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Class

Piano
Resource
Materials
Level Preparatory
Fifth Edition

Compiled and Edited by


W. Daniel Landes

Smith Creek Music

Class Piano
Resource Materials
Preparatory Level
(Fifth Edition)

Compiled and edited by


W. Daniel Landes

2006, 2011 by Smith Creek Music


PO Box 140449, Nashville, TN 37214
www.smithcreekmusic.com

Class Piano Resource Materials


Preparatory Level
(Fifth Edition)

2006, 2011 by Smith Creek Music


PO Box 140446
Nashville, TN 37214
www.smithcreekmusic.com
E-mail: info@smithcreekmusic.com

All rights reserved.


ISBN: 978-0-9835362-0-8

Except as otherwise stated, all rights on all material are reserved by Smith Creek Music. No part of this collection may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, except as
may be expressly permitted by the 1976 Copyright Act or in writing from the publisher.

Other Class Piano Resource Materials are available from Smith Creek Music, PO Box 140446, Nashville, TN 37214
Please e-mail us at info@smithcreekmusic.com or visit our WEB site at www.smithcreekmusic.com for ordering information.

Introduction
These Class Piano Resource Materials were compiled for use in the secondary piano program at Belmont
University, Nashville, TN. Consequently, the content has been shaped to a large extent by the various degree
programs at that school and in particular, the Piano Proficiency Examination. Every school/department of music
has some type of piano proficiency evaluation that music majors must past in order to complete their degree
requirements. The various parts of the proficiency examination are the basic piano skills: repertory, scales and
arpeggios, chords, harmonizing melodies, improvisation, transposition, etc. Consequently, the Class Piano
Resource Materials are designed to prepare the student to pass a piano proficiency examination. Although
intended for use in college classes, the materials are broad enough to be used in any class piano setting where
there is a need for a graded series of books with a broad range of musical styles.
SCOPE OF THE MATERIALS

The Class Piano Resource Materials are arranged in five books by level of difficulty: Preparatory Level (no
prior keyboard experience is assumed), Level One, Level Two, Level Three, and Level Four. Each level is
organized according to specific goals that are spelled out clearly at the beginning of the book. Theory skills
are not addressed in great detail because it is assumed that secondary piano classes are required in conjunction
with the various theory classes such as Fundamentals of Music, Diatonic Harmony, etc. Detailed pedagogical
information is outside the scope of these Resource Materials because it is believed that the instructor will give
the necessary explanation of keyboard technique, theory, etc. Nevertheless, all the books in the various levels
are organized in a more or less increasing level of difficulty if the instructor chooses to use them in that way.
In addition, a suggested assignment schedule based on a 15-week semester is included in each level to aid the
instructor in preparing weekly lesson plans.
DESCRIPTION OF THE MATERIALS
In selecting the materials, specific composers and periods of music were a strong factor. Each level contains
representative repertory by classical composers such as Bach and Beethoven. Twentieth century classical music
composers such as Bartk, Persichetti and Schoenberg are included as well as representative pieces in various
styles composed specifically for these books by the author and colleagues. Each level includes music in a popular
style. These are not arrangements of popular tunes but are original compositions which appear here for the first
time. It is hoped that the choice of repertory and other material will give the student a well-rounded musical
experience and help develop keyboard and musicianship skills necessary for the professional musician.
INTEGRATION OF TECHNOLOGY
Each level (book) has an accompanying interactive computer application that been designed as an additional
resource, including links to a WEB site. The application runs on Apple Macintosh computers using system OSX
10.2 and higher. Versions for Windows computers, IPads, etc. may be available in the future. Detailed information regarding the implementation of the computer software is available on the website:

www.smithcreekmusic.com

COPYRIGHTS
Every effort was made to contact the owners of copyrights for permission to make settings or use pieces. If
mistakes have occurred, they will be corrected as soon as possible. Please email us at:

info@smithcreekmusic.com.

The author is grateful to the owners of copyrighted material who have granted permission to use their works.
Where copyrighted material is used, a copyright notice appears at the bottom of the page.

iii

Table of Contents
Page


Introduction iii



















General Goals for Preparatory Level


Class Notes
Keyboard and Hand Orientation Chart
Notes on the Staff
Key Signatures and Scales
Note Spelling 1
Note Spelling 2
Rhythmic Equivalents 1
Rhythmic Equivalents 2
Meter and Time Signatures
Musical Terms
Add Bar Lines 1
Add Bar Lines 2
Add Bar Lines 3
Add Bar Lines 4
Key Signatures and Scales 1
Key Signatures and Scales 2
Getting Started

vi
vii
8
9
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

REPERTORY

Square One
tudette No. 1: G Major
tudette No. 2: F Major
tudette No. 3: Staccato
tudette No. 4: Contrary Motion
tudette No. 5: Drop/Lift
Lightly Row
Little Dance
Ode to Joy
St. Flavian
My Lord, What a Morning
Imitation
Fughetta
Little tude
Round Dance

iv

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

Page

Romance (Secondo)
Romance (Primo)
Triads and Syncopations
Uncle Willie Gets Eccentric
Tex
Debbie's First Date Ends in Disaster
Primary Triads
Block-Chord Cadences
Procedures for Harmonizing Melodies
Melodies for Harmonization
Improvisation
Sight Reading

38
39
40
41
42
43

44
45
46
48
52
55

Explanation of Scale Groups and Characteristics


Group I Major Scales in Notation
Group I Minor Scales in Notation
Group I Major Scales (keyboard diagram)
Group I Minor Scales (keyboard diagram)
Scale, Triad and Exercise Practice Log
Arpeggios
Technique: Exercises

APPENDIXES

Appendix 1: Triads in a Scale; Inversions of Triads


Appendix 2: Melodic Phrases
Appendix 3: Melodic Cadences
Appendix 4: Non-Chord Tones

72
77
78
80

Weekly Assignment Schedule


Class Notes
Level Preparatory Assignment Chart

82
85
87

For more resources, please visit the WEB SITE at:

www.smithcreekmusic.com

SCALES & EXERCISES

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
66

General Goals
(Preparatory Level)

1. Become oriented to the keyboard:


-- demonstrate an understanding of proper sitting position and hand position
-- play in the correct octave
-- demonstrate an understanding of 5-finger hand positions

2. Play major and natural minor scales in Group I (those scales in which the thumbs play together) in a
steady tempo and with correct fingering.

3. Play assigned repertory pieces with acceptable proficiency. All repertory pieces in Preparatory Level
consist mainly of five-finger hand positions.
4. Play root position primary triads in the following keys:
-- Major: C F G
-- Minor: am dm em
5. Play block-style cadences in the following keys:

-- Major: C F G
-- Minor: am dm em

6. Harmonize simple melodies consisting mainly of 5-finger hand positions using block-style cadence
chords.
7. Begin to develop concepts of improvisation by improvising simple melodies consisting of chord
tones over chord progressions consisting of primary chords in major and minor keys through one
accidental.
8. Transpose simple pieces to various 5-finger hand positions.
9. Sight read simple pieces constructed in 5-finger hand positions.
10. Play simple 5-finger exercises.
11. Begin to develop concepts of style and musicianship and demonstrate these in the performance of
assigned repertory:



-- expression
-- articulation
-- dynamics
-- tempo

vi

Class Notes

vii

Keyboard and Hand Orientation


b
D
#
C

b
E
#
D

b
G
#
F

b
A
#
G

b
B
#
A

b
D
#
C

b
E
#
D

b
G
#
F

b
A
#
G

b
B
#
A

BASIC FINGERING CONCEPTS.


4

4
5

5
1

Piano music often has the fingering printed above or below individual notes, as in the following example:

&b c
F
? c
b
3

Another important concept in fingering is the 5-FINGER HAND POSITION. If you place your right hand
thumb on MIDDLE C and then have a finger for every note C - G, that's a "C 5-finger hand position." If you
5place your left hand little finger on G and have a finger for every note G - D then that's a "G 5-finger hand
position." Any group of 5 adjacent diatonic notes is a "5-finger hand position" with the lowest note giving the
hand position its name.

&b

Almost without exception, all pieces in this Preparatory Level Book are in 5-finger hand positions. If you do
not understand this concept, ask your instructor for a demonstration.

