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Table of Contents

FOREWORD.................................................................................... 5
I. HUNGARY AS A HUB OF SCIENTIFIC EXCELLENCE IN
CENTRAL EUROPE................................................................... 6
1. HUNGARYS LOCATION, HISTORICAL HERITAGE AND
CONTEMPORARY VALUES...........................................................6
2. ASPECTS OF PRESENTING HUNGARYS SCIENTIFIC EXCELLENCE.. 9
II. HUNGARIAN INTELLECTUAL CREATIONS THAT ARE
INDISPENSABLE IN EVERYDAY LIFE.................................... 11
III. HUNGARYS RESEARCH ON THE SCIENTIFIC MAP OF THE
WORLD................................................................................. 14

1. DATA AND TENDENCIES........................................................ 15

a; Infrastructure development; increasing the research capacity. 15

The performance of Hungarys research and development sector.18


2. T
 HE INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS OF HUNGARIAN
UNIVERSITIES..................................................................... 19
a; Excellent positions in the international competitive space..... 21

b; Global university ranking.................................................. 24

c; International university relations....................................... 26

3. C
 AMPUS HUNGARY: THE PROGRAM OF INTERNATIONAL
PRESENCE.......................................................................... 28

4. T
 HE MOMENTUM PROGRAM: A GROUND-BREAKING INITIATIVE
TO COUNTER BRAIN DRAIN.................................................. 31

IV. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF SCIENCE IN HUNGARY.32


1. H
 UNGARYS INNOVATION STRATEGY: START-UP PARADISE.... 33

a; The Hungarian start-up ecosystem.................................... 33

b; Hungarian start-up companies on the verge of global success.34

2. GLOBAL SUCCESS STORIES OF HUNGARIAN INNOVATION............. 36

a; Hungarian IT companies achieving global success: Prezi,


UStream, LogMeln, Tresorit.................................................. 37
b; Market leading global company and an innovator of research &
development and education: Graphisoft................................. 39
c; Global success for Hungarian innovation in industry and
services: Ivanka, Aluinvent, IND........................................... 41

3. C
 OOPERATION BETWEEN HUNGARIAN UNIVERSITIES AND
GLOBAL INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES.................................... 42

a; Cutting edge technology in the vehicle industry (Audi


Hungria, Knorr Bremse, Mercedes-Benz Manufactoring Hungary)
and Hungarian higher education............................................ 42

b; Brain processes, visible through imaging: the Nikon Centre of


Excellence.......................................................................... 43
c; Innovative driving sector companies (Sanofi, Bosch, Magyar
Olaj- s Gzipari Nyrt.) partnering Hungarian universities
in pharmaceutical research, mechatronics and the chemical
industry............................................................................. 44
V. THEMATIC HUBS OF SCIENTIFIC EXCELLENCE IN
HUNGARIAN HIGHER EDUCATION........................................ 46

1. FROM VITAMIN C TO GENETIC MEDICINE............................... 46

d; From the gene to the genome and back - Lszl Nagy......... 46

e; Recreation of vision with bionics........................................ 48

f; The role of proteins in the development of inflammatory


diseases - Attila Mcsai........................................................ 49
g; The impact of web medicine on healing and issues relating to
the future of medicine - Bertalan Mesk................................. 50

h; iKnife onco-knife, an intelligent instrument in surgery...........51

i; Biological rhythms and the handling of cell damage.............. 52

j; Patients at a loss for words - internationally acclaimed


veterinary medicine............................................................. 53

2. H
 UNGARIAN SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS: CLASSICITS AND
YOUNG TALENTS.................................................................. 54
k; Graph theory Microsoft large networks: Lszl Lovsz,
one of the best known mathematicians of the world................ 56
l; Mathematics and epidemics - Gergely Rst.......................... 58
m; The secrets of prime numbers and their application Jnos Pintz......................................................................... 59
n; Within four dimensions in mathematics - Andrs Stipsicz..... 62

3. NETWORK SCIENCE............................................................. 64

o; Movement of birds and statistical physics Tams Vicsek.... 66


p; Networked nature, technology and science
Lszl Barabsi-Albert......................................................... 67
q; Weak ties in cell organisation and cancer treatment
Pter Csermely................................................................... 69

4. THE DECADE OF BRAIN RESEARCH........................................ 70
a; Epilepsy and cerebral transmission rhythmicity - Antal Bernyi.72
b; Cooperation of cerebral centres in space and time Pter Somogyi.................................................................... 73
c; Stimulus transfer in the neural network, and knowledge
dissemination in society Szilveszter E. Vizi........................... 74
d; Effect of mind-altering drugs on neurons - Tams Freund..... 75
e; Information coding in the central neural system
Zoltn Nusser..................................................................... 76

5. MIND GAMES WITH A SCIENTIFIC EYE COGNITIVE SCIENCES.. 77

a; The Infinite Mind - Csaba Plh........................................... 80

b; Flow Inside and Around Us Mihly Cskszentmihlyi............ 85

6. F
 ROM THE SMALLEST TO THE BIGGEST NANOTECHNOLOGY
AND ASTROPHYSICS............................................................ 86

a; The Physics of Light and the Relevance of Scientific Diplomacy


- Norbert Kro.................................................................... 89
b; Increasing Electrical Capacity and Spintronics - Ferenc Simon....90
c; Mapping the Universe and the Science of Big Data
Sndor A. Szalay................................................................. 91
d; The Physics of Atoms and Stars Together Gyrgy Gyrky.. 93
e; Birth of Matter at the Beginning of the Universe Sndor Katz...94

7. L
 IFE AND MATTER AT A MOLECULAR LEVEL - MOLECULAR
BIOLOGY, CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS............ 96
a; The Spatial Structure of Peptides and Proteins
Andrs Perczel.................................................................... 97
b; Gene Technology and Flora - Dnes Dudits......................... 98
c; From Motor Enzymes toward Molecular Bio-IT
Andrs Mlnsi-Csizmadia.................................................... 99
d; Theoretical Chemistry and Atmospheric Research
Mihly Kllay..................................................................... 100
e; The Importance of the Eco-system and Bio-gases University Environmental Research......................................101

8. PARTICLES AND LASERS INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNISED
PHYSICS RESEARCH CENTRES IN HUNGARY................................. 102
a; Nuclear Physics with Interdisciplinary Radiation - Debrecen.102

b; Major European Laser Research Investment in Szeged...........104

c; Photo Acoustics, Research Management - Gbor Szab..........105

d; Lasers for Therapeutic Purposes Zsolt Bor..................... 107

9. S
 CIENCE IN EVERYDAY DEVICES, INSTRUMENTS - TECHNICAL
SCIENCES, IT.................................................................... 108

a; Classical Mechanics, Modern Results - Gbor Stpn.......... 109


b; Spatial Outputs of Technical Mathematics - The Gmbc............ 111
c; World Famous Logical Game and Technical Innovation Rubiks Cube......................................................................113
d; Interdisciplinary Use of IT...............................................114
e; Critical Infrastructure - Protection Research......................115
VI. THE ROLE OF HIGH SCHOOL AND ACADEMIC SCIENCE IN
SUPPORTING HIGHER EDUCATION RESEARCH....................116

1. COMMUNITY OF SCIENTISTS AND PROFESSIONAL RESEARCH
CENTRE: THE HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES................116


2. SCIENCE

CANNOT BEGIN EARLY ENOUGH IN HUNGARY:
THE STUDENT RESEARCH MOVEMENT................................. 121

3. THE SCHOOL OF NOBEL LAUREATES: THE PROFESSOR RCZ
AWARD............................................................................. 123
VII. SCIENCE IN SOCIAL NETWORKS........................................ 125
VIII. NATIONAL EXCELLENCE PROGRAM: THE ATTRACTION OF
HUNGARIAN RESEARCH.................................................... 132
IX. SOURCES............................................................................ 136

Foreword
This publication is intended to fill a market niche and to provide a
comprehensive overview of research and development in Hungary and the
nations outstanding achievements in science. Top quality and exacting
scientific research has always been part of Hungarys national identity.
Contributing factors have included universities established in early modern
times, traditional training courses, and the individuals desire to know,
which yielded a large number of Nobel laureates for Hungary. Ever since
Flp Lnrd (Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard), the first Hungarian to
receive the Nobel Prize in 1905 for his atomic model based on cathode
ray tests, the number of our globally noted researchers and inventors has
been growing steadily, improving even further Hungarys reputation both
in Europe and around the world.
This volume uses outstanding personalities, results, workshops and
projects as a vehicle to present research and development in Hungary. It
provides an overview of the scientific performance of the countrys major
research universities, describes the economic and social utilisation of
scientific results, and grants an insight into the excellent and often globally
significant achievements of Hungarian scientists.
Recent successes with outstanding innovations (Prezi, Ustream, Graphisoft
or Aluinvent) have continued to garner praise around the world for
Hungarian creativity. We would like to better acquaint readers with these
developments, some of which they may use themselves.
This publication endeavours to provide both interesting and useful
information to the international community interested in scientific life and
R&D in Hungary. It offers an opportunity to learn about major scientific
results and research projects in several fields of the countrys higher
education system, and also provides an introduction to the institutions.
Clearly, our intention has been to build a bridge between players in
Hungarian and international science.
Promoting mobility in higher education is clearly in the interest of the
national economy because gaining experience abroad and extending the
sectors professional relations constitute capital contributing to scientific
development and knowledge transfer, and ultimately to increasing the
value of diplomas in the labour market. In order to promote the realisation
of these goals, the government has set up the Campus Hungary program
with supportfrom the European Union. The scheme offers an unrivalled
opportunity for talented Hungarians to developand engage in scientific
activities in any country of the world.
This unique book, also supported by the project, has been compiled in
the hope of evoking fresh ideas in the minds of higher education officials,
policymakers and science aficionados.

Judit Hammerstein
Director General of the Balassi Institute

I. Hungary

as a hub of scientific excellence in Central
Europe
When Einstein and Oppenheimer happened to be absent from a scientific
workshop related to the Manhattan plan (a project aimed at the military
utilisation of the nuclear chain reaction), Nobel Prize winner Le Szilrd
turned to his fellow scientists and said: Gentlemen, perhaps we may now
continue in Hungarian.
What could have been the basis for this anecdote? How is it possible that
people belonging to the little-known linguistic community of a small Central
European country were so vital to scientific development, even though
that community was 20,000 kilometres away from Los Alamos, USA, home
to what was then the worlds most advanced and best-funded scientific
research centre?
It is this question that the authors attempt to answer by specifically
presenting Hungarys contemporary research potential based on historical,
higher education and scientific results, highlighting opportunities that may
be important and exciting for researchers from any country of the world
who seek knowledge, research opportunities, and new discoveries.
1. H
 ungarys location, historical heritage and contemporary
values

The geography of Europes central and eastern regions is defined by the


ring-shaped Carpathian Mountains. The basin within features a fertile
and varied landscape, including lowlands yielding excellent agricultural
produce, soft hills, and medium-high mountain ranges. Balaton, one of
the continents largest lakes suitable for bathing, is located
in Hungary, and so is the Danube, the longest river on the
History continent, known from The Blue Danube, a waltz by Richard
thousand- Strauss.

year-old
country where
East and West
meet.

This region has always belonged to Western civilisation. It


was squarely divided by the eastern boundary of the ancient
Roman Empire, called limes. This is where most Hungarian
tribes arrived during the consolidation of the Holy Roman
Empire in the 9th century AD. In 1000 AD, the crowning
of Saint Stephen with the Popes blessing marked the
foundation of a strong and equal state integrated into the European political
and economic environment of the era. In the thousand years that have
elapsed, Hungary remained a noted player in the western economic and
cultural sphere, while bearing the burdens of geo-political determination.
This status was solidified by our struggles for national independence,
which are highly appreciated on the pages of world history, such as the
Revolution and War of Independence against the Habsburg Empire in 1948,
or the anti-Soviet revolution in 1956. Despite eastern military oppression,
Hungarys contribution to Western intellectual life has remained unbroken.
The countrys intellectual competitiveness is epitomised by Hungarian
artists (such as musicians Ferenc Liszt and Bla Bartk, or literary Nobel

Prize winner Imre Kertsz), clergymen, statesmen, inventors, scientists


and art supporters.
Even though Hungarians live and work in almost all corners of the world, they
total only 14 million, 10 million of whom live in Hungary. Hungarian belongs
to the Finno-Ugric family of languages; people speaking Indo-European
languages find it difficult to learn. As to ethnic minorities,
the country has several hundred thousand Roma citizens,
The present
as well as tens of thousands of Germans, Slovaks, Jews,
open,
Romanians, Ruthenians, Serbs and Croats, each of whom
are Hungarian citizens with equal rights receiving support
democratic
to preserve their national identity. Freedom of religion is
market
complete; the largest denomination is Roman Catholic,
economy in
followed by significant Protestant (Calvinist and Lutheran),
Greek Catholic and Israelite communities. Orthodox, Muslim
amultifarious
and Neo-Protestant denominations are also present. The
and attractive
countrys political system is Parliamentary democracy.
country.
Parliament is comprised of several political party factions,
and locally elected municipalities are in charge of the lives of
communities. A multitude of private newspapers as well as television and
radio channels provide information and entertainment. Hungarys capital
is Budapest, one of the best-known and most beautiful cities and tourism
destinations in the world.
About three million Hungarians are citizens of neighbouring countries
(Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Austria and Slovakia). Another million
live all around the world, but primarily in the United States, Australia,
Canada, German-speaking areas and Israel. More than five hundred
thousand Hungarians are dual citizens; they or their parents left Hungary
in one of the several stormy eras of the countrys history.
But their connections with the mother country have been maintained, partly
because Hungary is a full member of major international organisations
and institutions such as OECD (an organisation of the worlds developed
countries), the European Union, and NATO. Hungarians work in the leadership
of UNESCO, FAO, WHO and many other international organisations; in
fact, the UN deputy secretary general in charge of climate change is a
Hungarian.
When the first universities were established in Western Europe, a similar
initiative took root for a short time at the episcopal seat in Pcs in the
13th century. The first university to survive to this day was founded
(concurrently with the establishment of Harvard in America) in 1653
amid clashes between reformation and counter-reformation in Europe.
Established in Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia), north of the territory
occupied at the time by the Turkish, the university moved later on to
the capital city (now Budapest) and went on to become Etvs Lornd
University of Sciences, the countrys leading higher education institution.
Economic prosperity in the second half of the 19th century promoted the
active utilisation of technical innovation. That is when world-class schools
of science and university departments emerged, churning out dozens of
Nobel prize-winning geniuses for global science.

After 1990, while maintaining its national heritage in public administration


and culture, Hungary fully adopted the legal principles of democratic
states as well as the mechanisms of market economy. Private property
dominates the economy; the national economy is fully open and part of
the global market. The largest multinational companies have operations
or offer services in Hungary; examples include General Electric, Coca
Cola, International Business Machines, Ericsson, Mercedes, Audi and J.
P. Morgan, or Citibank and Raiffeisen in banking. Hungarys openness is
also evidenced by fact that the country is one of the most popular global
destinations for tourists where international cultural events and sport
competitions are held, world-famous Hungarian and foreign stars perform
in a variety of genres, and thousands of young people visit summer
festivals. International supermarket chains are present in all major cities
and at tourist destinations: a wide choice of goods from food through
technology and clothing to culture, gastronomy and health care is readily
available just like in other western countries. These are complemented by
Hungarian specialties such as traditional folk costumes, tasty and spicy
local food, and fine Tokaj wines.

