. The contact less
drive is done by a second magnet inside of
the control unit.
Drive Hall sensor

Control unit

its speed if the capsule and the control unit


are not perfectly aligned?
Methodology
A 5 DOF mechanical setup is designed to
run tests on a simplified system.
Motor

Simplified system
Static tests (magnet rotation at a constant
speed) are performed on several Hall sensors
in order to analyse their global behaviour.
The sensors output variations along the 5
DOF (in term of amplitude, phase shift,
frequency) are compared through a
MATLAB script.
Preliminary tests on the coupling effects are
made using a two drive magnets.

Interstitial fluid

Capsule

Skin

Overview of the biosensor mechanism

Results
The actual drive magnet and sensor have a
workspace delimitation that corresponds well
to
the
sensor
manufacturer
recommendations. The positioning of the
drive in it is not critical for the
manufacturing process of the biosensor.

Project Objectives
The drive magnet has been evaluated to
work with a particularly Hall sensor, but this
association has never been tested before in
final conditions. The aim of this project is to
confirm that the biosensor will be
operational within the actual conditions and
what are the exact tolerances in the
placement and use of these elements.

The tests on the coupling effect showed a


very limited workspace. But this result is
fundamentally linked to the material used
(magnets, type of lube oil).

In a second time, some exploration about the


coupling effect will be done: what happens
when driving the capsule magnet or reading

These tests will give more precisions about


the command and detection abilities of the
concept.

Future work
Dynamic tests (implementation of speed
profiles) must be performed in order to
create a complete and more realistic
simulation of the biosensor mechanism.

22

IPR-LPM

Abstract of Master project

February 23, 2007

Data Fusion Module


Patrick Schoeneich, Microengineering section
Assistant: Eric Meurville
Professor: Peter Ryser

External Expert: Frdric Holzmann (Siemens VDO)

Introduction The goal of the SPARC project


is to increase the traffic safety for vehicles
using intelligent drive-by-wire technology. This
will be done by creating an assistant system,
which will help the driver and improve the
vehicle command when required.
For this purpose, many sensors are needed to
monitor the state of the vehicle and the
environment. The goal of this project is to
create a high level sensor fusion module.
Measures from all sensors will be combined,
and thus a better precision and robustness will
be achieved. A multiple object tracking
algorithm will be implemented to monitor the
vehicles/pedestrian around the vehicle, as well
as a position tracking algorithm to monitor the
vehicle displacements.

Figure 1: Tracks management


Work Both algorithms are based on the
Kalman filter, which can fuse measurements
coming from different sensors, taking their
variance into account. The multiple object
tracking is done by firstly clustering the
measures coming from the different sensors
(radars, lidar and camera) at the same time
step. This allows regrouping measures
originating from the same objects. The centers
of each cluster are then computed, using a

Kalman filter. Finally, the centers are


associated with the correct tracked objects,
which are updated with a dynamic Kalman
filter (see figure 1).
The position tracking algorithm is implemented
with an extended Kalman filter. The Ackerman
steering model is used for the dynamics.
Measures coming from the different sensors
(lane tracking, steering angle, tachymeter,
gyroscope and GPS) are combined to get an
estimate of the position.
Results Figure 2 shows the results of the
tracking algorithm. Measures are coming from
the two radars while driving. An object in front
of the vehicle is accelerating. The object is well
tracked, but measures from road side objects
are difficult to interpret (street light,
pedestrian, ...). Vision is thus needed, but was
not available for tests.

Figure 2: Tracked objects time evolution


Position tracking tests were done with
simulated measures, due to the unavailability of
real data. The lane change case was studied to
get a faster reaction of the filter.
Conclusion The algorithms showed good
behaviors. Tests still need to be done with all
available sensors.

23

EPFL - LSRO

Rsum de projet de diplme Master (80 h/sem)

22.02. 2007

Design and development of a haptic interface for assistive manipulation of


an electrostatic contact-less gripper
Benjamin Burns, Microtechnique
Assistant 1:

Ewoud van West

Assistant 2 : Franois Barrot


Professeur:

Hannes Bleuler et Akio Yamamoto

Ce projet consiste dvelopper et construire


une interface haptique pour la manipulation
de wafers en silicone tenus en lvitation
lectrostatique. La lvitation a pour but de
rduire les contraintes nfastes dans la
microstructure du wafer pendant les
oprations de dplacement. Eviter le contact
rduit la possibilit de contamination du
device. Parce que lespace entre le wafer et
la pince lectrostatique est trs petit (310m)
linterface haptique est ncessaire pour
compenser les erreurs de mouvement de
loprateur.
Un catalogue des solutions contenant une
analyse des structures mcaniques, des
guidages linaires et des moteurs a t
rdig pour comparer diffrentes possibilits. Une structure scara a t choisie pour
sa rponse en frquence verticale, sa maniabilit pour loprateur et pour sa rsolution
constante dans le dplacement vertical. Un
moteur (pulse command) vis-crou
connextion directe entre moteur et vis a t
choisi pour son poids et sa prcision.

La base de lappareil est en acier pour


augmenter sa raideur. Le bras est conu de
deux tubes en aluminium (diminution des
forces dinertie) lis par des tiges en acier
qui elles sont guides par des roulements. La
poigne de loprateur (contenant le capteur
de force) est monte sur lcrou du moteur
vis-crou. La pince lectrostatique est relie
lcrou par des tiges.

Construction finale de linterface haptique


Pour tester le comportement haptique de
lappareil, une interface virtuelle a t
conue. Une balle virtuelle est sense
tomber du haut de lcran, passer par une
rgion visqueuse pour finalement rebondir
sur un mur. Le mouvement de la balle
(poigne) est activ par une force applique
sur le capteur de force.
Rgion
visqueuse
virtuelle

Design final de linterface haptique avec


schma du workspace
Le moteur a t mont en fin de chane
cinmatique pour compenser les erreurs
accumules dans la mcanique. Le design
final est montr dans la figure ci-dessus.

Balle
virtuelle
Mur
virtuel

Interface graphique reprsentant une balle,


une rgion visqueuse et un mur virtuel

24

EPFL - LSRO

Abstract Masters Project

23.02.2007

Alternative Power Sources for Airplane Electrical Systems


Felipe Diaz, Microengineering
Assistant 1:

Franois Barrot

Assistant 2:

Jan Sandtner

Professor:

Hannes Bleuler

Commercial aviation is expected to grow at


about 5% per year and the environment regulations are also expected to become more constraining concerning pollutant emissions. The
price of fuel will also keep rising in the future as
it becomes increasingly rare. Considering this,
airplane manufacturers need to put more efforts
in developing more efficient airplanes. By building a More Electric Airplane (MEA), the Boeing
Company with the new 787 makes the first step
in the direction of more efficient and reliable
airplanes. The substitution of the pneumatic and
hydraulic systems by electrical ones goes towards the direction of using a cleaner, more
reliable and more efficient power system on
board of an aircraft. By introducing the MEA, a
new way of effectively producing electrical
power needs to be found and fuel cell systems
with the combination of fuel efficiency and high
environmental performances, show a high potential for this application. Basically, two types of
fuel cells seem to be the best candidates for this
application, i.e. the low temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFCs) and the
high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
(SOFCs).

results were analyzed in a way to observe if the


power quality of the fuel cell can match the requirements of the standard.
The tests showed that this type of fuel cell has
the capability of fulfilling these requirements
under certain conditions. Depending on the
load, the temperature of the fuel cell and other
parameters, the results can be significantly different.

Result of a transient test

Relative emissions of a fuel cell system

One of the biggest issues concerning this fuel


cell may arise when considering the way the fuel
is stored to run the system. PEM fuel cells require highly pure hydrogen and in the present
case this was achieved by using a compressed
cylinder of hydrogen. This could become an
important consideration for implementation of
such a system on board an airplane. An alternative way of storing the fuel within the airplane
will have to be found if the PEM fuel cell system
is to be used. Nevertheless, the results of the
tests prove that PEM fuel cell systems have the
ability of producing power in a quiet, efficient
and clean way that matches the power quality of
the airplane power systems.

In the present paper, a 1.2kW PEMFC has been


studied. Based on the standard for the power
requirements for airplane systems, a series of
tests were performed on the fuel cell and the

Additionally, more effective and cleaner ways of


storing the energy have been investigated as an
important complement to the use of fuel cell
technology in future airplanes.

25

EPFL LSRO

Abstract Master Project

23.02.2007

Investigation on material removal process in SACE glass machining


- Design of a force measuring set-up
Pascal Maillard Microtechnique
Professors
Supervisor

:
:

Hannes Bleuler (EPFL) and Rolf Wthrich (Concordia University)


Ulrich Spaelter

Spark Assisted Chemical Engraving (SACE) is


a technology for micro-machining several
types of materials like glass quartz, polymers
and some ceramics using electrical discharges.
The aim of this project is to increase the
understanding of the material removal
mechanism during drilling and consequently
the quality and repeatability of the machining.
This is done by three complementary
approaches:
!" Developing a model of material removal
rate
!" FT-IR analysis of the machined surface
!" Studying the force exerted on the tool
during constant feed drilling

Gravity-feed drilling model


The new model describes the drilling evolution
taking into account the presence of the
discharge and hydrodynamic regimes.

a sample by measuring the absorption of


various infrared light wavelengths by the
material of interest.

FT-IR spectrum of the microscope slide. In black is the


area that has been immersed in the electrolyte and the
grey spectrum represent the machined area (i.e. channel)

Changes of the reflectance spectrum in the


machined area highlight the chemical etching
by the OH radicals.
OH ' ( ) Si ' O ' Si ) * ) SiO ' ( ) SiOH

Force exerting on the tool during drilling


A new set-up is designed, characterized and
implemented in order to measure the force
exerted on the tool and thus increase the
understanding of the machining process and
confirm the results obtained help to the
modelling of the gravity-feed drilling.

Comparison between model prediction and measured data


(400#m diameter tool, solution 30% NaOH)

It results in the identification of the limiting


parameters and their origins and thus an
improved description of the complete
mechanism. The temperature in the machining
zone Tm could be estimated to be about 600C
and the viscosity of the melted material about
1.4 &108 $ Pa & s % .