?b

&b
2

Notes on the Staff


Notes on the staff (from bottom to top):

&
&
?
?

ww
www
www
www
ww
www
ww

b d

faceg

www
www
ww
ww

w
www
ww
ww

w
ww
w

Key Signatures and Scales

&

G major or E minor
F major or D minor
C major or A minor

#
b

##
bbb

E-flat major or C minor


D major or B minor
B-flat major or G minor
b

? bb

#
b b

b
&b

b b
# ##

&

A-flat major or F minor


A major or F-sharp minor
E major or C-sharp minor

? ###

# #
bbbb
###

10

Note Spelling 1
Write the letter name under each note:

&w

&

?w

?w
&w

&w

?w

?w

w
w
w
w

w
w

w
w
w
w

w
w

w
w

w
w

w
w

w
w

w
w

w
w
w

11

?w

Note Spelling 2
w
w w
w

? w

Write the letter name under each note:

&w
&w

?w
?w
& w
&w
&w

w
w

w
w

w
w

w
w

w
w

w
w
w

12

Rhythmic Equivalents 1

h
q

e e

e e

Whole Note

h
q

e e

Half Note

Quarter Note

e e

Eighth Note

x x x x x xx x xx x x xx xx
1/1 = 16/16

1/1 = 8/8

1/1 = 4/4

1/1 = 2/2

1/2 = 8/16

1/2 = 4/8

1/2 = 2/4

1/1 = 2/2

1/4 = 4/16

1/4 = 2/8

Sixteenth Note

1/8 = 2/16

Identify these note values:

q
w

e
x

How many eighth notes in the following:

How many sixteenth notes in the following:

13

Rhythmic Equivalents 2
How many

in the following examples:

w h q q w
h

q q w

q q q w

How many

q q h w

q e q e h h
How many

q q q h h h
w

in the following examples:

q q e e h w
h

h h

q q h w

e e q h w
w

h q e q

in the following examples:

q q e e h q

q e e e h q
q q e e h w

h q e eh w

x x q e e h w

x x e e h w

14

Meter and Time Signatures


4 Top number = how many beats in each measure
4 Bottom number = what kind of note gets one (1) beat

e = eighth (1/8) note

q = quarter (1/4) note h = half (1/2) note

If the bottom number of the time signature is a "4" then a quarter (1/4) note gets ONE beat.
If the bottom number of the time signature is a "2" then a half (1/2) note gets ONE beat.
If the bottom number of the time signature is an "8" then an eight (1/8) note gets ONE beat.

6 6 beats in each measure


8 e gets one beat

2 2 beats in each measure


4 q gets one beat

2
4

4
4

5
8

w
1

1 2 3 4

2 2 beats in each measure


4 q gets one beat

j
.
5

1 2 3

2 2 beats in each measure


2 h gets one beat

4 4 beats in each measure


4 q gets one beat
4

5 5 beats in each measure


8 e gets one beat

4 5

4 5

15

Musical Terms
Dotted Notes

Dynamics
Symbols for playing at various degrees of loudness
have been derived from Italian terms:

Any dotted note is the rhythmic equivalent


of 3 of the next lower note value:

w.
h.
q.
e.
x.

hhh

pp pianissimo = very soft


p piano = soft
P mezzo piano = medium soft
F mezzo forte = medium loud
f forte = loud
fortissimo = very loud

qqq

eee

xxx
KKK
xxx

See www.classpiano.org/dynamics

Ties and Slurs

& 44 .

A TIE is a curved line that connects two notes of the same pitch. "Connect" means that the tie joins the two
rhythmic values together into one rhythmic value. For example:

&

&

The 2nd E is not played again (articulated)


but held through j
the duration
of thenote.
& .

A curved line that connects two or more notes of different pitches is called a SLUR . A slur over or under a
group of notes does not change the rhythmic value but merely means to play smoothly (legato).

&

.

.

16

Add Bar Lines 1


Add bar lines and counting to the following examples. All examples start on 1:

4
&4
&

&b

# 6 .
.

& 8
# .
.
&
## 2
& 2

##
&
##
&

&
& b 34

17

Add Bar Lines 2


Add bar lines and counting to the following examples. All examples start on 1:

b 4
&b 4
b
b
&

## 2
& 4

##
&

### 3

&
4
###
&
###

&
###
&

#### 2
w
&
2 .
####

w
&

18

Add Bar Lines 3


Add bar lines and counting to the following examples. All examples start on 1:

# 2
& 4
#

&
#

&

## 3
.
& 4

##
&
.
& 44 .

&
& .

# 6
& 8



.
j

19

Add Bar Lines 4


Add bar lines and counting to the following examples. All examples start on 1:

&c .

j
&

.
. .

j
. J
& w

## 3
.
& 4

##
&
.

b
& b 44
b


b

&

b
b
&
## 3 .
& 4
## .
&

J
.
.

.
.

20

Key Signatures and Scales 1


Add the key signatures for each of the following examples and then write out the scales using quarter notes
ascending and descending for one octave. The first one has been done for you:

##

D Major

&

G Major

&

F Major

&

B-flat Major

&

D-flat Major

&

G-flat Major

&
B Major

&

A Major

&
&

21

Key Signatures and Scales 2


Add the key signatures for each of the following examples and then write out the scales using quarter notes
ascending and descending for one octave. The first one has been done for you:

D Minor

&b

E Minor

&

BMinor

&

B-flat Minor

&

E-flat Minor

&

F Minor

&

C Minor

&

F# Minor

&
&

22

Getting Started

? 44
4
&4



4 beats in each measure
? 44

Q
=
1
beat

? 44

&

?
&
C

& 44

Right hand notes:

& 44

&

Left hand notes

23

Square One
Slow, count out loud

WDL

4
&4 w
f
?4
4
1

&
?
1

&

19

13

&
?

Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

24

tudette No. 1: G Major

Moderato

# 3
& 4
f
?# 3

&

?#

&
?#
#
&
?#

cresc.

11

16

WDL

.
.

This piece is written in which hand position? _______ Are both hands in the same position? _____

tude means: _____________________________________________________________________


Moderato means: ______________________ What is a good Moderato tempo: ______________

cresc. is an abbreviation for ___________________ and means ____________________________

f is an abbreviation for __________________ and means _______________________________


is an abbreviation for __________________ and means ______________________________
Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

25

tudette No. 2: F Major

Andante

& b 34 .
f
? 3
b 4

&b
?b

.
.


p
4

WDL

&b

13

?b

& b .

19

.
?b

f
.

.
.

This piece is written in which hand position? _______ Are both hands in the same position? _____
Andante means: _________________________What is a good Andante tempo: ______________
Draw the symbol which means get louder:

is an abbreviation for __________________ and means ______________________________


p is an abbreviation for __________________ and means _______________________________
Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

26

Fast

## 2
& 2 . . .
.
f
? # # 22

. .
. .

. . .
.

. . . .

.
. . .

.
. .
. . .

. .
. .
. . . .

. . .
.

. .
. .
. .
? # # . .

. .
. .
. . . .

. . . .

&

##

f
. .
? # # . .
1

tudette No. 3: Staccato

##

.
p
.
? ##
&

&

13

##

. . . .

WDL

This piece is written in which hand position? _______ Are both hands in the same position? _____
A "dot" under or over a note is called __________________ and means to play the note _________
What key is this piece in? ___________________

How many beats in each measure? _______ What kind of note will get one beat? _____________
Try to think of a reason why a piece would be in 2/2 time instead of 4/4 time.

Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

27

tudette No. 4: Contrary Motion


Allegro

& b 44 . .
.
1
f
1
. .

? b 44
.

WDL

j
j

. .


. .
p
f
. .
?b
. . . . J
J
&b

&b

3
3
f
f
p
p
1
5


?

b
&b
p
?
b

13

.
. . .
. .
. .

U

.
w
f rit.
U

# w
.
J

What does "contrary motion" mean? _________________________________________________


What is the opposite of contrary motion: _______________________________________________
What does a dot after a note mean? ___________________________________________________
A curved line under or over a group of notes is called a ________________ and means play the

group of notes _________________________
What key is this piece in? ________ What does this symbol mean: U _____________________
Try to think of how you would describe the difference in sound of MAJOR keys and MINOR keys.
Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

28

tudette No. 5: Drop-Lift

You decide!

&c
drop

lift

drop

drop

lift

?c
5

&
drop

lift

drop

lift

lift

drop

drop

lift

drop

lift

WDL

drop

lift

(get ready ..... )

lift!

drop

(get ready ..... )

.
lift!

What hand position is this piece in ? ___________ Why? _________________________________


Does 'stacatto' mean "play as short as possible?" __________ If not, what exactly does it mean ?

________________________________________________________________________________
The "Drop-Lift" movement is one of the most important expressive gesture in playing the piano.

There are similar gestures in other instruments such as the violin (changing the direction of the bow)
and singing (taking a breath).

When you LIFT, what part of the arm begins the lift: (finger, hand, forearm, elbow: ____________.
Try starting the second line

and then make a BIG crescendo so that you end .

Try playing the piece in MINOR.

Try transposing the piece to G major and then F major.

What would it sound like if you played the right hand in one key and left hand in another key? Go
ahead and try that out -- just for fun!

Music 2011 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

29

Lightly Row

Allegro

&b c
F
?b c
5

&b

& b .
p.
?b

. . .

&b
F
?b

13

?b
. . .

. . . .

. . . .

Folk Song
arr. WDL


w
f
w

Be careful, these last 2 measures are different.