Hungary
in the heart of Central Europe
Population (2014): 9,877,365
Area: 93,036 km2
Highest point: Kkes, 1,014 m
Capital: Budapest (1.7 million residents)
GDP: USD 196.6 billion (57th in the rank of countries)
Per capita GDP: USD 19,000 (71st in the rank of countries)
Economy:
services: 68.7%
industry: 28%
agriculture: 3.4%
currency: forint (HUF)
Internet coverage: 72%
EU member
NATO member
OECD member

2. Aspects of presenting Hungarys scientific excellence


Scientific excellence is a major motive in Hungarys history and identity.
Thus, when attempting to present the world-class research and
development results of Hungarian universities to the foreign
reader, we were forced to engage in cherry-picking because
The future
of the multitude of choices. The selection was based on
world-class
clear aspects: obvious international acknowledgement
of excellence, public and professional awareness, socialperformance
economic usefulness, and position in research organisation.
in sectors
The following fields, young researchers, world-renown
driving
scientists and topics were selected according to these
criteria.
research and

development.
In the first round, the topics were selected based on
measurable aspects of scientific value. The scientific
publications that have claimed most attention and the largest frequentcy
ofcitation outline the thematic map of what is called hot science
in international parlance. These measurements identify the current
mainstream results of Hungarys research and development sector.

clinical medicine

chemistry

molecular biology & genetics

engineering

biology & biochemistry

social sciences, general

geosciences

plant & animal science

physics

materials science

environment/ecology

neuroscience & behavior

pharmacology & toxicology

microbiology

computer science

agricultural sciences

space science

mathematics

psychiatry/psychology

immunology

economics & business

Source: Web Of Science/Thompson Reuters

Fields of High Cited Scientist (World %)

These scientific and technological areas have seeped intopublic discourse,


are often used by the public and decision-makers, and some expressions
have actually become buzzwords. Issues related to quality of life and health
are definitely present; among them, genetics, brain research, molecular
biology, and food safety are the most popular fields. Among classic
sciences such as physics, biology and chemistry, research drivers include
nanotechnology, astrophysics, and molecular biology. Borderline fields as
well as multi- and inter-disciplinary approaches offer the most novelties,
as seen in the research of environmental chemistry, cognitive sciences,
or information technology and neuro-biology. The world-famous, classic
Hungarian schooling safeguards its well-deserved positions in almost all
mathematical fields; that knowledge is utilised in network research, one
of the highest-impact scientific directions of our age. The major impact of
these scientific developments justifies why we have selected these specific
fields from among all the outstanding Hungarian research workshops.
It is always questionable whether the scientific achievements of researchers
active in different fields are comparable; a number of attempts indicate
that a fully objective comparison is not feasible. We have used two
aspects to identify who to introduce in detail from among
several hundred internationally reputed scientists. Firstly,
Researchers we short listed researchers supported in the European
up close Research Councils Advanced and Starting Grant schemes
(the most competitive international research grant system);
young and secondly, we sought major scientific personalities
winners of who have created research schools and clearly made their
the European mark internationally. We also introduce some of the foreign
professors teaching at Hungarian universities as guests or
Research under scholarship, because their presence here is another
Councils indication of the international embeddedness of Hungarys
Advanced higher education.

grants, and
scientists who
have created
research
schools.

Naturally, individual achievements are accomplished in


an institutional framework that provides both inspiration
and the necessary conditions. Hungarys varied system of
higher education institutions includes the above-mentioned
university of sciences, which boasts four centuries of
continuous operation, the Budapest University of Technology
(established in the 19th century), numerous colleges and
polytechnics, as well as institutions re-established, relocated,
upgraded or created during the historical changes in the 20th century. These
are complemented by a network of full-time researchers at the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, as well as by research and development work at
innovative companies. More than half of the total scientific capacity of the
higher education system is concentrated in Budapest; these units maintain
close ties with university hubs outside Budapest. For that reason, we have
placed great emphasis on presenting research in universities outside the
capital. The institutions themselves and their characteristics are described
in infographics; the narrative text focuses on specific scientific results and
scholarly performances.

10

II. H
 ungarian intellectual creations that are
indispensable in everyday life
This volume aims to provide a thorough and clear yet scientifically accurate
introduction of Hungarys prime fields researched in the current network of
higher education and at other institutes in cooperation with global research
networks. At the other end of the innovation chain, there are basic and
applied research results in inventions that render our everyday lives
easier; devices that we routinely use and benefit from, without thinking
of all the hard and often seemingly hopeless work as well as the huge
amount of money and energy invested. In fact, luck and random alignment
of creativity are also needed in many cases.

szmtstechnikai kriptogrfia cavinton basic nyelv


bolyai geometria

dinam
vitamin

rdi golystoll

hologrf

word

etvs inga

transzformtor
rdi

ferttlents

rubik kocka telefonkzpont

hangosfilm hologrf basic nyelv


ferttlents nukleris lncreakci

pszicholgia

cavinton

golystoll
villamosvast
excel

excel

porlaszt

excel

gyufa

gyufa

cavinton

hologrf

Several devices known and used around the globe are Hungarian inventions,
which few people know but we are very proud of. In this chapter, we list
a few of these devices to offer an insight into the wide-ranging creativity
of Hungarians, without attempting to be exhaustive. Just think about
our everyday lives without computers, telephones, refrigerators, electric
locomotives, safety matches or ball-point pens its hard to imagine, isnt
it? Besides physical devices, there are numerous theories attributable to
Hungarian scientists, without which we would not know what flow or stress
is or why space is curved, and Einstein would probably not have found the
E=mc2 formula either

vitamin, talking picture, Rubiks cube, telephone exchange, radio, safety matches,
Word, positive psychology, transformer, holograph, Excel, electric locomotive,
carburettor, dynamo, Etvs pendulum, Cavinton, computer cryptography, stress
theory, nuclear chain reaction, ball-point pen, Bolyais geometry, Basic language,
colour television, disinfection

telephone exchange / radio Tivadar Puskss telephone herald went


live in Budapest on 15 February 1893. Without this invention, we could not
listen to the radio today.
computer Jnos Neumann worked out the theory of computing in June
1945. The Neumann principle is the basis for information technology
devices interweaving all aspects of our lives.
basic language BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is
the most widely used computer programming language, the basis for users
programs. It was created by Jnos Gyrgy Kemny and his team in 1964.

11

computer cryptography a study on a basis reduction algorithm, coauthored by Lszl Lovsz, was published in 1982. This algorithm is one of
the main tools in cryptographic research; without it, neither the FBIs nor
excellent Hungarian information encryption systems would work.
Microsoft Word and Excel Charles Simonyi developed Word (1987) and
Excel (1989), the most widely used document editing programs without
which the creation and editing of text documents or spreadsheets and
statistics would be all but inconceivable.
safety matches Jnos Irinyi patented the noiseless and explosion-free
safety matches, containing red instead of white phosphorus, in 1836.
Without these sticks, the everyday task of lighting fires would be a
hazardous and cumbersome affair.
ball-point pen Lszl Jzsef Brs biro pens, patented in 1938,
revolutionised handwriting. Without this invention, we would probably still
use conventional fountain pens.
Rubiks cube: one of the worlds best-known puzzles, invented more than 40
yeas ago. Ern Rubik originally intended it as a demonstration tool to be used
at the Budapest University of Technology. We could certainly live without
these cubes but seven million people each year would not get to spend their
pastime usefully, developing logics, creativity and stereoscopic vision.
Etvs pendulum the first horizontal variometer, called the Etvs
pendulum, was constructed in 1891. The invention by Lrnd goston
Etvs revolutionised the measurement of gravity. The device, which could
also sense horizontal changes in the field of gravity, is a prime example
of the tangible realisation of a physical theory. Without it, the oil fields in
Texas or Venezuela would have not been discovered.
Bolyai geometry The theory of hyperbolic geometry states that several
lines can be drawn parallel to a straight line through a point outside of it. This
marked the definition of non-Euclidean geometry by Jnos Bolyai in 1832.
Without that, the relativity theory could not have been defined either.
Vitamin C Albert Szent-Gyrgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize for the
description of vitamin C in the 1930s. Since that time, the vitamin has
become an indispensable part of everyday life throughout the world,
without which it would be more difficult to fight infections and support the
human immune system.
Cavinton This medicine, developed under the leadership of chemical
engineer Csaba Szntay, is used world-wide to stimulate brain functions
and especially combat dementia. Without it, treating old-age cerebral
conditions would be more difficult.
antibacterial disinfection Ignc Semmelweis revolutionised medical
practices in the mid-19th century by introducing asepsis. He recognised
that pathogenic agents could be kept away from hospital patients if doctors
washed their hands in chlorinated water before examining them. Without
this discovery, many more mothers would have died of post-partum fever
after giving birth. The discovery of bacteria was another major result.

12

needle-less insulin dosage - Istvn Lindmayer invented the needle-less


vaccination device that allowed for administering, among others, insulin
without causing any pain. Without this, patients would suffer more.
stress theory Jnos Selyes stress theory states that all life forms respond
to threats with a general emergency reaction, tapping their reserves and
hormonal resources. Without this theory defined in the mid-1930s, we
could not explain the symptoms of stress, and treating this disease, which
has by now become endemic, would probably have become possible later.
positive psychology - Mihly Cskszentmihlyi and his colleague formulated
positive psychology in 2000. It has developed into a new branch of the
science of psychology.Positive psychologists aim to find genius and
talent, and make normal life fuller beyond the mere treatment of mental
illnesses.
holograph Dnes Gbors holograph, invented in 1947, revolutionised the
technology of recording images. The holograph played an important part
in actual imaging and also in image storage. The holographic technology
allows for brain modelling as well as the recognition and translation of
letters and texts.
talking picture without Dnes Mihlys invention in 1922, we would still
be watching silent films.
colour television Pter Kroly Goldmark introduced his invention, a colour
TV for practical use, on 4 September 1940. Now we cannot imagine having
to watch all programs in black and white.
nuclear chain reaction - Le Szilrd was the first to discover in 1934 how
to induce nuclear fission through targeted and controlled intervention.
Without this discovery, there would be no nuclear power plants on Earth.
dynamo this device, which turns mechanical energy into DC electric
energy, was invented by nyos Istvn Jedlik in 1861. Without it, electric
power could not be generated, and not even our bicycle lamps would work.
carburettor this part creates a mixture of air and fuel to be burned in Otto
engines. It was invented by Jnos Csonka and Dont Bnki in 1893. Without
it, automobiles could not have proliferated in the early 20th century.
transformer a transformer changes (increases or decreases) the voltage
of alternating current while keeping the output power unchanged. Based
on Ott Titusz Blthys idea, a closed iron-core transformer was created
in 1885, with most of the experimental work done by Miksa Dri. The
patented device became known all over the world as the Zipernowsky-DriBlthy (ZBD) transformer. It is installed in almost all electric machines; no
household machine would work without it.
electric locomotive Klmn Kands invention in 1902 led to the
electrification of railways. A traction motor in the locomotive transformed
single-phase alternating current into triple-phase current. Without this,
electric railways could not have been launched, and steam engines would
have lingered for quite a while all over the world.

13

III. H
 ungarys research on the scientific map of the
world
Scientific excellence is appreciated across the Western civilisation, but
there are few countries where world-class science is more ingrained in
national identity than in Hungary. In difficult times, Hungarians learned
that scientific progress is indispensable to the countrys development.
As the great physicist Lornd Etvs, the creator of the Etvs pendulum
used in measurements for the completion of the gravity theory said:
Real science is for the world; so if we want to be true scientists and
as we should good Hungarians, we must hoist the flag of science high
enough to be seen and duly respected beyond the countrys borders. It
is with this motto that the targeted development of scientific research
started in Hungary around the turn of the millennium, together with the
transformation of the education system (Bologna process).
Now Hungarys science directly participates in the European Unions R&D
framework programs. Research universities are the primary bases of that
activity; they are competitive players on the international scientific and
higher education scene, active members of large scientific and university
networks, and participants in innovative developments by the largest
multinational companies.
A person who works at an excellent Hungarian university, a top research
workshop or an innovative company active in Hungary is also involved in
global scientific and innovation processes.
Key areas: material sciences,
machinery, sustainability,
nanotechnology
Students: 13,000
Lecturers: 1,700
Key areas: vehicle
engineering
Students: 11,000
Lecturers: 400

Gyr

Key areas: agriculture


Students: 11,800
Lecturers: 400

Gdll
Budapest

Key areas:
veterinary studies,
agriculture
Students: 2,900
Kaposvr
Key areas: medical
sciences, pedagogy
Students: 22,000
Lecturers: 1,900

Key areas: automotive


manufacturing
Students: 3,700 (2013)
Lecturers: 180

Key areas: molecular biology,


genomics, agriculture,
partiple physics
Students: 13,000
Lecturers: 1,700
Debrecen

Kecskemt
Key areas: major European laser
physics investment, medical and
molecular biology, laser phisics
Students: 18,000
Lecturers: 1,500
Szeged

Pcs

14

Miskolc

Budapest
University

Key areas

Students

Lecturers

Etvs Lornd University

mathematics, physics,
information technology,
psychology, teacher
training, special education

28,000

1,500

Budapest University of
Technology and Economics

engineering, information
technology, natural
sciences

21,000

1,000

Semmelweis University

medical sciences,
genomics

13,000

1,100

Budapest Corvinus
University

economics

17,879

867

National University of
Public Service

critical infrastructure,
state and military studies

10,371

1. Data and tendencies


a; Infrastructure development; increasing the research capacity
Significant infrastructure developmentprojects of international scale have
been completed recently in Hungary. A CERN data centre in Budapest and
the ongoing construction of a laser research facility in Szeged as part
of the EUs Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) are major
investments from a European perspective. Apart from
World-class
international investors, the corporate sector implements
research and
the most significant research and development processes,
development
also relying on the EUs structural funds. The most advanced
instruments and software are available first of all in higher
infrastructure
education institutions; they primarily serve education in
is available in
natural and technical sciences, as well as basic research.
laser research,
Further activity types in the innovation chain applied
research and experimental development (development of
medical
prototypes and product samples) are pursued, in addition
sciences, and
to research universities, by public and private research
molecular
institutes and innovative companies. The per capita R&D&I
expenditure related to these activities is the highest in the
biology.
pharmaceutical industry.
Much of the countrys scientific infrastructure and research capacity is
traditionally concentrated in Budapest. But thanks to European Unionfunded development projects in recent years, major university centres
outside the capital (Debrecen, Szeged, Pcs, Miskolc, Kaposvr, Gyr,
Veszprm) are now equipped with state-of-the-art research tools and
compete by improving their performance. The ratio of R&D investments
has been growing steadily for a decade; currently 1.63% of all investments
in the national economy are realised in that sector; representing a twofold
increase of the ratio in 10 years. The territorial concentration of R&D
expenditures decreased in recent years, with 41 of every 100 forints spent
on such purposes in convergence regions. Expenditures in three counties
(Hajd-Bihar, Csongrd and Veszprm) exceed the national average, which

15

is mostly attributable to local research universities and higher education


institutions activities as well as the presence of innovative companies
clustered around universities. In the public sector, the weight of the central
region remains regrettably high, with more than three quarters of all public
R&D expenditures registered there.
Complex research, development and innovation analyses
indicate that the level of innovation activities in the Southern
Plain and the Central Transdanubian regions is higher than
the national average. That improves the capacity of those
regions to attract capital; thus, the presence of science also
plays an important role in social development.

