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Suggested Solution to Foundation

Inorganic Chemistry
Periodicity
1.

(a)

Melting Point

Electrical Conductivity

Ionic Radius
(Note: Ar does not form ion)

(i) Melting point


Na, Mg and Al have giant metallic structures. Na has a relatively low melting point due to its weak
metallic bonds. Mg and Al have high melting points due to their strong metallic bonds (or
electrostatic attraction) between respective metal cations and their mobile valence electrons.
Si has a high melting point as it has a giant covalent structure with an extensive network of strong
covalent bonds between Si atoms.
P4, S8, Cl2 and Ar have low melting points as they have simple molecular structures with weak van
der Waals forces between their respective molecules. Since the number of electrons per
molecule decrease in the order S8 > P4 > Cl2 > Ar, the strength of van der Waals forces between
molecules decreases in the same order S8 > P4 > Cl2 > Ar. melting point of S8 > P4 > Cl2 >Ar.
(ii) Electrical Conductivity
Electrical conductivities are high for Na, Mg and Al as they have mobile valence electrons in their
giant metallic structures. Electrical conductivity increases from Na to Mg to A l as the number of
mobile valence electrons increases from Na to Mg to Al.
It drops sharply at Si which has a giant covalent structure and it is a semi-conductor.
P4, S8, Cl2 and Ar are poor electrical conductors due to absence of mobile charge carriers in their
simple molecular structures (or monoatomic structure for Ar).
(iii) Ionic Radius
Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+ are isoelectronic with 10 electrons and P3, S2, Cl are isoelectronic with 18
electrons. Across each isoelectronic series, the ionic radius of the isoelectronic ions decreases
since the nuclear charge increases while shielding effect by inner shell electrons remain
constant.
The anions (P3, S2, Cl ions) have one more filled quantum shell of electrons, therefore these
anions have greater ionic radius than the cations (Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+ ions).
(b)

2.

(a)

(i)

SO2 + 2NaOH Na2SO3 + H2O

(ii)

Al2O3 + 2NaOH + 3H2O 2Na[Al(OH)4]

MgCl2 has the highest melting point as it has a giant ionic structure and a
large amount of energy is required to overcome the strong ionic bonds (or electrostatic
attraction) between Mg2+ and Cl ions. [1m]
Both AlCl3 and SiCl4 have low melting points as they have simple covalent structures and a small
amount of energy is required to overcome the weak van der Waals' forces between their
respective molecules. [1m]
AlCl3 has a higher melting point than SiCl4 as AlCl3 exists as dimers, Al2Cl6, in the solid state {due to
the formation of dative bonds}. Due to greater number of electrons in the Al2Cl6 molecule as

compared to that in the SiCl4 molecule, van der Waals' forces between the Al2Cl6 molecules are
stronger than those between the SiCl4 molecules. [1m]
(b)

Question: Describe, state pH, write balanced eqns


Note: No need to explain. Explanations are included in { } for reference.
MgCl2 dissolves readily in water to form a neutral solution of pH 7.
{MgCl2 is ionic and hence it dissolves readily in water. No hydrolysis occurs due[1m]
to low
2+
charge density of Mg .}
Hydration: MgCl2(s) Mg2+(aq) + 2Cl (aq)
OR, MgCl2(s) dissolves readily and hydrolyses slightly in water to form a weakly
acidic solution of pH 6.5.
{MgCl2 is ionic and hence it dissolves readily in water. As the charge density of Mg 2+
[1m]
is not very high, Mg2+ undergoes slight hydrolysis to give a weakly acidic solution.}
Hydration: MgCl2(s) + 6H2O(l) [Mg(H2O)6]2+ (aq) + 2Cl (aq)
Hydrolysis: [Mg(H2O)6]2+(aq) [Mg(H2O)5(OH)]+(aq) + H+(aq)
AlCl3 dissolves and hydrolyses readily in water to form an acidic solution of pH 3. [1m]
{AlCl3 is covalent but dissolves readily in water due to its high ionic character. Due to the high
charge density of Al3+, it undergoes vigorous hydrolysis to give an acidic solution.}
Hydration: AlCl3(s) + 6H2O(l) [Al(H2O)6]3+(aq) + 3Cl (aq)
[1m]
Hydrolysis: [Al(H2O)6]3+(aq) [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+(aq) + H+(aq)
SiCl4 hydrolyses in water to form an acidic solution of pH 2. [1m]
{SiCl4 is covalent. It can react with water because the central Si atom uses its energetically
accessible vacant 3d orbitals to form dative bonds with water molecules, giving an unstable
transition state which breaks down to form HCl.}.
Hydrolysis: SiCl4(l) + 2H2O(l) SiO2(s) + 4HCl(aq) [1m]

(c)

ionic charge
charge density

ionic radius

Cation

ionic
radius /nm

Mg2+

0.065

30.8

7.0 or 6.5

Al3+

0.050

60.0

3.0

Fe3+

0.064

46.9

45

pH

[1m] for quoting ionic radius from the data booklet and stating the relationship
between charge density, ionic charge and ionic radius (or calculate charge density)
As the charge density of Fe3+ is between that of Mg 2+ and Al3+ , its degree (or extent) of
hydrolysis is greater than that of Mg 2+ but slightly less than that of Al3+. Hence, its pH is between
4 and 5. [1m]
Note: The higher the charge density of cation, the greater the degree of hydrolysis, the more
acidic is the resulting solution.

3.

(a)

Magnesium burns very vigorously in oxygen with a bright white light. A white solid residue of
MgO is obtained. [1m]
2 Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s) ()
Phosphorus burns vigorously in oxygen with a bright white light. A white solid residue of P4O10 is
obtained. [1m]
P4(s) + 5O2(g) P4O10(s)
()
Sulfur burns vigorously in oxygen with a blue flame. [1m]

S8(s) + 8O2(g) 8SO2(g)

(b)

()

3() [1m]

Question: Describe...relate to structure & bonding Write balanced equations.


MgO has a giant ionic structure with strong ionic bonds (or electrostatic attraction) between
Mg2+ and O2 ions. It reacts with water to a small extent to give a weakly alkaline solution of
pH 9. [1m]
MgO(s) + H2O(l)
Mg(OH)2(aq) [1m]
Note: Resulting solution is weakly alkaline because MgO and Mg(OH) 2 are not very soluble in water,
NOT because Mg(OH)2 ionises partially.

