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3.

RESULTS
3.1 Temperature Profiles of Hot and Cold Stream
For counter current flow, the temperature profiles of each stream in the heat exchanger for
each experimental run are plotted in the Figure 3.1., Figure 3.2., Figure 3.3. and for co-current
flow, temperature profile is plotted in the Figure 3.4 and the data shown in Table 3.1.

Counter-current Flow
70
60
50
Qcold=340L/h-Th

40
T(C) 30

Qcold=340L/h-Tc

20
10
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Length (cm)

Figure 3.1. Counter-current flow temperature profile for Run1

Counter current Flow


30
25
20

Q=500L/h-Th

T(C) 15
10

Q=500L/h-Tc

5
0
0

20

40

60

Length(cm)

80

100

Figure 3.2. Counter-current flow temperature profile for Run2

Counter-current Flow
25
20
15
T(C)

Q=660L/h-Th
Q=660L/h-Tc

10
5
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Length(cm)

Figure 3.3. Counter-current flow temperature profile for Run3

Co-current Flow
70
60
50

T(C)

40

Q=660L/h-Th

30

Q=660L/h-Tc

20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Length (cm)

Figure 3.4. Co-current flow temperature profiles for Run1

Table 3.1. Temperatures of each stream in different run


Flow Type
Counter-

Qhot(L/h

Qcold(L/h

Thot,in(oC

Thot,out(oC

Tcold,out(oC

Tcold,in(oC

current
Run1

)
300

)
340

)
65,3

)
48,5

)
29,9

)
14,0

Run2

300

500

64,8

46,1

25,5

14,0

Run3

300

660

63,1

44,2

23,2

14,1

Co-Current

Qhot(L/h

Qcold(L/h

Thot,in

Thot,out

Tcold,out

Tcold,in

Run1

)
300

)
660

64,2

45,6

23,2

14,1

3.2 Heat Transfer Rates


Heat transfer rates are calculated from below equations. This calculation is shown in
Appendix and results are tabulated below.
Heat Transfer Rate for Cold Stream:
QC =m
C CpC ( T CinT Cout )
Heat Transfer Rate for Hot Stream:
QH =m
H Cp H ( T Hin T Hout )
Table 3.2. Average heat transfer rates for each streams and each run
Flow Type
Counter-current

Qhot(L/h)

Qcold(L/h)

Qc(W)

Qh(W)

Qavg(W)

Run1

300

340

6249

5830

6039,5

Run2

300

500

6678

6515

6596,5

Run3

300

660

6975

6585

6780

Co-Current

Qhot(L/h)

Qcold(L/h)

Qc(W)

Qh(W)

Qavg(W)

Run1

300

660

6899

6481

6690

3.3 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients


Overall heat transfer coefficients are calculated for each stream by using heat transfer rates
and steady state inlet and outlet temperatures of the streams by using the below equations.
This calculation is shown in Appendix. Overall transfer coefficient for each stream is
tabulated below.
Q
U=
A T LM

T
( 1/ T 2)
T 1T 2
T LM =

and

Table 3.3. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients of each run


Flow Type
Counter-current

Qhot(L/h

Qcold(L/h)

Qavg(W)

Tlm

UD(W/m2.K)

Run1

)
300

340

6039,5

34,94807

0,141

1225,6

Run2

300

500

6596,5

35,57866

0,141

1314,9

Run3

300

660

6780

34,77013

0,141

1382,9

Co-Current

Qhot(L/h

Qcold(L/h)

Qavg(W)

Tlm

UD(W/m2.K)

Run1

)
300

660

6690

34,47821

0,141

1376,1

3.4 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Tube Side (hio)


Heat transfer coefficients for tube side (hi) are calculated from Gnielinski Equation for each
run. This calculation is shown in Appendix for Run 1 and calculated Reynolds Number and
heat transfer coefficients for the tube side for each run are tabulated below.
Table 3.4. Heat transfer coefficients for tube side (hio) for each run

Flow Type
Counter-current

Qhot(L/h)

Qcold(L/h)

Reynolds Number

hio(W/m2.K)

Run1
Run2
Run3
Co-Current

300
300
300
Qhot(L/h)

340
500
660
Qcold(L/h)

3124,1
4382,7
5654,0
Reynolds Number

1387,16
2062,80
2726.08
hio(W/m2.K)

Run1

300

660

5654,0

2726,08

Individual Heat Transfer Coefficient vs Reynolds Number


3000
2800
2600
2400
2200
hio(W/m2.K) 2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
2000

Individual Heat Transfer


Coefficient vs Reynolds
Number
Linear (Individual Heat
Transfer Coefficient vs
Reynolds Number)

4000

6000

Reynolds number

Figure 3.5. Heat Transfer Coefficient for Tube Side vs Reynolds Number Graph

3.5 Heat Transfer Coefficient for Shell Side (ho)


Heat transfer coefficients for the shell side are calculated from the Donohue Equation. This
calculation is shown in Appendix for Run 1 and calculated heat transfer coefficients for the
shell side for different runs are tabulated below.
Table 3.5. Heat transfer coefficients for tube side (ho) for each run
Flow Type
Counter-current

Qhot(L/h)

Qcold(L/h)

Reynolds Number

ho(W/m2.K)

Run1
Run2
Run3

300
300
300

340
500
660

13854,8
13659,3
13222,1

5706,9
4960,6
4713,4

Co-Current

Qhot(L/h)

Qcold(L/h)

Reynolds Number

ho(W/m2.K)

Run1

300

660

13426,5

4668,3

Individual Heat Transfer Coefficient vs Reynolds Number


5800
5600
5400

Individual Heat Transfer


Coefficient vs Reynolds
Number

5200
5000
h0(W/m2.K) 4800

Linear (Individual Heat


Transfer Coefficient vs
Reynolds Number)

4600
4400
4200
4000
13000

13500

14000

Reynolds number

Figure 3.6. Individual Heat Transfer Coefficient vs Reynolds Number for Shell Side

3.6 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients from hio and ho


Overall heat transfer coefficients are recalculated by using the heat transfer coefficient for
shell and tube side. This calculation is done by using appropriate equations and sample
calculation of it for Run 1 is shown in Appendix.
Table 3.6. Theoretical Overall Transfer Coefficients for each run
Flow Type
Counter-current

Qhot(L/h)

Qcold(L/h)

U(W/m2.K)

Run1

300

340

130,88

Run2

300

500

158,08

Run3

300

660

176,8

Co-Current

Qhot(L/h)

Qcold(L/h)

U(W/m2.K)

Run1

300

660

176,48

3.7. Heat Transfer Rate from Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients


Heat transfer rates for each run are calculated by using the overall heat transfer coefficient
calculated in Appendix. This calculation is done by using the following equation.
Q=UA T LM
Table 3.7 Heat Transfer Rates from theoretical overall heat transfer coefficients
Flow Type
Counter-current

Qhot(L/h) Qcold(L/h) U(W/m2.K)

Tlm

Q(W)

Run1
Run2
Run3
Co-Current
Run1

300
300
300
Qhot(L/h)
300

34,94807
35,57866
34,77013
Tlm
34,47821

0,141
0,141
0,141
A
0,141

644,97
793,02
866,78
Q(W)
857,94

340
500
660
Qcold(L/h)
660

130,88
158,08
176,8
U(W/m2.K)
176,48