In this tude you will bring together everything from the previous 4 pieces: F major, staccato, drop/
lift, and contrary motion. Be sure to play the slurred groups like you learned in the previous piece

(tude: Drop-Lift) and remember, before you DROP, you have to LIFT. Are repeated notes usually
played legato or staccato? _________________________ Why?

Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

30

Little Dance
Allegro

&c
f
?c


.
.

&
5

?
3

Bla Bartk, 1925


. .

. J . .

.
.

To play this piece successfully, you have to use the drop-lift technique you've been practicing.
What is the 'dash' character called in measure 4: _______________
What does it mean? ________________________________________________________________
What key is this piece in? ________
actual key signature?

Does the key that the piece SOUNDS like it is in, match the

Do some research on Bla Bartk. For example, what were his "dates" (when was he born, and when

did he die)? What country was he originally from? Is he considered to have been a 'great' classical
music composer? Why?

From First Term at the Piano, No. 8. Long and Short. Budapest, 1913

31

Ode to Joy
Allegretto

&b c
f

? c
b
3
3

&b

?b

&b
P
?b

&b

13

L. van Beethoven, 1824


arr. WDL

cresc.

LH

j
.

.
J

Is Beethoven considered to have been a "great" composer? _______ Why do think that is?
Do some research to discover Beethoven's dates and where he lived most of his life.

The rhythmic ACCENT at the end of line 3 is called a _________________________. What is that
exactly?_________________________________________________________________________
Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

32

St. Flavian
Moderato

# c
&

f
?# c
1

#
&
?#

&

?#

from Day's Psalter, 1562


arr. WDL

.
1

.
5

This piece is an arrangement of a British hymn tune that has been sung for about 450 years. Even
though both hands are in the same hand position (G), the hands are doing different movements almost
all the time: sometimes contrary motion and sometimes parallel motion.

Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

33

My Lord, What a Morning


Slow

&b c
F
? c
b

&b

?b
9

&b
?b

&b

13

?b

5
3
1

Afro-American Spiritual
arr. WDL

.
.

j


J

A "spiritual" is a folk song. This piece is based on the structure of the CADENCE Chords for the key
of F major. Please see the Cadence section toward the end of this book.
Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

34

Imitation
q = 96

& 34
f
?3
4
1

? #

# .

# .

# .

&

13

&

&

?
9

# .

Bla Bartk, 1925

This piece by Bartk is called "Imitation" because the left hand IMITATES the right hand. It's not an
EXACT imitation, but the motion (direction) of the left hand is SIMILAR to the right hand.
From First Term at the Piano, No. 4. Conversation. Budapest, 1913

35

Fughetta
Not too fast

2
&4
F
? 24

&
5

cresc.

?
1

11

&

Anonymous
arr. WDL

rit.
f

A "fughetta" is a small fugue. A "fugue" is an imitative composition similar to the Bartk piece on
the previous page -- just much longer and with many different sections. One of the most famous
composers of fugues was J. S. Bach (1685-1750). The two volumes of his "Well-Tempered Clavier"
is one of the most important collections in classical music and contains many fugues.

Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

36

Little tude
Andante

&c
F

?c
1

?
7

&

&


. F

&

11

Bla Bartk, 1925

w
w

There are several occasions to use "drop-lift" in this piece. Can you find them?
An interesting rhythmic figure is used at the end of the 3rd line and into the last line, What is it?
From First Term at the Piano, No. 10. Folk Melody. Budapest, 1913

37

Round Dance
Fast

& 78 34
f
.
?7
3
8
4

.
& 34
? 34 .

& 78
f
? 78

10

.
.

44

.
.

78 34
.

7
8

3
4
68

68

98 78

(drop-lift)

.
.

44

& 68
p

? 68 J
J
(drop-lift)

WDL

(drop-lift)

(drop-lift)

34
.

34 .

98 J
.
.

78

.
.

"Changing meter" is a common technique in classical music of the 20th century. To get the piece to
"flow" smoothly, you have to keep the eighth note constant, so it helps to practice counting the piece
all the way through without playing or clapping. Then, try counting and clapping the right hand and
left hand parts separately.
Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

38

Romance
(Secondo)

Anton Diabelli, c. 1820

? 4 # b
4

Andantino

cresc.

?4
4 w
6

#w

? .. b
p
f
?
..

b #

11

cresc.

# #B # # # >
?

16

p
w
w

w
w

> U

ww
#
?
w

21

U
w
w

39

Romance
(Primo)

Andantino

4
&4
p

? 44

- .
& J
- .
? J

12

&

19

.
#

&
J
f

. #
?
J
4

. .

cresc.
. .


. J

. J

Anton Diabelli, c. 1820

..
p

.
.

.
J
- .
J

b
n
f
b
n

cresc.

-.

J
p . J

- - -

- - -

U
w

U
ww

40

Triads and Syncopations


Quick

j


J

3
&4

? 34

j

J

&

& 58
F
?5
8
& 34
.
f
? 3 .
4

molto rit.

j

.
F
.
.

J
J

j j

-

J

?
7

j
-

J

WDL

j j j

.
.
-
.



J
J

58

44

34

4
4

.
.
Hold the 'd' and 'g' down
when you play the last chord.

Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

58

3
4

41

Uncle Willie Gets Eccentric


#### 6
# 4
&

Fast

?
3

f
6
4
1

#### 4
78
# 4

&

WDL

44 78

#### 6
# 4
&
?

molto rit.

6
4

.
.

44
4
4

64
64

U
any chord you wish with both hands
Play
and then hold it until the sound dies away.

This piece has a little of everything! Notice that the right hand and left hand have different key
signatures. This may seem really weird, but Bartk wrote a piece for piano in 1908 that had different
key signatures for each hand (Fourteen Bagatelles). Other composers throughout the 20th century
also experimented with this idea.
In this piece, the RIGHT HAND plays on all BLACK NOTES, and the LEFT HAND plays on all
WHITE NOTES. Also the hands move in contrary motion, so it should feel easier than it looks.

For the last measure, you can play ANY CHORD YOU WISH as long as it is
-- and you can hold
it until you hear the sound die away. Is there SYNCOPATION in this piece? If so, where is it?

Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

42

Tex
A slow and nostalgic swing

# 4
& 4

WDL

j . j . j
2

3 5

P
? # 44

&

&

j
. #

?#

?#
#

j . j . j

w
1

# .
&

&

13

16

?#
9

j
#

b n

? # b n n

w
2

LH over

Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

43

Debbie's First Date Ends in Disaster


Slow, with regret

&c

?c
6

1
2
5

&

&

&

11

15

rit.

WDL

Music 2001 by Smith Creek Music, Nashville, TN 37214. All rights reserved. www.smithcreekmusic.com

44

Primary Triads

Right hand fingering:


Left hand fingering:

1 3 5
5 3 1

Use this fingering on all root position triads.

C Major

4
& 4
? 4
4
I

F Major

& b
? b
I

G Major

#
&

?#
I

a minor

IV

IV

IV

IV

IV

IV

www
www

iv

V*

#
#

iv

V*

iv

www
www

#
iv

d minor

www
www

e minor

www
www

www
www
i

# #
# #

iv

V*

iv

www
www
i

*The V chord in a minor key is often MAJOR, particularly in classical music. This results from the use of the HARMONIC minor scale
which has a raised 7th degree.

45

Block-Chord Cadences
"Block-chord" means all chords are voiced with 3 notes in each hand and each chord is identified by its
Roman Numeral, not by its inversion. The following are "block-chord" style cadences. Here, "cadence" means
a succession of chords (such as I-IV-I-V7-I) and does not refer to what happens at the end of a phrase as
described in Appendix II.

C Major

& 44
? 4
4

a minor
5
3
1

1
3
5

5
3
1

1
3
5

1
2
5

5
3
1

1
3
5



1
3
5

5
3
1

1
2
5

5
3
1

1
2
5

www
ww
w

5
4
1

5
3
1

G Major

#
&

? #

5
3
1

F Major

& b

? b

1
2

V7



5
3
1

1
3
5

www
ww
w

5
4
1

1
2

5
3
1

5
4
1

1
2

V7

5
3
1

1
3
5

5
3
1

1
3
5

5
3
1

1
3
5

www
www
I

1
3
5

1
2
5

5
3
1

5
3
1
1
2
5

1
3
5

5
3
1

1
3
5

1
2
5

iv

1
2

V7*

5
3
1

ww
w
www

5
4
1

V7*

5
3
1

1
3
5

5
3
1

1
3
5

1
2

1
3
5

5
3
1

ww
w
www

5
4
1

iv

e minor
5
3
1

5
3
1

iv

d minor

1
3
5

V7

1
3
5

5
3
1

5
3
1

1
3
5

5
4
1

1
2

V7*

www
www

5
3
1

1
3
5

* The V7 chord in a minor key will have an accidental, implying a harmonic minor scale in which the 7th scale degree is raised a half

46

Procedures for Harmonizing Melodies


1. Memorize the appropriate cadence and be able to play it in the key of the melody.
2. For now, always harmonize the second degree of the scale (major or minor key) with a V7 chord.
3. In most cases, the first and last chord of the melody will always be a I (i) chord.
4. If possible, avoid V7 - IV. This is not ALWAYS possible, but generally try to avoid it.
5. Ask yourself these questions:
a. Is the melody note I'm trying to harmonize in the chord I'm trying to use? If it isn't then it probably
won't work. (See: Appendix IV: Non-Chord Tones.)
b. Does the shape of the melody suggest a specific chord? If the melody outlines a specific triad or
seventh chord then that is a good indication for the chord that should be used.
6. Write in the symbols for the chords you intend to play. For now, only use the chord voicings of the
cadences you practiced on the previous page.

