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# ogie 2011

## - capable of absorbing large amounts of water if LL and

LI is relatively high
- related to soil strength

## - simple measures of the water absorbing ability of soils

containing clay minerals

The Liquid Limit (LL) - This is the minimum water content at which
the soil will flow under a small disturbing force

The Plastic Limit (PL) - This is the minimum water content at which
the soil will deform plastically

The Shrinkage Limit (SL) - This is the moisture content the soil
would have had if it were fully saturated at the point at which no
further shrinkage occurs on drying.

## Atterbergs Limits (Soil Consistency Measures)

Border line water contents, separating the different states of a fine
grained soil

brittlesolid

Shrinkage
limit

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semisolid

Plastic
limit

plastic

Liquid
limit

liquid

water content

## Border line water contents, separating

the different states of a fine grained soil

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Shrinkage
limit

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Plastic
limit

plastic

PI

Liquid
limit

water content

LL  PL

remains plastic

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LI

w  PL
LL  PL

## For scaling the natural water content of a soil sample

to the limits.

LiquidityIndex LI

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40

60

20

20

Low
plasticity

30

Liquid Limit

50

Clays

Silts

)
ne -20
i
L L
A- 3(L
.7
0
=
PI

High
plasticity

Intermediate plasticity

## Purely based on LL and PI

Classifying Fines

Plasticity
Index

100

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

10

48

30

40

60

(mm)

50

70

80

90

100

## 1.Find the liquid limit

2. Compute the plastic limit
3.Determine the plasticity index

## Wt. of wet soil + container = 22.12 gms

Wt. of dry soil + container = 20.42 gms
Wt. of container
= 13.07 gms

## while in a plastic limit test the foll.data

were obtained:

PENETRATION OF CONE

20

Example
In a liquid limit test using Fall cone
apparatus, the following readings were
recorded.
Sample Water content Penetration of
cone
1
40%
12 mm
2
45
16
3
50
21
4
58
35

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

10

43

20

30

40

NUMBER OF BLOWS

25

50

60

70

80

90

100

## 1. Find the liquid limit

2. Compute the plasticity index
3. Solve for the liquidity index
if natural water content is 38%.

## While in a plastic limit test the foll. values

were observed:
Wt. of wet soil + container = 21.19 gms
Wt. of dry soil + container = 18.78 gms
Wt. of the container
= 8.20 gms

## BEST-FIT STRAIGHT LINE

Example
In a liquid limit test using cup
apparatus, the foll. data were taken:
Sample Water content
No. of
Blows
A
41.8%
39
B
43.5
23
C
44.3
20
D
45.5
13

d) 21.6

d) 32.2%

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a) 0.877
b) 0.963
c) 0.625
d) 0.741

c) 14.7

a) 11.3
b) 16.3

27.0

28
c) 31.8%

33.1

20

## 1. Determine the liquid limit

a) 28.5%
b) 30.1%

36.5

Moisture content %

16

No of blows N

Example. Following are the results from the liquid limit test for soil
sample. Plastic limit = 12.2%

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28.5
27

33.1

36.5

16
20
28

16

36.5
33.1
27.0

25

28

28.5 12.2
= 0.877

LI =

26.5 12.2

= 16.3

PI = 28.5 12.2

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28.5 12.2
= 0.877

LI =

26.5 12.2

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