Infrastructure
of research
universities
outside
Budapest
enhanced by
competition

The social and economic effect of research is indicated by


the fact that the private sector operates more than half
of research units, compared to over 40% active in higher
education institutions. Concentrating the network of fulltime researchers (the institutes of the Hungarian Academy
of Sciences) has brought about significant changes as new
opportunities in terms of headcount, infrastructure and international-level
research have surfaced at the Research Centres for Science and Art.
3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

2013

2011

2012

2010

2009

2007

2008

2005

higher education research


and development unit

2006

2003

2004

2001

2002

2000

1999

1997

reseach and development institute


and other research unit

1998

1995

1996

1993

1994

1991

1992

1990

Corporate research
and development unit

Source: Central Statistical Office, 2014


Hungarys research and development network is the most extensive in
sciences: almost 60% of research units work in the fields of technology
and natural sciences, and the ratio is close to three quarters including
agricultural and medical research.

16

Historical data of Hungarys research and development


sector show a significant downturn of support to the sector
after the transition to democracy and market economy in
1990. But a steady recovery started after 2000, and growth
rates have accelerated in recent years.
Funding of research and development expenditures

The share of
companies in
total research
expenditure is
over 50%.

500000

400000

300000

200000

100000

Corporate

Central budget

Other domestic

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

Foreign

Source: Central Statistical Office, 2014


The research potential has been steadily rising in the past 15 years, and the
average age of researchers has decreased. This is primarily attributable
to corporate research and development activities. The share of young
generations within the research community is growing gradually: almost
two thirds (64.8%) of all researchers were younger than 45 years in 2013.
Number and distribution of researchers
40000

30000

20000

10000

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013

reseach and development institute


and other research unit

higher education research


and development unit

Corporate research
and development unit

Source: Central Statistical Office, 2014

17

The performance of Hungarys research and development sector


Regardless of the way(academic methods (publications), patents, or
innovative economic achievements) we measure the utilisation of research
and development results,we find that Hungarian science is internationally
competitive.
This is proven by a steady rise in the number of articles published in
foreign languages. The number of articles carried by foreign publications
was up one sixth in the past 10 years on the previous period, compared
to the number of researchers that rose by only 10%. Consequently, the
productivity of researchers improved considerably.
Foreign-language articles
15500

14250

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

13000

Source: Central Statistical Office, 2014


The analysis of large publication databases also indicates that the leading
research universities make significant contributions to international
scientific life, each issuing over one thousand publications a year. On
average,articles published by Etvs Lornd University, Semmelweis
University, Decrecen University or Szeged University of Sciences are
listed as references 7-8 times. Measuered by the number of publications,
biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics are traditionally among the
most active fields of science. In comparison with other countries of the
region, agricultural sciences, biochemistry, neurosciences, pharmaceutics,
and veterinary science show outstanding performance. Concerning globally
acclaimed publications, brain research, molecular biology, physics, geology,
multi-disciplinary sciences, technical sciences and psychology dominate. As
regards citations, some of the smaller institutions boast significant results
in technical literature; amongst state-owned universities, these include
the Corvinus University of Budapest, the University of West Hungary, the
universities of Kaposvr and Miskolc, the College of Kecskemt, and the
Eszterhzy Kroly College.
Naturally, an objective judgement of the quality of publications has its
limits. Nevertheless, it is telling that, according to Web of Science data,
7.2%, 7.2% and 6.8% of the articles by lecturers at Etvs Lornd
University, Semmelweis University and Budapest University of Technology

18

and Economics (respectively) have appeared in the most


prestigious publications. For the universities of Debrecen
and Szeged, these ratios are 4.8% and 4.6%, respectively.
Patents, which constitute the practical application of research
and development results, require more than outstanding
scientific performance, as both the initial patent registration
procedure and maintaining the rights incur significant cost.
The annual number of patent applications from Hungary
is over 700, and almost 20,000 patents are in effect.
Hungarian developers submit almost 100 patent applications
at the European Bureau of Standards, mostly related to the
pharmaceutical, communications and mechanical industries.
In the United States, some 150 patents were registered
with Hungarian participation in 2011. Many of these were
developments by a few large multinational corporations such
as General Electric, Ericsson, Nokia, Knorr-Bremsen, Richter,
Egis or Sanofi-Aventis. This list also indicates the dominance
of the pharmaceutical and machinery industries.
Hungarys R&D sector outperforms the EU average as
regards the ability to access and receive foreign funding.
The high ratio of such support partly results from patenting
activities, primarily by foreign-owned companies operating
in Hungary.
The economic impact of research and development can
also be described with more complex indicators such as the
innovation content of exports. In this regard, OECD figures
indicate that Hungary is among the highest-performing
countries.
It is especially remarkable that the ratio of innovation driven
economic activities doubled between 2004 and 2010 (rising
from 7% to 14%), marking the fastest growth in the entire
European Union. This is primarily attributable to industrial
innovation where the increase was two to threefold, much
faster than in any other EU country.

Hungarian
universities
stand their
ground in the
international
competition
among
publications,
with
a growing
number
of articles
and books
appearing
in foreign
languages.

As regards
the innovation
content of
exports,
Hungary is
in the top
league.

2. T
 he international competitiveness
of Hungarian universities
Ever since their establishment, Hungarian universities have been involved
in the international world of higher education. Todays Etvs Lornd
University, an institution established by Cardinal Pter Pzmny in 1635
and operated continuously since that time, gave Hungary an opportunity to
catch up with Western scholarship as well as theological and philosophical
thinking, and to close the gap in public administration related knowledge.
Meanwhile, Hungarian students were directly involved in European higher
education through peregrination, i.e. visits to Protestant universities
and studies at the pontifical university. The knowledge acquired there
and brought back to Hungary was a major contribution to the countrys

19

With
Peregrine
students and
a university
in operation
for 400 years,
Hungary has
been part of
the European
higher
education
network for
600 years.

development. Higher education in the 19th and 20th centuries


was at par with the education provided by universities in
Vienna a Prague; and the organisation of universities after
Hungary had been split up by the Trianon treaty served both
nation policy and development purposes.

The reorganisation of universities after the Second World


War was politically and ideologically motivated and aimed
to sever relations with Western higher education; also,
disciplinary and geographic emphasis shifted considerably as
the country moved towards higher levels of industrialisation.
On the other hand, the economic orientation of higher
education and the concentration of research capacities in
the network of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences followed
global tendencies, albeit with distortions. Consequently,
by the 1960s and 70s, Hungarys scientists, scientific
workshops and universities joined the professional life of
the Western world in several fields, while also building up
wide-ranging and intensive relations in Eastern Europe and
the third world. The difficulties caused by seclusion from
the West necessitated unusual solutions in some fields; much creativity
was released by research and development in information technology and
vehicle manufacturing. From the mid-80s, more and more young people
were allowed to study in Western Europe for certain periods in the field
of social sciences, which provided fresh perspectives and
Hungarys broadened the scope of information. Hungarian universities
higher established a growing number of official relations with peer
institutions and joined international cooperation networks;
education joint research projects were also started.

system has
adopted
Western
standards:
scientific
qualification
and
accreditation,
credit
systems,
international
compliance,
as well as
students and
lecturers
mobility.
20

As a result, by the time of Eastern Europe started its


transition into democracy, Hungary had established paths to
freely strengthen international relations and could also take
the initiative in the process of cooperation among European
higher education institutions. The TEMPUS program, which
led Eastern bloc countries to the Erasmus scheme, was partly
borne of a Hungarian proposal. (The name of the program
was coined by professor Tams Lajos). Intra-university
cooperation projects started under TEMPUS helped launch a
process of accelerated accession to and harmonisation with
the European Unions higher education system. Hungarian
university accreditation adopted Western standards, the
scientific qualification system was based on PhD degrees,
and the legal conditions to university autonomy were created.
The number of students grew radically from the second half
of the 1990s, and the fragmented institutional system was
concentrated to create multi-disciplinary universities with
education and research structures harmonised with those
of Western peers. The significance of university research
increased, and doctorate schools became real scientific
workshops. Hungarian universities are represented in almost

all reputable international associations and organisations of


higher education.

Major global
corporations
have
innovation
capacities in
Hungarian
universities.

Multinational corporations entering the Hungarian market


intensified the practical utilisation of research and
development results. Higher education research geared to
serving the needs of world-class market players started
primarily in vehicle manufacturing, information technology,
and financial services: Audi employs researchers at the
Szchenyi University in Gyr, Mercedes at the College of
Kecskemt, Ericsson at the Etvs Lornd University,
Nokia and International Business Machines at the Budapest
University of Technology and Economics, Richter at the Semmelweis
University, J. P. Morgan at the Rnyi Alfrd Institute of Mathematics, and
Bosch in Miskolc. University innovation helped the practical implementation
of several patents and technologies, for example in the fields of laser
research and gene technology in Szeged, space research at the Budapest
University of Technology and Economics, particle physics, molecular
biology and agricultural technology in Debrecen, and network research at
Etvs Lornd University.

The sustainability of these achievements is ensured by the outstanding


acknowledgement garnered by young Hungarian researchers. The
multitude of international prizes and awarded grants is partly attributable
to world-class talent development; one example is the Network of
Research Students (for secondary school students), which has received
the EUs Descartes Award. The strong attraction of Western European and
American universities, most of which offer much better financial conditions,
is a controversial effect of youth acknowledgement. A dedicated academic
program is in place to encourage the return of the most talented researchers
to Hungary and thus contribute to maintaining the high standards of the
countrys scientific culture.

a; Excellent positions in the international competitive space

Due to the increased need for equipment and research capacity, scientific
performance in modern research and development greatly depends on the
motivation provided by expenditures and funding, as well as on the ability
to participate in international cooperation.As in other Eastern European
countries, the funds available for research in Hungary are significantly
lower than in other parts of the world, but the cooperation capacity has
been maintained. Nevertheless, the composition of expenditures has
changed considerably, with almost half of all R&D funding coming from the
private sector, in line with international trends.
Higher education in general and leading research universities in particular
remain prime sources of research results. Performance as measured by
publications is increasing steadily and is internationally very significant
compared to the countrys economic characteristics and research
capacities. Relative to expenditures, the number of scientific publications
in Hungary is amongst the highest in an international comparison.

21

Hungarys
higher
education
and research
are among
the best in
the world
in terms of
performance
relative to
expenditures.

Although the sheer maintenance of the current research


capacity and infrastructure can be difficult, targeted forms
of financing (EU subsidies, Momentum program) facilitate
the operation of research workshops at international
level. Scientific students associations, as a unique form of
talent management, constitute a traditional way of talent
management.

That is one reason why Hungarys scientific system is


internationally competitive in terms of efficiency, boasting
better-than-expected results compared to expenditures.
This is also proven by the fact that more of the EUs FP7
program grants are awarded to Hungarian R&D projects
than to competing (foreign) sectors. Nature magazine has
compiled a chart of the relative scientific recognition of
Western and Eastern countries 25 years after the fall of the
Berlin wall. The overall picture is bleak: until 2014, only 74
(!) of the 3,088 ERC grants went to scientists in Eastern countries. But
more than half (39) of these were awarded to researchers in Hungary!

Source: Nature, Abbott&Schiermeier, 2014


The comparison of financial data concerning research and development
shows that Hungary is lagging behind the European Unions average in
terms of the factors determined by the economic environment. Then
again, the country performs better in certain fields: expenditures financed
by foreign funds are higher than the EUs average, and participation in
the European Unions FP7 program is also higher (thanks to the very
strong performance of the academic sector). The main partners in such
cooperation projects include Germany, the United Kingdom, and France.
The level of employment in knowledge-intensive jobs is close to the EU
average.

22

Publication and patent data indicate the following strengths in domestic


R&D: medical science, ICT, environmental research, biotechnology, the
automotive industry, and security research.
Hungary, 2011

(1)

in brackets: average annual growth for Hungary


New graduates (ISCED 5) in science
and engineering per thousand
population aged 2534
New doctoral graduates (ISCED 6)
(3,6%)
Business R&D intensity
per thousand population aged 2534 (5,1%)
(BERD as % of GDP) (7%)
Business enterprise researchers
(FTE) per thousand labour force (10,1%)

SMEs inroducing marketing or organisational


innovations as % of total SMEs (-2,0%)

Employment in knowledge intensive activities (manufacturing


and business sevices as % of total employment
aged 1564 (0,7%)

SMEs inroducing product or process


innovations as % of total SMEs
(-0,8%)

Scientific publications within the 10% most


cited scientific publications worldwide
as % of total scientific publications of the
country (3) (1,4%)

Public expenditure on R&D


(GOVERD plus HERD) financed by business
enterprise as % of GDP (3,6%)

EC Framework Programme funding


per thousand GERD (euro) (-2,1%)

Public-private scientific co-publications per


million population (8,6%)

Foreign doctoral students (ISCED 6)


as % of all doctoral students (4) (-8,9%)
BERD financed from abroad as % of total
BERD (-0,7%)
PCT patent applications per billion GDP in
current PPSE (-2,1%)
Hungary

Reference Group (CZ+IT+HU+SI+SK)

EU

Souce: DG Research and Innovation Economic Analysis Unit


Data: DG Research and innovation, Eurostat, OECD, Science Metrix / Scopus (Elsevier), Innovation Union Scoreboard
Notes: (1) The values refer to 2011 or to the latest available year.
(2) Growth rates which do not refer to 20002011 refer to growth between the earliest available year and the latest available year for which
comparable data are available over the period 20002011

(3) Fractional counting method.

(4) EU does not include DE, IE, EL, LU, NL.

Source: EU Commission

Both the absolute value of research and development expenditure and its
share in GDP have increased considerably in recent years with the ratio
rising to 1.44% in 2013 (from 0.88% in 2004).
R&D expenditure as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP)
2

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

Source: Central Statistical Office


Hungarys per capita R&D expenditure is less than half of the EU average
but higher than the average of the countries that recently joined the EU.
Large corporations spend 30% more on R&D&I than the SME sector. This

23

is again mainly driven by the increased activity of innovative companies,


as a result of which Hungary belongs to the group of countries where
research and development funding continued to increase in recent years.
Per capita R&D at purchasing power parity

Source: OECD

Hungarys
acknowledgement
in the EUs
research
competition
is clearly
the highest
among
recently
joined
member
states.

b; Global university ranking


The global ranking of Hungarian universities should be
compared with foreign institutions recognised as competing
peers due to their social-historical embeddedness in the
international higher education market, or because of their
regional location. It is clear that the two internationally
highest-ranking Hungarian universities (Etvs Lornd
University and the University of Szeged) are in the same club
as the Czech and Polish elite, following the leading Austrian
and Finnish institutions. Their mid-field position follows from
three main determining factors. As a minimum, pblication
and citation results require lecturer and research capacities
at a level, which is available at research universities in
Hungary. Etvs Lornd University is in a special position
because the current lack of a medical faculty presents a
limitation as medical and biological research offers many
publication topics.