Scheme of the implemented set-up

Zero displacement force measurement is


realized with the help of a controller
implemented on open source operating system
Linux Ubuntu.

FT-IR analysis
Infrared spectroscopy detects the vibration
characteristics of chemical functional groups in

Block diagram of the closed-loop control

26

27

EPFL/UVa - LSRO

Summary of Master thesis

23.02.2007

Formal parameter estimation of active magnetic bearings


Selim Megzari, Microengineering
Advisor:
Professor:

Eric Maslen (University of Virginia, USA)


Hannes Bleuler

A new method for position estimation in


self-sensing magnetic bearings has been
developed at University of Virginia by
Prof. Eric Maslen. The formal paramater
estimation method uses a Lyapunov
approach to design adaptive laws for
magnetic flux and position estimation. The
goal of this project was to evaluate the
performance of two estimators already
developed by implementing them on a
FPGA and testing them on a balance beam
test rig. An estimator modeling magnetic
saturation was also investigated.
The first position estimator without eddy
current or magnetic saturation modeling has
been implemented onto a Virtex-4 FPGA
using System Generator, Xilinxs
development environment in Simulink. The
hardware design was tested in simulation
and was compiled to a bitstream that
performed correctly in co-simulation.

also performed correctly in simulation and


co-simulation, but its estimation parameters
require further tuning.
Simulations have been carried out to
evaluate the performance of the estimator
including magnetic saturation. Even when
excited by high frequency signals, the
estimator cannot track position whenever
current exhibits saturation.
After modeling the test rig to derive
appropriate constants for the estimator, the
FPGA was inputted real current and voltage
signals. Experimental results indicate that
the basic position estimator tracks position
properly. However, due to problems with
the impedance of the analog-to-digital
converters, some modifications must be
made to the experimental setup before
definite conclusions can be made on the
estimators
performance.
A
first
convergence time of 45 [ms] has been
measured but use of actual switching
amplifiers as well as optimization of the
estimation parameters will decrease
significantly this time.

Simulation of the hardware design: the


estimator converges to the real position
The second estimator with eddy current
modeling but without magnetic saturation

Comparison between position sensor


output (red) and position estimate (blue)

28

LSRO-IPR-STI

Master project summary

February 23, 2007

Modular all-terrain ingenious platform


Florian Vaussard, Microengineering
Assistants: Michael Bonani, Francesco Mondada
Professor: Hannes Bleuler
This Master project is related to the new marXbot robot, which is part of the European project Swarmanoid. The goal is to conceive, realize
and control heterogeneous, dynamically connected, small autonomous robots. The marXbot is the
all-terrain version robot, which is an enhanced version of the S-bot robot of the Swarm-bot project.
The goal of this Master project is to design and
implement the low-level electronic of the marXbot
robot. This consists in particular in

val of the battery. This feature can provide power


for about fifteen seconds to a 2W load.
The motor control module is based on the new
generation dsPIC33F microcontroller and is able
to control a small power ( 2W ) direct current
motor. The proximity module is also based on a
dsPIC33F and is able to drive 24 TCRT1000 proximity sensors and 8 TCND 5000 ground sensors.
Finally, the IMU has been designed, but not
implemented due to lack of time.

protection and electronic management of the


Five different circuits have been realized and a
battery pack,
fully functional prototype of the marXbot robots
power management, with hot-swapping bat- mobile base has been built.
tery capability,
powering and control of the two direct current motors,
proximity and ground sensors,
inertial measurement unit (IMU),
And possibly other sensors, like sound,...
The battery management circuit, directly included in the battery pack, is able to monitor the battery current / voltage, and protect the dual Li-ion
cells from any damage. This feature is part of the
advanced power managing architecture defined during this project.

Prototype of the battery pack


The hot-swap system is based on supercapacitors cells, which act as secondary power supply,
and a commutation system which detects the remo-

Prototype of the marXbot robot


All the required functionalities have been implemented, programmed and successfully tested. A
complete doxygen documentation of the source code is also available.
The result of this project is a research platform
for the future projects of the laboratory. Other parts
are to be developed in order to built the complete
robot, for example the sound sensors or the processor card.

29

IPR LSRO

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Scanner 3D pour l'analyse de semelles


Daniel Drig, Microtechnique
Assistant(s): Gatan Marti, Maurice Hlg
Professeur:

Reymond Clavel

La Suisse a beaucoup de problmes lis aux


crimes en srie. La plupart des ces crimes sont
des cambriolages. Avec les traces des
chaussures on peut faire le lien entre ces
crimes. La facult de droit et des sciences
criminelles de l'Unil cherche avoir un
scanner 3D pour scanner les traces moules
dans le pltre et des chaussures des suspects.

travaille avec les camras du scanner. Pour


celui-l il y a un dessin d'encodage imprim
sur le verre du scanner. Ce dessin est film
avec les camras et le systme dtermine
grce ce dessin la position des camras. Le
systme dtermine la position avec un calcul
de corrlation entre le dessin film et le dessin
primitif.

Une valuation est faite, pour trouver la


meilleure faon de scanner des semelles.
L'valuation est faite avec des mthodes
utilisant une camra, deux camras, une
camra avec un laser et une mthode utilisant
deux camras avec un laser. La meilleure
mthode trouve est celle employant deux
camras avec un laser.

La troisime grande partie du projet est la


dtection du laser. Pour trouver le laser dans
l'image, on fait d'abord deux fois une approche
avec un algorithme de programmation
dynamique. A partir de cette approche on
dtecte le laser colonne par colonne dans
l'image.
La dernire grande partie du systme est la
reconstruction 3D. La position des points dans
l'espace est calcule par triangulation entre le
plan du laser et la ligne de fuite du point laser
dans l'image.

Fig. 1: Scanner deux camras avec laser

Ce projet traite la partie software du scanner


3D. Il y a quatre grandes parties dans ce
software. Premirement la calibration du
systme pour qu'il y ait une relation entre les
images des camras et le monde extrieur.
Deuximement l'encodage ; pour diminuer le
prix du systme et la complexit de la
mcanique, on a dvelopp un encodeur, qui

Fig. 2: Rsultat de la reconstruction 3D

De plus on a projet la reconstruction 3D sur


un plan de rfrence pour que le service
technique de la police puisse facilement
comparer les traces du lieu du crime avec les
semelles scannes.

30

IPR LSRO

Rsum du projet de master

21 fvrier 2007

Dispositif de plusieurs micros robots mobiles contrls par un projecteur


Christophe Groux, Microtechnique
Assistants:

Walter Driesen

Professeur:

Reymond Clavel

Le but de ce projet est de tester le principe


du friction drive sur des micro-robots
avec un minimum de composants on
board :
Force de contact variable

Robot
Table vibrante

Fig. 1 Principe du Friction drive


Le friction drive est une utilisation dune
vibration horizontale et dun changement,
par diffrents moyens, de la force de contact
entre le robot et sa surface de guidage.
Le but de ce projet est de dvelopper un
dispositif capable de tester ce principe en
utilisant une table vibrante en XY pour la
vibration horizontale et une force
lectrostatique pour varier la force de
contact.
La table ralise des translations dans le plan
XY selon des cercles de 0,1 4 mm de
rayon avec une frquence de 15 Hz. Elle est
monte sur des lames pour la maintenir dans
un plan horizontal.

La commande des robots est faite au travers


dun projecteur vido. Les robots sont munis
dlectrodes pour le serrage lectrostatique
sur le dessous et de cellules solaires pour la
mise sous tension de ces lectrodes sur le
dessus. Le support du robot est un wafer de
verre dcoup au moyen dune scie et trou
par le biais dun jet de sable au travers dun
masque. Les lectrodes en argent sont
dposes par srigraphie et recouvertes
dune couche de dilectrique de 7 !m
environ.
Cellules solaires

Electrodes

Fig. 3 Photo dun robot


Un programme permet de commander de
manire synchrone le mouvement de la table
et de projeter les images voulues.

Fig. 4 Schma du principe davance du robot


Le cercle dcrit par la table est divis en
quatre parties que nous pouvons clairer
sparment. La frquence daffichage du
projecteur est ainsi de 60 Hz.

Fig. 2 Dessin de la table vibrante

Les tests ont montr que le principe


fonctionne dans des conditions trs prcises.
Lexcentricit de la table, la propret du
support et lhumidit doivent tre trs bien
matriss. La vitesse du robot est de lordre
de 5 mm/s.

31

IPR LSRO

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Caractrisation et optimisation dune machine parallle 3-axes dultra-haute


prcision articulations flexibles : concept MinAngle
Philipp Kobel, Microtechnique
Assistants:

Mohamed Bouri et Patric Pham

Professeur:

Reymond Clavel

Description : Ce projet se base sur un prototype ralis nomm MinAngle. Il sagit dun
systme 3-axes ("x, "y et translation en z) entirement parallle et constitu darticulations
flexibles de type pivot. Le robot est conu
pour effectuer de grands angles ( 15 sur les
deux axes) en RCM (Reomote Center of Motion). Actuellement les axes linaires qui sont
rcuprs dun projet prcdent ne permettent
pas dexploiter toute la capacit du robot.

Les valeurs sont soit mesures soit calcules


en utilisant le modle gomtrique.
Les axes linaires Erlic 85
Course
Rsolution
Rptabilit
Hystrse
Rigidit axiale

5
250
0.3
< 0.6
10

mm
nm
m
m
N / m

5
4.8
< 140
0.7
0.6
1.6
3
9.5
0.40
400

mm

m
arcsec
arcsec
arcsec
N / m
N / m
N / arcsec
Hz

MinAngle
Course en Z
Course en !x et !y
Dplacement parasite en X-Y
Rsolution en !x et !y
Rptabilit en !x et !y
Hystrse en !x et !y
Rigidit en X et Y
Rigidit en Z
Rigidit en !x et !y
1re frquence propre

Les performances du MinAngle

Le robot MinAngle
Objectifs : Ce projet a comme but de caractriser et de calibrer le prototype existant. Ainsi
un systme de mesure est conu pour mesurer
prcisment les rotations "x et "y et les dplacements en RCM. Un systme adquat est
aussi dvelopp pour les axes linaires.
Pour la dfense du projet une dmonstration
sera mise en place mettant en valeur les capacits du robot. La dmonstration montrera les
caractristiques principales et les amliorations par le calibrage.
Rsultats : Le tableau suivant contient des
donnes techniques du robot MinAngle actuel.

