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# IGCSE Chemistry

## Section 1d:relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

The relative atomic mass (Ar) of an atom is found of the periodic table.
We usually use relative atomic masses correct to the nearest whole number (or 0.5 in the case
of Cl):
H = 1; C = 12; N = 14; O = 16; Na = 23; Al = 27; S = 32; Cl = 35.5; Cu = 64
Relative formula mass, Mr
1.16 calculate relative formula masses (Mr) from relative atomic masses (Ar)
The relative formula mass is the relative mass of compounds and is calculated using the relative
atomic masses of the elements in the compound multiplied by the number of particles of that
element.
CO2

RFM = 12 + 2 16

= 44

Cu(NO3)2

## relative molecular mass of H2O = 18 because (2 x 1) for H + (1 x 16) for O = 18

relative formula mass of NaOH = 40 because 23 + 16 + 1 = 40

## relative molecular mass of Al2(SO4)3 = because (2 x 27 ) + (3 x 32) + (12 x 16) = 342

CuSO4.5H2O

Find the relative molecular mass for each of the following. SHOW your WORKINGS
HCl-36

MgCl2-96

LiOH

CH4

CaSO4

1. O2-32
2. N2-28
3. H2O-18
4. CO2-44
5. NH3-17
6. NaOH-30
7. NaCl-58
8. H2SO4
9. HNO3
10. HCl

11. CuSO4
12. CuCl2
13. H2S
14. CH4
15. CaO
16. Al2O3
17. Cu(NO3)2
18. CaCO3
19. Mg(NO3)2
20. Al2(SO4)3
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NH4OH

(NH4)2 SO4

IGCSE Chemistry

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IGCSE Chemistry

## Calculating percentage by mass of elements in compounds.

The percentage by mass is important to mineral prospectors, and is also useful in finding
formulae.
If the formula is already known it is simply a question of finding the fraction of the formula mass
made up by the element in question.

## % mass = Mass of the substance in the compound x 100

RFM of the substance
What is the percentage by mass of aluminium in bauxite, Al 2O3?
RFM of Al2O3
Mass of aluminium in Al2O3
54

% by mass of Al = 102

100

= 227 + 316
= 227

= 102
= 54

## = 52.9% (3 sig. fig.)

A common problem with percentage by mass calculations occurs when an element occurs in
two places in the compound.
What is the percentage by mass of oxygen in CuSO4.5H2O?
RFM of CuSO4.5H2O
Mass of oxygen in formula
144

% by mass of O = 250

100

= 64 + 32 + 416 + 5 (2+16)
= 416 + 516
= 144
= 57.6% (3 sig. fig.)

## Calculating the % Element in a Compound

Calculate the % of:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

H in H2O=2/16=.125
C in C2H6=24/30=.800
O in CO=16/28=.571
O in CO2=32/44=.727
N in NH3=14/17=.823
Cu in CuCl2
Ca in CaO
S in SO3
Na in NaCl
Cl in HCl

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Cl in MgCl2
H in H2S
Al in Al2O3
C CaCO3
Na in Na2CO3
O in NaHCO3
K in K2SO4
H in HNO3
S in Al2(SO4)3
O in Cu(NO3)2

Other likely questions are: Which fertiliser has the biggest % of N (nitrogen)?
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= 250

IGCSE Chemistry
a)

N in NH4NO3 28/80 b)

N in KNO3 14/101 c)

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N in NH4PO4 14/98

IGCSE Chemistry
Calculate the percentage element in a compound

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IGCSE Chemistry
Questions: Relative Formula Mass and % Element in a compound
1.

The symbol equation below shows the reduction of iron (III) oxide by carbon monoxide.
Fe2O3
(a)

3CO

2Fe

## Calculate the formula mass of iron (III) oxide.

3CO2

[1]

...............112/16+16+16+36+16+112=244=45.9%...........................................................
(b)

## What percentage (%) of iron (III) oxide is iron?

[2]

45.9%................................................................................................................................
.....
.....................................................................................................................................
2.