Naturally, global ranking is not an absolute measure at


all; in fact, attaching excessive importance to it could lead to distortion.
Nevertheless, it is a telling sign that Hungarys higher education system is
a factor noted on both absolute and specialised lists.

24

COUNTRY

University

ARWU

Leiden

SCIMAGO

THE

QS

2012

2013

2014

2014

2014

2013

2014

2013

2013

2014

University
of Vienna

Austria

151
200

151
201

151
200

242

323

324

182

170

158

156

Technical
University of Graz

Austria

401
500

401
500

401
500

422

699

678

394

411
420

Vienna University
of Technology

Austria

401
500

401
500

282

337

331

226
250

226
250

264

246

Sofia University

Bulgaria

1229

1144

University
of Zagreb

Croatia

401
500

401
500

601
650

Charles University

Czech
Republic

201
300

201
300

201
300

693

Palacky University

Czech
Republic

University
of Helsinki

Finland

73

76

Etvs Lornd
University

Hungary

301
400

University
of Szeged

Hungary

Budapest University
of Technology and
Economics

288

601
650

160

159

301
350

351
400

233

244

631

1010

1053

73

269

150

153

103

100

69

67

301
400

301
400

540

798

778

551
600

601
650

401
500

401
500

401
500

707

808

783

501
550

551
650

Hungary

561

667

636

Semmelweis
University

Hungary

541

749

704

University
of Debrecen

Hungary

698

879

852

601
650

601
650

Corvinus University
of Budapest

Hungary

2260

2251

651
700

701+

University
of Trieste

Italy

401
500

361

694

653

201
225

226
250

501
550

601
650

Jagiellonian
University

Poland

301
400

301
400

301
400

667

397

400

376

371

University
of Warsaw

Poland

301
400

301
400

301
400

596

516

528

301
350

301
350

338

335

BabesBolyai
University

Romania

868

877

701+

701+

University
of Bucharest

Romania

993

1033

701+

651
700

Comenius
University

Slovakia

699

770

776

Slovak University
of Technology

Slovakia

1043

1010

University
of Ljubljana

Slovenia

401
500

401
500

401
500

278

291

551
600

501
550

University
of Maribor

Slovenia

1030

991

733

285

Source: Social Communication Research Team at the Pedagogical and


Psychological Faculty of Etvs Lornd University, 2015

25

c; International university relations

There is hardly an international network or organisation of universities


that has no Hungarian institution as a member. These associations provide
opportunities for the exchange of lecturers and students, as well as for
the dissemination of the latest research results. Joint research programs
allow Hungarian researchers to be represented in high-ranking scientific
publications as co-authors.

Central
European
Initiative
University
Network
(CEI-Ininet)

Danube
Rectors
Conference
(DRC)

International
Association of
Universities
(IAU)

Egyetemek
a nemzetkzi
szervezetek,
hlzatok
tagjaknt

Utrecht
Network
Coimbra
Group

European
University
Association
(EUA)

Network
of the
Universities
from the capitals
of Europe
(UNICA)

Agence
Universitaire
de la
Francophonie
(AUF)

Egyetemek a nemzetkzi szervezetek, hlzatok tagjaknt:


Universities belonging to international organisations and networks
The globalisation of higher education is an increasingly apparent
phenomenon worldwide: about four million students and lecturers by the
ten thousand spend more or less time at universities in other countries.
With English-language courses available and the strong international
reputation of the institutions,Hungarian universities can receive students
in any field, and about 20,000 people take advantage of that opportunity.
Medical, agricultural, technological and science education is especially
popular with foreign students.
The presence of scholars from abroad strengthens cooperation in scientific
research as well. It is natural for Hungarian lecturers and researchers
to present their research results in English or another foreign language
relevant to the topic at hand. Our lecturers personally hold courses and
give presentations at foreign universities. Honorary doctors at Hungarian
universities are reputable, world-class scientists who lend credibility to the
international standards of our countrys research and science workshops.

26

An increasing number of ERASMUS and CEEPUS schemes, the Campus


Hungary Program and several bilateral cooperation programs (e.g. under
agreements with Brazil, China and Arab countries) promote the mobility of
students and lecturers. Joint training like ERASMUS MUNDUS, where the
participants spend a term or a full academic year at foreign institutions
and get degrees from both universities are especially important.

Miskolc
ELTE: 1000 foreign students
Semmelweis University:
3000 foreign students
BME: 1200 foreign students

DE: 3700 foreign students

Gyr
Debrecen

Budapest

Kecskemt
Kaposvr
University of Pcs:
2000 foreign students

SZTE: 2000 foreign students


Szeged

Pcs

Acronyms:
ELTE Etvs Lornd University, BME Budapest University of Technology
and Economics , DE University of Debrecen, SZTE University of Szeged

ERASMUS

FULBRIGHT

LEONARDO

SOCRATES

TEMPUS

CEEPUS

Hungarian universities often host international scientific conferences with


international experts giving presentations. Hungarian researchers are also
regularly invited to foreign events organised by scientific associations,
organisations and networks. Many of them participate in the work of
foreign universities as guest researchers.
The participation rate of Hungarian institutions in the research and
development programs of the European Union is especially high. Hungarian
experts are frequently invited to take part in research projects of the UN,
UNESCO, FAO, WHO, NATO and various other international organisations.

27

A szakterleti tudomnyos vilgszervezetekben val rszvtel:


Participation in specialised global scientific organisations
International
Network on
Engineering
Education and
Research

CERN

LASERLABEUROPE
(ELI-ALPS)

The
International
Society
for Professional
Innovation
Management
(ISPIM)

NANOS3
program

European
Association on
International
Education

Association of
European Science &
Technology Transfer
Professionals

Confucius
Institutes

Cooperation
Platform of Central
and East European Metropolitan
Universities of
Technology

PLASMON

Top Industrial
Managers
for Europe

Agence
Universitaire
de la
Francophonie

European
Society for
Engineering
Education

Licensing
Executives
Society
International
(LESI Inc.)

CESAEER

ProTon
Europe

3. C
 ampus Hungary: the program of international presence
Campus Hungary is a unique program for students and staff involved in
the international aspects of higher education, such as the development of
mobility systems and presence on the international scientific scene. The
varied nature of the program is key to its success: while it seeks first of all to
promote the mobility of students, it also boasts remarkable achievements
in increasing Hungarys presence in the international higher education. The
activities include, among others, supporting the countrys higher education
institutions in developing their international strategies and communicating
with foreign partners. The program aims to attract more foreign students
by introducing the national cross section of Hungarys higher education
system and by elevating higher education to the level of an internationally
known Hungarian brand. In addition to helping students, Campus Hungary
also offers grant programs to the staff of higher education institutions,
thus promoting international research, education and networking, and the
acquisition professional experience.
Results in mobility
The Campus Hungary Program was launched in 2012 first of all to provide
grants to students of Hungarian higher education institutions for periodical
studies abroad. As a result of eight grant phases concluded by the Balassi
Institute since the autumn of 2012, more than ten thousand people (8,663
students and 1,722 employees) have been awarded support. Consequently,
the number of Hungarian students who have received some form of grant
for foreign studies has doubled. Campus Hungarys grants have helped
students go on short study trips individually or in groups, spend a semester
abroad, or work as interns.
More than 25% (2,659 people) went on short study trips (1-28 days) to
participate in conferences and exhibitions as visitors or presenters,

28

gaining experience as well as building up or deepening and extending their


professional relations. Almost half of the applicants, 4,227 people, went on
study trips in groups. The funding scheme was also available to groups of
students from various universities connected by their field of study. Again,
this has contributed to more extensive professional cooperation.
The staff of higher education institutions also had the opportunity to
go on short and long study trips to engage in institutional networking,
to help internationalise the Hungarian higher education and to develop
mobility systems. Furthermore, these grant types created opportunities
for applicants to participate in professional conferences as guests or
lecturers, to take part in joint research and study projects with foreign
universities, and to contribute to foreign publications.
The Campus Hungary Program has allowed more than ten thousand pople
across the country to study or work as interns in 92 countries around the
world. Besides the top 10 target countries (Germany, United Kingdom,
Austria, Italy, USA, Spain, France, Slovakia and Poland), grant recipients
have visited exotic states such as Uzbekistan, Togo, Cambodia, the Bahama
islands, Kenya, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cuba or Ecuador.
According to a satisfaction survey conducted amongst students and staff of
higher education institutions in convergence regions, the time spent abroad
has greatly or perceptibly contributed to the professional development of
90% of grant recipients. Almost 70% reported a significant improvement in
their language skills, and 84% said that the program had helped establish
and deepen their professional relations.1
Promoting Hungarys higher education abroad
As another key objective, the program aims to increase the number of
foreigners studying in Hungarian institutions. To that end, Campus Hungary
officials provide information about foreign-language courses available in
Hungary. A so-called Study Finder 2 functionality on the English-language
web site of the grant program is also very helpful to those seeking
information. This is a complex search function connected to a database of
courses held in English and other foreign languages in Hungary.
The project complements the information sources mentioned above
with methodological publications. Campus Hungary issues a brochure in
13 languages in order to promote Hungarys higher education. Finally,
Campus Compass provides an overview of foreign-language courses in
Hungarian universities and colleges. In order to promote mobility towards
Hungarian higher education institutions, the staff of Campus Hungary
have offered universities and colleges opportunities to attend roadshows,
education exhibitions and fairs. The participants were selected based on

See the detailed satisfaction survey here: http://www.campushungary.hu/hirek/412-

campus-hungary-elegedettsegmeres - 2 April 2015

http://www.campushungary.org/study-finder - 2 April 2015

29

applications evaluated by the Directorate of the Campus Hungary Program


in view of strict professional aspects (professional relations, new or
ongoing international cooperation etc.). As a result, institutions promoted
Hungarys higher education in general and their own foreign-language
courses in particular in 12 countries. Also, Campus Hungary visited Hong
Kong in February 2015 to represent our countrys higher education system
for the first time at the 25th Hong Kong Education and Career Expo.
Some of students who have received grants:
Anna Podonyi, in the sixth year of her studies at the Medical University
of Debrecen, travelled to the Himalaya region of Nepal to work as an
intern, a committed and proud healer under difficult financial and hygiene
conditions.
Andrs Kovcs, Ph.D. student of the Etvs Lornd University, went on
a short study trip to Italy and Hawaii to gain international experience in
cosmology, and particularly the research of dark energy.
Annamria Lehoczkys research at University Centre in Svalbard, the
worlds northernmost university, contributed to her masters degree of
about glacio-climatology.
Istvn Lnrt, spent half a year in Hanoi, Vietnam in his final year of
Ph.D. studies as an intercultural linguist at the Etvs Lornd University,
applying a linguistic approach to the examination of Hungarian and
Vietnamese business communication. The results have been incorporated
in his dissertation.
Odooproject, an initiative by students of the Budapest University of
Technology and Economics, was the first team from Central and Eastern
Europe to attend the Solar Decathlon race in 2013 in order to demonstrate
to an international audience their creation, an energy-efficient,
environmentally conscious, light-structure home called the Odoo house
The Campus Hungary Program is coordinated at a national level by a
consortium of the Balassi Institute and the Tempus Public Foundation. It
is supported by the European Union under the Social Renewal Operative
Program (TMOP) within the New Szchenyi Plan.
The National Excellence Program a national program related to Campus
Hungary R&D projects and training programs for the development of a
personal support system promoting the international mobility of students
is supported by the European Union under the New Szchenyi Plan with
HUF 1,323,724,718 in the project no. TMOP-4.2.4.B/1-11/1-2012-0001,
and with HUF 3,623,797,376 in the convergence project no. TMOP4.2.4.B/2-11/1-2012-0001.

30

4. T
 he Momentum Program: a ground-breaking initiative
to counter brain drain
The Momentum Program was launched in 2009 by Jzsef Plinks, then
chairman of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, primarily in response
to the brain drain affecting scientific institutions of Eastern European
countries. The program has proved to be a very successful scheme for
offsetting or preventing the large-scale exodus of researchers. Specifically,
it is a unique grant program aimed at encouraging career-starting young
talents working in other countries to return to Hungary, with conditions that
are, in several ways, competitive with those offered by foreign institutions.
Besides luring back young researchers, the program also places emphasis
on keeping those researchers home who are contemplating to move abroad.
The scheme convinced several researchers to return to Hungary to go on
working under conditions previously only seen in foreign institutions. As
another unique aspect of the Momentum Program, grant recipients are
expected to participate in other (mostly international) grant schemes.
(See chapter VII for details about the activities and programs of the
Hungarian Academy of Sciences.)

31

IV. Social and economic benefits of science in Hungary


The correlation between the components of the innovation chain has
changed radically across the world over the past two decades. In the past a
relatively long time, occasionally decades, passed between the three main
steps i.e., a scientific discovery, technological development and practical
application. By the last third of the 20th century that time
shortened greatly and the involvement of economic actors
The innovation in the financing of research urged for faster utilisation. By
potential of the turn of the millennium, the linearity of the chain has also
Hungarian disappeared: as the three factors cross and mix into one
another, the borderline between theoretical research and
research and product development is increasingly fading. This progress
development entailed significant changes in higher education as well
is a dynamic because innovation tasks and partners directly appeared
among the activities of universities. The process was
driver of triggered by the entry into force of the US Bahl-Doyle Act
economic in the eighties, which had worldwide implications and made
universities interested in entering the innovation market.

and social
networks.

In Hungary,
twentyfive percent
of small
corporate
entities
and fifty
percent of
medium-sized
companies are
innovative,
while seventy
percent
of large
companies
are engaged
in innovative
activities.

32

Consequently, the success of the practical utilisation of


research results in the advanced countries is mostly due
to the interconnection between two sectors, knowledge
and technology transfer, and the buoyancy effect and
encouragement of triple or quadruple-helix cooperation
activities. Among the numerous well-known universitycorporate cooperation theories, the latter describes
a balanced model, in which each actor works for the
capitalisation of knowledge where the main driver of the
mechanism is market demand.
The National Intelligent Specialisation Strategy has evolved
in the same spirit in Hungary as well, with a complex set of
objectives to enable decision makers to improve innovation
potential,arm-in-arm with the largest group of stakeholders,
along the development priorities of the regions in the form
of various measures and versatile actions. The measures
focus on the development objectives of towns, counties
and regions and aim at exploiting available knowledge and
research-development results for the economy, relying on
the capacities of universities. Hence cooperation stretches
beyond educational objectives and enables partners to
implement Hungarian and international cooperation projects
and initiatives, aiming primarily at the fast utilisation of
market related developments.
Closer interconnection of science and corporate innovation is also
a key priority in Hungary in line with international practice and
the strategic recommendation of the European Commission, as a
result of which the efficiency of managing intellectual resources
and utilising research results in the marketplace will improve.