La caractrisation de lorgane terminal


contient les points : rigidit, frquence propre,
rptabilit, hystrse et dplacement parasite.
Le calibrage considre la linarit des axes
Erlic 85, la prcision de dtection des switches, lerreur de position des switches et le
dplacement du RCM en Z associ une inclinaison de la nacelle.
Travail futur : La caractrisation du robot a
confirm quil faudrait utiliser dautres axes
linaires afin damliorer les performances du
systme.

32

IPR LSRO

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Ralisation dun Delta linaire pour lassemblage horloger


Jrme Parent, Microtechnique
Assistant(s): Benoit Lorent, Willy Maeder, Mohamed Bouri
Professeur:

Reymond Clavel

Dans le cadre dune collaboration avec une


entreprise active dans le milieu de
lautomatisation de mouvements, une gamme
de robots Delta linaire va tre conue
pour lassemblage et la prise-dpose de petits
composants en particulier pour le domaine
horloger.

lente comprise entre 5 15 mm/s avec une


haute rigidit dans les lments. La boucle de
mesure doit faire part dune grande attention :
le nombre dinterfaces doit tre limit et la
boucle doit tre la plus courte possible.

Ce projet porte sur un robot ddi au chassage


et se droule en deux tapes. Dans un premier
temps, les facteurs influents sur la prcision
du chassage sont mis en vidence. Dans un
deuxime temps, la conception des axes
motoriss qui seront intgrs dans le robot est
effectue.

Prototype Delta Linaire pour le chassage

Profil de force lors dun chassage


Diffrentes stratgies de chassage sont
labores laide dun banc exprimental
quip dun servomoteur et instrument pour
la mesure de force et de position (palpeurs).
Un pic de force denviron 50N lentre de la
goupille et un effort moyen de 30N sont mis
en vidence lors des expriences ralises.
La prcision de chassage obtenue avec ce
banc est de lordre de 8!m. Pour raliser un
chassage de qualit, on suggre une vitesse

Le robot sera compos de trois axes linaires


verticaux disposs 120 et dveloppe un
effort de chassage maximal de 300N. La
raideur souhaite est de lordre de 1.108 N/m.
La cadence du robot souhaite du robot est
dun chassage toute les deux secondes.
Chaque axe est motoris par un servomoteur
quip dun encodeur, toutefois on se rserve
la possibilit dinstaller une rgle de mesure
optique. Les vis et les guidages doivent tre
recirculation de rouleaux. Lutilisation
dlments roulants rouleaux est choisie
pour permettre dobtenir une grande rigidit
compare un systme identique billes.

33

IPR LSRO

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Porte trocart partie active


NeuroGlide
Michael Sigrist, Microtechnique
Assistant(s): Patrick Helmer, Charles Baur
Professeur:

Reymond Clavel

Lors dune opration consistant poser des


vis dans les vertbres C1/C2 (transarticulaires)
selon une trajectoire prdfinie, un trocart
(tube) est positionn dans lespace. Sa
fonction est damener les vis jusquau point
dentre de la vertbre C2.

NeuroGlide consiste en deux bras de sortie se


dplaant dans deux plans parallles,
perpendiculaires laxe dinsertion de la vis.
Le dplacement diffrentiel entre les deux
bras permet au porte trocart deffectuer des
translations en X et Z ainsi que des rotations
autour de ces mmes axes.

z
x

P1

x
Schma illustrant la trajectoire dinsertion de
la vis et son point dentre ( P1) dans la
vertbre C2
Un porte-outil semi actif 7 degrs de libert
(DDL) avait t conu. 3 DDL sont utiliss
pour positionner grossirement le trocart et les
4 autres assurent le rglage fin.
Ce projet consiste rendre actifs les 4 degrs
de libert du rglage fin. Plusieurs structures
cinmatiques ont t tudies lors du projet.
La demande de lirrversibilit et de
ladaptabilit la morphologie unique de
chaque patient a fait ressortir la structure
NeuroGlide.

y
Structure NeuroGlide construite
Les quatre guidages linaires sur lesquels les
bras de sortie sont monts sont entrans par
un
systme
vis-crou
qui
garantit
lirrversibilit de la structure.
Un prototype de NeuroGlide est en cours de
fabrication. Des tests sur cadavre permettront
dvaluer les performances relles du systme.
Avec NeuroGlide, un robot de prcision
grandes courses idal pour la pose de vis
transarticulaires a t dvelopp. De plus,
toute application o lon cherche positionner
une droite dans lespace est envisageable,
notamment la biopsie.

34

IPR LSRO

Diploma Projects Summary

February 23rd, 2007

Conception and Construction of a 3 DOF Optical Precision Sensor Integrated


in Micro-Robots
Leos Urbanek, Micro-Engineering
Assistants:

Fabian Kaegi, Thomas Cimprich

Professor:

Reymond Clavel

Todays mobile micro robots can achieve very


high resolutions. However, there is virtually
no 3 DOF sensor that allows to measure a
large range in "+z (360) that is cheap and
small and that can be integrated in these
robots.

We obtain a position noise resolution in X and


Y of 186nm and an angular noise of 1.4. A
processing speed of 8.4Hz is obtained on a
Pentium IV processor. The decoding
algorithm takes only 1.4ms to calculate the
position out of a pretreated image.

Construction of the proposed 3DOF sensor

The absolute position code; the relative


position of the two absolute position markers
defines the position of the unit

We develop a sensor with a range of


30x30mm2 in x and y (for our application).
However, this range can be easily extended.
An angular range of 360 is obtained. We
minimize the sensor thickness by not using the
camera optics. This forces us to use high
aspect ratio holes in order to get a high
contrast image.
Range
x, y

30x30mm

+z

360

Resolution (noise)
2

<186,m
1.4

Range and obtained noise


The absolute position is coded by an array of
units, whose coarse position is given by the
relative position of two holes in comparison to
the regular part of the unit.

Detection of the different components of the


absolute code on a target

35

IPR LSRO

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Porte-endoscope lames flexibles (structure Trilame)


Marc Weibel, Microtechnique
Assistant(s): Charles Baur, Patrick Helmer
Professeur:

Reymond Clavel

Lors dune opration neurochirurgicale par


voie minimale invasive le chirurgien doit
manipuler avec prcision
plusieurs
instruments chirurgicaux dans une zone
relativement troite. Un endoscope est utilis
pour visualiser la zone dintervention. La
prsence dune 3me main robotise qui porte
et manipule lendoscope est une aide
prcieuse pour le chirurgien dans le
positionnement de ces outils.

une double rutilisation de celle-ci pour les


deux degrs de libert en rotation
supplmentaires tout en restant dans lesprit
Trilame.
Une optimisation au niveau arrangement et
imbrication du nouvel actionneur ainsi que des
deux chanes ajoutes a rendu possible de
minimiser lencombrement du nouveau robot
Trilame5 en garantissant de bonnes
performances statiques.

Ce projet consiste en une amlioration et une


extension dun prototype de la structure
robotique propose lors dun projet de
semestre prcdent. Cette structure consiste en
des lments flexibles et est une ralisation
dun nouveau principe cinmatique parallle
du nom de Trilame.
Lextension consiste en lajout de 4 degrs
de libert la structure propose, afin que
lendoscope puisse tre non seulement dplac
par petites courses dans lespace mais
galement orient et insr dans la zone
opratoire.
Pour lactionnement du nouveau robot
Trilame5, un actionneur spcifique a t
construit. Cet actionneur est bas sur un
systme de transmission
vis-crou
irrversible particulirement compact.

Actionneur spcifiquement construit


pour le nouveau robot Trilame5
La simplicit des lments de la chane
principale de lancien prototype a conduit

LNouveau
ors dunerobot
tudeTrilame5
sur le principe
5DDLcinmatiq
construit ue
des deux DDL dinsertion grande course
un nouveau systme de transmission
diffrentiel trs prometteur a t invent.
Celui-ci, se basant lutilisation multiple du
principe de transmission vis-crou, permet
darriver un systme de deux degrs de
libert dune translation et dune rotation
daxes concidents qui sont les deux
mcaniquement
irrversibles.
Une
ralisation de ce systme est prvue dans le
proche futur de ce projet de diplme.

36

STI-I2S-LIS

Master Project Abstract

23rd February 2007

In Silico Evolution of Biochemical Networks


Fanny Riedo, Section Microtechnique
Assistants:

Marbach Daniel, Mattiussi Claudio

Professor:

Floreano Dario

The goal of this work is to study the


evolution of robustness (phenotypic
insensitivity to mutations) in Gene
Regulatory Networks (GRN).
A widespread hypothesis is that stabilizing
selection allows evolution of the robustness;
Previous work by Mark Siegal and Aviv
Bergman in Waddingtons canalization
revisited: developmental stability and
evolution show that this selection, though
sufficient, is not necessary.

We performed experiments with and


without stabilizing selection, as Siegal and
Bergman, but added the possibility for the
networks to vary in size and topology. The
topology of a network can indeed have more
influence on the robustness than the exact
numerical values of the parameters.

Their model include a weight matrix W,


representing the influences of the genes on
each other, and a state vector S(t)
representing the expression level of each
gene at time t. An iterative equation gives
the state for the next time step.
Histograms of the obtained robustness with
stabilizing selection (up) without (down)
compared to random individuals robustness
Results were compared with robustness of
random individuals to determine whether
robustness had evolved.
The weight matrix and state vector are
linked by a non linear iterative relation
The network has to reach a stable state to be
viable. This steady state will then be used to
compute the fitness with stabilizing
selection. Stabilizing selection is made by
comparing the evolved steady state to an
optimal steady state, created by randomly
generating a target individual.