& 44 .
h

Indicates HARMONIC RHYTHM

&

IV

I or V

IV or V

In the above melody segment, make the following observations:

& .

- The HARMONIC RHYTHM is a half note (see below).

V7

- The first measure outlines the I chord. Also, it's a good idea to always start with the I chord.

- The first two beats of the second measure outlines part of the IV chord.
- The "G" on beat three is not in the IV chord but IS in the I chord or the V7 chord . If you use the I chord
you can go to either I or V7 for the next chord (beat 1, measure 3). However, if you use the V7 chord,
you HAVE to also use the V7 chord for the 1st beat of measure 3 (see rule # 3 above). Probably it's best
to use the I chord.
- The first two notes of measure three are both contained in the V7 chord, so that is a logical choice.
However, the "f" on beat one is also in the IV chord so that would work too. If you use the IV chord on
beat 1 then the "G" on the "and" of beat 2 becomes an "escape" tone and THAT'S OK even though it's
not in the IV chord. See: Appendix IV: Non-Chord Tones.

47

- The first beat of measure four is the second degree of the scale. Therefore, it is automatically
harmonized by the V7 chord (rule #2 above). The last note of measure four is in the I chord and it's
generally a good idea to harmonize the final note of a melody with the I chord.
IN GENERAL:
- You may harmonize each melody note one at a time, or . . .
- You may harmonize the melody using a strict "harmonic rhythm." See the above example.
HARMONIC RHYTHM means:
"A rhythmically strict progression of chords." In the above example the harmonic rhythm is a half
note (one chord every two beats). The harmonic rhythm may be anything that sounds good. However,
the best harmonic rhythm depends upon such factors as tempo, style, etc. A typical harmonic rhythm
would be either one or two chords per measure. Also, tempo affects decisions regarding the harmonic
rhythm. Generally, if the tempo is fast then use a slower harmonic rhythm. If the tempo is slow then
use a faster harmonic rhythm.
Here's a harmonized version of the melody on the previous page written out as you might play it using the
cadence chords:

& 44 .
? 44

. . . or,

& 44 .
? 44

The only difference between the two harmonizations is the choice of chords for measure three. Either version is OK.

48
Indicates

Melodies for Harmonization

HARMONIC RHYTHM

&c

&
2

h.

& b 34
&b

WDL



& c
#
&
#

&

FOLK SONG

&2
q

&
5

TWINKLE
Folk Song

&b c
h

&b

ABERYSTWYTH
Joseph Perry, 1879

THIS OLD MAN


American Folk Song

49

# h.3
& 4 .
#
& .

HAMBURG
Lowell Mason, 1824

each melody note.


# Harmonize
w

& c

#

&

w
#

w
&

& 24
h

&

&b c

&b

&b
10

Harmonize each melody note.


# 10
& 4
# 10

& 4

WDL



8
4

48

WDL

LIGHTLY ROW
Folk Song

LOW DUTCH
Bay Psalm Book, 1698 edition

50

11

&b c
&b

12

13

14

15

FOLK SONG

WDL
# 3w.
.
& 2 w.
#
w.
& . .
w.
#
& . . . w .

# ch
&
w

#

&
& b 24

&b
q

&c
h

NINETY-FIFTH
Wyeth's, Repository of Sacred Music, Part 2nd, 1820

. j

WDL

WDL

j
& . .
.

. J . j
& w

51

16

17

18

'ROUND THE MOUNTAIN

q.

REAPER'S SONG
Robert Schumann

& b 4 .
.

& b .
# 6
& 8 J
#
j

j
&

AMAZING GRACE
# h.3
.

& 4
# .
j
&

J
.

# 4
& 4
Be creative.

19

&

#
&
#

&

.
.

BLUE SKY

52

Improvisation
The goal for improvisational skills in Secondary Piano is to improvise simple melodies over a given chord
progression. At the Preparatory Level the materials consist of:




1.
2.
3.
4.

Primary chords in major and minor keys through one accidental.


Improvised melodies should consist entirely of chord tones.
Improvised melodies should make use of a RHYTHMIC MOTIVE.
The chord progression will be a consistent HARMONIC RHYTHM (for example, 1 or 2 chords
per measure).

Improvisation involves spontaneously making up a melody over a given chord progression. The chord voicings
required in Preparatory Level piano will be the same as those found in the bock-chord cadences earlier in this
book. Before you can begin to improvise, it is necessary to understand the difference between melodic chord
tones and non-chord tones. CHORD TONES are melody notes which also appear in the accompanying chord.
NON-CHORD TONES (sometimes called NON-HARMONIC TONES) are melody notes which do not appear in
the accompanying chord. See Appendix IV for a detailed explanation of non-chord tones. All the improvisation
examples in the Preparatory Level will involve improvising melodies consisting of CHORD TONES only.
Consider the following example:

&b c

? b c
I

motive

"Long note" at the


CADENCE POINT

motive

motive

w
www

V7*

IV

IV

motive

motive

IV

motive

"Long note" at the


CADENCE POINT

IV

V7

w
ww
w
I

In the above example all melody notes are contained in the chords which harmonize them (they are "chordtones"). The "G's" in measure 4 and measure 7 may seem to be non-chord tones because they do not appear in
the accompanying chord. However, actually they do. The V7 chord in the key of F major is spelled C-E-G-Bb.
Sometimes the 5th of a 7th chord is omitted and that is the case for the V7 voicing used in all the block-chord
cadences. If you have not covered that concept in your theory class yet, you may want to ask your theory
instructor about it.
Notice how the rhythm for the melody is the same in each measure except for the whole notes in measures 4
and 8. This repetitive rhythm is called a "rhythm motive." A MOTIVE is a short melodic and/or rhythmic idea
used as a constructional element to build up a larger section or an entire composition. [Consider a brick wall.
A single brick is a "motive" and the wall is constructed by using the "brick motive" over and over again until
an entire wall is built.]
The short example above is a complete melody which consists of TWO musical PHRASES. The PHRASES
are set apart by the whole notes in measures 4 and 8 and these POINTS OF REST within the melody are called
CADENCES. It is often easy to find the CADENCE POINTS in any melody -- just look for the longest note
values, particularly if they occur in groups of 4 or 8 measures. FOUR-MEASURE PHRASES are common in

53

all styles of western music and often the cadence point will have the LONGEST NOTE of the phrase. [For more
on PHRASES and CADENCES, see: APPENDIX 2: MELODIC PHRASES and Appendix 3: Cadences.]
You can make your improvised melodies sound like REAL MELODIES if you structure them like REAL
MELODIES:

1. Use a simple rhythmic motive.

2. Use LONG NOTES (whole notes, dotted half notes, etc.) at the cadence points.

3. Always end with the tonic note (1st degree of the scale). The majority of successful melodies
in Western music end on the tonic note. "Successful melodies" are those melodies which have
been IN USE for a long period of time, for example, 50 years, 100 years, etc. Look through

the melodies in the Harmonized Melodies section of this book and you will discover that they
ALL end on the tonic note.
The goal for Preparatory Level Piano is to be able to improvise chord tones melodies over a given chord
progression. Improvise a melody consisting only of chord tomes for the following melody. The first measure
has been done for you and you should use this MOTIVE in each measure throughout the example except at the
cadence points where you see the whole notes. Please use these procedures:

1. Begin by "patting" the rhythmic MOTIVE of the 1st measure with the right hand while you
play the written chords with the left.

2. When you feel comfortable with the coordination of doing this, then try actually playing chord tones
with the right hand instead of just patting the rhythm. BUT, keep the rhythmic motive constant.

3. Only use chord tones (the notes you play in the right hand should always be contained in the chord
you are playing in the left hand). You might try just outlining the chords, as in the 1st measure.

4. Keep the overall range of your improvisation within an octave or less.

5. Notice how the last note for this example is an "F" -- the TONIC note. It's always a good idea to end
your improvisation on the TONIC note

& b c
? c
b
I



IV

IV

w
ww
w

IV

V7

IV

V7

w
www
I

When you feel comfortable playing the example above in the written key of F major, try playing it in the keys
of C major and G major.
Play the following example using the rhythmic motive in measure 1. Be sure to play a "long note" (whole note)
in measures 4 and 8, and be sure to end on the tonic note in measure 8.