Universities exert effort to cooperate primarily in the areas


of pharmaceutical production, information technology
(computers, manufacturing of electronic, optical products
and the info-communications sector), the automotive and
machinery sectors, the power sector, financial insurance
and banking services and in construction, because these
companies have the capacity to place orders. Yet, the
intellectual potential of tutors, researchers and students
is a resource, which is directly available for the creative
industries.
1. Hungarys innovation strategy:
Start-up paradise

More intensive
cooperation
between
science and
economy is a
key researchdevelopment
priority for
the European
Union and
Hungary.

In the first decades of the 21st century, most Hungarian


innovative enterprises operated as research-development
hubs of global multinational companies. Over the past five
years, however, the era of start-up enterprises opened new economic
opportunities all over the world for Hungarian creativity and ideas, which
were often grabbed by young experts affiliated to universities. This is
how the approximately 250 Hungarian companies and projects started,
of which at least a dozen achieved international success, earning more
globally recognistion for Hungarian innovative performance.

a; The Hungarian start-up ecosystem

Bridge Budapest nonprofit association, founded by globally successful


Hungarian start-up companies, including Prezi, LogMeIn, NNG and Ustream,
is one of the centres of the Hungarian start-up system. The president of
Bridge Budapest is Pter rvai, the co-founder and CEO of Prezi. Their
objective is to show that products and companies can be built even from
one idea. They offer scholarships to talented young Hungarian people
so that they can gather experience and inspiration while working for the
founding companies of Bridge Budapest.
Kitchen Budapest was established with support from Magyar Telekom
in order to operate as an innovation laboratory and create unusual
technological ideas. Since its foundation, the operational model of Kitchen
Budapest has changed several times, but the vision has remained the same:
building a company is not only a business, but is also self-expression, a
tool to change the world. The purpose of the start-up incubation activities
of Kitchen Budapest is to assist talented young teams to implement their
ideas with knowledge, contacts and capital. They are interested primarily in
software and hardware ideas. Applicants presenting such ideas enjoy four
to six million forints of support and an incubation programme, supported
with external and internal mentors for six months. In that period they
are expected to develop products that can convince investors. Kitchen
Budapest maintains a close relationship with higher education institutions
(e.g., Moholy-Nagy University of Arts, Budapest University of Technology
and Economics). They also assist in mentoring programmes and in the
organisation of lecturers and exchange programmes.

33

Design Terminl NKK is an agency of the Hungarian State,


responsible for encouraging creative industries. Creative
industries refer primarily to innovative technologies, design
and industrial design, fashion design and urban planning.
The state is willing to be involved on condition that relevant
industrial traditions, a considerable number of talented
Bridge people and international relevance are all present in a
Budapest particular field. It is a specificity of the creative industry
that the intellectual added value provides the economic
Kitchen potential of a product or service. The Hungarian creative
Budapest industry is also present on the global market especially
in product, graphic and fashion design and information
Design technology, where there is no separate Hungarian market
Hungarian consumers also make their purchases on
Terminal and
the global market. Given the language barriers, in music,
Google broadcasting and advertising, products are specifically
designed for Hungarian use, but the impact of the global
Ground trends can also be felt. The most dynamic growth occurred
in design i.e., product, graphic and fashion design over the
last five years, with considerable Hungarian results: the number of such
companies multiplied and the added value created in that field grew by a
factor of three. Extending these processes to European scale (following
also the priorities of the 20142020 support period of the European Union)
is the responsibility of Design Terminal. The agency operates in the centre
of Budapest at an iconic location: the building, previously used as a bus
terminal for decades, is nowadays a historic monument surrounded by the
most popular entertainment and meeting places of the Budapest youth. The
building hosts educational and exchange programmes, informal meetings
and networking activities.

Main start-up
innovation
bases:

A special initiative of Google, one of the most successful companies of


the world dominating the internet, also promotes ideas and innovations
in Budapest. Google Ground is an individual Google base, which was
established in a dynamically changing part of the city, which is becoming
a university district and an intellectual centre of Budapest youth. It offers
training and meeting opportunities, absolutely indispensable for surviving
in the digital world to creative, on-line marketing agencies, Hungarian
SMEs and students intending to learn. The training is dominated by Google
Academies, where interested parties learn marketing and content providing
techniques to be used in a Google environment. College and university
students are offered semi-annual theoretical and practical courses and
traineeships. The Ground Studio presents the production of quality video
contents to the partners.
b; Hungarian start-up companies on the verge of global success
Some young Hungarian companies that generate six digit sales in euros
and strive to becomeglobal leaders in innovation firms are a step away
from global success. Extremely young as he is, Dniel Rtai attracted a
lot of attention and received awards for the development of Leonar3Do
at many festivals and events dedicated to developers. The idea relates

34

to an integrated software and hardware platform with a 3D virtual reality


created on the screen of your computer. By using this tool, objects can be
created, varied and analysed in an interactive 3D environment, which can
be used on any computer. The major hardware components of Leonar3Do
include a 3D input tool (bird) with six degrees of freedom, 3D glasses,
sensors placed on the top of the screen and a central panel. In practice,
six degrees of freedom mean that you can grab, move as well as rotate
virtual objects with your bird. As a result, you may walk around virtual
objects, look underneath and behind them. You always see objects in
a natural perspective, that is to say you see images of objects that the
user would perceive in reality from the particular angle. And you do not
need a computer with special resources for all of that. The diversity of
potential uses of the development is indicated by the cooperation with
Semmelweis University. In education Leonar3Do offers an ideal platform
for developing three-dimensional teaching materials for computers. In
addition to offering experience, it may reduce the cost of and enrich the
information conveyed in demonstrative education, while developing the
manual skills of students.
Gravity R&D Zrt., founded in 2007, offers virtual profile-based content
promoting services. The software promotes contents, relevant to the
user for each viewed video.It took the first step towards success in 2009
when it clinched shared first place at one of the worlds best known on-line
competitions for rating prediction systems,the Netflix Prize.
Codie developed an educational game which teaches children the basics
of programming. The game is based on the programming language they
developed to make algorithmic thinking understandable. The Kairos Society
recognition earned them coverageby Silicon Valley media and the interest
of investors.
CryptTalk provides protection against mobile eavesdropping by providing
a solution to increasingly important mobile security problems with a new
algorithm. Some products, developed for private users by the start-up
company, which started expansion in the Arabic countries, are among the
most popular applications.
Piqniq is a kind of food sharing application, aimed at the growing nmber of
gastro-culture enthusiasts. The application helps users learn about each
others cuisine, share inspirations and specific recipes and is also suitable
for organising actual food swaps. The Piqniq application was developed by
the graduate students of the Kitchen Budapest Startup Programme with
the help of their advisor, Pter rvai, the executive director of Prezi.
Brain research, a leading direction of Hungarian scientific research features
in the developments of Synetiq, a company engaged in neuro-marketing.
They develop tools to measure the effect of advertising spots by using
sensors to monitor brainwaves, eye movements, skin tension, heart rate
and pulse. The tool can test second by second impact, measuring emotional
involvement, attraction, excitement, etc.

35

Codie Synetiq

Crypt talk Codie

Gravity

Synetiq

Gravity
Codie
Synetiq

Piqniq

Codie
Crypt talk

MiniCRM is a piece of customer relationship management software


which, contrary to the CRM systems used widely across the world (e.g.,
Oracle, Software and Solutions), has been expressly designed for small
and medium-sized enterprises to help them process interactions with
customers and optimise the sales process. The advantage of the program
is that it interfaces smoothly with all Office (Outlook, Office) and Google
applications. The MiniCRM adjusts to user requirements and habits and
does not require any complicated learning process. As it stores data in a
cloud, access and updates are also easier and cheaper.
INFINITIUM Stdi Kft., a web agency in Szeged, cooperates with the local
university in the development of the Antavo software that provides online
marketing solutions. The program supports the design and implementation
of online campaigns for everyone. It is enough to upload images and texts
to launch on-line raffles, community offerings or coupon based campaigns.
Having won the Tel Aviv competition of Seedcamp, one of the worlds
most reputable investment and mentoring programs, they embarked on
increasing market share. At present the software is used in 102 countries
in 18 languages by 2,300 users.
2. Global success stories of Hungarian innovation
The innovation performance index is the highest in Hungary from among
the countries that recently joined the European Union (EU13) owing both
to success stories achieved in large corporate innovation and to the launch
of numerous successful start-up initiatives and enterprises between 2011
and 2014. Supporting the foundation and the initial critical life cycle of
innovative enterprises with external funds is a practice that has existed in
more advanced countries for a long time. In Hungary, the types of support
dedicated initially to establishing a certified advisory network mentoring
start-up companies, to fostering their cooperation with research sitesand
later to strengthening the business planning functions of enterprises and to
launching their innovative products in the market place appeared in 2012.
However, Hungarian creativity was not expecting such additional boosting:
success stories such as the achievements of Prezi, LogMein or IND evolved
independently from any support. The fact that all those success stories
were/are connected with a research base in higher education reflects the
innovative power of the Hungarian higher education system.

36

Codie

LeonarDo
Codie Piqniq

Gravity

Codie Gravity Synetiq

Codie

Piqniq
Gravity

Piqniq

LeonarDo

Synetiq

Codie

LeonarDo

Piqniq
Gravity

Crypt talk
Codie

a; H
 ungarian IT companies achieving global success: Prezi,
UStream, LogMeln, Tresorit
The innovation of Prezi, which reformed the presentation industry, began in
2008 and approximately 20 million users benefit from the application these
days. The story of Prezi shows that apart from a good idea, persistence
and people with sufficient knowledge are all required to make a startup company successful. The basic idea came from dm Somlai-Fischer,
who intended to provide a more exciting experience than
that of the ordinary presentation software products. The
Prezi is a
required standard programming development was added by
presentation
Pter Halcsy, lecturer of Budapest University of Technology
and Economics who came across the idea accidentally and,
application
together with economist Pter rvai who worked in Sweden,
that breaks
the three individuals founded the enterprise. The development
away from the
of the product and sufficient financing required persistent
visits to presentations, a lot of effort and a financial sacrifice.
linear channel
As a result, these days the company behind the development
in thinking
and market launch of on-line presentation software is worth
and thereby
more than USD 100 million.
Prezis novel approach broke away from the traditional
presentation technique by providing a 3D non-linear
presentation interface. It offers a totally new experience to
users: scrolling, the former method, is replaced by dynamic
presentation. Thus, its use is closer to associative, multidimensional thinking and information handling, currently
used in our on-line world.

encourages
associative
approaches
that illustrate
correlations.

Apart from the content related advantages of the application, the


commercial solution is also among the main factors underlying its success.
The basic product itself is free shareware, yet it makes the user part
of an online community because anyone can access the presentations
other users have created online. It also inspires cooperation in further
development. The premium version, which you can buy, can be used both
online and can also be installed on a computer. It generates direct revenue
for the company and offers further presentation options to users. At the
same time, a two-phased model also generates trust among customers
(they have to purchase the product only when convinced that it is useful
for them). The IT and social media interfaces strengthen each other and
offer an inspiring working environment.
It was another important component in the success story of the startup enterprise that the owners always aimed at the international market
and have always remained open to continuous development. In addition to
product development, they also embarked on a social-economic mission to
use the profit made to support education and the start-up environment. In
recognition of their efforts, President Obama received the founders of the
company in the White House.
A joint venture formed by two American veteran soldiers and Gyula Fehr, a
Hungarian developing engineer, was founded to implement what appeared

37

to be close to impossible eaerly on: allow everyone to stream moving


images live on-line. Initially investing the own funds of the founders only,
UStreamdeveloped software and a service model to respond to the need
for maintaining communicative contact of soldiers serving in the Iraqi
mission. These days the application is used by millions of users across the
world, including video streams viewed by more than ten million users. The
average number of viewers a month is close to one hundred million.

UStream
supports
live moving
picture
connections
and
broadcasts
on-line also
for individual
users, smaller
communities
and civil
initiatives,
thus making
video stream
a democratic
and mass tool.
LogMeIn is
promoting
mobile
working
culture by
offering
platform
independent
solutions for
remote work
to computer
users.
38

Although the company is headquartered in the US, apart from


Gyula Fehr, most developers and designers are Hungarian
and both the development centre and quality assurance are
located in Budapest, where the global infrastructure is also
operated. It is a truly global company: Apart from Budapest
and the headquarters in San Francisco, the company has
sales offices in Los Angeles, and in Seoul and Tokyo in the
Far East. The annual turnover is a ten-digit figure in HUF,
generated by approximately three hundred employees, with
fifty percent working in Budapest.
The latest challenge of UStream is to catch up with the
migration of video consumption to tablets and mobile
phones. The developmenttruely optimised the application
for tablets as in addition to reducing screen size it upgraded
the product to match user habits associated with the
new tool. User interfaces are also more user-friendly for
both Android and Apple operating systems. Supporting
contentsuch as Climate Reality, a program with global
outlook and accessibility dedicated to global warming,also
has outstanding market value. As according to the experts
of the sector the market of live video streams may grow by
a factor of three over the next few years, the capitalisation
of UStream may also expand significantly.
LogMeIn, a company founded by Mrton Anka in 2003, has
exceeded the one billion USD threshold in market value on
Nasdaq. With its basic service, users can manage their home
computersremotelyvia the internet. It enables any IT tool
running any operating system is capable of remote control,
file sharing, system surveillance, data backup, business
team work and customer support, provided it is connected
to a network. It is not only technology, it also serves as
the cultural basis for mobile working. Cloud-based services
give millions of people the freedom to work independently
from a fixed location, while IT experts can use the working
environment in the cloud with professional tools.
As a result, the services of LogMeIn are used on more than
125 million tools across the world these days. The company
generates approximately HUF 20 billion in sales and employs
almost five hundred people. The headquarters are in Boston
(USA), regional offices are maintained in Sydney and Dublin,
but the firm operates development centres in Budapest and

Szeged. The first steps of the company are a fine illustration


of the essence of start-ups. Mrton Anka travelled the world
at his own cost, staying in cheap hotels and kept looking
for investors until he found people who thought his ideas
offered a good opportunity.

Tresorit
offers new
algorithmbased
security
solutions
in cloud
applications.