In our experiments we did indeed observe


evolution of robustness with stabilizing
selection, but not without. We also noted
that results were highly dependant on the
chosen model, so it is certainly not only
one condition that brings the evolution of
robustness.

37

LIS

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23.02.2007

Biologically Inspired Swarms of MAVs for Radio Communication Relay


Laurent Winkler, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Hauert Sabine, Mitri Sara

Professeur:

Floreano Dario

The goal of the Swarming MAVs project is


to create a controller for a group of
lightweight aircraft that are deployed to
build a highrate communication network.
The launching and recovery of the swarm
should be simple enough to be performed by
unqualified staff. Once initiated the agents
are fully autonomous and no maintenance
effort is required. They use simple low-cost
devices and information available through
local communication to organize and induce
swarming behavior.

Swarm of MAVs used as communication


relays
Each MAV is equipped with simple sensors
such as cardinal compass, altimeter and
speed sensors, accelerometer and gyros and
RF communication equipment. It should be
noted that no real position sensor is mounted
such as GPS or laser range-finders. Instead
we must rely on communication ranges and
network topology to build the swarm.

Ant navigating on a grid (each cell contains


a pheromone value)
The goal of this project is to improve the
swarming behavior by adapting the
stigmergic mechanism used by army ants
during foraging to these flying robots.
Giving that they are no common map or
physical support for depositing pheromone,
a novel mechanism for stigmergy had to be
defined. This was achieved by separating the
MAVs in two categories, node-MAVs, on
which pheromone can be deposited through
local communication and ant-MAVs that can
navigate through the network of nodeMAVs. The need for communication
between ant- and node-MAVs lead to the
choice of organizing the nodes on a spatial
lattice where each node has a specific
position and unique coordinate. The second
part of the project was focused on a
performance improvement by increasing the
robustness of this lattice. By synchronizing
the orbit of neighboring nodes and allowing
them to adapt their positions, we have
stabilized the swarming behavior and
strengthened the communication links
between agents.

38

Summary of Master Project

NAM

March 1, 2007

Simulation of Long-Range Surface Plasmons with the Finite Element Method


Claudio Dellagiacoma, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Aloyse Degiron

Professeurs: David Smith (Duke University), Olivier Martin (EPFL)


Finite element method simulations of
straight and curved rectangular plasmonic
waveguides (see fig. 1) based on using the
commercial eigenmode solver Comsol are
presented.

Fig. 1: The plasmonic waveguide: a thin


metal strip (Ag or Au) embedded in a
dielectric. The outer black layer is the
absorbing perfectly matched layer (PML).
The computation domain is the cross-section
perpendicular to the metal strip.
In a first part, the accuracy and the
convergence of the results have been
verified. The simulation of straight longrange surface plasmon-polariton (LRSPP)
waveguides is in excellent agreement with
the literature. We have seen that obtaining
accurate results critically depends on the
mesh density, particularly around the field
singularities at the corners of the structure.
Using field overlap integrals, we simulated
mode
transitions
between
different
structures. This method was validated by
comparing with P. Berini's end fire coupling
experiment.
Additionally,
we
could
experimentally confirm the approach by
simulating and measuring the coupling of
dielectric slab waveguides at microwave
frequencies.
In a second part, we simulated curved
LRSPP waveguides. We followed two
approaches that were initially developed for
simulating dielectric waveguides. They both

lead to the same results, thus confirming


their relevance in the context of LRSPPs.
Due to the high radiation of bent LRSPPs,
the main simulation issues were reducing
reflections at the perfectly matched layer
(PML). The standard PMLs in Comsol were
insufficient, thus the redesign of the PMLs
was required. The comparison with the
literature of the total loss of curved LRSPP
waveguides as a function of bending radius
was in very good agreement. In addition, our
simulations are supported by experimental
data (see fig. 2). Finally, we showed that a
lateral offset of two waveguides of different
bending radii can increase the coupling
efficiency. Our results demonstrate that
using a mode solver together with transition
mode coupling calculations is a flexible and
expandable method. Since reliable results
within measurement tolerances are found,
this method can be used to help further
engineer integrated plasmonic waveguides.

Fig. 2: Simulated and measured total loss of


curved plasmonic waveguides of different
radii. The dimensions of the simulated metal
strips are given in the legend.

39

NAM

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Calculs des forces gnres par des plasmons de surface sur des nano fils en or
Lamothe Elodie, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Dr. Gatan Lvque

Professeur:

Martin Olivier

Linteraction dun champ lectromagntique


avec des nano-particules mtalliques aux
dimensions infrieures la longueur donde
peut sous certaines conditions exciter des
modes de rsonance appels modes de
plasmons de surface. Ils sont associs un
couplage entre les charges libres du
conducteur et le champ lectromagntique. Ce
projet de diplme est consacr ltude des
forces exerces sur deux nano fils en or la
rsonance plasmon. Pour cela, on se place
dans
une
gomtrie
bidimensionnelle
constitue
de
deux
paralllpipdes
identiques, de section S = 50 110 nm , de
longueur infinie et spars par une distance d
variable. Ce systme est illumin par une onde
!
plane o les vecteurs k i et E i sont situs dans
le plan de section principale des deux fils
(fig.1).

!
Ei

ltude des cartes du champ lectrique et du


vecteur de Poynting. Un exemple est donn
sur la figure 2. Il reprsente la carte du champ
lectrique diffract par le systme pour une
distance d = 20 nm la rsonance la plus
intense.

y
Figure 2
O

+
k i -./0
-ext d

Figure 1

Ltude des spectres dextinction du systme


en fonction de langle dincidence et de
lespacement d a permis de dterminer le
nombre et les longueurs donde des
rsonances plasmons. Nous avons mis en
vidence deux rgimes en fonction de la
distance d, un de champ proche (d < 170 nm)
et un de champ lointain (d > 200 nm). On a
ensuite analys lorigine de linteraction des
deux fils aux diffrentes rsonances pour ces
deux rgimes. Pour cela, on sest appuy sur

Dans cette configuration, les deux diples se


couplent de manire antisymtrique (fig.2),
engendrant des forces attractives entre les
deux particules (fig.3).
!
F1

!
F2
x

Figure 3

Une application donnant suite cette tude


des forces serait la matrise de la manipulation
de nano-particules mtalliques.

40

LAI

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

24 fvrier 2007

SwissCube inertia wheel assembly mechanical part


Gavrilo Bozovic, Microtechnique
Assistants:

Christian Koechli, Patrick Ragot

Professor:

Perriard Yves

Specifications
The goal of this project is to develop and build
an electric motor to drive the inertia wheel of
the SwissCube satellite. This system should
provide angular stability to the satellite and
allow its control. The operational speeds range
from 5000 to 11 000 [rpm]. The main
constraints are the mass, 32 [g], and the
average available power, 100 [mW] (including
the electronics, developed in another project).
Design
After selecting the motor type, its parameters
have been optimized by the means of a nonlineal optimization program, given our
constraints. The drives parameters have been
validated using finite elements.

Two different designs have been produced, in


three prototypes. The two first were dummies
necessary for mechanical tests, and the final
prototype was used for electrical testing.
Final prototype
Tests allowed to check the good respect of the
mechanical tolerances and of the weight
constraints. It was also possible to compare
the electrical behavior of two different motor
types (4 poles and 8 poles), rejecting the 4
pole motor because of higher torque
oscillations.

Figure 2: final assembled drive on support


Figure 1: Induction in the motor yokes
According to the optimizations, the drive
should have an efficiency over 98%, allowing
to run a full work cycle with an average power
of 29 [mW].
These parameters have been converted to a
mechanical design, which has been produced.

Unfortunately, due to shortage of time and to


the absence of vacuum proof ball bearings,
full testing has not been possible.
Nevertheless, the first results showed
promising performances. Further testing will
be necessary to fully characterize the drive
and to validate it for space.

41

Masters Project summary

LAI / Overview Ltd.

February 23rd , 2007

Lost step detection on a stepper motor


Sebastien Huberti, section of Microengineering
Professor: Yves Perriard
Assistant: Christian Kochli
This project was carried out at Overview
Ltd., a London company which specialises in
high precision video-surveillance equipment.
Overview produces devices that include a
camera driven by two stepper motors, and
an image-processing unit. Magnetic encoders
are used to detect external disturbances and
failures. Overview is willing to develop an algorithm capable of detecting lost steps, and
in the longer term, capable of giving precise
position related information without using
encoders.
This work was divided into three main
steps: designing the acquisition hardware,
programming the acquisition software on a
DSP, and processing the signals to extract
useful information. It turned out that the
most reliable way of detecting a stall state
from a running state is the Fourier Transform of the back EMF curve.

Figure 1: Back EMF


The DFT properties introduce certain requirements in the acquisition method and
the signal processing.
The FFT 0-Hz value is a reliable factor,
and combined with other mathematical tools
such as maxima, lost steps can be detected
with a tolerance lower than 10% on one
phase.

Figure 2: Back EMF FFT


The acquisition hardware for one phase
includes a differential amplifier, two 4-pole
filters, and an analogue differentiator. The
acquisition software includes, in addition to
all the settings and the main loop, an interrupt in which A-D conversions results are
processed to obtain back EMF values. First,
the DSP was programmed for signal sampling only, and the whole signal processing
took place in Matlab. Then, signal processing was progressively transferred in the DSP,
until performance limits were reached. An
FFT algorithm was implemented, but its execution is too time-consuming to ensure that
no samples are missed. Nyquist and practical criteria require that we keep the sampling
frequency at 100s.
Sensorless lost step detection was reached
with an error lower than 10% on the
KA50KM2 motor, but not in real time mode.
This implies that back EMF values have to
be processed with Matlab for FFT computing and lost step counting. The acquisition hardware is currently being printed on
a PCB to allow for two-phase sampling. The
software is being adapted, and the uncertainty is expected to decrease to very promising levels.