Calcium carbonate tablets are used to treat people with calcium deficiency.

C a lc ifu ll T a b le ts

C a
A c tiv e in g r e d ie n t:
C a lc iu m c a r b o n a t e

C aC O

( E a c h ta b le t c o n ta in s 1 .2 5 g C a C O 3 )

(a)

## Calculate the relative formula mass (Mr) of calcium carbonate. [1]

..........100...........................................................................................................................

(b)

## Calculate the percentage of calcium in calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

................40%..................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Percentage of calcium =.......................... % [1]

(c)
(d)

## Calculate the mass of calcium in each tablet in grams. [1]

......................1/2g..............................................................................................................
An unwanted side effect of this medicine is that it can cause the patient to have wind
(too much gas in the intestine). The equation below represents the reaction between
calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid (the acid present in the stomach).
CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(1) + CO2(g)
Suggest why the patient may suffer from wind. [1]

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IGCSE Chemistry
...........................................................excess CO2 gas created.......................................
3.

(a)

The formula for ammonia is NH3. What does the formula tell you about each molecule
of ammonia?
[1]
......................................one nitrogen three hydrogens......................................................

(b)

Ammonia is used to make nitric acid (HNO3). Calculate the formula mass (Mr) for nitric
acid. [1]
.....................................................................................................................................

4.

## The formula for the chemical compound magnesium sulphate is MgSO4.

Calculate the relative formula mass (Mr) of this compound.

[1]

...........................120...................................................................................................................
5.

## Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, is made up of nitrogen, hydrogen and chlorine atoms.

(i)

Complete the table to show the number of atoms of each element present in NH4Cl.
Element

Number of atoms in
NH4Cl

nitrogen

hydrogen

chlorine

1
(1)

(ii)

## Calculate the relative formula mass of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl.

[1]

.................................................................53....................................................................

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IGCSE Chemistry
The mole
1.17 understand the use of the term mole to represent the amount of substance
1.18 understand the term mole as the Avogadro number of particles (atoms, molecules,
formulae, ions or electrons) in a substance
Because atoms and molecules are so small, chemists measure or work with them in large
numbers. Chemists measure amounts of substance in moles.
The mole is the chemists counting unit used to indicate a certain number, just like a pair, a
dozen, a trio.
A mole is the number 6.02 x 1023, and is called Avogadro's number.
A mole of any substance contains the same number of atoms or molecules or ions or
electrons or formula units and always equals 6.02 x 1023.
The Avogadros Number or Constant is equal to the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon12,
and is 6 x 1023

Molar mass
1.19 carry out mole calculations using relative atomic mass (Ar) and relative formula mass (Mr)
The molar mass of a substance is the mass of 1 mole of particles of that substance or the
mass of 6.02 x 1023 particles of that substance.
Calculate the relative formula mass (Mr) of a substance, the mass of 1 mole will be the same
number, in g. This is called the molar mass, and its units are g/mol.
e.g. What is the mass of one mole of (a) CO2 ; (b) Cu(NO3)2 ?
(a)

(b)

1 mole of CO2
Relative formula mass of CO2
Molar mass of CO2

= 12 + 216 = 44
= 44 g/mol

1 mole of Cu(NO3)2
Relative formula mass of Cu(NO3)2
= 64 + 2 (14+ 316) = 188
Molar mass of Cu(NO3)2
= 188 g/mol

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IGCSE Chemistry
Calculating moles using molar mass

a. 73g of HCl

36
2mols

2mols

NaOH
.4

d. 85g of NH3
5+2/3

## e. 30g of magnesium sulphate

.25

f. 0.8g of CH4
1/20

g. 196g of H2SO4

h. 31g of P4

i. 0.56g of CaO

Find the mass of the following amounts of substance show your working:
a. 2 moles of iron
112g

d.

g.