# c
&

?# c
I



IV

IV

www
V7

IV

IV

V7

ww
w
I

54
Improvise the following example using the rhythmic motive in measure 1. Only use chord tones in your
improvisation. Repeat in the keys of F and G. This example is in 3/4 time so it will have a different feel than
the previous ones. If you have trouble, try "patting" the rhythm with both hands while you count out loud.

j
3
& 4 .
? 3 ...
4

IV

..
.

V7

IV

V7

Improvise the following example using the rhythmic motive in measure 1. Be sure to use a "long note" (whole
note) at the cadence points. Repeat in the keys of D minor and E minor.

&c

?c

iv

iv

w
# ww
V7

ww
w

iv

iv

V7

Improvise the following example using the rhythmic motive in measure 1. Be sure to use a "long note" (whole
note) at the cadence points. Repeat in the keys of E minor and A minor.

j
& b c .
? b c

iv

iv

ww
# w

V7

iv

iv

w
# ww
i

V7

Improvise a melody over the following chord progression in C Major, F Major and G Major. Use the voicings
from the block-chord cadences. Give each chord 2 beats and use long notes at the cadence points. This is a
2-PHRASE chord progression. Try it again giving each chord 3 beats.
cadence point

6 I
I

I
I

IV
IV

IV
IV

I
I

I
V7

V7
I

V7
I

(this is the 1st phrase)


(this is the 2nd phrase)

Improvise a melody over the following chord progression in a minor, d minor and e minor. Use the voicings
from the cadences. Give each chord 3 beats and use long notes at the cadence points. Try it again giving each
chord 2 beats.
cadence point

i
i

i
i

iv
iv

iv
iv

i
i

i
V7

V7
i

V7
i

(this is the 1st phrase)


(this is the 2nd phrase)

55

Sight Reading
1

&c
?c
&
?

# 3
.
& 4
.
?# 3
4

.
.

& b 22
? b 22

## c
&

? ## c
##


? ##
&

w
w

w
w

.
.
w
w

56

3
&b 2
? 3
b 2
&b

?b

# 2 .
& 4
.
?# 2
4
# .
&
.
?#

.
.

.
. J
j
.

w.

w.

& b 22
? b 22
& b . j
?

57

&4

? 34

&c
?c

10

& b 34
? b 34 .
&b

? b .

11

# c
&

?# c
&

.
.

?#

.
.

w
.
.
.
.

58

Scales
All scale fingerings can be divided into 3 groups according to their fingering patterns. Each group has its own
special characteristics and it is helpful to know the characteristics of a scale group before you try to play them.
Only Group I Scales are covered here -- the other groups will be presented in later volumes of this series.
Here are some general statements about all scale fingerings:

1. In any scale (major or minor), the 4th finger in each hand only plays ONCE per octave.
Consequently, the 4th finger always plays the SAME note. One way to think about
scale fingerings is simply to memorize the 4th finger note of each scale. Then
everything else is just 1-2-3, 1-2-3, etc.

2. Fingering in scales is CONSECUTIVE, that is -- don't skip fingers. This is a common
mistake, particularly skipping the 2nd finger after playing the thumb.
Here are the specific characteristic for Group I scales:
Group I Scales: Those scales in which the thumbs always play together. Sometimes called the "black-keyscales" because in most of the scales, all the black keys are played most of the time.






MAJOR KEYS (thumb notes)


D-Flat
G-Flat
B
F

F & C
C-flat & F
B & E
F & C

MINOR KEYS (thumb notes)


b-flat
e-flat
b
f

C&F
F & C-flat
B&E
F&C

Here are the characteristics of this scale group which may help to play these scales learning
the correct fingering:


1. The thumbs of each hand always play together. In addition, each scale in this group
has 2 thumb notes (see the above chart). The thumbs always play on the white

notes never on black notes.

2. For all the scales in this group, the 2nd and 3rd fingers of each hand play on OR NEAR
the group of 2 black notes. The 2nd, 3rd, & 4th fingers of each hand play on OR NEAR
the group of 3 black notes.
A common fingering mistake in Group I scales: always crossing over with the 4th finger. In Group I scales,
the 4TH FINGER plays ON or NEAR a group of THREE BLACK KEYS and does not play on the group of
2 black keys.
For this level, scales are presented both in traditional notation and graphic representation.

59

Group I Major Scales


All scales should be played from memory, 2 octaves ascending and descending in a steady tempo with correct
fingering.
Db Major
(Thumb notes: f & c)

&b b b c

? b b c
bb b
3 4 1

2 1

1 2
2 3

1 4 3

Gb Major
(Thumb notes: cb & f)

bb
& b b bb

1 3

2 1

? bb b b

b b
2

4 1

B Major
(Thumb notes: b & e)

1 4

2 3

3 4

2
3 1

(2)

&


? ####

#
####

1 2

3 2

4 1

3 1

3 1

2 1

4 3

3 2

F Major
(Thumb notes: f & c)




? b

&b

2 3

60

&
b

Group I Natural Minor Scales



usethe notes that are in the key signature.
only
"Natural
meansthat
you

? b Minor"


b bbb
bbbb

(2)

1 2

1 4

bb
b
b
bb bb

&

&
b

? bb b b b b b
b b
(2)
(2)

43
13 2

3 1 2
4 3 11 2 2 3
22
1 4133
3 2
4
2 1

E b minor
(Thumb notes: f & cb)

1 2 3

1
2

3 2
3 2 1
3
2
1
1 4 3

52
23 3 4 1
2
1
34 1

####

& # #

&

?
#

? # ## ##

B minor
(Thumb notes: b & e)

2
3 1
1 12 2 3
4
3
2 3
2 14
4 3

3 32 2

##
& bbbb
&

?
#

? b b# b
b

F minor
(Thumb notes: f & c)

bbbb

1 2
3 4

2
1

3
2

2
1
3 21 4

1 1

1 3

2 3

4 3

4 1

2 3

2 3

4 3

4 1

2 1
41 3
1
3 2

3 4

1 3

2 3

&

? b b b
b
1

3 2

1 2
3 4

32 23

3 32
14 2
32 4 1

3 22
1 2 41 3
423

#b b# b# b# b b
&
#
&


? #b b # b b

?
# b # b#
(2)

43
2 1 32

2 3

4 1

14
223 3

11

4 3

B b minor
(Thumb notes: c & f)

3 4

3 2

61

Group I Major Scales


All scales should be played from memory, 2 octaves ascending and descending in a steady tempo and with correct
fingering. Here is a GRAPHIC MAP of the shape of the scales. It will be helpful to see how the thumb notes
(white notes) look in relation to the black notes. You can also see the scales written in traditional NOTATION
in the preceding pages.
D b Major
Thumb notes: C & F

G b Major
Thumb notes: Cb & F

B Major
Thumb notes: B & E

F Major
Thumb notes: C & F

62

Group I Minor Scales


Bb Minor
Thumb notes: C & F

Eb Minor
Thumb notes: Cb & F

B Minor
Thumb notes: B & E

F Minor
Thumb notes: C & F

63

Scale, Triad and Exercise


Practice Log
SCALES Week:
SCALES
D-flat

D-flat
G-flat

B
G-flat
F
B

F
b-flat
min

e-flat min
b-flat min

g-sharp
min
e-flat min
b
min
min
g-sharp
b min

f min

f min
TRIADS
TRIADS
C
C
F

F
G
am
G

am
dm
dm
em

em
EXERCISES
EXERCISES
Exercise #1
#1
Exercise #2
Exercise #2
#3
Exercise #3

Group I Scales:

Major

Minor

Thumb Notes

D-flat
G-flat
B
F

b-flat
e-flat
b
f

F & C
C-flat & F
B & E
F & C

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

64

Group I Arpeggios
All arpeggios should be played from memory, 2 octaves ascending and descending in a steady tempo with correct
fingering. Unlike scales, there are several sets of fingering which different teachers use to teach arpeggios.
You should use the fingering your instructor recommends. However, below is outlined a commonly used set
of arpeggio fingering.
As with scales, arpeggios can be grouped according to specific fingering patterns. However, the groups of scales
and arpeggios are not the same event thought there are coincidently three groups of arpeggio fingering.
GROUP I (fingered like C Major):

C Major

& 34
? 34
1

4*

Right hand:
Left hand:
3

1 2 3 1 2 3 5
5 4 2 1 4 2 1

* Be sure to use the 4th finger in the left hand.