Al2O3 has a giant ionic structure with strong ionic bonds (or electrostatic attraction) between
Al3+ and O2 ions. It does not react with (or dissolve in) water due to the high magnitude of its
lattice energy. Hydration energy released through the formation of ion-dipole interaction is
insufficient to compensate for the energy required to break down the giant ionic lattice. [1m]
P4O10 and P4O6 have a simple molecular structure with strong covalent bonds between P and O
atoms in each molecule but weak van der Waals' forces between their respective molecules .
They react with water to give a strongly acidic solution of pH 2. [1m]
P4O10(s) + 6H2O(l) 4H3PO4(aq)
[1m]
P4O6(s) + 6H2O(l) 4H3PO3(aq)
(c)

Resulting solution of
Magnesium oxide

change from green to blue

Aluminium oxide

remains
[1m] green

Phosphorus oxide
(d)

(i)

Effect on Universal indicator solution

change from green to red

With NaOH(aq)

Ionic oxides are basic.

Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 3H2O(l) 2Na[Al(OH)4](aq)


[1m]
Covalent
oxides are acidic.
Ionic oxide with some
P4O6(s) + 12NaOH(aq) 4Na3PO3[1m]
(aq) + 6H2O(l)
covalent character is
amphoteric.

P4O10(s) + 12NaOH(aq) 4Na3PO4(aq) + 6H2O(l)

3.

4.

(d)

(a)

(ii)

With HCl(aq)
MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2O(l)

[1m]

Al2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2AlCl3 (aq) + 3H2O(l)

[1m]

MgO, ionic and basic, is soluble in HCl(aq) but insoluble in water and NaOH(aq).
Al2O3, ionic and amphoteric, is soluble in both NaOH(aq) and HCl(aq) but insoluble in water.
SiO2, covalent and acidic, is only soluble in concentrated alkali. It is insoluble in water,
NaOH(aq) and HCl(aq).
All three oxides are insoluble in water ().
Step 1: Add excess HCl(aq) to a small portion of the white powder().
If the powder dissolves and reacts with the acid to give salt and
water, then it could be MgO or Al2O3 ().
-

If the powder does not dissolve, it would be SiO2 () as it is


insoluble in acid.

Step 2: Add excess NaOH(aq) to another small portion of the white powder().
7 () [3m]
5-6 () [2m]
3-4 () [1m]

If the powder dissolves and reacts with the alkali to give salt and
water, then it could be Al2O3 ().
If the powder does not dissolve, it would be SiO2 or MgO() as
they are insoluble in aqueous alkali.
(b)

NaCl is ionic and hence it dissolves readily in water. Due to low charge density of Na+,
no hydrolysis occurs and the resulting solution is neutral (pH 7). [1m]
Hydration: NaCl(s) + aq Na+(aq) + Cl (aq)
PCl5 is covalent and it hydrolyses in water to form a strongly acidic solution of pH 1 due to
formation of strong acids, H3PO4(aq) and HCl(aq). [1m]
Hydrolysis: PCl5(l) + 4H2O(l) H3PO4(aq) + 5HCl(aq)

5.

(a)

Molecular formula of vapour: Al2Cl6 [1m]

Dative bond

Cl
Cl
Dative bond

(b)

[1m] for the diagram;


no need to label dative bond

Al Cl
Cl Al Cl
Cl

When a few drops of water is added,


Al2Cl6 (s) + 6H2O(l) 6HCl(g) + 2Al(OH)3(s) (must have state symbols)
[1m]
White fumes of HCl and white solid of Al(OH)3 are observed.
When large amount of water is added,
Al2Cl6(s) + 6H2O(l) 2Al(H2O)63+(aq) + 6Cl (aq) (must have state symbols)
[1m]
[Al(H2O)6]3+(aq) [Al(H2O)5OH]2+(aq) + H+(aq) (must have state symbols)
Due to high charge density of Al3+, Al3+ has a high polarising power and it is able to
[1m]
polarise the OH bonds of its solvated water molecules, hence hydrolysis occurs
and a
colourless acidic solution is obtained.

(c)

When Na2O is added to a solution of litmus, the solution turns from purple to blue because a
strongly alkaline solution is formed. [1m]
Na2O(s) + H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq)

(d)

(i)

Mg

2+

[1m]

[1m] No dot/cross around Mg with correct charge on Mg 2+


[1m] correct number of dots and crosses around N with
correct charge on N3

(ii)

Mg3N2 + 3H2O 2NH3 + 3MgO

[1m]

Amount of Mg3N2 used


=

2.0

Amount of Mg3N2 used

= 0.0198 mol

3(24.3) + 2(14.0) Or

Amount of MgO formed


= 3 0.0198 = 0.0595 mol
Mass of MgO formed
= 0.0595 40.3 = 2.40 g

Mg3N2 + 6H2O 2NH3 + 3Mg(OH)2 [1m]

[1m]

[1m]
[1m]

2.0
3(24.3) + 2(14.0)

= 0.0198 mol [1m]

Amount of Mg(OH)2 formed


= 3 0.0198 = 0.0595 mol

[1m]

Mass of Mg(OH)2 formed


=0.0595 58.3 = 3.47 g [1m]

Multiple-Choice Questions
6.

Answer: B
MgCl2 dissolves in water to give Mg2+(aq) and Cl(aq). Due to low charge density of Mg2+, no hydrolysis
or only slight hydrolysis occur. Hence, no acidic HCl is produced when small amount of water is added.
Al2Cl6, PCl5 and SiCl4 undergo vigorous hydrolysis. Hence, when small amount of water is added, white
fumes of HCl is seen.

7.

Answer: C

A: () Atomic radius decreases as nuclear charge increases while


shielding effect by inner shell electrons remains relatively constant
the period.
across

B: () Bonding of oxides changes from ionic to covalent and hence


nature of oxides varies from basic to acidic.
C: () The melting points of the elements do not decrease steadily
across the period. (Refer to graph on the right)
D: () As the element changes from metals to non-metals, the
compounds of the elements change from ionic to covalent.

8.