9g

## e. 0.1 mole of Ca(OH)2

i. 0.1 moles of S8

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IGCSE Chemistry

## Calculating the Number of Moles from a given Mass

Number of moles=
mass of the substance
mass of 1 mole of the substance

molmr

mol= m
mr

Example

mass of 1 mole
mol=m=88=2 moles
mr44

1
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
2
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
3
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

## How many moles are there in . . .?

2g of helium atoms
6g of carbon atoms
16g of helium atoms
4g of sulphur atoms
4g of hydrogen atoms

f) 4g of oxygen molecules
g) 213g of chlorine molecules
h) 254g of iodine molecules
I) 0.8g of oxygen molecules
j) 0.56g of nitrogen molecules

## How many moles are there in . . .?

88g of carbon dioxide (CO2)
3.1g of sulphur dioxide (SO2)
73g of hydrogen chloride (HCl)
4g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
560g of potassium hydroxide (KOH)

## f) 392g of sulphuric acid (H2SO4)

g) 120g of magnesium oxide (MgO)
h) 4g of copper oxide (CuO)
I) 2.8g of carbon monoxide (CO)
j) 170g of ammonia (NH3)

## How many moles are there in . . .?

15.8g of potassium manganate (VII) (KMnO4)
40.5g of zinc oxide (ZnO)
1.6g of bromine (Br2)
5.6g of calcium oxide (CaO)
37g of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)

f)
g)
h)
I)
j)

## 47.3g of sodium sulphate(Na2SO4)

0.78g of aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3)
8g of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)
298g of ammonium phosphate ((NH4)3PO4)
0.92g of ethanol (C2H5OH)

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IGCSE Chemistry

Number of moles

Moles

mol

## mass of the substance

mass of 1 mole of the substance
= m
mr

Therefore:
Mass of substance =
number of moles x mass of 1 mole
which is the same as saying . . .
Mass
= number of moles x Relative Formula Mass

m
molmr

= mol x mr

Example

mass=mol x mr
=2 x 12
=24 g

mol=m
mr

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
3
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

## 1 mole of carbon dioxide (CO2)

5 moles of carbon dioxide (CO2)
3 moles of water (H2O)
2 moles of sulphur trioxide (SO3)
3 moles of nitric acid (HNO3)

## f) 10 moles of hydrochloric acid (HCl)

g) 100 moles of sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
h) 50 moles of sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
I) 30 moles of calcium oxide (CaO)
j) 25 moles of sodium chloride (NaCl)

## What is the mass of . . .?

0.1 mole of copper oxide (CuO)
0.1 mole of calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
0.01 mole of sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
0.2 mole of calcium chloride (CaCl2)
0.25 mole of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)

f)
g)
h)
I)
j)

## 0.05 mole of sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

0.58 mole of aluminium oxide (Al2O3)
0.1 mole of propanoic acid (C2H5COOH)
0.5 mole of potassium manganate (VII) (KMNO4)
0.25 mole of Hydrated Magnesium Sulphate
(MgSO4.7H2O)

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## a) 1 mole of carbon atoms

b) 2 moles of sodium atoms
c) 2 moles of aluminium atoms
IGCSE
Chemistry
d) 3 moles
of lithium atoms
e) 10 moles of iodine atoms

## f) 1 mole of oxygen molecules

g) 2 moles of chlorine molecules
h) 1 mole of nitrogen molecules
I) 0.5 mole of nitrogen molecules
j) 0.1 mole of carbon molecules

1.25 calculate reacting masses using experimental data and chemical equations
Example

Fe2O3(s) +

3CO(g)

2Fe (s) +

3CO3 (g)