42

43

LAI

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Precise Velocity Control of a Hard Disk Drive


Jan Stoeckli, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Paolo Germano

Responsables: Vertemara Carlo, Himpe Vincent, Bonvin Frederic


Professeur:

Perriard Yves

The ramp technology was integrated in the


Hard Disk Drive a couple of years ago, this
technology allows a safer parking position
for the heads, but also allow the heads to fly
closer from the media, increasing the data
density. The Load and Unload operations
need a precise velocity control of the Voice
Coil Motor (VCM) to avoid permanent
damage of the heads and the media. This
velocity control has, of course, to be
achieved without sensors.
Fig. 2 Velocity, position and Drivers
Output during an Unload

1.
2.

Parking Position
HDD operating

Fig. 1 Ramp technology


The aim of this project was to develop and
characterize a new solution using a resistor
network to bring the velocity regulation
without the problems of the existing
solutions.
First, the system was studied using
simulation tools. A new motor model was
designed and tested on the existing
regulation loop then the new velocity control
was simulated. The simulation results have
shown that the idea works perfectly but has a
very high sensibility with temperature.

A new calibration process was thus


developed to make up with the temperature
dependence. This calibration was designed
to be efficient in every case, even in a power
off situation where the heads have to be
retracted as soon as possible. A new PCB
was also designed to demonstrate the new
idea using an existing STs chip (Altair) and
an existing evaluation board.
The characterization had shown that the
velocity control is very efficient, the velocity
is easily programmable and constant during
all the unload/load as the Figure 2 shows.
Some surprising time constants have been
observed but the last PCB/circuit, still under
construction, should prove the good
behavior of the system.
This project was carried out at
STMicroelectronics, San Jose, CA. The
velocity regulation loop should be
implemented on the next generation of
chips.

44

EPFL-STI-IPR-LAI

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Sunraycing-Optimisation du moteur lectrique


Alex Vulliemin, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Miroslav Markovic

Professeur:

Yves Perriard

Le but de ce projet est deffectuer


loptimisation dun moteur lectrique pour
une voiture solaire. Dans lespoir de participer
au World Solar Challenge en Australie (course
de voiture solaire). Le choix du moteur sest
port sur un moteur synchrone aimants
permanents pour son haut rendement et pour
son couple lev, dans le but de minimiser la
masse du moteur. Le travail sest droul de la
manire suivante (fig. 1) : la premire phase a
t la cration dun modle analytique
dcrivant le moteur tant au niveau
magntique, lectrique, thermique que
mcanique.

Sur la base de ce modle on ralise


loptimisation (logiciel Pro@Design) dans le
but de minimiser la masse et de maximiser le
rendement.
Le moteur retenu pour la course possde 48
encoches et 20 paires de ples (fig. 2). Le
couple nominal est de 14.5 Nm pour une
vitesse de rotation de 988,2 t/min ce qui
correspond 95 km/h pour la voiture.
Lencombrement total du moteur (sans la
jante, partie active) est de 374 mm de diamtre
pour une paisseur de 13 mm.

A laide des lments finis (logiciel Flux2D),


on vrifie le modle et on ajoute les donnes
manquantes pour caractriser compltement le

Figure 2 : Vue clate du moteur retenu.

moteur (pertes aimants,).


Figure 1 : Droulement du projet.

La ralisation mcanique du moteur qui


comprend les plans des diffrentes pices
ralisant le lien entre la partie active du
moteur et la voiture ainsi que les mthodes
dassemblage
(collage
des
aimants,
ajustement) sont aussi dcrite dans une partie
plus thorique. Ceci dans le but de voir un
jour rouler la voiture solaire avec ce moteur.

45

CDM / ILEMT / LEM

Abstract of Master Project

23.02.2007

EPFL Sunraycing Team: Project Management, Fundraising & Logistics


Friedrich Michael, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Dr. Philippe Wieser, Chaire de logistique, conomie et management LEM

Professor:

Prof. Marcel Jufer, Institut de production et robotique IPR

The EPFL Sunraycing Team was as student


initiated and student led effort to build a high
performance solar car for successfully
participating at the Panasonic World Solar
Challenge 2007. This event is the emblematic
solar car race in the world and takes place
every odd year in Australia. About thirty
student teams from the leading technical
universities in the world are regularly entering
the competition. With record average speeds
above 100 km/h, and maximum speeds
reaching 160 km/h, the competition is all
about performance and reliability.

Production and tests


Mission planning and logistics
Fundraising
Marketing and public relations

The team consisted of 24 active students from


7 fields of studies and 5 levels of advancement
in curriculum. The project was fully endorsed
by the upper administration of EPFL, which
was contributing about one third to the total
project budget of CHF 3.2m.

Top: View of exterior with complete shape


Bottom: View of interior with structures
The route of the competition: Starting in
Darwin and finishing in Adelaide after
3000km on public Stuart Highway
As a founder and leader of the team, my
responsibility was the overall management of
the project. This included the planning and
partly the execution of the following aspects:

Project management
Systems engineering

The project had been stopped on February 8,


2007 for reasons described in this Master
Thesis.
The car which was supposed to enter
production beginning of March 2007 had a
clearly higher performance than the winner of
the 2005 competition due to new shape, better
energy management, modern composites form
Solar Impulse, better solar cells

46

IMT PVLAB

Summary of Master Project

23.2.07

Infrared Lock-In Thermography (LIT) of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells


Lucie Castens, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Fabrice Jeanneret

Professors:

De Rooij N. F., Ballif Christophe

Shunts are sites of leakage currents in solar


cells, decreasing the parallel resistance and
thereby the fill factor of the device. LIT is an
established tool to detect and localize such
defects. In this master project the quantitative
analysis of thermographs has been studied.
LIT has also been used to optimize the
patterning of test cells by laser scribing,
avoiding shunts due to the scribes.
Tendency of shunt resistance Rp of scribed
cells as a function of average laser power;
higher Rp correspond to a better device

Thermograph of test cell with shunts due to


laser scribing
In a first approach, a proportionality factor
between the energy dissipated in a shunt and
the intensity of the shunt on the thermograph
has been researched. It could only be
determined within an order of magnitude. In a
second approach, the application of the
integration method on thin film solar cells has
been verified. This method allows the
estimation of the power distribution over the
cell without knowing the exact proportionality
factor.

Observations of shunt locations by


microscopy and SEM indicate that shunts on
laser scribes are principally due to molten
ZNO that forms bridges between front and
back-contact. Scribed amorphous silicon cells
with good characteristics have been obtained
by decreasing the laser power and the spot
overlap.
The type of the solar cell (amorphous or
microcrystalline) and the ZNO contact layers
play an important role. To scribe cells with
thicker ZNO contacts or microcrystalline cells
high powers are necessary, leading to scribes
with a lot of ZNO bridges. Shunts in the
corners or on single misshapen spots are
difficult to avoid. An etching using diluted
acetic acid has been successfully applied to
remove shunts on laser scribes. Fill Factors at
low illumination (0.4%) increased from 30%
to 70%. This result supports the hypothesis of
molten ZNO as cause of shunts on scribes.

47

Uni. Neuchtel / LMT

Abstract of the Masters Thesis

Oct.2006 Mar.2007

Online calibration method for an in situ ATP measurement device


Lukas Glutz, Microengineering
Assistant:

Dr. Tatsuhiro Fukuba (IIS, University of Tokyo)

Professors:

de Rooij Nico (LMT, EPFL) and Fujii Teruo (IIS, University of Tokyo)

Motivation
The determination of biomass activity in
oceans can be determined by analyzing the
concentration of intracellular microbial
adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is done
with the luciferin-luciferase bioluminescent
assay (LL), which gives a light intensity
function of ATP concentration. The goal of
this thesis is to design and evaluate a
microchannel device and to characterize an
online calibration method that operates in situ
based on caged-ATP. Therefore, no external
sensors are required for calibration.

effects, interacts with LL. An additional signal


due to the calibration signal is measured. The
quenching or enhancing effects can be
calculated and therefore, the real amount of
ATP contained in seawater can be
characterized.

Calibration principle
The microchannel device consists of three
inlets. A planar spiral shaped inlet for cagedATP is covered with a high power UV-LED.
The two other inlets are for water sample and
LL. The three flows are mixed by diffusion in
a 2m long spiral channel for bioluminescent
reaction. The light is measured with a
photomultiplier tube.
G

Excitation part

Detection part

Schematic diagram of the system.


The internal calibration is initiated by a short
UV light duration that photorelease a known
and reproducible amount of ATP from cagedATP. This additional ATP is mixed to the
seawater flow and in regards to the inhibitive

Interaction of NaCl on the calibration signal.


Characterization
In this thesis, the design considerations,
simulations and the electronic device for UVLED allowed to integrate on the microfluidic
device an accurate and reproducible system for
the stable release amount of ATP for
calibration over hours.
The device was characterized in function of
the measurable ATP, the concentration of
caged-ATP, temperature and to the extreme
values which are pure water and 3%NaCl
water to demonstrate the working capabilities
of the system under ionic strength. Limitations
are the chemical toxicity and temperature
above 30C that completely destroys the LL,
and/or ATP.

48

EPFL Space Center

Abstract of Master Project

23.02.2007

System Engineering and development and test of the ADCS breadboard


for SwissCube
Bastien Despont, Micro Engineering
Assistant:

Muriel Noca

Professor:

Borgeaud Maurice

The EPFL Space Center is currently


developing the first entirely Swiss satellite,
called SwissCube. The satellite is built
following the CubeSat standards, cubic
external shape, one kilogram maximal mass
and one liter maximal volume. The SwissCube
scientific task is to take pictures of the
AirGlow, a light emitting phenomenon
occurring in the low Earth atmosphere. The
satellite will be launched in 2008 on a low
Earth orbit between 400 and 1000 kilometers

team makes sure that all the subsystems are


compatible and come to a system.
ADCS
The main part of the master project concerns
the development of a breadboard for the
ADCS with the sensors and the actuators. The
SwissCube shall be able to determine and
control its attitude on the three axes to take the
pictures. For the determination, three types of
sensors are used, magnetometers, gyroscopes
and sun sensors. The determination algorithm
will use the sensor data to compute the state
vector of the satellite. For the control of the
satellite three perpendicular magnetic coils are
used as the main actuators. They interact with
the Earth magnetic field to generate torques.
The control algorithm will generate the
command values for the actuators.