F Major

&b
1

?b
5

G Major

&

?#

65

A minor

&

E minor

&

?#
5

D minor

&b

?b
5

66

Exercises
Exercise #1 Ascending

&c

?c
1

D hand position

C hand position

&
1

?
1

F hand position

E hand position

&
1

?
1

A hand position

G hand position

&
1

?
1

B hand position

C hand position

67

Exercise #1 Descending


&

?
5

C hand position

B hand position

&
5

?
1

G hand position

A hand position

&
5

?
1

E hand position

F hand position

& w
5

? w
1

D hand position

C hand position

68

Exercise #2 Ascending

&c
5

?c
1

D hand position

C hand position

&
1

?
5

F hand position

E hand position

&

?
5

A hand position

G hand position

&
1

?
5

B hand position

C hand position

69

Exercise #2 Descending


&

?
5

C hand position

B hand position

&
5



?
1

G hand position

A hand position

&
5

?
1

E hand position

F hand position

& w
5

? w
1

D hand position

C hand position

70

Exercise #3 Ascending

&c
5

?c
1

D hand position

C hand position

&
1

?
5

F hand position

E hand position




&
1

?
5

A hand position

G hand position

&
1

?
5

B hand position

C hand position

71

Exercise #3 Descending

&

?
5

C hand position

B hand position

&
5




?
1

A hand position

G hand position

&
5

?
1

F hand position

E hand position

& w
5

? w
1

D hand position

C hand position

72

Appendix 1: Triads in a Scale; Inversions of Triads


Root position triads: C Major

4
& 4
? 4
4

ii

iii

IV

vi

vii

Inversions of primary triads: C Major

&

?
R

1st 2nd 3rd

Root position triads: A minor

&

ii

IV

III+

1st

2nd 3rd

iv

Inversions of primary triads: A minor


&

1st 2nd 3rd

iv

1st 2nd 3rd

#
#
V

IV

1st 2nd 3rd

1st

VI

#
#

#
V

R 1st 2nd 3rd

iv

2nd 3rd

vii

1st


#

#

2nd 3rd

73

Appendix 1: Triads/inversions cont'd


Root position triads: F Major

&b
?

ii

iii

IV

vi

vii

Inversions of primary triads: F Major

b
&

?
b
R

1st 2nd 3rd

Root position triads: D minor

& b
?
b

IV

ii

III+

1st 2nd 3rd

iv

& b

? b
R

1st 2nd 3rd

iv

1st 2nd 3rd

#
#

1st

R 1st 2nd 3rd

iv

2nd 3rd

vii

#
#

VI

IV

Inversions of primary triads: D minor

R 1st 2nd 3rd


#

#
1st

2nd 3rd

74

Appendix 1: Triads/inversions cont'd

Root position triads: G Major

&

?#

ii

iii

IV

vi

vii

Inversions of primary triads: G Major

# I
&
? #

R

1st 2nd 3rd

Root position triads: E minor

#
&
? #
I

IV

R 1st 2nd 3rd

ii

III+

&

? #
i

1st 2nd 3rd

iv

R 1st 2nd 3rd

1st 2nd 3rd

1st 2nd 3rd

#
#

#
#

VI

vii

iv

Inversions of primary triads: E minor

#
#

#
#

R 1st 2nd 3rd

IV

iv


#
#

1st

2nd 3rd

75

Appendix 1: Triads/inversions cont'd


Root position triads: D Major

##

? # #
&

ii

iii

# #
&

? # #

Inversions of primary triads: D Major

1st 2nd 3rd

IV

R 1st

&

##

ii

III+

Inversions of primary triads: B minor

&

##

? # #

1st 2nd 3rd

iv

iv

#
#

1st 2nd 3rd

VI

1st 2nd 3rd

R 1st 2nd 3rd

#
#

I IV I

1st 2nd 3rd

#
#

? # #

vii

2nd 3rd

Root position triads: B minor

vi


IV

vii

iv i


#

#

R 1st 2nd 3rd

76

Appendix 1: Triads/inversions cont'd

b
b
&

? b
b
I

b
& b

? b b
R

ii

iii

IV

1st 2nd 3rd

IV

R 1st 2nd 3rd

Root position triads: G minor

b
&b

? b b

ii

III+

b
&b

? b
b

1st 2nd 3rd

iv

1st 2nd 3rd

R 1st 2nd 3rd

1st 2nd 3rd

VI

vii

IV

#
#

#
#

#
#

iv

vii

Inversions of primary triads: g harmonic minor

vi

1st 2nd 3rd

iv

1st 2nd 3rd

77

Appendix 2: Melodic Phrases


The material presented here is intended to supplement the harmonized melody and improvisation examples.
"Melodic phrase" refers to the phrase construction found in simple common melodies such as popular music,
folk tunes, hymn tunes and chorales. Although this material may apply to phrase construction found in larger
classical music literature, generally the melodic phrase construction of art music is more complex and is beyond
the scope of these materials.
Melodies are comprised of PHRASES. For example, the following melody consists of three phrases:

& 24

&
&

Here is a common definition of PHRASE:

A phrase is the SHORTest passage of music expressing a COMPLETE MUSICAL THOUGHT and ending in
a CADENCE.*
There are three key points to this definition: (1) short, (2) complete musical thought, and (3) cadence. Hopefully,
"short" will not need extensive elaboration. However, a common error in determining a phrase is getting it
TOO short. More on this later.
COMPLETE MUSICAL THOUGHT means an instance of tension / relaxation. This duality is the basis of
"complete musical thought" and is related to the same kind of duality present in classical poetic meters. In the
above example, each phrase can easily be divided into its respective tension / relaxation (i.e., each phrase = 4
meas.; tension = 2 meas., relaxation = 2 meas.; half notes indicate points of division). Not all melodies are
this obvious. However, a great number of successful melodies do consist of combinations of 4 or 8 measure
phrases. With this explanation of "complete musical thought" in mind, examine the above melody again. It
is easy to understand why some might make the mistake of defining the phrases in this melody as consisting
of 2 measures instead of 4 measures. However, after playing or singing this example the tension / relaxation
scenario should become apparent. This particular melody has three phrases and in that regard is not as common
as many melodies which have 2 or 4 phrases.
In the above definition, "cadence" does not mean what it meant in an earlier section of this book -- a simple
progression of block chords. Instead, CADENCE here means a point of relaxation of the tension at the end of
the phrase. There are specific kinds of cadences and all phrases end with one of these specific cadences (see
Appendix 3).
Analyze the melodies in the Melodies for Harmonization section of this book to determine their phrase
construction. In addition to finding tension / relaxation, you might look for these often obvious characteristics
of phrase construction:

. Sometimes the CADENCE POINT is the longest note value of the phrase. See examples #7, p. 40;
#37, p. 47.

Often phrases consist of 4 or 8 measures (depending on the tempo), as in the example above.

* Definition based on Douglass Green's, Form in Tonal Music, 3rd edition, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publisher, 1979.

78

Appendix 3: Melodic Cadences


As mentioned in Appendix 2, melodic phrases end with a cadence. In this sense, "cadence" refers to what happens at the
end of a phrase and has nothing to do with the "block-chord" cadences (chord progressions) that you are required to learn
in order to harmonize melodies and improvise. Here, CADENCE is a "point of rest" at the end of a phrase.
There are only TWO categories of cadences: (1) conclusive, and (2) inconclusive. All types of cadences fall into these two
categories. A CONCLUSIVE CADENCE is a cadence on the I chord and an INCONCLUSIVE CADENCE is a cadence
on a chord other than the I chord, for example the V chord.
Regarding CONCLUSIVE CADENCES, there are 2 types: (a) authentic, and (b) plagal. An AUTHENTIC CADENCE
consists of 2 chords where the PENULTIMATE (next-to-last) chord contains a leading tone. Consequently, the most
typical kind of AUTHENTIC CADENCE is V or V7 moving to I. In a PLAGAL CADENCE, the penultimate chord does
not have a leading tone. The most typical kind of PLAGAL CADENCE is IV moving to the I chord. In an AUTHENTIC
CADENCE, if the I chord is in root position and the tonic is in the melody (top most voice), then it is known as a "perfect
authentic cadence."
INCONCLUSIVE CADENCES are not divided into types like conclusive cadences. There is only one type of inconclusive
cadence -- those that cadence on a chord other than the I chord, for example the V chord. Another name for the inconclusive
cadence is HALF CADENCE. It is important to know that a cadence on V is not the definition of "half cadence" but merely
an EXAMPLE of a half cadence. Other half cadences could be cadences on IV ("Auld Lang Syne"), cadences on III ("I've
been working on the rail road"), and cadences on vi (deceptive cadence). There is no such thing as a "perfect half cadence."
PERFECT when applied to a cadence only refers to an authentic cadence.
To successfully harmonize a melody, it is important to have a step-by-step procedure rather than just willy-nilly sticking
in chords. Here is a practical procedure for harmonizing a melody. If you use this you will have consistent success:

1. Identify the phrases. Often phrases can be identified by counting 4 or 8 measures (the majority of common melodies
in the western tradition have phrases constructed of 4 or 8 measures), looking for the longest note value (often the cadence
point at the end of a phrase is the longest note value of the phrase), or by looking for some aspect of tension and relaxation
(question/answer). See the melody below for reference.