Answer: D
Option
Group
Chloride
Structure
State @ r.t.p

A
II
MgCl2
Giant Ionic
Solid

B
III
AlCl3
Simple Molecular
Solid

C
IV
SiCl4
Simple Molecular
liquid

D
V
PCl3
PCl5
Simple Molecular
liquid
Solid

R has a liquid chloride with low boiling point of 76oC, thus it should have a simple covalent structure.
Not Option A and B.
R fumes in air, PCl3(l) fumes easily in air.
Amount of AgNO3 used = Amount of free Cl ions = (0.30 x 100/1000)=0.0300 mol
RClx 3Cl identity of the chloride is PCl3
9.

Answer: B
To be most effective in precipitating the finely divided negatively charged solid particles
cation chosen must have the highest charge density
D: () SiCl4 is a simple covalent molecule which
hydrolyses in water to give SiO 2 and HCl, but SiO2 has

Mg2+

Al3+

Fe3+

Radius
(From Data
Booklet)

a giant covalent structure do not form cation in


water.
A: () Both Al3+ and Fe3+ has higher charge than Mg2+

Charge
density

B: () Al3+ has the highest charge density of 60.0

0.050

0.064

30.8

60.0
(highest)

46.9

ionic charge
ionic radius

C: () Fe3+ has lower charge density than Al3+.

10

0.065

11

A: Si has the highest melting point.


B: Sulfur also form two acidic oxides (SO2 &
SO3).
C: Phosphorus exists as P4 molecules.
D: Chlorides of Al, Si and S can react with
water to form acidic solutions.

Working from A, Na is B, Mg is C, Si is D.
Answer: B
Answer: C

Group II
1.

(a)

Calcium burns in oxygen with a brick-red flame while


barium burns in oxygen with a green flame to form simple metal oxides.

2Ca(s) + O2(g)
2CaO(s)
2Ba(s) + O2(g)
2BaO(s)
2.

(a) (i)

2M(s) + O2(g)
O
R

Recall: Magnitude of Lattice Energy

2MO(s)

where M is Ca and Ba

q q
LE is an indication of strength of ionic bond
r r

Group II oxides have giant ionic structures. ()


Down the group, the ionic radius of M2+ increases and hence, the magnitude of lattice energy of
MO decreases (). Thus, the amount of energy required to overcome the strong electrostatic
force of attraction/ionic bonds between M2+ and O2 decreases. () Hence m.p. of Group II
oxides decreases down the Group. ()
4 () : [2m]
2-3 () : [1m]
(ii) MgO is used as refractory furnace lining due to its high m.p. and hence is able to withstand the high
heat in the refractory furnace. [1m]
(b) (i)

CaMg(CO3)2(s) + 4HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + MgCl2(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)


[1m] balanced eqn (s.s. not required)

(ii) Amount of CO2 produced = 0.450 44.0 = 0.01023 mol


Since CaMg(CO3)2 2CO2,
Mass of CaMg(CO3)2 in sample = (0.01023 2) x 184.4 = 0.943 g [1m] 3 s.f. + units
% purity of dolomite sample = (0.943 1.000) x 100% = 94.3 % [1m] 3 s.f. + units

3.

(a)

CaCO3(s)

(b)

Ca2+ has a smaller ionic radius and thus a higher charge density than Ba2+. [1m]
The smaller Ca2+ polarises the large CO32 anion to a greater
making CaCO3 less thermally stable and so decomposes at a lower temperature. [1m]

(c)

4.

(a)

CaO(s) + CO2(g)

[1m] balanced eqn (s.s. not required)


extent,

Lime (CaO), being basic, is used in agriculture to reduce the acidity of soil and so renders it suitable
for cultivation. [1m]

M(NO3)2(s) MO(s) + 2NO2(g) + [1m]


O2balanced
(g)
equation (s.s. not required)
where M is a Group II element (Be to Ba)
As charge of M2+ ion is the same but the ionic radius of the cation M2+ increasesdown the group,
the charge density of the M2+ cation decreases. ()
Therefore, the ability of M2+ cation to polarise the large NO3 anion decreases down the group () and
the stability of compounds towards heating increases/ ease of thermal decomposition decreases. ()

Reject radius of M2+ atom and atomic radius of M2+.

3 () : [2m]

1-2 () : [1m]

Note the difference in answering technique between :


1. Group Trend : Q11a
2. Comparing 2 compounds : Q10b

(b)

The solid remaining after barium nitrate is heated is BaO.


BaO reacts with water to give an alkaline solution of Ba(OH)2, [1m]
which reacts with H2SO4 to give a white precipitate of BaSO4. [1m]

BaO(s) + H2O(l)
Ba(OH)2(aq)
[1m] balanced equation (s.s. not required)
Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq)
BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)
[1m] balanced equation (s.s. not
(c)

required)
The solid remaining after magnesium nitrate is heated is MgO(s). [1m]
The white solid, MgO, dissolves sparingly in water to give a weakly alkaline solution of Mg(OH) 2
with MgO(s) and Mg(OH)2(s) suspension. [1m]

MgO(s) + H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(aq)


When aqueous H2SO4 is added, white solid dissolves to give a colourless solution of MgSO4. [1m]

Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)


OR
(d)

MgO(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2O(l)

MCO3(s) MO(s) + CO2(g) where M is Ca or Sr


Amount of CO2 evolved = 1.34 44.0 = 0.0305 mol [1m]
Amount of MO produced = 0.0305 mol
Mr of MO = (4.50 1.34) 0.0305 = 104
Ar of metal = 104 16.0 = 88 (no units)
Hence the metal, M, is strontium[1m]
(Sr).

SrCO3(s) SrO(s) + CO2(g)


5.

(a)

[1m] balanced equation (s.s. not required)


A large amount of energy is required to break the very strong NN triple bond in nitrogen for reaction to
take place. [1m]

(b)
% by mass
Amount

element
Mg
72

72
2.96
24.3

100 72 28
28
2.00
14.0

Mole ratio

Empirical Formula of Z is Mg3N2. [1m]

(c)

Mg3N2(s) + 6H2O(l) 3Mg(OH)2(s) + 2NH3(g) [1m] balanced equation (s.s. not required)
Mg(OH)2 is the white suspension. [1m]
OR

Mg3N2(s) + 3H2O(l) 3MgO(s) + 2NH3(g) [1m] balanced equation (s.s. not required)
MgO is the white suspension. [1m]

Multiple-Choice Questions
6.