SwissCube
This master project focuses on two different
subjects, system engineering tasks and the
development of a breadboard for the Attitude
Determination and Control Subsystem
(ADCS) for the SwissCube.
System engineering
The satellite is composed of seven different
subsystems, power, thermal, structure &
configuration, command & data management,
communication, attitude determination &
control and a payload. The system engineering

ADCS development board

49

EPFL Space Center

Abstract of the Master Project

23.02.2007

SwissCube structural design and flight system configuration


Guillaume Roethlisberger, Section Microtechnique
Advisor:

Muriel Noca

Professeur:

Maurice Borgeaud

The EPFL Space Center in partnership with


the LMTS is leading the development of a
small satellite, to be launched mid-2008. This
satellite follows the CubeSat standard (1kg
cube with a 1 liter volume) providing a fast
and affordable access to space.
The primary objective of this satellite is to
provide a dynamic and realistic learning
environment for students. The secondary
objective is to take optical measurements and
characterize the Airglow phenomena, a light
emitting phenomenon occurring in the low
Earth atmosphere (see Figure 1)

Figure 2 3D exploded view of SwissCube.

Vibration tests (sinusoidal and random) have


been performed on a structural model of the
satellite in order to confirm FEA results, as
well as to validate the design of the
SwissCube structure and configuration.

Figure 1 Airglow phenomena.

The purpose of the structural subsystem for


the SwissCube is to provide a simple sturdy
structure that will survive launch loads and a
suitable environment for the operation of all
subsystems (see Figure 2).
Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to
estimate the deformations and stresses that the
SwissCube will experience under a variety of
different loads and freedom cases (see Figure
3).

Figure 3 14th natural frequency of the model.

50

IPR LGPP

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Identification des stratgies commerciales dune entreprise par les modles de


files dattente
Mohammed-Bilal Chaabi, Section Microtechnique
Assistants responsables:

Naoufel Cheikhrouhou, Max-Olivier Hongler, Luca Canetta

Ce projet se propose d'tudier, l'aide dun


modle de simulation, la dynamique de
clients dans un systme ferm de deux
serveurs en comptition. Ces deux serveurs
reprsentent deux canaux de ventes, le canal
de vente lectronique Se et traditionnel St.
Lobjectif tant dvaluer la dynamique
derrire le choix entre un canal traditionnel
et un canal e-commerce dans le cadre des
transactions B2B, de manire expliquer les
phnomnes de cannibalisation ainsi que la
croissance soutenue de la part de march des
canaux lectroniques.

introduire des boucles de feedback la sortie


de chaque serveur.
La dcision des clients d'utilis ou non la
boucle de feedback d'un canal est base sur
leurs temps d'attente, Wi(t,) associs un
cot d'attente, ainsi que sur un cot de brand
reprsentant l'cart entre la qualit
recherche par ces clients et celle offerte par
le canal emprunt. La satisfaction dun client
est
donc
base
sur
sa
fonction
Costi ( x, t ) = cbr x ! xi + cwWi (t ) (i = e,t), o
cw est la constante de cot dattente par unit
de temps et cbr la constante de cot de brand
par unit de distance. La dynamique
rsultante prsente des oscillations ou alors
une stabilisation du nombre de clients dans
chaque file d'attente, fonction des paramtres
du systme et de la politique de dcision des
clients.

Figure 1: Systme ferm de deux canaux de vente en


comptition rparties "spatialement" sur un march
born sur [" !,+ ! ]

Les deux serveurs sont placs dans un


march linaire born sur un segment
$ := [# ",+ " ]! R, ! > 0. Les "positions"
des serveurs sont respectivement dnotes
par # ! " xt " xe " + ! et symbolisent une
qualit du service offerte par les serveurs.

Figure 2:Oscillations du nombre de clients dans


chacune des deux files d'attente de Se et St, dans le cas
d'une politique de dcision base sur un cot support
fixe.

De plus, une file dattente est associe


chaque canal. Comme on sintresse au
concept de "fidlisation des clients", on va

Ce modle se propose daider identifier la


meilleure
stratgie
commerciale
de
lentreprise en question.

51

LGPP

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23.02.07

OPTIMISATION DU PROCESSUS DE GESTION DANS UN RESEAU COLLABORATIF


SUISSE-CHINOIS ET LE DEVELOPPEMENT D'UNE METHODE D'EVALUATION
POUR DES NOUVEAUX MEMBRES

Mario Greber, Section Microtechnique


Assistant:

Michel Pouly

Professeur:

Rmy Glardon

Choix d'un rseau appropri


L'ide du projet tait d'avancer la cration d'un
rseau collaboratif entre des entreprises
chinoises et de crer un lien avec un rseau
suisse existant. Une analyse des diffrences de
cultures et de la mentalit chinoise nous a
montr que pour le moment un rseau
centralis est le meilleur choix.

Les difficults de crer confiance, sont


simplifies par la motivation dun
profit direct des entreprises locales.

Etapes pour la collaboration entre le rseau


suisse (dcentralis) et chinois (centralis)
Rseau collaboratif centralis, comme
solution optimale pour la Chine
En combinaison avec une entreprise
internationale et fiable (lment centrale),
cette solution permet de rsoudre les plus
grands problmes dans une collaboration avec
des entreprises chinoises:
!

Le problme de lvaluation des


comptences des entreprises membres
du rseau est rsolu par l'exprience de
l'entreprise centrale.

Les lacunes de la scurit juridique


sont remplies par le fait que les clients
trangers nentrent pas en contact
direct avec les entreprises chinoises.

valuation des entreprises


Une valuation dtaille d'une entreprise
centrale et des entreprises potentielles pour le
rseau a t faite sur la base d'un tableau de
comptences (oprations faisables avec
dimensions et prcisions correspondants)
Concept de collaboration
Bas sur une modlisation des temps de dlais
supplmentaires pour une collaboration en
rseau, nous avons dvelopp un concept pour
rduire le temps de raction et pour augmenter
la fiabilit. Une stricte rgulation des tapes
suivre et un systme de confirmations ont t
mis en place.

52

IPR LGPP

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

Fvrier 2007

Recherche de paramtres pour le frittage slectif par laser de poudres


mtalliques
Raphal Moillen, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Eric Boillat

Professeur:

Rmy Glardon

Le frittage slectif par laser, ou SLS (Selective


Laser Sintering), est une technique de
fabrication couche par couche, o un laser
vient solidifier les rgions dune couche de
poudre pralablement dpose (Figure 1).

isolment les paramtres de construction, les


expriences se sont poursuivies en dpose
manuelle. Au vu des difficults rencontres,
une poudre Ti-6Al-4V (6% Aluminium, 4%
Vanadium), plus favorable, a ensuite t
utilise. Les pices construites, de l'ordre de 1
4 couches de 25 100 m, ont t observes
au MEB et mesures au profilomtre (Figure
2), afin d'en juger la qualit (respect des
dimensions et rugosit).
Profil d'une pice de 4 couches de 70 m (11A-2kHz)
500
400
300
200
100
Mesures
Moyenne

Figure 1 -Principe de la SLS

-100
-200
-300

Ce projet a pour but de dfinir une srie de


paramtres permettant la construction de
pices avec diffrentes poudres mtalliques.
Parmi les conditions oprationnelles influant
sur le processus, citons entre autres : courant
et frquence laser, paisseur de couche,
vitesse et stratgie de balayage laser.
Des mesures sur la nouvelle unit laser ont t
effectues, mettant en vidence certaines
limitations
de
linstallation,
comme
limpossibilit de commande du laser en mode
continu partir du logiciel, ou linstabilit du
mode fondamental TEM00.
Les premires exprimentations, visant
fritter une poudre de titane pure, ont mis en
vidence des problmes de dpose
automatique et ont abouti des couches
solidifies
d'paisseur
nettement
plus
importante que dsire. Afin d'examiner

10

11

-400
-500

Figure 2 - Profil d'une pice SLS


Les expriences de construction de pices ont
permis dtablir que la cl dun bon frittage
rside en un habile compromis entre puissance
suffisante pour que la couche de poudre
adhre aux prcdentes, et puissance assez
faible pour respecter les tolrances
dimensionnelles selon l'axe z et garantir un
tat de surface correct. La conciliation de ces
deux conditions na malheureusement t
atteinte avec aucune des poudres utilises.
Les
dernires
expriences,
rduisant
progressivement la puissance sur les
premires couches, ont abouti des pices de
qualit sensiblement meilleure. Cette voie
mriterait notre sens d'tre explore.

53

IPR LGPP

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

Fvrier 2007

Analyse des paramtres oprationnels pour la fabrication par SLS


dpreuves de contraintes rsiduelles
Julien Moulin, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Eric Boillat

Professeur:

Rmy Glardon

Le frittage slectif par laser, ou SLS, est un


procd de construction rapide. Son
principe, proche de la strolithographie
consiste empiler des couches. Celles-ci
sont formes de poudres mtalliques
consolides localement par un laser.

Figure 1 -Principe de la SLS

entre son abaissement, pour ne pas fondre la


poudre et crer des surcouches, et son
augmentation, pour lier les couches entre
elles. La faible conductivit thermique du
titane amplifie la difficult de compromis,
au point quaucun paramtre de frittage
correct na t trouv.
Lalliage Ti-6Al-4V (6% Aluminium, 4%
Vanadium) plus conducteur a ensuite t
utilis. Son frittage a rvl par le biais dun
profilomtre et dun MEB des rsultats
comportant dimportantes surcouches et
surtout une porosit et une rugosit trop
signifiantes pour juger les pices comme
bonnes. Au cas par cas, les paramtres
semblaient proches de loptimal. (Figure 2).