2. Harmonize the CADENCE POINTS first. The cadence point is the 2nd chord of the two-chord progression of the
cadence, for example V7 - I. The V7 chord is the "penultimate chord" and the I chord is the "cadence point." Generally,
there are only two possibilities to harmonize the cadence point: I or V. Remember (from above), there are ONLY TWO
categories of cadences: conclusive and non conclusive. So, once you identify the cadence points at the ends of the various
phrases it should be relatively easy to determine if the cadence points are I or V. If the cadence point is a V, then it is better
to cadence on V rather than V7 (although for Level I piano, the V chord voicing is not presented so it is OK to cadence on
V7 rather than V).

3. Next, harmonize the PENULTIMATE CHORD -- that is, the chord right before the cadence point. If the cadence
point is the I chord, then you have two possibilities: (a) V7 - I, or (b) IV - I. In the first case that would be an authentic
cadence and in the second case it would be a plagal cadence. It most cases it simply doesn't matter which possibility you
use. If the cadence point is not a I chord (it's going to be an inconclusive cadence), then your 1st choice should be the V
chord since BY FAR this is the most common inconclusive (half) cadence. Yes, there are rare example where a IV chord
or a III chord would work, but your BEST CHOICE would simply be to use the V chord. Do not cadence on a ii chord. If
you feel the chord HAS to be the ii chord, then chances are you are trying to harmonize the "tension" part of the phrase
(as in, tension/relaxation) and you have not really found the true cadence point of the phrase.

4. Harmonize the rest of the melody. Now that you have the cadences at the ends of the phrases harmonized, go
ahead and harmonize the rest of the melody using the suggested harmonic rhythm. From here on out, the harmonization
procedure will be relative straight forward: if the melody note is in the chord you are trying to use, then IT WILL WORK.
There are some simple guidelines to use: (a) often the melody notes will outline specific chords and this will be a good

79

clue as to what chord to use, (b) it's OK to use the same chord consecutively -- you don't have to change chords on every
instances of the harmonic rhythm, (c) V7-I used within the phrase works best when the I chord is on a strong beat and the
V7 chord is on a weak beat. This is not a hard and fast rule, but it generally works well.
Here is an example:

Find the phrases, identify and then harmonize the cadence points. How many phrases does this tune have?

# 3
. j
& 4 . J .
V
#
j
& . J . .

-- The answer is TWO PHRASES. Count 8 measure phrases and look for the LONGEST note values.

-- The longest note values ARE the CADENCE POINTS, and you should be able to see that there are 2 phrases.

-- There is an aspect of TENSION from the beginning through the 2nd beat of meas. 4. This is followed by a
RELAXATION from the 3rd beat of meas. 4 through the cadence point of meas. 8 and 9. A similar structure
can be found from the 3rd beat of meas. 9 through the 2nd cadence point at the end of the tune.

-- The first cadence point should be harmonized by the V chord (or V7, if Level Preparatory or Level I).

-- The second cadence point should be harmonized by the I chord.
-- 1 chord per measure
# 3h . Harmonic rhythm
. j
& 4 . J .
I
V
#
j

&
. J
.

V7

-- The 1st cadence is an inconclusive cadence (half cadence}; the second cadence is a conclusive (authentic)
cadence.

Continue harmonizing the rest of the tune. Keep it SIMPLE. It's OK to use the same chord consecutively, especially
if the melody outlines specific chords. Keep in mind the HARMONIC RHYTHM, in this case -- one dotted half note for
each measure. Notice how the first phrase cadences on a V chord and then moves to a V7 chord. This creates a stronger
cadence than just cadencing on the V7 chord. Although, for Preparatory and Level I piano this will not be an option.

# 3h .
. j

& 4
. J
.
I
V
I
IV
IV
I
I
#
j
& . J . .

V7

IV

IV

V7

80

Appendix 4: Non-Chord Tones


A NON-CHORD TONE is a note in a melody which is not part of the chord or harmony which is
being used for harmonization at the point where the NON-CHORD TONE appears. Generally, there
are two types of NON-CHORD TONES:

1. Unaccented (occurs on a weak beat or a weak part of a beat)


2. Accented (occurs on a strong beat)

The terms "accented" and "unaccented" are subjective because the "feel" of accented/unaccented depends on
such factors as tempo and harmonic rhythm.
Here are some examples of NON-CHORD TONES . The numbers indicate different NON-CHORD TONES
which are explained below:

&c
? c

ww

w

w
www

1. PASSING TONE. One of the most common non-chord tones, the PASSING TONE "passes" between
two adjacent chord tones. "Adjacent" means the next chord tone, either up or down. In the chord, C-E-G, "E"
and "G" are adjacent but "C" and "G" are nonadjacent. So the PASSING TONE between C-E would be "D".
The PASSING TONE between E-G would be F.
2. NEIGHBOR TONE. Also one of the most common-chord tones, the NEIGHBOR TONE is a diatonic step
UP or DOWN from any chord tone. If the NEIGHBOR TONE is above the chord-tone then it's an "UPPER
NEIGHBOR TONE." And if it's below, its called a LOWER NEIGHBOR TONE. The example above (#2) is
a LOWER NEIGHBOR TONE.
3. ACCENTED PASSING TONE. If a passing tone occurs on a strong beat then it's called an ACCENTED
PASSING TONE. Notice that the note before and after are chord-tones.
4. ANTICIPATION. An ANTICIPATION, "anticipates" the upcoming chord. So, this implies that at least
TWO chords and 3 melody notes are involved. The 1st note is a chord tone associated with the 1st chord and
the 2nd note (which is the actual ANTICIPATION) is a non-chord tone associated with the 2nd chord. In the
example above (#4), the "E" is a chord-tone and is associated with the C major triad on beat 1. The "F" on
beat 2 is not part of the C major triad but is a part of the F major triad on beat 3. An ANTICIPATION always
occurs on a weak beat.
5. SUSPENSION. A SUSPENSION is the similar to an ANTICIPATION except that it always occurs on a
STRONG beat. It must have TWO chords involved and THREE melody notes. The 1st melody note is associated with the 1st chord and occurs on a WEAK beat. The 2nd melody note is THE SAME as the 1st melody
note but is associated with the second chord and occurs on a strong beat. This 2nd melody note is the actual
SUSPENSION and it's a NON-CHORD TONE (not part of the 2nd chord). The 3rd melody note "resolves" to
a chord tone in the 2nd chord.

81

6. APPOGGIATURA. An APPOGGIATURA is a type of ACCENTED non-chord tone and is very


similar to a SUSPENSION: it must have TWO chords involved and THREE melody notes. Here's the
difference: the 2nd melody note is DIFFERENT from the 1st melody note and it SKIPS to a non-chord
tone associated with the 2nd chord and then "resolves" BY STEP in the OPPOSITE DIRECTION from
the skip. If this seems complex, then just study the example. Some music theorists consider all ACCENTED
non-chord tones to be APPOGGIATURAS. See "appoggiatura" in Harvard's Dictionary of Music.
7. ESCAPE TONE. An ESCAPE TONE occurs on a WEAK beat and consists of a step (either up or down)
followed by a skip in the opposite direction to a CHORD TONE in either the same chord or a different chord.
There are other NON-CHORD TONES but they will not be discussed here. You will no doubt cover them in
your theory courses.
A question that is often asked by beginning theory students is, "Good grief! Why does all this matter?" Here's
a simple answer:
Music theory is the SCIENCE of music. In any scientific field, one endeavors is to CLASSIFY all possible phenomena. For example, in the field of geology, one endeavors to classify all rocks and all phenomena concerning
rocks. The same is true in ornithology, entomology, astronomy, physics, etc. The study of music is no different.
To UNDERSTAND music at a deep level, one has to classify and NAME all possible musical phenomena.
Although this may seem tedious and unimportant to the novice, it is invaluable to the professional musician.