A: ()
B:
()
C : ()
D : ()

Ability to form M2+ from M increases down the group (reducing power increases down Group II).
Hence, reactivity of Group II metal increases down the group.
Down the group, as charge of M2+ ions remain the same, ionic radii increases, thus charge density of
ions decreases, strength of ion-dipole interaction between ions and water molecules decreases,
magnitude of Hhyd of the ions decreases down the group.
The thermal stability of the carbonates of the Group II elements increases down the group.
Oxides of Group II elements, except BeO, react with water to form their ionic hydroxides, which give

alkaline solutions with pH > 7. The hydroxides become increasingly soluble in nature, therefore
pH of the alkaline solutions increases down the group.
Answer : (B)
7.

A : ()

Group II compounds are ionic and will only conduct electricity in the aqueous and molten state.

B:

Oxides of Group II elements, except BeO, react with water to form their hydroxides, which give alkaline

()

solutions.

C:

All Group II metals from Ca & below Ca can react readily or vigorously with cold water to give H2(g) and

()

their aqueous alkaline hydroxide solutions.

D : ()

Reactivity of Group II metals increases down the group. Ra is therefore the most reactive element in
Group II.

Answer : (D)

8.

CaCO3 decomposes at a lower temperature indicates that it is thermally less stable than CaSO4.
Since metal cation in both compounds is the same (i.e. Ca 2+), the difference in thermal stability of the Grp
II cpds is attributed by the difference in the polarisability of anion.
The higher the polarisability of the anion, the easier it is to decompose their compounds.
Since CaCO3 decomposes at a lower temperature, CO32 ions are predicted to be more easily polarised
than SO42 ions.
Answer : (C)

9.

(1):

CaO can react with cold water to give Ca(OH)2(aq).

()
(2):
()
(3):

M(NO3)2(s) MO(s) + 2NO2(g) + O2(g), where M is a Group II metal


CaO is used in agriculture as cheap alkalis in treating acidic soil, but do not neutralise soil acidity.

()
Answer : (A)
10.

oxygen

water

H is MO(s)

water

X is M
OH 2 (aq)

J is M OH 2 (aq)

evaporate to dryness
heat residue

evaporate to dryness
K is MO(s)
heat residue
Y is MO(s)
dissolve in
Z is M NO3 2 (aq)
nitric acid

Answer : (A)

Group VII
1.

N93/P1/Q7
(a)
(i)

X aq Ag aq AgX s

where X Cl, Br, I


[1] each for correct balanced eqn
AgX s 2NH3 aq Ag NH3 2 aq X aq where X Cl, Br

Cl : White precipitate (AgCl) (), which is soluble in both dilute and concentrated
NH3(aq) to give a colourless solution of Ag(NH 3)2+ ().
Br : Cream precipitate (AgBr) (), which is sparingly soluble in dilute NH3(aq) but soluble in
concentrated NH3(aq) to give a colourless solution of Ag(NH 3)2+ ().

I : Yellow precipitate (Ag I) (), which is insoluble in both dilute and concentrated NH3(aq)()
NaX s H2SO 4 l

(ii)

2HX g H2SO 4 l

8HI g H2SO 4 l

HX g
X 2 g

4I2 g

NaHSO 4 s

SO2 g

H2S g

2H2O l

4H2O l

where
l, Br
[1]X=C
each
forand I.
where X= correct
Br and I.
balanced eqn

NaCl : White fumes of HCl. ()


For 8(a)(i) & 8(a)(ii)
9 () : 3m
NaBr: Colourless, pungent fumes of HBr (mainly) and some red
7-8 () : 2m
brown fumes of Br2. ()
5-6 () : 1m
0-4 () : 0m
NaI : Violet fumes of I2 (mainly) and (trace) steamy fumes of HI. ()
1.
(b)
AgX s X aq Ag aq 1
AgX s 2NH3 aq Ag NH3 2 aq X aq

Explanation for (a)(i)

When NH3(aq) is added, Ag+ forms a stable complex, Ag(NH 3)2+, resulting in a decrease of [Ag +
(aq)] causing the equilibrium position of (1) to shift right. Thus the solubility of all silver halides
increases when NH3(aq) is added. [1]
Since Ksp(AgCl) > Ksp(AgBr) > Ksp(Ag I), the solubility of silver halides in NH 3(aq) decreases.
[1]
Explanation for (a)(ii)

Concentrated sulfuric acid is an oxidising agent, and it may be reduced depending on the

reducing power of X. Since the reducing power of halides decreases in the order:
,
-

I > Br > Cl

HI can reduce conc. H2SO4 (O.S. of S =6 ) to mainly H2S (O.S. of S = 2) and itself
[1]oxidised
to I2.

HBr can reduce conc. H2SO4 (O.S. of S = 6 ) to SO2 (O.S. of S = 4 ) and itself oxidised to Br2.

HCl cannot reduce conc. H2SO4.

2.

(a)

S 4 O62 aq 2e
I2 2e

2S 2O 32 aq

E 0.09 V

2I

E 0.54 V

Must show
calculation of Eocell with
working + sign + unit.

E cell
= +0.54 +0.09 = +0.45 V > 0 energetically feasible

[1]

Overall Eqn : I2 aq 2S 2O32 aq S 4O 62 aq 2 I aq

Observation : Black solid iodine dissolves in aqueous potassium iodide to give a brown
solution.[1] Upon addition of thiosulfate, the brown solution decolourises. [1]
[I2 dissolves to give brown solution due to the formation of the stable

I3 complex ion :

I2 s I aq I3 aq .]
(b)

Fe3 aq e

Fe 2 aq

I 2 2e

2I

E 0.77 V
Must show

calculation of Eocell with


0.54 Vworking + sign + unit.

E cell
= +0.77 +0.54 = +0.23 V > 0 energetically feasible

[1]

Overall eqn : 2 I aq 2Fe 3 aq 2Fe 2 aq I2 aq


Observation : Brown solution formed (due to formation of I2 in KI). [1] Upon addition of starch
solution, a blue-black colouration/complex is formed. [1]
2.

(c)

Fe3 aq e

Cl2 2e

Fe 2 aq
2Cl

E 0.77Must
V show

calculation of Eocell with


1.36working
V
+ sign + unit.