Le projet vise lobtention de paramtres


oprationnels capables de raliser des pices
en titane. Dans un second temps il devrait
mesurer les contraintes rsiduelles dans ces
pices. Elles sont la consquence des
gradients de temprature gnrs par la
chaleur applique par le laser. Plusieurs
stratgies de balayage sont envisageables.
Leur influence sur les contraintes rsiduelles
devrait tre dtermine.
Lacquisition dun nouveau laser pour
quiper la station exprimentale a ncessit
sa caractrisation. Cette dernire a
essentiellement rvl que le laser ne
fonctionne pas en continu et que le mode
fondamental nest pas stable.
Des problmes dans la dpose automatique
sont aussi relever.
Dans un premier temps, des poudres de
titane pur ont t frittes. Une grande
difficult de rglage de la puissance a ainsi
t rvle. En effet, la cl de la russite du
procd est un compromis de puissance,

Figure 2 Microstructure, rugosit 8m


Les conclusions du projet mettent en avant
que le procd SLS, tel quil est utilis dans
le laboratoire, ncessite dtre complexifi
pour le frittage de poudres peu conductrices.
Par exemple, des techniques faisant varier la
puissance durant le lasage ou selon les
couches pourraient constituer une bonne
solution.
Les contraintes rsiduelles par contre nont
pas pu tre mesures, faute la difficult de
ralisation de pices.

54

LICP

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 fvrier 2007

Simplified tilt
Frdric Rochat, Section Microtechnique
Assistants:

Rickard Persson (Bombardier), Sebastian Stichel (Bombardier), Vincent Capponi

Professeurs: Xirouchakis Paul, Persson Jan-Gunnar (KTH Stockholm)


This project was led on behalf of Bombardier
Transportation in Vsters, Sweden, in
collaboration with KTH Stockholm. This
project is connected to the developpement of a
new and simplified tilt for rail vehicles.
Growing competitition from other means of
transporation has forced railway companies
thoughout the world to search for increased
performances. Travelling time is the most
obvious performance indicator that may be
improved by introducing high-speed trains.
They require very large curve radii and long
transitions curves not to impair ride comfort,
another performance indicator. Building new
tracks adapted to high speed trains is very
costly and can only be justified where the
passenger base is large.

maintenance cost. As the conventional trains


increase their speed in curves, the
performance advantage of tilting trains is
reduced while their prize is still kept
significantly higher and constant. Morever,
tilting trains often suffer from bad reputation
regarding reliabilty and motion sickness.

Hanging pendulum, X2000, Bombardier

X2000 cruising, Bombardier


Trains with the capability to tilt the bodies
inwards the curve is a more cost efficient
alternative. The tilt inwards reduces the
lateral force felt by the passengers allowing
the train to pass curves at enhanced speed with
maintained ride comfort but increases the
frequency of motion sickness.
The benefits of tilting trains are improved
speed capability in curves and enhanced
passengers comfort, but at higher buying and

This work presents a state of the art of tilting


trains mainly focused on their mechanisms,
but also taking in consideration control and
activation. New and simplified solutions have
been researched and are presented in
comparison with existing embodiments.
Exisiting solutions are expected to stay
advantageous and available on the market. A
new possible solution is proposed and requires
further investigations to verify its feasabilty.
No change is expected concerning activation.
It is foreseen that complex control algorithms
using onboard track data and train position are
going to be usual technology.

55

LA

Masters Practical Work Abstract

23 February 2007

Collective motion stabilization and recovery strategies


Piyawat Kaewkerd, Section Microtechnique
Assistants:

Philippe Mllhaupt, Christopher Peek (University of Florida)

Professors:

Gillet Denis, Crisalle Oscar D. (University of Florida)

Abstract
Swarm intelligence has been a growing area
of research these past few years due to its
many possible applications, such as for
victim search and rescue or in the military
domain. This work deals with two problems
in this field: collective motion stabilization
(or flocking control) and recovery strategies.
The control laws for collective motion that
have been developed in this work are based
on the novel one-vehicle controller
described
in
Velocity
Scheduling
Controller for a Nonholonomic Mobile
Robot: Theoretical and Experimental
Results, which can be used for stabilization
or for trajectory tracking.
This controller has been generalized to
address the flocking problem, which refers
to having multiple agents with similar
control laws follow a trajectory in a
predefined formation. Several collective
motion
stabilization
techniques
are
presented, with either a virtual or a real
leader.

Leader-follower formation

Recovery strategies are needed to deal with


unpredictable events, such as a failure of a
vehicle, or for the vehicles to simply get into
formation from random positions without
colliding. They have to perform two tasks:
avoid collisions with obstacles or
uncontrollable vehicles while keeping
cohesion among the platoon, and restore the
formation once the group is out of danger. In
order to keep the good behavior provided by
the aforementioned stabilization controllers
when there is no risk of collision, a
switching technique has been chosen.
Collision avoidance schemes are only
activated when an obstacle is within a
certain radius of a vehicle. Two potentialbased approaches have been developed, a
discontinuous one, and a continuous one that
yields smoother control inputs. All those
solutions were tested on a dedicated
simulation environment.

Platoon of three vehicles with discontinuous


potential-based collision avoidance scheme

56

Automatic Control Lab

Master Project Abstract

23.02.2007

Virtual See-Through
Mabillard Jean, Microengineering
Assistants:

Damien Perritaz, Christophe Salzmann

Professor:

Gillet Denis

This project is a part of a research project


called 6th Sense whose goal is to develop a
wearable supervision system for industrial
plants. Virtual See-Through project focuses on
video transmission and particularly on
adapting the video encoder parameters to
respect the network bandwidth constraint
while maximizing the user Quality of
Perception (QoP). Video quality adaptation
mechanisms generally indicate how the bit
rate of a video should be adjusted in response
to a network variation, but does not address
the video perception. In the same way video
quality evaluation measures the quality of the
video as perceived by the users, but is not
designed for adaptive transmissions. The goal
of this project is to link these two concepts.

Figure 1.
The first step of the project is to identify the
video codec system for the selected encoding
parameters.
Then a perception model is built using
subjective tests methodology, where subjects
are asked to evaluate their perception of the
video stream for several encoding parameters.
The perception model corresponds to an
Optimal Adaptation Path (OAP) in the
parameters space (cf. Figure 2). The model
proposed is developed for the chemical plant
context.
Finally a closed-loop control system, which
takes advantage of the perception model, is
proposed to control the codec bit rate by
modifying the frame rate and quality
parameters.
The
controller
aims
at
compensating modeling error and at rejecting
video perturbations generated by the video
content itself.

Figure 1: Closed-loop control system


In order to follow the bit rate, which can be
seen as a reference trajectory, two adjustable
encoding parameters are chosen: the frame rate
and the compression rate. Hence, the system
not only has to satisfy the bandwidth in real
time but it also should give the best possible
perception quality for the chosen parameters.
This impose to find a perception model based
on the Human Visual System (HVS), which
shall provide the optimal encoding parameters
for a given bit rate. In term of closed-loop
control the system can be seen as presented in

Figure 2: Perception Model

57

IBME LMAM

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23.02.2007

Mesure de la cinmatique 3D du genou par la fusion


de capteurs inertiels et magntiques
Julien Chardonnens, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Julien Favre

Professeur:

Kamiar Aminian

En orthopdie et en rhabilitation, il devient


primordial de pouvoir mesurer les rotations
3D des articulations lors des activits
quotidiennes. Bien que beaucoup de systmes
de mesure du mouvement existent, aucun nen
est actuellement capable. Cette tude propose
un nouveau systme couplant une unit
inertielle de mesure avec un systme
magntique afin de mesurer la rotation 3D du
genou. Ce systme permet une mesure prcise,
ambulatoire et de longue dure.

algorithme complexe impliquant plusieurs


filtres de Kalman.

Erreur dorientation (et son zoom) obtenue lors de la


simulation dune marche avec priode de distorsion

Systmes magntique et inertiel

Le
systme
magntique
(Minuteman,
Polhemus), compos dun botier et de deux
marqueurs, permet la mesure de lorientation
diffrentielle avec une prcision moyenne. De
plus ce systme nest pas utilisable
proximit de mtaux. Lunit inertielle,
compos
dun
systme
dacquisition
(Physilog, BioAGM) et de deux modules
gyroscopiques, permet la mesure des vitesses
angulaires.
Lorientation
obtenue
par
intgration de ces vitesses angulaires est
pjore par une drive. Ces deux systmes,
complmentaires, sont coupls au travers dun

Les rsultats obtenus en simulation pour ce


nouveau systme montrent une diminution de
lerreur de 84% par rapport celle du systme
magntique. Il est noter que ce systme
magntique est actuellement le seul appareil
capable de raliser une acquisition
ambulatoire. De plus, en cas de distorsion, le
systme propos permet une mesure de
lorientation avec une drive statistique de
0.07/sec.
Cette tude propose ainsi un systme portable
permettant la mesure prcise et en temps rel
de lorientation diffrentielle. Grace la
fusion propose, ce systme doit permettre des
mesures de longue dure et haute frquence
dans un environnement quotidien.

58

59

LMAM

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23.02.2007

Movement analysis in horses


Stefan Marti, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Brian Coley

Professeur:

Dr. Kamiar Aminian

In this work a movement analysis in horses


was developed by means of an inertial sensor
system. The initial and terminal contacts of all
four legs were detected by processing the
gyroscopic data of the legs. Furthermore other
parameters like the stance phase or the range
of motion in some leg joints were evaluated.
These parameters were mainly designed to
detect lameness.
On the trunk and head level the vertical
acceleration data was analyzed to define three
other lameness detecting parameters. Each of
them was based on another principle. A first
one was based on the amplitudes of the signal,
the second one used an autocorrelation
function and the third one was based on a
spectral analysis.
Moreover two models were applied to
estimate the propagation velocity and finally a
spectral analysis was done to anticipate the
gait of the horse.

In 98.6% of all tests the difference between


the forelimb initial contacts of the reference
system (Figure 1) and the estimated forelimb
initial contacts of the ASUR system had a
standard deviation less than 10ms. For the
terminal contact of the forelimbs this
percentage was at 97.8% and for the
hindlimbs this indicator of reliability was at
96.7% and 95% for the initial and terminal
contact respectively.