82

Weekly Assignment Schedule


Week 1 - Week 2:
Become oriented to the keyboard: posture, hand position, how far back to sit from the keyboard.
Fundamentals of music basics:
- Learn notes on the staff
- Learn notes on the keyboard
- Review all the Fundamentals of Music materials in the textbook, pp. 8 - 21
- Explore the Sequencer Controls Software for Preparatory Level Piano.
- 1st repertory piece: Square One, p. 23
Week 3: Repertory; Scales; Exercise
- tudette No. 1, p. 24
- tudette No. 2, p. 25
- D-flat major scale. See pp. 58-62.
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up one octave
Week 4: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Exercises
- tudette No. 3, p. 26
- tudette No. 4, p. 27
- G-flat major scale. See pp. 58-62.
- Primary Triads in C Major: I IV V, p. 44
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up one octave
Week 5: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Exercises
- tudette No. 5, p. 28
- Lightly Row, p. 29
- Review D-flat and G-flat scales. See pp. 58-62
- Primary Triads in G Major: I IV V, p. 44
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up one octave
Week 6: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Exercises
- Little Dance, p. 30
- Ode to Joy, p. 31
- B-flat minor scale See pp. 58-62
- Primary Triads in F Major: I IV V p. 44
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up one octave
Week 7: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Cadences; Harmonize a melody; Exercises
- St. Flavian, p. 32
- E-flat minor scale. See pp. 58-62
- Review Primary Triads in C, F, G Major p. 44
- Cadence in C Major, p. 45
- Study Rules for Harmonization, p. 46 - 47
- Harmonize Melody #1, p. 48 (C Major)
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up one octave
Week 8: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Cadences; Harmonize a melody; Sight Read; Exercises
- My Lord, What a Morning, p. 33
- Review both B-flat and E-flat minor scales
- Review Primary Triads in C, F, G Major p. 44
- Cadence in F Major, p. 45
- Review Rules for Harmonization, p. 46 - 47
- Harmonize Melody #5, p. 48 (F Major)

83
- Read Improvisation Introduction, p. 52 - 53
- Practice sight reading, p. 55 - 57
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up AND DOWN one octave
Week 9: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Cadences; Harmonize a melody; Sight Read; Exercises
- Little Etude, p. 36
- B Major Scale. See pp. 58-62.
- Primary Triads in A minor: i iv V, p. 44
- Cadence A minor, p. 45
- Harmonize Melody #4, p. 48 (A minor)
- Do Improvisation Example #1 & #2, p. 53
- Practice sight reading, p. 55 - 57
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up AND DOWN one octave
Week 10: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Cadences; Harmonize a melody; Sight Read; Exercises
- Round Dance, p. 37
- B Minor Scale. See pp. 58-62.
- Primary Triads in D minor: i iv V, p. 44
- Cadence D minor, p. 45
- Harmonize Melody #2, p. 48 (D minor)
- Do Improvisation Example #6, p. 54
- Practice sight reading, p. 55 - 57
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up AND DOWN one octave; Exercise #2 up one octave
Week 11: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Cadences; Harmonize a melody; Improvise; Sight Read; Exercises
- Romance, p. 39 (This is a duet and you will be playing the Primo part. Ultimately, you

should be able to play your part along with the Secondo part as it plays on your

Sequencer Controls.)
- F Major scale. See pp. 58-62.
- Cadence E minor, p. 45
- Primary Triads in E minor: i iv V, p. 44
- Harmonize Melody #6, p. 49 (E minor)
- Do Improvisation Example #4 p. 54
- Practice sight reading, p. 55 - 57
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up AND DOWN one octave; Exercise #2 up one octave
Week 12: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Cadences; Improvise a melody; Sight Read; Exercises
- Triads, etc., p. 40
- Uncle Willie, p. 41; use the SUSTAIN PEDAL
- F minor scale. See pp. 58-62.
- Review all minor Cadences: A minor, D minor, E minor, p. 45
- Review all minor Triads: A minor, D minor, E minor, p. 44
- Do Improvisation Example #5, p. 54
- Practice sight reading, p. 55 - 57
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up AND DOWN one octave; Exercise #2 up and down one octave



Please READ THIS: A memorized repertory piece will be required for your final exam.
Choose any ONE of the pieces that have been studied in class since Week #9 and prepare
it from memory to play on a final exam. This will be in addition to any other repertory
pieces you are currently studying.

Week 13: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Cadences; Harmonize a melody; Sight Read; Exercises

84








- Debbies First Date, p. 43; use the SUSTAIN PEDAL.


- Tex, p. 42 -- just get started on it: play the RH by itself; play the LH by itself.
- All Cadences, p. 45
- All Triads, p. 44
- All Scales. See pp. 58-62.
- Harmonize melody # 6, p. 49
- Practice sight reading, p. 55 - 57
- Continue working on your memorized repertory piece.
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up AND DOWN one octave; Exercise #2 up and down one octave.

Week 14: Repertory; Scales; Triads; Cadences; Improvise; Sight Read; Exercises
- Tex, p. 42
- All Cadences, p. 45
- All Triads, p. 44
- All Scales. See pp. 58-62.
- Improvisation Example # 7, p. 54
- Practice sight reading, p. 55 - 57
- Continue working on your memorized repertory piece.
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up AND DOWN one octave; Exercise #2 up and down one octave.
Week 15: Repertory; Scales; Cadences; Harmonize a melody; Improvise; Sight Read; Triads; Exercises
- Your MEMORIZED repertory piece
- All Cadences, p. 45
- All Triads, p. 44
- All Scales. See pp. 58-62.
- Harmonize melody # 8, p. 49 and melody #12, p. 50
- Improvisation Example #6 & #7, p. 54
- Practice sight reading, p. 55 - 57
- Exercise #1, p. 66 up AND DOWN one octave; Exercise #2 up and down one octave.
- Continue working on your memorized repertory piece and be prepared to play it on you

your final exam.
Further requirements regarding assignments:

All technical material should be played from memory when you are playing for a grade. This includes:

-- Scales
-- Triads
-- Cadences
-- Exercises (if your instructor requires you to play these for a grade)

If you do not play this material from memory, you may not receive full credit.

85

Class Notes

86

Class Notes

87

Prepatory Level: Weekly Assignment Schedule


Here are the weekly assignments for this level of Class Piano in graphic form. Each weekly assignment is supplemented
in text form on pages 82-84. Consult those pages for details about each assignment.
WK.#

SCALES

REPERTORY

SIGHT READ CADENCES

See Week 1-2 on p. 82 for details of assignments.

See Week 1-2 on p. 82 for details of assignments.

D pp. 58-62

G pp. 58-62

HARM. MEL IMPROV

TRIADS

EXERCISES

#1 p. 66
up 1 octave

p. 24 tudette No. 1
p. 25 tudette No. 2

p. 26 tudette No. 3
p. 27 tudette No. 4

C Maj.
p. 44

#1 p. 66
up 1 octave

Review D & G
pp. 58-62

p. 29 Lightly Row

G Maj.
p. 44

#1 p. 66
up 1 octave

b minor
pp. 58-62

p. 30 Little Dance
p. 31 Ode to Joy

F Maj.
p. 44

#1 p. 66
up 1 octave

Study
Procedures
p. 46-47

e minor
pp. 58-62

p. 32 St. Flavian

C Maj.
p. 45

#1 p. 48

Review C, F, G
p. 44

#1 p. 66
up 1 octave

Review b & e
pp. 58-62

p. 33 My Lord, What..

Sight read
p. 55

F Maj.
p. 45

#5 p. 48

Intro
p. 52-53

Review C, F, G
p. 44

#1 p. 66-67
up & down

9*

b minor
pp. 58-62

p.36 Little Etude

Sight read
p. 56

G Maj.
p. 45

#3 p. 48

#1 p. 53
#2 p. 53

Review C, F, G
p. 44

#1 p. 66-67
up & down

10

F Major
pp. 58-62

p. 37 Round Dance

Sight read
p. 57

All Majors
p. 45

#6 p. 54
C, F, G

Review C, F, G
p. 44

#1 p. 66
#2 p. 68

11

f minor
pp. 58-62

p.39 Romance
See detail, p. 83

Sight read
p. 55-57

a minor
p. 45

#4 p. 48

#4 p. 54

a minor.
p. 44

#1 p. 66
#2 p. 68

12

All minors
pp. 58-62

Review
pp. 55-57

d minor
p. 45

#2 p. 48

#5 p. 54

d minor.
p. 44

#1 p. 66
#2 p. 68

13

All majors
pp. 58-62

Sight read
p. 55-57

e minor
p. 45

#6 p. 49

e minor.
p. 44

#1 p. 66
#2 p. 68

14

All minors
pp. 58-62

p. 42 Tex (finish it)

Sight read
p. 55-57

All minors
p. 45

#7 p. 54

Review a, d, e
p. 44

#1 p. 66
#2 p. 68

15

All scales
pp. 58-62

A piece of your choice


from memory *

Play examples
for instructor

All Cadences
p. 45

#6 & #7
p. 54

All triads
p. 44

#1 p. 66
#2 p. 68

#1 p. 66
up 1 octave

b p. 28 tudette No. 5

p. 40 Triads
p. 41 Uncle Willie
p.43 Debbies 1st Date
p.42 Tex (start it)

#8 p. 49
#12 p. 50

All scales,, cadences, triads, and exercises should be performed from memory when playing for a grade. Failure to do so
will result in a lowered grade.
*Your piece of choice from week 15 can be a new piece or any piece after Week 9 (including Wk. 9). You will memorize this piece and play it from memory on Week 15.