Tresorit, a cloud computing company offering security


solutions was launched after one year of development using
almost HUF 400 million of venture capital. The company
offers a niche cloud solution by providing data storage
and downloading where the contents can be decoded only
with certain security codes and permissions. As a result of
a competition organised for start-up companies, MorganStanley, the global leader in consulting, is one of the supporters of the
development of Tresorit.
b; M
 arket leading global company and an innovator of research
&development and education: Graphisoft

Graphisoft SE is not only the largest software developer in Hungary, it is


also a global leader. Its main product, ArchiCAD, a piece of design software
based on building information modelling, has by now become a standard
in computer aided design. The Wall Street Journal classified it among
the ten most innovative products of the past 20 years. The company
has been seated in Budapest for more than thirty years,
concentrating research-development, production, issue,
Graphisoft
sales and marketing.
Graphisoft was founded in Budapest by Gbor Bojr and
Istvn Gbor Tari in 1982. The company headquarters are
still in the Hungarian capital. Gbor Bojr, president of
Graphisoft, graduated from Etvs Lornd University as
a physicist. Originally he trained to be a researcher, but
evertually turned towards computer-aided design, which was
in an early phase of development at that time. They received
their first major order in relation to the construction of the
Paks Nuclear Power Plant, where computer-aided modelling
was required for a new plant. Graphisoft was the only
company capable of doing so, as it had monopoly on the
Hungarian market. Then, in a unique way among Hungarian
companies, it began to expand in order to enter the
international market. The ArchiCAD software, the first truly
successful product, was developed in 1984 and put the first
Hungarian company into an international leading position in
information technology. They maintained fruitful relationship
with Apple and personally with Steve Jobs. The true market
breakthrough occurred in 1987 when the new ArchiCAD,
developed for Apple Macintosh II computers was launched.
Two years later, the company was the market leader among
the Apple-based construction design software products.
In the same year, they moved their headquarters to San

is

the market
leading global
standard
IT solution
for the
construction
industry
which has
reformed both
the sector
and GIS
technology
with
innovative
solutions over
the last two
decades.
39

Francisco in order to penetrate the overseas market, which represents


two-thirds of the global market.
Graphisoft took its first steps at the Department of Geophysics, Etvs
Lornd University in the 1980s: when Gbor Bojr and his colleagues
began programming pocket calculators used at that time. They migrated
programmes to a hand-held device which could previously be run only on
computer monsters that filled a complete room. The innovation simplified
the work of geophysicists by allowing them to perform complicated
calculations in the field. Graphisoft also applied similar philosophy: at that
time only large companies had sufficient funds to purchase design software
products and special computers. It worked for automotive plants and large
design companies, but architects could not afford it. They needed a design
programwith capability to produce quality plans comparable to the output
of large programs on small and affordable desktops: that is how ArchiCAD
was born.
ArchiCAD is the most popular product of the company. It was the first
three-dimensional, BIM (Building Information Modeling) based software in
the world that ran on personal computers. It has been the leading product
for modelling and designing buildings virtually for more than thirty years.
During that period it fundamentally restructured the process of digital
design for architects and designers. Nowadays, 100,000 users in more
than one hundred countries work with Graphisoft software products, which
are available in 25 languages not only for Mac, but also for PCs. In 2014
ArchiCAD reached its 18th version. Each version is developed further,
partly based on feedback received from users and partly with the help of
focus groups. ArchiCAD is not the only product of the company, by now
the range of the available products has conquered the servers and the
mobile market. The Graphisoft BIM Server enables several designers to
work simultaneously on the same project far away from each other. The
Building Engineering System Modeller adds building engineering functions
to ArchiCAD, while EcoDesigner also takes into account energy aspects in
the design, thus promoting energy efficiency in the designed buildings.
Graphisoft has grown into a global international company with subsidiaries
in the United States of America, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom,
Spain, Singapore, Hong Kong and Beijing. Nonetheless, it is still seatedin
Graphisoft Park, Budapest.
The Graphisoft Prize International Design Contest has been organised
annually since 1993 for students and architects to compare their skills
and knowledge in computer-aided design. The purpose of the contest is
to present and exploit the options offeredby virtual buildings. The contest
usually challenges entrants to create a digital reconstruction of a culturally
significant building, such as Hotel California from an Eagles pop song, or
the Umberto Ecos Abbey from The Name of the Rose.
By 1998 Graphisoft had reached a size that needed a new base. That is
when Graphisoft Park was constructed in Budapest. The Park is situated
on 160 hectares on the territory of the former buda gas factory. Its 12
buildings host almost 60 companies and 2,000 employees, also including

40

giants, such as Microsoft or SAP AG. In the park, a statue was erected in
memory of Steve Jobs, who played an important role in the development
of Graphisoft and who died in 2011. Graphisoft Park is also referred to as
the Hungarian Silicon Valley.
Graphisoft is actively engaged not only in research and development,
but also in education. The Aquincum Institute of Technology (AIT) was
created in the Graphisoft Park to offer study opportunities in computer
technology, in Budapest for the best students from North America. The
AIT was founded by Gbor Bojr, and the members of the scientific board
include excellent scientists, such as Lszl Babai, Albert-Lszl Barabsi,
Pter Csermely, Andrs Falus, Norbert Kro, Lszl Lovsz, Charles
Simonyi and Ern Rubik, who also teaches in the institute. In 2006 Gbor
Bojr was granted the Businessman of the Year award by Ernst & Young,
while in 1994 ArchiCAD Eddy Prize, also known as the Academy Award in
information technology.
c; G
 lobal success for Hungarian innovation in industry and services:
Ivanka, Aluinvent, IND
Ivanka is a start-up enterprise dedicated to design-concrete, which reinterpreted the concept of concrete and concrete production as an
industrial technology. Engineers, designers and researchers are engaged
in continuous product development. They won numerous start-up contests
and their customers include reputable multinational companies. The latest
research project focuses on the recycling of rainwater, for which a pilot
was established north of Lake Balaton. Their system will be one of the main
attractions of the 2015 World Expo in Milan.
Aluinvent is an enterprise launched in 2012 as a continuation of joint
research cooperation between the University of Miskolc and Bay Zoltn
Nonprofit Kft. The main product of the company is an extremely stable
but light recyleable metal foam or aluminium foam. The recycled product
is a solution for the challenges of numerous sectors from the automotive
industry to the space sector. The company won numerous tenders and has
strategic cooperation with the European Space Agency. The technology
director of the company was granted the Jedlik nyos award in 2014 for
his work in innovation with breakthroughs. ALUINVENT is one of the best
practical examples of using material science for industrial purposes.
IND, founded by a group of university students at the end of the 1990s as a
garage company, is another enterprise in Miskolc. The financial IT products
developed by the group based on their own ideas have already generated
several billion in revenues in HUF to the IND Group. In 2014, the Hungarian
company was acquired by Misys, a global financial technology giant, for
approximately HUF 20 billion. This made the company the most successful
Hungarian start-up enterprise and the leading provider of digital financial
interfaces in Europe. Within the framework of the IT Cluster, the Company
is a partner in economic and HR development projects that are based on
regional cooperation.

41

3. C
 ooperation between Hungarian universities and global
international companies
The establishment of dual vocational training and knowledge centres
focusing on the needs of industries coupled with capacity development
constitute one of the main directions in the reform of the system of
higher education. Higher education institutions also have a key role in
that process, because the development of joint training programmes is
the primary field of cooperation between higher education and industries.
Practice-oriented training and target-oriented training are fundamentally
associated with the main actors of the sectors of a region with the best
prospects. Successful examples have already developed earlier: the
development of the automotive industry centre in Gyr began thirty
years ago. Kecskemt and its region turned into a major project based on
industry and higher education, Miskolc and its region achieved the same
on the basis of their mechatronic, machinery and automotive supply and
manufacturing capacities, due to a Government Resolution and the West
Pannon Automoteive and Mechatronic Centre (also joined by Nagykanizsa)
established in the region of Szombathely-Szentgotthrd-Zalaegerszeg
also followed suit. Parallel with those development ideas, the cooperation
between higher education and industry also progressed in these centres.
Apart from improving the employment opportunities of well-trained
labour, the good practices of the previous years have also effectively
contributed to improving competitiveness and economic development in
the respective regions. Pharmapolis Innovative Pharmaceutical Cluster of
Debrecen stands out in the context of innovation. The Cluster consists of
26 members, including the University, small and medium-sized enterprises,
large pharmaceutical companies and Debrecen, a town with county
rights. Research focuses on innovative therapeutical products, functional
imaging and in vitro technology platforms. The 28 members of Pharmapolis
Innovative Food Industry Cluster includes the University, small and mediumsized enterprises, large companies and research institutes. Research there
focuses on functional dairy and bakery products. In information technology,
the Super Computer Centre operates as part of a national network of 4 units.
The 31-member Silicon Field Regional IT Cluster concentrates its activities
on mobile development, open source code based virtualised software
development and business and artificial intelligence. The 20 members of
LENERG Facility Energy, Engineering and Advisory Cluster (including the
university, small and medium-sized enterprises, large companies, research
institutes) concentrate on minimising energy consumption, more efficient
use of renewable energies, environmentally friendly construction materials
and new equipment developed to improve energy efficiency.
a; C
 utting edge technology in the vehicle industry (Audi
Hungria, Knorr Bremse, Mercedes-Benz Manufactoring Hungary) and Hungarian higher education
Registered in Gyr, the automotive manufacturer, AUDI Hungria, has
established very close cooperation with Szchenyi Istvn University,
which is also situated in Gyr, by adopting the university Department of

42

Combustion Engines. The department provides the scientific background


for industrial innovation and product development, it tests the products
and procedures of Audi Hungria in several laboratories. The organisation
is committed to the research of future mobility and provides BSc and
MSc training and courses to automotive engineers. Practical training
is provided by the company, while the university takes part in the
professional upgrading of Audi staff. The main purpose of the institution
in this cooperation is to serve the industry and to release and further
train highly qualified automotive engineers with sufficient language skills
and qualifications obtained in practice-oriented training. Apart from the
training, which takes place in a dual model, research and development are
also conducted as part of the cooperation between the university and Audi
Hungria. The Automotive Knowledge Centre and the Department, as well
as the experts of Audi Hungria have been jointly engaged in the latest
development activities.
Mercedes-Benz Manufacturing Hungary has forgeda similar alliance with the
College of Kecskemt. The cooperation places emphasis on education, launching
the dual training in automotive engineering on the basis of the German model
of dual vocational training (2012/2013) as a pioneer initiative in Hungary. The
establishment of the Department of Automotive Technology and the launch
of courses in Automotive Manufacturing sprang from a joint development
project, as a result of which the accreditation of niche occupations will also
create an appropriate professional background. In addition, Mercedes-Benz
Manufacturing Hungary also launched outsourced courses elsewhere e.g., in
partnership with Moholy-Nagy University of Art and Design.
b; Brain processes, visible through imaging:

the Nikon Centre of Excellence
Scientists working in the laboratories of the Institute of Experimental
Medicine of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, one of the leading
institutes of the world engaged in brain research and equipped with the
most advanced technical instruments, intends to identify the features and
causes of fundamental physiological processes and various pathologic
neurological phenomena in organs, tissues, cells and molecules. Their
efforts can equally contribute to a better understanding of the processes
of learning, remembering and intellectual development, which can also
lead to new teaching methods, as well as the development of therapies to
cure psychiatric and neuro-degenerative illnesses.
The Institute of Experimental Medicine, in cooperation with three other
universities, including Semmelweis University, Pzmny Pter Catholic
University and Etvs Lornd University, offers practical training to BSc,
MSc and PhD students, and also receives 5-6 guest researchers from other
countries each year while delegating approximately the same number
to reputable foreign institutions in order to gain experience and build
international relations.
To respond to the challenges of neurology, the Institute applies
traditional methods (anatomy, electro-physiology, neuro-chemistry and

43

pharmacology) as well as the latest procedures of molecular and cell


biology, such as transgenic animal models, optogenetics, patch clamp
technology, microscopy or the most advanced imaging tools.
The Nikon Experimental Medicine Research Institute Microscopy Centre, a
member of the Nikon Imaging Centers and Nikon Centers of Excellence network
amidst other illustrious members such as the Harvard Medical School, University
of Heidelberg or Karolinska Institute, was established in the summer of 2010
with support from Nikon Instruments Europe B.V. and with the involvement
of Auro-Science Consulting Kft. With the enhancement made in 2013, the
microscopy and imaging laboratory, with its cutting edge Nikon technology and
almost EUR 2 million worth of equipment provides opportunities to researchers
to its researchers, which are almost unique in Europe too and also contributes
to the achievements of the National Brain Research Programme. At the same
time, Nikon Instruments can also obtain irreplaceable empirical information,
application, methodology and development proposals owing to the cooperation.
The prestige of the Centre is illustrated by the fact that it was opened by Sumio
Eimori, President of Nikon Instruments Europe B.V. and Jzsef Plinks, the
then President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
The Centre was founded by Istvn Katona, leader of the Molecular
Neurobiology Research Team, who launched a research programme
studying the molecular pathways operating in the brain with a superresolution microscope in 2009, having won an ERC Starting Grant. Of the
pathways, the research focuses on the processes of the endocannabinoid
system, the molecular components of which show different distribution
in the various types of neuro cells both in terms of location and quantity
in different normal physiological or pathological conditions. The topic is
practically important because, by identifying the restructuring of the
pathway molecules, important pharmaceutical targets can be identified in
the treatment of neurological and psychiatric illnesses, such as epilepsy,
depression of schizophrenia.
Their most recent article on the STORM super-resolution display of cell specific
endocannabinoid signalling was published on the pages of Nature Neuroscience
in December 2014. That means no less than scientists using imaging
methodology to render nano range phenomena visible to the naked eye on
the screens of the microscope system. The heart of the applied technology is
the Nikon N-STORM system, an advanced version of one molecule detection,
for which the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize
in chemistry to Eric Betzig and William E. Moerner in 2014. (The third Nobel
Prize winner, Stefan Hell, also developed a superresolution method, known as
STED (stimulated emission depletion) microscopy.)
c; I nnovative driving sector companies (Sanofi, Bosch, Magyar
Olaj- s Gzipari Nyrt.) partnering Hungarian universities in
pharmaceutical research, mechatronics and the chemical industry
Sanofi cooperates with several universities and innovative organisations.
It contributes to the activities of the Outsourced Department of
Pharmaceutical Industry at the Budapest University of Technology and

44

Economics, implements a program geared to providing a second line of


young experts and cooperates in education-research with Etvs Lornd
University, as well as organises a PhD scholarship scheme and the regularly
held Open Days for Researchers.
The global company Bosch, one of the largest employers in Hungary, runs
educational and research cooperation programmes with Miskolc University.
As indicated by its name, the Department of Mechatronics is engaged in joint
development with Bay Zoltn Nonprofit Kft. primarily in material science,
mechatronics and the environmental sector, and launches innovations
with direct benefits in the machinery industry. They include the research
and development of vehicle ignition engines or visual sensors for robots.
In addition, dynamic and mechanic tests are also conducted on various
processing and manual instrumental machines (belt grinding machines,
jicksaws, drilling machines). The product range also includes modelling of
positioning drives in vehicle technology, robot kinematics, shock absorbers,
and the pneumatic movement of doors. The development takes place in
especially designed workshops which directly assists education.
Pannon University launched its Mineral Oil and Petrolchemistry Technology
MSc course, opened the Department of Magyar Olaj- s Gzipari Nyrt.
and offered an oil industry supply chain management course in 2010,
followed by a development engineering course in the hydrocarbon industry
technology, introduced by the cooperating parties in 2013. Based on
the example of the Course and Department of Magyar Olaj- s Gzipari
Nyrt.in Veszprm, Miskolc University also established its Magyar Olaj- s
Gzipari Nyrt. Department to offer education to students in the oil and gas
industry, primarily in the English language. As part of that programme, an
oil geologist MSc course can also be launched at the university in English
from 2015.
The plans of the company also include a Magyar Olaj- s Gzipari Nyrt.
specific chemical industry course to be launched at the Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
The company also cooperates with Etvs Lornd University, where it
plays an active role in the training of geologists and geophysicists. At the
University of Szeged, which one of the most important R&D bases of the
exploration-production segment of Magyar Olaj- s Gzipari Nyrt.a centre
called Magyar Olaj- s Gzipari Nyrt. Research Organisation Coordination
Centre was established to coordinate the planning and implementation of
the companys research projects.

