Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Where should entrepreneurship be introduced and taught in the high school


curriculum? As could be expected, there are several courses and levels into which
entrepreneurship can be integrated. While a full unit on entrepreneurship could be
taught as a stand-alone, independent course of study, this is not the only approach,
or necessarily the most effective. Even if a freestanding course is provided in the
curriculum, its effectiveness will be enhanced if entrepreneurial insights are
provided throughout the entire curriculum. If entrepreneurship education is isolated
in a single course, apart from the whole curriculum, it may be missed by many
students who then would not profit from their potential development as enterprising
individuals.
Placing entrepreneurial concepts and the entrepreneur into
the standard economics course not only makes the course more reflective of the
real world, but it also can help to
improve students' comprehension and enjoyment of the economics course.
Economics. The discussion above has outlined some of the key entrepreneurial
concepts that should be integrated into the typical economics course. Illustrations
of how these concepts might be taught are contained in the lesson plans in Part 2 of
this Master Curriculum Guide. Placing entrepreneurial concepts and the
entrepreneur into the standard economics course not only makes the course more
reflective of the real world, but it also can help to improve students' comprehension
and enjoyment of the economics course.
Business education. Perhaps the next most obvious place where entrepreneurship
should be included is in the high school business education curriculum. In addition
to the creative and enterprising attributes, the business education course will
introduce the financial and human management skills that are necessary for the
formation and survival of a new enterprise. The business education course should
also have the students think of themselves as employers rather than employees in
the market system. This view will enable the business student to identify with the
important issues with which the entrepreneur must grapple as part of the
development of a business plan. These issues include new products, process
innovation, employee training and management, financing the enterprise, and
assessment of the marketplace. The desired outcomes of the business education
course should include the students' ability to deal with the unknown in an
enterprising way.
Government. The action of government in creating and limiting the environment for
entrepreneurship should be included in courses of high school government.
Government regulations and taxes have an impact on the entrepreneurial
environment. Regulation is a burden for all businesses, but more especially for small
entrepreneurial ones that generally have less ability to bear the costs of
compliance.

History courses are a natural place within the curriculum to discuss how
entrepreneurs have helped determine the course of human events.

Comparative studies should be undertaken about the role of entrepreneurs under


alternative political systems. Why has there been a movement toward the free
market in command societies? To what extent is the existence of one kind of liberty
essential for the presence of the other? Can government bureaucrats be
entrepreneurial? These are just a few of the questions that might be posed in a
government class with entrepreneurial content.
Psychology. A course in psychology is an excellent place for students to understand
the psychological characteristics of the entrepreneur and to assess their own
characteristics and capacities to be entrepreneurial. A psychology course that
allows students to develop their own concepts of self-worth and inner control would
be a welcome addition to the process of entrepreneurship education.
Sociology. The study of the sociology of entrepreneurship is in its infancy, but there
are several ideas that are consistent with the thrust of entrepreneurship education.
Students should realize that entrepreneurs shape and are shaped by the culture in
which they live. Why do some ethnic groups seem to be more entrepreneurial than
others? How does entrepreneurship permit minority groups to enter the economic
and social mainstream? These are but two of the myriad questions that link
entrepreneurship and sociology, and high school courses can now begin to explore
them.
History. History courses are a natural place within the curriculum to discuss how
entrepreneurs have helped determine the course of human events. History courses
too often focus on politicians, rulers, and military leaders. History teachers can do a
great deal to expand the horizons of their students by focusing on case studies of
entrepreneurs who have contributed to the betterment of humankind. Case studies
are particularly valuable if a variety of alternative stories are included that allow the
students to relate to entrepreneurs of their same race and/or gender.
Entrepreneurial history can help students understand that most progress is made in
small steps. While the "mega" innovations are important, progress really happens as
ideas are adapted and refined. The cumulative process of improving and changing
old ideas in an incremental way to better satisfy consumer or producer needs is the
form most entrepreneurial activity takes and in so doing makes history. Science.
Entrepreneurship can also be a thread woven into the fabric of science courses.
Since technological advance often begins with scientific insight and continues
because of entrepreneurial persistence, students should understand the relation
between scientific discovery and entrepreneurship. Many of the great scientists
were also entrepreneurs. They not only invented the product or technology but also
brought it to the marketplace. Students should understand these relationships
between the laboratory and the market.
Vocational/technical education. For many years, entrepreneurship has been an
integral part of many vocational/technical programs. The majority of American high
school students are enrolled in some vocational/ technical course or program. These

offerings present an excellent opportunity for the spreading of entrepreneurship


education over a significant number of students.
The focus of entrepreneurship education in the vocational/ technical curriculum has
been narrow and limited to the teaching of skills needed to start and sustain a small
business, but most vocational/technical programs contain at least a module on basic
economics. In this module the links between the market and the entrepreneur need
to be stressed. The curriculum should be broadened beyond skills training to include
an understanding of how employees can be enterprising as well as units on the
nurturing of entrepreneurial traits and characteristics.