E cell
= +1.36 +0.77 = +0.59 V >0 energetically feasible

[1]

Overall eqn : Cl2 aq 2Fe2 aq 2Fe3 aq 2Cl aq


Observation : Green solution of iron(II) sulfate turns yellow (due to Fe3+). [1] Upon addition of
sodium hydroxide, red-brown precipitate of Fe(OH)3 is formed which is insoluble in
excess NaOH. [1]
(d)

Chlorine undergoes disproportionation reaction with cold NaOH(aq) at room temperature to form
ClO and Cl . [1]
Cl2 g 2OH aq Cl aq C lO aq H2O l

OR

Cl2 g 2NaOH aq NaCl aq NaClO aq H2O l

When the resultant mixture is heated, ClOundergoes


further disproportionation to give

ClO3and Cl. [1]

3ClO aq 2Cl aq ClO3 aq


OR

3NaClO aq 2NaCl aq NaClO3 aq

3Cl2 g 6OH aq 5Cl aq Cl O3 aq 3H2O l

Overall eqn :
OR

3Cl2 g 6NaOH aq 5NaCl aq NaClO3 aq 3H2O l

Observation : Pungent smell of yellowishgreen chlorine gas disappear. [1]


3.

(i)

Cl2 g + H2 g

2HCl g

[1]

(ii)

H2 g X 2 g
H

2HXX =
g Cl, Br, I

Hr B.E(X X) B.E(H H) 2B.E(H X)


Since HX bond energy decreases from HCl to HBr to HI, Hr becomes less exothermic
down the group. [1m]
Thus, relative reactivity of the halogens with hydrogen decreases down the group,
from Cl2 to I2. [1m]

(iii)

Cl2 2e

2Cl

E 1.36 V

I2 2e 2I
E 0.54 V
Since E(Cl2/Cl) is more positive than E(I2/I), chlorine is a stronger oxidising agent than iodine.
S 4 O26 2e 2S 2O32
E 0.09 V

4SO2 4H 6e

SO24 4H 2e

3.

(iii)

Reaction between Cl2 and S2O32 .

Ecell
E O Cl2 /Cl E O S 4O62 /S 2O32

1.36 0.09

S 4O62 2H2O

E 0.51 V

SO2 4H2O

E 0.17 V

energetically feasible

+1.27 V > 0

()
Thus, Cl2 is able to oxidise S2O32 to S4O62.
(+2)
(+2.5)

Ecell
E O Cl2 /Cl E O SO2 /S 4 O62

1.36 0.51

energetically feasible

+0.85 V > 0

()
Thus, Cl2 is able to oxidise S4O62 to SO2.
(+2.5)
(+4)

Ecell
E O Cl2 /Cl E O SO24 /SO2

3 () : [1]
02() : [0]
each (), calculation of Eocell must
+1.19 V > 0 energetically feasibleFor
be shown
+ working + sign+ unit
()
Thus, Cl2 is able to oxidise SO2 to SO42.
(+4) (+6)
Based on the above Eocell calculations, Cl2 is able to oxidise S2O32 to SO42 .
Reaction between I2 and S2O32 .

1.36 0.17

Ecell
E O I2 /I E O S4O62 /S2O32

0.54 0.09

energetically feasible

+0.45 V > 0

()
Thus, Cl2 is able to oxidise S2O32 to S4O62.
(+2)
(+2.5)

Ecell
E O I2 /I E O SO2 /S 4O26

0.54 0.51

no oxidation occurs
()

as Ecell is very small.

+0.03 V > 0

2 () : [1]
1 () : [0]
For each (), calculation of Eocell must
be shown + working + sign + unit

Based on the above Eocell calculation, I2 is only able to oxidise S 2O32 to S4O62 (O.N of S
increases from +2 to +2.5)
[Note: Although Eocell for oxidation of S4O62 to SO2 by I2 is +0.03 V, the question has stated that I2 can

only oxidise S2O32 to S4O62.]

Examiner's report: Candidates were keen to add up all the sulfur E values, together with the Evalue for
Cl2/Cl , and show that this was a more viable overall reaction than with I2. The logic of this addition is highly
erroneous. Looking at the steps individually, it is clear that each halogen can oxidise thiosulfate to tetrathionate.
The key step in the overall process is the further oxidation of tetrathionate to SO 2. With I2, the E O cell for
this step is only +0.03V (so no oxidation occurs), whereas with C l2 it is +0.85V. Once that is oxidised, the further
oxidation of SO2 to sulfate by Cl2 is much easier (E O cell = +1.19V).

Example of erroneous workings:


Reaction between Cl2 and S2O32.
S 4O 62 2e
4SO 2 4H 6e

SO24 4H 2e

2S 2O32

E 0.09 V

S 4O62 2H2O

E 0.51 V

SO 2 4H2O

E 0.17 V

2S 2O 32 10H2O 4SO 24 20H 16e

Cl2 2e

2Cl

E 0.77 V
E 1.36 V

Ecell
1.36 0.77 0.59 V >0

energetically feasible

Overall eqn: 8Cl2 2S 2O32 10H2O 4SO 24 20H 16C l

Reaction between I2 and S2O32.

2S 2O 32 10H2O 4SO 24 20H 16e

I2 2e

2I

Ecell
0.54 0.77 0.23 V <0

0.77 V
E 0.54 V

not energetically feasible

I2 is not able to oxidise S2O32 to SO42.


S 4O 26 2e
4SO2 4H 6e

2S 2O32

E 0.09 V

S 4O 26 2H2O

E 0.51 V

2S2O 32 2H2O 4SO 2 4H 8e


I2 2e

2I

Ecell
0.54 0.60 0.06 V <0

0.60 V
E 0.54 V

not energetically feasible

I 2 is not able to oxidise S2O3 to SO2.


2

4.

(a)

show atomic radius of X atom:


F = 0.072 nm, Cl = 0.099 nm , Br = 0.114 nm , I = 0.133 nm

The thermal stability of hydrogen halides decreases down Group VII. [1]

This is because the atomic radius of X increases, and thus, the HX bond becomes
longer and weaker. Hence HX bond is more readily ionized .[1]

Or

show E(HX) values:


E(HF) = 562 kJ mol1, E(HCl) = 431 kJ mol1, E(HBr) = 366 kJ mol1, E(HI) = 299 kJ mol1

Thus, HX bond energy decreases and the HX bond becomes weaker. [1]
Hence HX bond is more readily ionized .

4.