45

V. T hematic hubs of scientific excellence


in Hungarian higher education
Hungarian science has maintained its encyclopaedic tradition: although
its expenditures are by far not comparable to those of substantially richer
countries, the research portfolio has still not been restricted to certain
directions and research is conducted practically in all disciplines with the
target to reach international standards. Consequently, remarkable research
is conducted and results are achieved in many more disciplines than what
the size or the economic potential of the country suggests.
The next chapter presents the topics and research achievements that
relate to current scientific disciplines and branches of global importance
and where professional and institutionalsupport is the strongest, most
advanced and most typical in the Hungarian higher educational system.
You should not look for any classic categorisation by scientific discipline.
We followed the principle of connecting related areas and concentrating on
major internationally recognised topics and disciplines. Certain chapters
offer more detail about particular researchers who were either granted
support in the extremely competitive tenders of the European Research
Council, or have a remarkable following of international or Hungarian
diciples. Among them,greater emphasis is placed on young researchers
and talents. We managed to interview several outstanding researchers,
who personally disclose their objectives and views of science and research.
We hope that by doing so, we can contribute to bringing scientific research
closer to people.
Naturally, the purpose of this selection was not to qualify researchers or
research activities not mentioned here, and in fact we wish to encourage
all readers to visit the websites of universities and research institutes and
read international scientific journals and popular science media to find
out more about the achievements of Hungarian researchers and research
activities.
1. From vitamin C to genetic medicine
The internationally recognised schools and excellent representatives of
Hungarian medical science and pharmacology build on the legacy of world
famous scientists such as Albert Szent-Gyrgyi, winner of the Nobel Prize
for discovering vitamin C, or professor of anatomy, Jnos Szentgothai.
Consequently, instruction in classic disciplines is conducted at international
standard at the medical faculties and the latest trends of medical science
are also covered in a cutting edge manner. A few of these trends are
presented below.

d; From the gene to the genome and back Lszl Nagy

Academician and professor of Debrecen University, Lszl Nagy believes


the revolution of genomics is of far reaching importance in medical
research. That is because we still do not fully understand how one fertilised
ovum develops into hundreds of cells of different form and function to

46

create a human body and how an illness changes several functions. This
differentiation of cells is certainly dominated by genome connections,
known as transcription factors. They regulate the fate of cells all the
way up to programmed cell death, which is a field professor Lszl Fss
researches with remarkable results. These days, medical biology cannot
exist without genomic tests, and the tests conducted on a single cell will
bring further dramatic breakthroughs in understanding diseases.
If the external and internal environment of a particular cell changes
when the cell is healthy and when an illness occurs, a mechanism known
as gene expression kicks in. Understanding how immune cells (such as
macrophages, dendritic cells) operate will help use that knowledge in
medicine.
Lszl Nagy was born in Debrecen in 1966. He graduated from the Faculty of
General Medicine of Debrecen University of Medical Sciences in 1991. Holding
a PhD title, he became a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences in 2007 and an ordinary member in 2013. Since 2001 he has acted
as medical head of the Clinical Genome Centre of Debrecen and since 2006 he
has lecturedat the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Research
Centre for Molecular Medicine Medical and Health Science Centre University of
Debrecen.

As head of the Centre for Clinical Genomics and Personalised Medicine,


he also takes part in bio-banking and gene expression projects. This job
involves the collection of human genomes and individual samples, and the
number of stored samples is likely to grow within the next 5-10 years to a
level required in principle for preparing the genome for each individual
human being. Naturally, it may have practical significance: it may help us
understand the tendencies and illnesses that may be triggered by specific
genetic information in a particular patient.
What part of your research do you think made the most important
contribution to the international achievements of your discipline?
My colleagues and I identified pathways and molecular mechanisms
regulated by hormone receptors over the last few decades that cast a
different light on fat signals in various immune cells, macrophages and
specific cells. It will help us understand how these important immune cells
re-programme themselves in various tissues and in various illnesses, such
as arteriosclerosis and chronic inflammations, and how they can provide
us new options in treating those illnesses.
DFWhat are the most promising current research topics with the
highest potential economic or social benefit your field of science?
That issue can be approached from two perspectives. On the one hand, by
using genomic methods, biology receives a more complete picture of live
systems, healthy or ill, and that is exactly what my basic research boils
down to. If you wish to understand what happens when a cell or tissue
develops a disease, nowadays you do not need to look at randomly selected

47

or recommended items, you can investigate the whole phenomenon at


systemic level. In my opinion it is a huge breakthrough. We can now
fully understand healthy processes, and naturally, also the processes of
disease. On the other hand, genomics also promises methods for detecting
differences across sick people. That relates to my activities conducted
in relation to applied research, particularly bio banks. By systemically
building such databases, we can develop something known ascustomised
medicine with which we can start and continue treating diseases in a new
way based on the genetic information stored in a person and can also
predict or indicate responses either in the disease or during treatment.
The first responses to such questions were given more than ten years
ago, when the initial version of the human genome appeared. However,
you must also understand that a lot of biological and clinical tests will
have to be conducted before this can be turned into general practice. We
cannot yet read the book about our genome because we do not understand
the letters or words it includes as we only see rows of letters, which our
research must break down into words and chapters.
 hat do you personally consider the most important objective of
W
your research activities in scientific and practical terms?
I am excited every day coming to the laboratory to see what new information
can be obtained with the new methods of analysing genomes at a systemic
level. Thus, as the methodology evolves, we can see these in a more
complex way. What I am really interested in is how genes are connected or
disconnected in certain cells and tissues. I am generally interested in the
operation of a live organism, and in discovering new depths every day as
we conductresearch in the laboratory. In addition, I am also increasingly
interested in how to transpose those results into practice, by examining
the samples taken from clinically relevant diseases.

e; Recreation of vision with bionics

A new initiative began in vision modelling as a cutting edge technology


based on research carried out by internationally reputed Professor Tams
Roska, founder of Department of Information Technology and Bionics of
Pzmny Pter Catholic University, who passed away recently.
Tams Roska (Budapest, 24 September 1940 17 June 2014) winner of the
Szchenyi and Bolyai awards, was a Hungarian electric engineer, information
technologist, university lecturer and an ordinary member of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences. He invented the CNN chip and embarked on studying
neural networks (or neuron nets) in Hungary. Between 1998 and 2006 he worked
as the founding dean of the Faculty of Information Technology of Pzmny Pter
Catholic University.

A new interdisciplinary science, bionics, is in the focus of this programme. It


combines the results of information technologies, biology and life sciences.
Pzmny Pter Catholic University and Semmelweis University jointly
established the Hungarian Bionic Vision Centre in order to develop bionic
eyes and to restore the mechanism of vision with the help of information

48

technology and technical tools. The centre uses state of the art medical
and engineeringtechnologies to achieve bionic vision. Bionic glasses
are used externally to restore the common vision functions of visually
impaired people. At present experiments are conducted with glasses
of non-traditional shape, the experimental prototype is a mobile phone
enabled to visually recognise banknotes, colours, pedestrian crossings and
sources of light and to inform users with visual impairments about them.
The programme is conducted with the active involvement of Hungarian and
international organisations representing people with visual impairments.
Another research project at the Hungarian Bionic Vision Centre focuses on
retina implants. These are normally very thin, photocell containingplatelets
placed under the retina. Light sensitive cells transform light into electricity,
which neurons can transmit and the brain can process, exactly as it would
with signals received from human eyes. Successful experiments have
been conducted with patients whose vision was impaired in an accident,
but no surgery has been performed in Hungary to date. So far, German
and US researchers have used retina implants mostly to cure people with
retinitis pigmentosa. The Vision Centre also studies the genetic causes of
blindness and other visual problems. Old age macula degeneration, which
is a common ailment, along with many other diseases of the eye, lead to
the degeneration of the light sensing cells of the retina. The mandate of
the research team is to identify the origin of the disease by using advanced
diagnostic procedures and to facilitate the treatment of such diseases.
f; The role of proteins in the development

of inflammatory diseases - Attila Mcsai
Attila Mcsai, an ERC supported physician and researcher and his colleagues
presented in 2014 that the members of the Src protein group, which are
the main factor causing tumours, are also fundamentally important in the
development of numerous inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid
arthritis and certain skin diseases.
Attila Mcsai graduated from the Faculty of General Medicine of Semmelweis
University of Medical Sciences. He gained his PhD degree in the Cellular and
Molecular Physiology programme of the university in 1999. He eearned his doctor
of sciences title at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 2013. As an associate
professor of Semmelweis University, he is currently the director responsible for
courses offered in German at the university.

Scr type proteins, which are present in both tumor cells and ordinary white
blood cells, do not trigger inflammation themelves, but are key elements in
the chain of reactions that leads to inflammation, as they are indispensable
components in the environment of inflamed tissues. The results of several
years of research work conducted under the leadership of Attila Mcsai
mainly at Semmelweis University, Hungary, and also at Pcs University,
were reported in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, one of the
most reputable international journals of experimental immunology. The
researcher believes that they have found an important and key component
to inflammatory diseases.

49

As a researcher Attila Mcsai is mainly interested in the molecular


mechanisms of the operation of the congenital immune system. His research
is aimed at identifying molecules involved in the osseous metabolism and
the molecular mechanisms of the development of autoimmune diseases.
With supported investments, the Institute of Physiology of Semmelweis
University set up the first small animal radiation exposure unit in Central
and Eastern Europe. Since 2012, the team has also been managing an EU
collaboration project, where Attila Mcsai coordinates the activities of several
researchers from the EU and Brazilia. With the help of a research team set
up in the framework of the Momentum Programme in 2013, Mcsai intends
to understand the mechanism of development of inflammatory diseases
to previously unseen detail at the Institute of Physiology of Semmelweis
University, hoping to identify new drug development targets. Inflammatory
diseases put a huge burden to society, but we know little about the way
they get formed, which restrains the development of new therapies. Other
studies focus on the role of two intra-cell signal transduction molecules: by
examining a rare autoimmune skin disease and contact allergy, researchers
try to understand how the congenital part of the immune system is involved
in the development of inflammatory diseases.
g; T
 he impact of web medicine on healing and issues relating to the
future of medicine - Bertalan Mesk
Bertalan Mesk, a research physician, tried to come up with answers to
what medicine can do about patients collecting information on the web
in advance, as patients find a multitude of explanations, diagnoses and
potential treatments concerning a particular disease way before they meet
a physician. Physicians whoignore or reject this phenomenon may easily
fall out of grace with patients, which reduces the efficiency of treatment.
Social media opens new opportunities also in the field of medicine, because
the international network of physicians can provide relevant experience
and knowledge even during surgery.
These questions also raise concerns a about the relationship between
technological developments and medicine in a wider context. To unite the
approaches of medicine and technology, Bertalan Mesk formed a new
occupation called medical futurist with the mission to integrate useful
technology innovations into everyday clinical practice for both physicians
and patients across the world by ensuring that the use of increasingly
innovative technologies will also help preserve the personal aspect of the
relationship between patient and physician.
This development also affects the training of physicians. Mesk was the first
in the world to add digital literacy to the medical curriculum. He delivers
a course at Semmelweis University and has also launched a free online
course dedicated to the effective and safe use of social media, currently
followed by more than 4,000 medical students across the world (http://
thecourse.webicina.com/).
The Webicina.com service, which he also introduced in Wall Street, New
York, won Mesk the Gran Prize of the Swedish Chamber of Industry in

50

2013, as the only free online service in the world which collects the medical
sources of social media for physicians and patients alike about 180 topics
and in 18 languages.
Bertalan Mesk graduated from the University of Debrecen as a physician in
2009. In 2012 he was awarded PhD title in clinical genomics in English. He is the
author of dozens of international publications with an aggregated impact factor
of 35. His publications have been cited close to 200 times.

His book, The Guide to the Future of Medicine, published in the United
States in 2014, made it to the Amazon global top 100 list. In addition, he is
also the author of the first manual of the world written on the use of social
media for clinical purposes.
Since 2008 he has been a prominent speaker of world congresses with
more than 500 lectures delivered on the medicine of the future from Yale,
Stanford and Harvard Universities to the headquarters of the World Health
Organisation. He was also a lecturer in the exclusive Futuremed course,
organised at the NASA headquarters by Singularity University.
Mesk is the only Hungary included in the international Future Health 100
list of innovators who determine the health system of the future. He is also
known as a tweetting physician with one of the largest follower groups in
the world.
His Hungarian medical blog won a Hungarian price (http://mediq.blog.
hu/), while his medical blog in English won the global price of international
medical blogs four times (http://scienceroll.com/). His article on the
medicine of the future have already been published on the main page of
CNN, and have been mentioned by the New York Times, TIME magazine,
FORBES, BBC and Scientific American.

h; iKnife onco-knife, an intelligent instrument in surgery

Surgical removal continues to be the most effective tumour treatment. The


situation of a surgeonsis not easy during surgery: tumorous tissue must
be fully removed, while healthy tissues must be preserved as much as
possible. The onco-knife helps achieve just that as it distinguishes healthy
from tumourous tissue and in doing so guidessurgeonsto removecancerous
and to save healthy tissue. Contrary to biopsy, the iKnife requires only
one or two seconds and informs the surgeon practically immediately of
the presence of cancerous cells. The distinction is made on the basis of
the difference between the metabolism and metabolic products of healthy
and cancerous cells. As Zoltn Takts, the developer of the instrument
explained, our cells leave different molecular footprints. It was therefore
necessary to create an instrument that can read these footprints and can
inform surgeons about them. To achieve that, the inventors combined two
instruments: an electronic scalpel (electrocauter) and a mass spectrometer.
When used, electric power heats the electronic scalpel, which becomes red
hot, and the heat thus generated is used for cutting tissues during surgery.
The heat of the electrocauter immediately blocks off small vessels, which
reduces blood loss to a minimum. However, electrocautery is associated

51

with smoke, which is generated when the tissue,which is exposed to the


heat, burns. The composition of the smoke reveals the composition
of the electrocauterised, practically burnt cells: the smoke contains the
molecular components of metabolic products, lipids and proteins of the
cut tissue. To detect them, a mass spectrometer is used. This instrument
separates the components of molecules based on the mass of the charged
particles to define very precisely the formula of even a very complicated
organic molecule.
The ability of the instrument to handle the metabolic products of a large
number of cells is biggest challenge for the development given that the
molecular footprints of the tissues of even two healthy people are different.
Tumors are not identical, either. The computer algorithm, assessing the
data of the mass spectrometer, had to be taught to separate healthy
and cancerous tissues with great certainty. That required extensive data
collection: the larger the number of data i.e., molecular footprints collected
from patients, the more reliable the assessment will become. As data are
collected this way, it also means that the developed new instrument should
be used in surgeryunder appropriate circumstances as many times as
possible. Naturally, physicians do not rely only on the assessment provided
by the instrument, they also compare the results with those of traditional
biopsy and with the success of surgery. Surgical use began in Hungary
with the involvement of Debrecen University and Semmelweis University,
but the funding of the project was suspended halfway into the tests. The
developers could continue in London with the involvement of Hungarian
surgeons. The used to evaluate data programme was improved and npw it
informs surgeons of cancerous tissues with great certainty.