## Step 2: convert data into moles:

mass

28g

number of moles =

= 0.5 mole of Fe

molar mass
56g
Step 3: find answer in moles using the balanced chemical equation:
2 moles of iron needs 1 mole of iron oxide
0.5 moles of iron needs 0.25 moles of iron oxide
unit is mass mass = number of moles x Mr = 0.25 x 160g = 40 g
Exercises
1. How much zinc oxide will be produced when 13g of zinc are heated in an excess of oxygen?
2. How much calcium oxide will be produced when 10g of calcium carbonate are decomposed
by heat?
3. 6.4 g of sulphur were burned completely in air. What mass of sulphur dioxide was formed?
4. How much carbon dioxide is produced when 20 tonnes of carbon are burned in excess of
oxygen?
5. How much oxygen is needed to react with 12 tonnes of iron to form iron (III) oxide?
6. A chemist is investigating a mixture of substances to make an improved type of glass. She
wants the finished glass sample to contain 14.0 g of calcium oxide. She plans to add calcium
carbonate to the mixture before it is melted. Calcium carbonate undergoes thermal
decomposition according to the equation
CaCO3(s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)
Calculate the minimum number of moles of calcium carbonate which the chemist should
add to the mixture in order to ensure that the final glass contains 14.0 g of calcium oxide.
7. Calculate the mass of copper required to produce 160g of copper oxide when heated in
excess oxygen
2Cu (s) + O2(g) 2CuO (s)
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IGCSE Chemistry
1 Zinc oxide reacts with carbon to form zinc and carbon monoxide. How much zinc oxide do
you need to make 130 tonnes of zinc?
ZnO (s) + C(s) Zn (s) + CO (g)
9. In the thermit reaction, aluminium is used to obtain pure iron. How much aluminium is
needed to obtain 28 tonnes of iron?
Fe2O3(s) +

2Al (s)

2Fe (s) +

Al2O3 (s)

10. What mass of chlorine would be needed to make 73 tonnes of hydrogen chloride?
H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) 2HCl (g)
11. Calculate the mass of nitric acid needed to make 400 tonnes of ammonium nitrate
HNO3 + NH3 NH4NO3
12. What mass of aluminium would be produced from 204 tonnes of aluminium oxide given the
reaction?

13. 2.67g of aluminium chloride was dissolved in water and silver nitrate was added to give
silver chloride
AlCl3 + 3AgNO3 Al(NO3) + 3AgCl

2Al2
O3
(s)

## 4Al (s) + 3O2 (g)

What mass of silver chloride was produced?
b.

Calculate the amount of chromium produced from 1 tonne of chromium (III) oxide

## 14. Calcium hydroxide is manufactured by heating calcium carbonate strongly to produce

calcium oxide, and then adding a controlled amount of water to produce calcium hydroxide.
CaCO3(s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)
CaO (s) + H2O (l) Ca(OH)2 (s)
a. What mass of calcium oxide would be produced from 1 tonne of calcium carbonate?
b. What mass of water would you need to add to that calcium oxide?
c. What mass of calcium hydroxide would eventually be produced?
15. Chromium is manufactured by heating a mixture of chromium (III) oxide with aluminium
powder.
Cr2O3(s) + 2Al (s) 2Cr (s) + Al2O3 (s)
a.

Calculate the amount of aluminium needed to react with 1 tonne of chromium (III) oxide.

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IGCSE Chemistry

## The volume of 1 mole of hydrogen gas

One mole of any gas occupies the same volume when measured under the same conditions of
temperature and pressure. In this experiment, the volume of one mole of hydrogen is calculated at room
temperature and pressure.
1. Clean a piece of magnesium ribbon
about 3.5 cm long and weigh accurately.
(Between 0.02 and 0.04 g)
2. Measure 25 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric
acid (Irritant) into the burette. Carefully
add 25 cm3 of water on top of this.
3. Push the magnesium into the end of
the burette so it will stay in position with its
own tension.
4. Add 50 cm3 of water to a 250 cm3
beaker.
5. Quickly invert the burette into the
water. It is important that the liquid level in
the burette starts on the graduated scale.
(If it is not on the scale, open the tap, this
allows the level to drop). Clamp the
burette vertically.

6.