(b)

Cl2 2e

2Cl

E O 1.36 V

Br2 2e

2Br

E O 1.09 V

Ecell
1.36 1.09
= +0.27 V > 0 (energetically feasible)

Cl2 aq 2NaBr aq 2NaCl aq Br2 aq


OR

Cl2 aq 2Br aq 2Cl aq Br2 aq

[1]

Red-brown Br2(aq) is obtained. [1]


(c)

(i)

Element

Ag

Br

Mass/g

45.8

33.9

20.3

33.9
0.424
79.9

20.3
1.27
16

Amount/mol
45.8
[1]
for correct workings
0.424
108
Ratio

(ii)

(iii)

Empirical formula of cream solid is AgBrO3. [1]


1.18
[1] for correct
ans + 3sf
Amount of AgBrO3
5.00 10 3 mol
108 79.9 3 16
Amount of AgCl

4.31 [1] for correct


ans + 3sf
3.00 10 2 mol
108 35.5

AgBrO3 BrO3

and

AgCl C l

BrO 3 : C l

Since

[1]

= 5.00 10 3 : 3.00 10 2 1: 6

3Cl2 aq NaBr aq 6NaOH aq NaBrO 3 aq 6NaC l aq 3H2 O l


OR

3Cl2 aq Br aq 6OH aq BrO 3 aq 6C l aq 3H2O l

Multiple-Choice Questions
1.

J95/P4/Q15
Answer : B
A ()

Down the group, atomic size of halogen atom increases. Thus, XX bond length increases.

B ()

Down the group, the number of electrons per molecule increases. Hence the strength of van der
Waals force between X2 molecules increases.

C ()

Down the group, the number of electrons per molecule increases. More energy is required to
overcome the increasing strength of van der Waals forces between X2 molecules. Thus, b.p. of
X2 increases.
Down the group, atomic size of halogen atom increases. The HX bond becomes longer and
weaker. Hence, HX bond energy decreases down the group.

D ()

2.

N00/P3/Q15
Answer : D
Cl2 undergoes disproportionation reaction with HOT NaOH(aq):

Cl2 g 6OH aq

5Cl aq

Cl O3 aq

H2 O l
Recall:
Cl2 2e

2Cl

I 2 2e 2I

3.

Answer : A

E O 1.36 V

E O 0.54 V
Since E( I2/I ) is more negative
than E(Cl2/Cl ), I will be more
readily oxidised to I2.

Equations : X s H2SO 4 l

HX g

HSO 4 s , X

Cl, I

2HI g H2SO 4 l

I 2 g SO 2 g 2H2O l

8HI g H2SO 4 l

4I 2 g

H2S g

4H2O l

Both Cl and I react with conc H2SO4 to form HX. But I is a


stronger R.A than Cl .
Hence HI formed is further oxidised by conc H2SO4 to I2.
The fumes formed are I2 (g) and HCl(g). When passed through a cold tube, only I2 fumes condense to
form a black deposit due to its higher melting point.
Since HCl has a low bp, it remains as a gas at low temperature.
When bubbled through AgNO3(aq), HCl(g) dissolves to give H+(aq) and Cl(aq). Cl(aq) reacts with Ag+
(aq) from AgNO3(aq) to form AgCl white ppt.
4.

N03/P1/Q17
Answer : B
X is able to reduce both Y2 and Z2 and thus X is a stronger reducing agent than Y and Z.
Z is able to reduce Y2 and thus Z is a stronger reducing agent than Y.
Y is not able to reduce both X and Z and thus Y is the weakest reducing agent.
reducing power of halides decreases in the order : X > Z > Y .

5.

Answer : B
For electrolysis of brine (concentrated NaCl(aq)),
Species present are Na+, Cl and H2O

At anode : 2Cl aq Cl2 g 2e

At cathode : 2H2O l 2e H2 g 2OH aq

Since Cl2 is found in compartment P and OH is found in compartment S, sodium chlorate(I) can be
produced by mixing contents of P and S.
Cl2 g 2OH aq
cold Cl aq ClO aq H2O l

6.

N11/P1/Q15
Answer: C
A ()

7.

B ()

A correct statement, but it does not explain why HI decomposes more easily. Ease of
decomposition depends on the strength of the HX bond.
An incorrect statement. HCl is more volatile than HI due to HCls lower boiling point resulting from
weaker van der Waals forces between HCl molecules. This is because HCl has lesser number of
electrons per molecule than HI.

C ()

2HX g

D ()

The ease of decomposition depends on the strength of the HX bond.


The ease of decomposition depends on the strength of the HX bond, not the XX bond.

X 2 g

H2 g

N98/P3/Q36
Answer : A
1 () The electronegativity decreases on descending the group.
2 () The number of electrons in the X 2 molecule increases down the group. More energy is required to
overcome the increasing strength of van der Waals forces between the halogen molecules and
hence the volatility of halogens decreases on descending the group.
3 () Their reactivity as oxidising agents decreases on descending down the group as E o (X2/X) values
become less positive down the group.

Advo Education Group Pte Ltd

Practice Paper 7

Reg. No. 200710217Z

8.

J04/P1/Q36
Answer : C
1 () Hydrogen iodide is colourless.
2 () Heat energy from the hot rod is sufficient to provide the activation energy required for an

immediate reaction: 2HI g


3 ()

I 2 s

H2 g

One of the products, I2, will condense to a solid once it touches the cool walls of the glass jar.

9.

N01/P3/Q36
Answer : A
Since the chemistry of CN is similar to Cl :
1 () AgCN (like AgCl) is insoluble in water but soluble in aqueous ammonia.
2 () HCN (like HCl) dissolves in water, ionises, and forms an acidic solution.
3 () NaCN (like NaCl) reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce HCN gas (like HCl is formed
with NaCl).

10.

Answer : D
1 () Chlorine undergoes disproportionation with hot potassium hydroxide to give chlorate(V).

3Cl2 g 6KOH aq

2 ()

Cl
O

3 ()

hot

5KCl aq

KClO3 aq

3H2O l

Around the central chlorine atom, there are 3 bond pairs


and 1 lone pair of electrons.

Hence the shape is trigonal pyramidal not tetrahedral.

Oxidation number of chlorine in chlorate(V) is +5 not +7.

Transition Metals
(a)

A transition element is a d-block element that forms one or more stable ions with
incompletely filled d orbitals.
A ligand is an anion or neutral molecule which has at least one lone pair of electrons
to form dative covalent/ co-ordinate bonds.
A complex ion is composed of a central metal atom or ion surrounded by ligands
attached via dative covalent/ co-ordinate bonds.