Figure 2. Spectral based lameness analysis: The


approximated vertical displacement of one gait cycle
on the trunk or head (blue) was decomposed in a
fundamental wave (green) designating an
asymmetry and the first harmonic wave (red)
representing the natural 1-2 gait of a trotting horse.

The stance phase difference analysis and the


spectral based analysis (Figure 2) detected all
present lamenesses even if they were not seen
by visual examination. The localization of
these pathologies was in almost all cases
possible.

Figure 1. An instrumented treadmill system was


used as reference system for the validation of our
results.

All gait estimations were right and the speed


estimation models gave consistent results.

60

LEG

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23.02.2007

Capteur de courant avec interface PC


David Stalder, Section Microtechnique
Assistants:

Dr. Catherine Dehollain, Dr Norbert Jhl

Professeur:

Declercq Michel

Dans ce projet un capteur de courant avec


interface PC a t dvelopp pour la
mesure du courant moyenne des souris
sans fils de Logitech.
Les souris mesurer ont une consommation
du courant de nature puls (Fig. 1), dont
les pulses peuvent aller jusque 400
milliampres. La dure des pulses varie
selon le modle et est dans lordre de
grandeur
de
quelques
dizaines
microsecondes. Il doit tre possible
dvaluer le courant moyenne sur diffrent
temps dvaluations dont la plus courte
dure sur laquelle la moyenne du courant
soit value doit tre infrieure ou gal une
microseconde.

Linstrument de mesure doit avoir la


possibilit
de
communiquer
avec
lordinateur travers un bus bidirectionnelle.
Comme a on peut afficher le courant
graphiquement sur lcran et aussi donner
des commandes linstrument.
On mesure le courant laide dune
rsistance quon met en amont de la
rgulation de tension. On utilise un filtrage
passe-bas avant la conversion analogiquedigital. Ceci nous permet dabaisser la
frquence
dchantillonnage
du
convertisseur AD. A lentre de celui on met
un amplificateur diffrentiel programmable
qui permet de rduire considrablement la
rsolution de lAD requis (Fig. 2).

Fig. 1 : Caractristique de consommation des


souris

Fig. 2 : Schma bloc de la solution finale

Le courant moyenne mesur doit avoir une


rsolution de 5 microampres et respecter
une prcision de 2% sur le rsultat.

On utilise un microcontrleur pour


commander les diffrentes modules et pour
la communication de type RS-232 vers
lordinateur.

61

LEG

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23.2.2007

Conception et Simulation dun Transistor Effet de Champs


Nanolectromcanique
Christoph Eggimann, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Dr. Dimitrios Tsamados

Professeur:

Prof. Adrian Ionescu

Un nouveau transistor nanolectromcanique (NEMFET) t conu et simul


pendant ce travail, montrant le potentiel
de ce dispositif pour de futures systmes
VLSI basse puissance, basse tension et
haute performance.
Ce travail examine le potentiel de minimiser
le Suspended Gate Field Effect Transisor
(SG-FET), dvelopp au laboratoire LEG
(fig. 1a). Les proprits physiques lchelle
nanomtrique ont t tudis et des
nanostructures unidimensionelles, inclus les
nanotubes de carbone et les nanofils en
silicium, sont examin comme bloc
constitutif dun NEMFET.
Une tude systmatique des architectures
NEMFET possibles est faite et les designs
sont compars dun point de vue fonctionnel
et fabrication. Un design prometteur est
prsent qui utilise des NEMFETs
complmentaires avec grille commune,
implmentant directement la charactristique
dun inverseur.

une pente subthreshold suprieure et un


courant-off diminu compar avec les
exigences dun nud ITRS avanc (fig.2).

Fig. 2) Charactristiques Id-Vg dun NEMFET

Une implmentation en Verilog-A dun


modle NEMFET a permis dtudier les
proprits dun inverseur complmentaire
NEMFET (fig 1b) pour la premire fois (fig.
3). Une consommation de puissance statique
et de court-circuit rduite ainsi que des
marges de bruit augments cause dun
comportement hystretique font que la
logique NEMFET complmentaire est un
candidat prometteur pour des systmes VLSI
basse puissance.

Le comportement du switch NEMFET est


tudi en utilisant des simulations par
lments finis et un modle analytique
driv dans ce travail. Le NEMFET est
capable de commuter mcaniquement dans
la rgion subthreshold, ce qui permet davoir

Fig.1) a) structure dun NEMFETb) Inverseur


NEMFET
Fig 3) Charactristiques dun inverseur NEMFET

62

LOMM

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23.02.2006

Mlanges de lumire de LED et dOLED pour lclairage :


tudes de spectres et conception de sources hybrides
Pierre-Yves Vannay, Section Microtechnique
Assistants:

Dr S. Huber, Dr R. Ferrini, M. Schaer, P. Bugnon

Professeur:

Zuppiroli Libero

Dans lintrt de raliser des sources de


lumire rendement nergtique lev ainsi
que des sources de qualit, lide de
mlanger des couleurs primaires (rouge,
vert, bleu) de LED et dOLED a t tudie.
La colorimtrie ainsi que les sources de
lumire blanche actuellement utilises pour
lclairage sont passes en revue dans les
deux premiers chapitres. Dans la troisime
partie sont abords les aspects lis au
mlange des couleurs. Les caractristiques
optiques des sources disponibles au
laboratoire sont passes en revue.

couleurs (figure 1). Il est montr quune


source blanche base de deux OLED
uniquement, (rouge et verte) peut assurer
lclairage intrieur des foyers, pour lesquels
les exigences de qualit sont leves.

Fig. 2 : Spectres de rfrence et spectres obtenus


pour un systme 2 OLED et 1 LED pour 2
tempratures de couleur diffrentes.

Fig. 1 : Meilleurs compromis entre rendement et


qualit pour diverses configurations.

Sensuit une tude thorique sur les spectres


base de LED et dOLED prsentant le
meilleur compromis entre lindice de rendu
des couleurs (CRI) et lefficacit lumineuse
(LER). Cette tude met en vidence
lavantage des spectres larges des OLED par
rapport au LED en termes de rendu des

Dans la quatrime partie, les ralisations


pratiques de sources blanches ainsi que les
mesures exprimentales dcart de couleur
sont exposes. Associ cette recherche
exprimentale a t dvelopp un
programme de simulation de trac de rayons
comme aide la conception des lampes. Les
rsultats simuls et exprimentaux sont en
bonne concordance. Bien que la brillance
des OLED, d leur manque de maturit,
soit encore trop faible pour assurer un
clairage dune intensit suffisante, les
sources ralises ont toutes exhib un
spectre de bonne qualit (figure 2).

63

LTS2

Rsum de Travail pratique de Master

23 Fvrier 2007

Approximate pyramidal filter banks on the 2-sphere


Olivier Blanc, Section Microtechnique
Assistant:

Yves Wiaux

Professeur:

Pierre Vandergheynst

On introduit ici une mthode de


transformation en ondelettes adapte des
images sphriques. On adapte galement
la sphre une mthode de conception
d'ondelettes dyadiques dans le plan.

Schma de l'algorithme

Cartographie du fond diffus cosmologique


En astrophysique, l'tude du fond diffus est un
domaine extrmement actif depuis dj
plusieurs dcnnies. Des satellites (Cobe,
WMAP, et bientt Planck) cartographient
l'espace qui les entoure avec une rsolution
toujours plus grande, et produisent donc des
images sphriques haute rsolution. Le
formalisme des ondelettes, parce qu'il permet
une analyse diffrentes chelles d'un signal
est un outil adapt l'analyse de ce genre
d'image. Bien que localement il soit possible
d'approximer une sphre par un plan, il est
ncessaire de tenir comptes des proprits
gomtriques de celle-ci pour une analyse
globale.

Dans ce projet, on dveloppe une mthode de


transforme en ondelettes dyadique adapte
des images dfinies sur une sphre. On
dveloppe un algorithme en cascade de faible
complexit, fournissant une reprsentation
lgrement redondante du signal de dpart.
L'implmentation de la transformation en
Fourier permet de rendre l'algorithme rapide
en vitant les convolutions.
Dans un deuxime temps, on traduit sur la
sphre une mthode de conception
d'ondelettes dyadique approche dfinie dans
le plan partir d'une transformation continue.
On montre que contrairement au cas euclidien,
la transformation ainsi cre sur la sphre est
exacte, quels que soient les filtres de dpart
utiliss.

64

ABB Corporate Research Ltd.

23 February 2007

Abstract of Master Thesis Project

Real Time Control


Design & Implementation for a
Riderless Bicycle
Amine Merdassi, Robotics and Autonomous Systems
Supervisor:

Dacfey Dzung (ABB Corporate Research Ltd.)

Professor:

Hubert Kirrmann (EPFL and ABB Corporate Research Ltd.)

The motivation for this project comes from the


desire to implement on an unmanned riderless
bicycle, a real time controller for balance
stabilization and trajectory following. In fact,
ABB Corporate Research Ltd runs ``The
Riderless Bicycle" project in order to build a
demonstrator of real time control, using an ABB
PLC (AC-80PEC) and associated sensors and
actuators. This diploma work includes a
mechatronic implementation of the system,
based on first theoretical work by ABB and a
theoretical extension in order to increase the
bike control functionalities.
The riderless bicycle was treated in terms of
modelling and control approaches with a
mechatronic implementation. The modelling
was described using benchmarked equations of
motion of an uncontrolled bicycle. The control
part presented an LQR control for the balance
stabilization and a PID controller for reference
trajectories following.

AC 80PEC Development Flow.


Finally, some practical tests and challenges have
been described and analyzed in order to show
how so far our implemented real time control
system can succeed on controlling the riderless
bicycle.

Riderless Bicycle Simulation.


A mechatronic implementation including
mechanical design was done using the ABB AC80PEC hardware and the associated sensors and
actuators. The AC-80PEC control software and
the Matlab/Simulink engineering software were
also used to implement our real time controller.

The Final Riderless Bicycle Configuration.