## Take the burette reading (care: it is upside down!)

7. Observe the magnesium react as the acid diffuses downwards, wait until all the magnesium has
reacted.
8.

## Note the new volume on the burette (care: it is upside down).

Results:
Mass of magnesium used _____________ g Volume of hydrogen produced ______________ cm3

Safety

## Wear eye protection.

Questions
The equation for the reaction is

Mg +2HCl MgCl2 + H2

The equation tells us that 1 mole of magnesium will produce 1 mole of hydrogen.
1. How many moles of magnesium were reacted?
2. How many moles of hydrogen were produced?
3. Calculate the volume of 1 mole of hydrogen.
4. Write a conclusion.
5. How can you make the experiment more valid?

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IGCSE Chemistry
Molar volume of gases
1.20 understand the term molar volume of a gas and use its values (24 dm 3 and 24,000
cm3) at room temperature and pressure (rtp) in calculations
The moles of a gas can be calculated because 1 mole of any gas, at room temperature and
normal pressure, occupies a volume of 24 dm 3 which is called the molar volume of gases at
room temperature.
volume of gas in dm3
number of moles of gas at r.t.p. =
24 dm3
At room temperature and pressure (r.t.p.), one mole of any gas occupies a volume of 24 dm3 (24000
cm3).
Number of moles of gas at r.t.p
as

volume of gas in cm 3
24000

## volume of gas at r.t.p = (number of moles) 24 dm3

= (number of moles) 24000 cm3

e.g. What total volume of gas at r.t.p. can be obtained from heating 99.3g of lead(II) nitrate?
(Pb=207, N=14, O=16)
2 Pb(NO3)2
2PbO + 4NO2 + O2
(a)

## Molar mass of lead(II) nitrate = 207 + 2(14 + 316)

= 331g/mol

99.3g
331 g/mol

(b)

=
= 0.300 mol
From equation: 2 mol of lead(II) nitrate give (4 + 1)
= 5 mol of gas
Therefore 0.300 mol gives 0.300 2.5
= 0.75 mol of gas

(c)

= 0.75 24

## 18 dm3 (at room T and P)

e.g. What mass of sodium hydroxide is needed to absorb 1.00 dm 3 of carbon dioxide gas at
r.t.p.?
Equation: 2NaOH + CO2 Na2CO3 + H2O

(a).

## volume of gas in dm3

24
Amount of carbon dioxide =
1
24
= mol

= 0.0417 mol
(b)

## From equation: 1 mol of carbon dioxide reacts with 2 mol of NaOH

So 0.0417 mol of CO2 reacts with 2 0.0417 = 0.0833 mol of NaOH

(c)

## Molar mass of NaOH

= 23 + 16 + 1
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= 40 g/mol

IGCSE Chemistry
mass of NaOH needed
= 0.0833 mol 40 g/mol = 3.33 g
How many moles of gas are there in (at rtp):
a. 2400 cm3 of chlorine

## b. 120 cm3 of chlorine

c. 96 cm3 of nitrogen

d. 24 cm3 of methane

f. 12 dm3 of Cl2

## g. 1.2 dm3 of SO2

h. 24 000 cm3 of O2

## Calculate the volumes at RTP

a. 1.23 moles of N2

b. 2.05 moles of O2

## d. 0.5 moles of CH4

e. 0.25 moles of He

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c. 7 moles of NH3

f. 0.001 moles of F2

IGCSE Chemistry

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IGCSE Chemistry

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IGCSE Chemistry
Past question

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IGCSE Chemistry

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IGCSE Chemistry

When two gases react, the ratio of volumes is the same as the ratio of moles.
This is because equal volumes of all gases, under the same conditions, contain the same
number of molecules.
e.g. (11) When propane gas is burnt the equation is:
C3H8 + 5 O2 3CO2 + 4H2O
What volume of oxygen will react with 2.5 dm3 of propane, at r.t.p.?
From the equation: 1 mol C3H8 reacts with 5 mol of O2
Therefore:
and:

## 1 dm3 C3H8 reacts with 5 dm3 of O2

2.5 dm3 C3H8 reacts with 2.5 5 = 12.5 dm 3 of O2

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IGCSE Chemistry

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