(b)

The function of haemoglobin is to transport oxygen to all parts of the body.


In haemoglobin, the oxygen molecule is bonded reversibly to the Fe2+ ion (in
the haem group) by a dative covalent/ co-ordinate bond, thus allowing
haemoglobin to carry oxygen from one part of the body to another.
CO forms a dative covalent/ co-ordinate bond with haemoglobin.
Being a stronger ligand than O2, CO ligand forms a stronger dative covalent/
co-ordinate bond with the Fe(II) ion, hence displacing O2 to form a more
stable complex. This results in the inability of haemoglobin to transport oxygen to
the cells and thus CO acts as a poison.
Updated by Mr. Jason Yuen

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1.

Advo Education Group Pte Ltd

Practice Paper 7

Reg. No. 200710217Z

:CO

(c) :O2

1.

Fe2+

Fe2+
N

+ CO

Diagram
N
not
required
Polypeptide chain
in your

+ O2

N
Polypeptide chain

When a patient suffering from CO poisoning breathes in pure O2, the high
concentration of O2 causes the equilibrium position to shift such that O2 displaces
the CO (i.e. to the left of the above equilibrium). Hence haemoglobin regains its ability to
transport O2.
2.

(a)

(i)

Colour of [Cu(H2O)6]2+: pale blue

[1m]

2+

Colour of [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2] : dark blue


*(ii)

[1m]

The light absorbed by [Cu(H2O)6]2+ has a longer wavelength than that


absorbed by [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+.
hc
, the size of the d-orbital splitting (i.e. difference in

energies, E) for [Cu(H2O)6]2+ is smaller than [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+.

Using E =

[1m]

Further conclusion about ligand strength:


This concludes that H2O is a weaker ligand than NH 3. Being a weaker
ligand, H2O results in a smaller extent of d-orbital splitting. i.e. smaller E
and thus the complex absorbs light of longer wavelength.
(i)

[Fe(H2O)6]3+ + 6CN

Kstab =

2.

(b)

[Fe(CN)6]3 + 6H2O [1m]

[Fe(CN)6 3 ]
[1m]
[Fe(H 2O)6 3+ ] [CN ]6

Units: mol6 dm18 [1m]

*(ii)

A large Kstab value indicates that the position of the above equilibrium
lies to the right [1m] and shows that the complex ion is more readily/
easily formed. [1m]
(i.e. a large Kstab value shows that the complex ion is more stable and
therefore, more readily formed.)

*(iii)

1:

Predominant species is [Fe(CN)6]3(aq).

[1m]

(since the Kstab of [Fe(CN)6]3 is larger than[Fe(H2O)5SCN]2+.)


2:

Predominant species is [Co(CN)6]3(aq).


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[1m]

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(b)

Advo Education Group Pte Ltd

Practice Paper 7

Reg. No. 200710217Z

(since the Kstab value of [Co(CN)6]3 is larger than [Fe(CN)6]3.)


3.

(a)

Transition element complexes are coloured because of electron transition between d


orbitals. ()
In a complex, the presence of ligands causes the d orbitals to split into 2 sets of
different energies. ()
The difference in energies (E) between these two sets of d orbitals is so small()
such that radiation from the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum
is absorbed () when an electron moves from a d orbital of lower energy to
another unfilled/partially filled d orbital of higher energy . () Hence, transition
element complexes are coloured.

6() [3m]
4 5 ()
[2m]
2 3 ()
[1m]

The colour seen will be the complement of the colours absorbed. ()


(b)

(i)

(ii)

[Fe(H2O)6]3+(aq) +
yellow

SCN(aq) [Fe(H2O)5(SCN)]2+(aq) + H2O(l)


blood-red

[1m]
Colour of solution changes from
yellow to blood-red.
SCN is a stronger ligand than H2O. It displaces H2O ligand to form a stronger
dative covalent/ co-ordinate bond with Fe3+ and hence a more stable blood-red
[1m] 2+(aq) complex.
[Fe(H2O)5(SCN)]
E /V
3+
2+
Fe + e
Fe
+0.77
Fe2+ + 2e
Fe
0.44
Zn2+ + 2e
Zn
0.76
2Fe3+(aq) + Zn(s) 2Fe2+(aq) + Zn2+(aq)
E cell = +0.77 (0.76) = +1.53 V > 0 (energetically feasible) [1m]
Colour of solution changes from yellow (Fe3+(aq)) to pale green as Zn reduces
Fe3+(aq) to pale green Fe2+(aq), itself oxidised[1m]
to colourless Zn2+(aq).
Note: If excess Zn is used, Fe2+(aq) can be further reduced to Fe(s) and colour of
solution changes from pale green to colourless (due to Zn2+(aq)).

4. (i)
(a)

E cell = 0.44 (0.76) = +0.32 V

The reaction between I and S2O82 ions has high activation energy because
both iodide ions and peroxodisulfate, S2O82 ions are negatively charged. As a
result, the reaction is very slow and needs to be catalysed. [1m]
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Fe2+(aq) + Zn(s) Fe(s) + Zn2+(aq)

Advo Education Group Pte Ltd

Practice Paper 7

Reg. No. 200710217Z

Iron is able to vary its oxidation state (+2/+3) (or can exist as Fe 2+ and Fe3+)
because the 3d and 4s orbitals have similar energies. [1m]
Calcium exists only as Ca2+ (or has only +2 oxidation state) by losing a fixed
number of electrons from their outermost shell since removal of the next
electron from an inner quantum shell requires too much ionisation
energy. [1m]
Fe2+ is a homogeneous catalyst that provides an alternative reaction path with
[1m]
lower activation energy.
3+ eqn &
[1m]
with
Step (1): S2O82(aq) + 2Fe2+(aq) 2SO42(aq)
+ 2Fe
(aq)

E
calculations
cell

E cell = +2.01 0.77 = +1.24 V > 0 (energetically feasible)


s.s. not required
Step (2): 2Fe3+(aq) + 2I(aq) 2Fe2+(aq) + [1m]
I2(aq) with eqn &
E cell calculations

E cell = +0.77 0.54 = +0.23 V > 0 (energetically feasible)


s.s. not required
(iv)

Finely divided Fe(s) acts as a heterogeneous catalyst[1m]


in the Haber process.
Equation: N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH
(g)
s.s. 3not
required
The availability of partially filled 3d and 4s orbitals allows adsorption of
reactant molecules onto the Fe catalyst surface. This adsorption
increases the surface concentration of the reactants[1m]
and weakens the
bonds in the reactant molecules. Therefore an alternative reaction path
(or mechanism) with a lower activation energy is introduced. As a result,
rate of reaction increases.

(b)

I2
+
3+
Fe +

2e
e

2I
Fe2+

+0.54 V
+0.77 V

E cell = 0.77 0.54 = +0.23 V > 0 (energetically feasible) [1m] with working & units
2Fe3+(aq) + 2I(aq) 2Fe2+(aq) + I2(aq) [1m] state symbols not required
Brown solution formed is I2(aq)
In the presence of CN, Fe3+ exists as Fe(CN)63.
I2
+ 2e
2I
Fe(CN)63 + e
Fe(CN)64

+0.54 V
+0.36 V

5.

(a)

(i)

In P, amount of free Cl ions per mole of solution is 1 mol.

[1m]
Hence the 6 ligands in P are 2 Cl and 4 H2O
ligands.
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E cell = 0.36 0.54 = 0.18 V < 0 (not energetically feasible) [1m] with working & units
Fe(CN)63 is unable to oxidise iodide ions to iodine. Hence no brown solution was
formed.

Advo Education Group Pte Ltd

Practice Paper 7

Reg. No. 200710217Z

Structural formula of cation in solution P is CrCl2(H2O)4+


In Q, amount of free Cl ions per mole of solution is 3 mol

[1m]
Hence the 6 ligands in Q are 6 H2O ligands.
Structural formula of cation in solution Q is Cr(H2O)63+
(ii)

:Cl

H2O:

:OH2
Cr

H2O:

: OH2

[1m]

:Cl
(b)

(i)

Cr in the +6 oxidation state has high charge density and very strong
polarising power. It causes the surrounding water molecules to be polarised,
resulting in the formation of CrO42 [1m]

(ii)

2CrO42(aq) + 2H+(aq)

Cr2O72(aq) + H2O(l) [1m] s.s not required

It is not redox reaction [1m] since oxidation no. of Cr remains to be +6.

6.

(a)

Cu(I): 1s22s22p63s23p63d10

(b)

Cu(II): 1s22s22p63s23p63d9

Cu(I) complexes are not coloured because electron transition between 3d orbitals is
not possible since all 3d orbitals are completely filled/ no unfilled or partially filled
3d orbitals. [1m]
Cu(II) complexes are coloured because Cu2+ has a partially filled 3d-orbital. Thus
electron transition between 3d orbitals is possible. [1m]
Cu2+ + e
Cu+
+0.15 V
Cu+ + e
Cu
+0.52 V
E cell = 0.52 0.15 = +0.37 V > 0 (energetically feasible) [1m] with working & units

*(c)

(i)

state symbols not required.

B is Cu(OH)2 [1m]
NH3 acts as a base. It provides the OH ions to form Cu(OH)2

[1m]

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2Cu+(aq) Cu2+(aq) + Cu(s) [1m]

Advo Education Group Pte Ltd

Practice Paper 7

Reg. No. 200710217Z

A is CuCl42 [1m] Reason: CuCl2 + 2Cl CuCl42; no other products formed.


Cu[(H2O)6]2+ (aq) + 4Cl (aq)
[CuCl4]2 (aq) + 6H2s.s.
O(l) not
.....(*) [1m]
required

Addition of concentrated HCl results in high [Cl ], hence the equilibrium


position of (*) shifts to the right, resulting in the formation of A. [1m]

(ii)

C is [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+

[1m]

Cu(OH)2(s) + 4NH3(aq) + 2H2O(l) [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+ + 2OH(aq) [1m]


s.s. not
Note: Examiners do not accept the followingrequired
equation
Note: Examiners do not
accept the following 2+
2+
[Cu(H2O)6] + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2] + 2H2O

equation

[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+ +

In this reaction, the stronger NH3 ligands replace the weaker water ligands to
form stronger dative covalent/ co-ordinate bonds with Cu2+ and hence a more
stable [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+ complex. [1m].

D: [CuCl2] [1m]

*(d)

Multiple-Choice Questions
1.

Ans: C
Net charge on complex = resultant of charges on metal ion and on ligands (CN).
Therefore, iron has 2+ charge in the complex [Fe(CN)6]4.
Since the electronic configuration of Fe atom is [Ar]3d64s2,
electronic configuration of Fe2+ is [Ar]3d64s0 (remove 4s e first).

2.

Ans: C
Ligands are anions or neutral molecules with at least one lone pair of electrons.
Therefore the NH4+ cation will not be a ligand.
Ans: B
In forming the TE ions, 4s electrons removed first, followed by paired 3d electrons.
Atom
Cr

[Ar]

Fe

[Ar]

Mn

[Ar]

Ni

[Ar]

Ion
Cr3+

[Ar]

3+

[Ar]

Fe

3d

4s

3d

4s

Page20

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Practice Paper 7

Advo Education Group Pte Ltd


Reg. No. 200710217Z

4.

Mn3+

[Ar]

Ni2+

[Ar]

Ans: B
A is incorrect because Al also forms covalent bonds with Cl in AlCl3.
C is incorrect because Pb/ Sn (in Group IV) also have more than one O.S. (+2 and +4).
D is incorrect because Ca has [Ar]4s 2 configuration and all metal atoms in Period 5 onwards
have a completely filled 4s orbital.

5.

Ans: C

Cr3+

Cr(OH)3
(grey green ppt)

excess
NaOH

Cr(OH)63
(dark green cpx)

1. precipitation and ligand exchange does not involves reduction of Cr


2. step 1 is precipitation of Cr(OH)3
3. step 2 involves formation of complex, which involves formation of dative covalent bonds
Ans: D
Step 1: dissolving K2CrO4(s):
K2CrO4(s) K2CrO4(aq)
Q (yellow solution)
Step 2: acid-base reaction:
2CrO42(aq) + 2H+(aq) Cr2O72(aq) + H2O(l)
R (orange solution)
Step 3: redox reaction:
H2S + Cr2O72 forms solution T (green Cr3+ solution) and sulphur, S (yellow solid).

Page20

6.

NaOH

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