i; Biological rhythms and the handling of cell damage

Valr Jzsef Csernus teaches medical and dental students in three languages
(Hungarian, English and German) at the University of Pcs. He specialises
in researching neuro-endocrinology and the mechanism of biological
rhythms. Csernus already detected the correlation between depression
and osteoporosis in mice and is currently investigating the impact of
changes of the parts of day, night and daylight on the human body. He
believes that a bad biological rhythm may lead to a metabolic syndrome.
This illness disturbs metabolic processes, the symptoms of which include
the propensity for elevated blood sugar, hypertension, obesity, high
cholesterol level and can also lead to type 2 diabetes. Employees exposed
unusual biological rhythms (e.g., those working in evening shifts) have a
higher risk of developing the illness.
Dra Regldi is another research physician and anatomist of the University
of Pcs, who conducts research on the PACAP protein, which was isolated
from the hypothalamus in aUS research institute. PACAP has a key role
in preventing cell damage and in the fight against Parkinson disease
and stroke. This peptide is a general cell protecting factor, part of the
bodys protective mechanisms and appears when the body is exposed to a
threat. To date the research team analysed the neuropeptide in mice, and
demonstrated that the presence of PACAP in the human body after a stroke

52

greatly reduced the size of the area affected by infarction. In addition, the
neuropeptidealso offers excellent protection against Parkinson disease.
The exact measurement of PACAP levels already delivered some results
because its presence was successfully detected in tears and in mothers
milk. Studying this peptide, which plays an important role in healing brain
damage, is still in the theoretical phase, but its application in medicine in the
future will be crucial. Its effect is not only limited to the brain though. The
research team currently analyses its presence in blood, heart muscles, in
the cells of the inner walls of vessels and in peripheral organs. The protein
also protects decayed cellsand therefore,administering it externally may
help reduce the consequences of cardiac infarction. The propagation of
PACAP in the human body may strengthen the internal defence system.
j; Patients at a loss for words - internationally

acclaimed veterinary medicine
Looking back on long traditions, Hungarian agricultural research boasts
both theoretical and practical results, known also the world over. The
scientific achievements of the University of Kaposvr and Szent Istvn
University are used in the medical activities of several clinics.
The Research Team of the Gdll Large Animals Clinic of Szent Istvn
University focuses on the role of stress in the last phase of the gestation of
cows, the characteristics of womb contractility and the impacts of certain
uterotonica. Moreover, the research team also studies metritis of bacterial
origin in cattle. The tasks of the research team also include the analysis of
increasing the training level and the potential physical workload of horses.
At the Budapest Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of Szent Istvn University,
Professor Pter Stonyi, an internationally recognised researcher of the
anatomy of horses, studies the synaptic correlations of the cells with
a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) of the cerebral cortex using
immune histochemic methods. The extremely popular lecturer studies the
movements of foals relative to the maturity of limbic cingula. Professor
Lszl Zldg, head of the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics,
focuses on the genetics and illnesses of genetic origin of horses, domestic
animals, more specifically dogs, the reproduction of dogs, including canine
obstetrics. One of the research teams of the Department and Clinic of
Internal Medicine, led by Pter Vajdovich, studies breast cancer in dogs
and cats through membrane transporters as well as the role of free radicals
and antioxidants in inflammatory diseases. Professor Kroly Vrs, head of
the Department and Clinic of Internal Medicine, is trying to exploit the most
recent results of digital voice processing in cardiological diagnostics i.e., in
the detection of cardio and vascular diseases. He intends to replace classic
stethoscopes by electronic stethoscopes and digital phonocardiograms
in veterinary medicine, as the latter are already applied successfully in
human medicine. Thes instruments facilitate the simultaneous auditive
detection and visually display of heartbeat. In a joint research project with
the veterinary institutions of Hanover and Giessen, the instrument was
improved, specifically to analyse the cardiac murmurs of dogs.

53

The Department of Physiology and Biochemistry leads the research in


immunology, endocrinology and stomach biochemistry. Professor Lszl
V. Freny studies hormonal disorders in sheep and other domestic animals,
primarily in the thyroid gland. Tibor Bartha, head of the Department of
Physiology, is also engaged in endocrinology studies. Apart from conducting
hormonal studies into the energy balance of animals, his team investigates
both the thyroid gland and the hypothalamus in rats, which are key to the
hormonal balance of both humans and animals.
The Department of Food Hygiene focuses mainly on the smallest creatures
i.e., bacteria. Their research covers among others studies of bifido
bacterium cultures in fermented dairy products, and the development of
anaerobicmethods (methods not requiring oxygen) of breeding bacteria.

2. Hungarian

school of mathematics:
classicits and young talents
Pl Erds, Alfrd Rnyi, Bla Bollobs, Gyrgy Plya, Lszl Lovsz are just
a few names from the history of world famous Hungarian mathematics.
The Hungarian school of mathematics, mainly combinatorics, which
began to flourish in the 1920s, attracted a large number
Graph of mathematicians to the world of science. This school has
theory and become increasingly important recently. In recent years,
combinatorics and discrete mathematics, which are the
combinatorics, major research areas of Hungarian mathematics, have
two branches become increasingly significant for practical considerations,
of theoretical generating results to be used primarily in computer science.

mathematics
with true
Hungarian
dominance,
are becoming
increasingly
important in
information
technology.

These theoretical works captured by cutting edge technology


stem from the golden age of Hungarian mathematics, which
began with Lipt Fejr (18801959) at the beginning of the
20th century. The excellent mathematician, born in Pcs, was
attracted by the problems of Fourier rows during his studies in
Berlin where his analysis earned him recognition in science.

Pl Erds (19131996) was one of the most outstanding


mathematicians of the 20th century, studying primarily
the number theory, combinatorics, probability theory and
classical analysis. He published more than 1,500 research
articles before he died. Erds mathematics is even more
important in current practice than earlier, because discrete
mathematics, which he founded, is currently one of the most important
research areas in computer science. Pl Erds is a cultic representative of
modern mathematics: there was what seemed to be a race between other
mathematicians about who could co-author a scientific article with Erds.
Alfrd Rnyi (19211970) was a university professor of mathematics first
at the University of Debrecen and then at the University of Budapest.
He was also an academician and the founder of the Institute of Applied
Mathematics of Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He was most interested
in the graph theory, probability theory and combinatorics and pursued

54

research in those fields. He earned international recognition in relation


to Goldbachs conjecture. He was also creative in information theory:he
worked out the generalisation of Shannon-entropy and Kullback-Liebler
divergence, and developed his Rnyi-entropy. In cooperation with Pl
Erds he developed the Erds-Rnyi random graph model, which launched
the traditionally Hungarian branch in mathematics.
Pl Turn (19101976), a lecturer of Etvs Lornd University of Budapest,
achieved major results in classic analysis and number theory. He was
mainly interested in the Riemann-conjecture. His dominant work relates
to the field of analysis, and the Turn extreme graph thesis has also
been quoted often. His wife, Vera T. Ss (born 1930) is another excellent
mathematician, who pursues research into number theory, combinatorics
and analysis. She also studied physics and random structures. Her major
achievement is what is known in graph theory as the ErdsRnyiSs
friendship thesis.
Endre Szemerdi, mathematician, an ordinary member of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, was granted the Leroy P. Steele award, the most
prestigious award of the Mathematical Association of America, and the
Abel award later on in 2012, which is one of the most prestigious scientific
recognitions in the world of mathematics. He earned that award for his
research about a thesis, which stemmed from the ErdsTurn conjecture.
According to that each series of positive upper density contains a numeric
series of any length. He also created the Szemerdi thesis, which went
beyond theoretical mathematics and also gained practical application,
as well as the Szemerdi regularity lemma, which is required to prove
the Szemerdi thesis. This graph theory thesis states that chaos is never
complete as some orderly parts or regularity may be detected in each case
of disorder.
However, Hungarian mathematics does not rest on the laurels of the great
old school of scientists, talented young researchers are also engaged in
world standard research projects at numerous Hungarian universities
at the Rnyi Alfrd Research Institute of Mathematics of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences: Having been awarded the ERC Consolidator Grant,
Balzs Szegedy uses his research activities related to graph limes and
the theory of large systems to understand biological, social and internet
networks. At the same institute, Gbor Tardos studies the Hanna Neumann
conjecture and the Fredi-Hajnal conjecture.
The research team founded by Lajos Molnr at the Institute of Mathematics
of the University of Debrecen studies non-linear and quantum mechanical
issues. The research conducted in the area of functional analysis
integrates remote parts of analysis into a large framework, making it more
consistent.
The Jen Egervry Combinatoric Optimisation Research team of Etvs
Lornd University, led by Andrs Frank, tries to come up with a response to
how the optimal element of a finite number of elements should be selected.
This relates to the famous travelling agent problem, in which an agent
must organise a trip through several towns (and return to the point of

55

departure) by choosing the shortest route. Andrs Frank and va Tardos


jointly proved that each combinatoric optimisation task to be resolved in
polynomial time can also be resolved in strongly polynomial time.
Gbor Pete, winner of the Erds Pl award, is a member of the Department
of Stochastics of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics,
where he studies the percolation of infinite graphs within the probability
theory and statistic mechanics.
Vilmos Totik, head of the Department of Set Theory and Mathematic
Logics of the University of Szeged and a professor of the University of
South Florida is an analysis expert who was awarded the ERC Advanced
Grant. He specialises in continuous approximation and the approximation
theory, i.e. the science of the approximation of functions. He and an Israeli
colleague jointly discovered the phi-smoothness mudulus. He described
the approximation with Bernstein-polinoms, which is also the basis of
Bezier-curves, widely used in computer technology and vector graphics.
He offered a mathematical and potential theory solution to the physical
problem of how an external magnetic field affects the balance distribution
of the charge of an electric conductor.
k; G
 raph theory Microsoft large networks: Lszl Lovsz,
one of the best known mathematicians of the world
Lszl Lovsz, a Wolf award winning mathematician, developed the perfect
graph conjecture and proved the Kneser graph conjecture.
He specialises in combinatorics and computer science. He created the
geometric graph hypergraph concept and built the alpha critical graph
theory on that basis. In 1979 he resolved one of the most famous problems
of information theory referred to as the Shannon problem. In the solution,
he introduced the Lovsz number, which is used in graph theory and is
also known as the Lovsz theta function, one of the forerunners of semidefinite optimisation. By proving the Kneser graph conjecture, he launched
the applications of algebraic topology in the graph theory.
The Lovsz local lemma, developed by him, became a fundamental
combinatoric thesis in the analysis of random structures. According to
a simplified explanation, if each of any number of events in probability
calculation is independent from the others apart from a few exceptions
and their probability of occurrence is not too great, then there is also
little chance that none of the events will occur. Together with the Dutch
mathematician brothers, Arjen and Hendrik Lenstra he also developed
the Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovsz (LLL) base reduction algorithm, the important
fields of application of which include cryptography and the verification
of the security of data traffic. Lovsz and some other colleagues were
involved in the elaboration of the PCP theory and improving the lower
limits of errors in the approximation calculations in the application of that
theory. He had an important role in turning combinatorics into one of the
most important branches of modern mathematics.

56

Lszl Lovsz was born in Budapest in 1948 and studied at one of the best
secondary grammar schools of the country, Fazekas Mihly Grammar and
Training School where he specialised in mathematics. He won gold medals at
the Student Olympics of Mathematics in three consecutive years and resolved
one of the universal algebraic problems of Alfred Tarski while studying at the
grammar school. He graduated from Etvs Lornd University with a degree
in mathematics. He was still at university when he resolved the perfect
graph conjecture and in his fourth year he earned his scientific degree with
a dissertation on the factors of graphs. In 1975 he was appointed professor
and head of department in Hungary, and then acted as Head of Department
of Computer Sciences at Yale University. He also teaches at Princeton, Cornell,
Waterloo, Bonn, Chicago and Vanderbilt Universities. He is a member of the
Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Academia Europaea, the Swedish Royal
Academy, the Dutch Royal Academy, the London Association of Mathematics, the
American National Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences.
In 1999 he became senior researcher at Microsoft Research, between 2007 and
2010 he worked as the President of the International Mathematical Union (IMU)
and in 2014 was elected President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He
won numerous prizes and awards. He was granted the international Plya award
for his excellence in combinatorics and number theory and the mathematical
Wolf award in 1999 for the outstanding results achieved in combinatorics,
theoretical computer sciences and combinatoric optimisation. He was granted
the Jnos Neumann award of the Operations Research Society of America. In
2007 Lszl Lovsz won the first Bolyai award to be followed by the Szchenyi
Prize in 2008 and in 2010 he was awarded the Kyoto Prize, also known as the
Japanese Nobel Prize. In 1982 and 2012 he was awarded the Fulkerson Price in
discrete mathematics.

In 1981 Lovsz, Pl Erds and Lszl Babai founded Combinatorica, an


international mathematical journal, where Lovsz is still editor-in-chief. In
addition, he is also a member of the editorial board of 12 other journals on
mathematics and computer science.
He wrote several monographs, two of which were re-published by the
Mathematical Association of America, approximately 30 years after their
original publication. In a former monograph, written with co-authors, he
described the algorithmic theory of convex bodies and their application to
combinatorial problems. In the recent years he became interested in the
analysis of large networks, where in cooperation with other colleagues
he developed the graph limes theory. The monograph dedicated to that
subject was published by the Mathematical Association of America.

57

l; Mathematics and epidemics Gergely Rst

The young researcher works at the Department of Applied and Numerical


Mathematics of the Bolyai Institute of the University of Szeged. He was
awarded the European Research Councils Starting Grant in 2011.
Gergely Rst wrote his PhD thesis on non-linear functional differential
equations, which model processes with delayed feedback, that is to say
where the behaviour of a system is influenced both by its current status and
by former historic events. He specialises in delayed differential equations,
bi-furcation theory, non-linear dynamics and mathematical epidemiology.
As a post-doctorate researcher of the York University of Toronto, he began
working on the mathematical modelling of epidemics with Jianhong Wu,
as a member of the Canadian large interdisciplinary network, applying
theoretical mathematics to practical problems related to the spread of
influenza. In his studies he called attention to the risks of the H5N1 influenza
virus, spreading through airways, and proposes protection strategies.
His research team, established under the fantasy name of EPIDELAY, is
dedicated to the dynamics of the propagation of contagious diseases.
Mathematics can offer a method for modelling the propagation of new types
of epidemics, such as AIDS, H1N1, Ebola, and for studying the propagation
of drug resistant pathogens. The purpose of the interdisciplinary project is
to understand the dynamics of new types of epidemics, to develop models
for, and analyse the propagation of epidemics and to elaborate ideal
protection strategies. He also analysed the progression of phage infection
of bacteria in Petri dishes and, apart from biology, also researched the
global dynamics of the commodity market model, which tries to capture
mathematically the temporal shifts of the behaviour of demand and supply:
demand usually increases or decreases immediately, but supply can only
respond later, after a delay.
Differential equations with delayed feedback are among the most effective
mathematical modelling tools, because time delays are important in terms
of the behaviour of a system. The project tries to establish an organic
relationship between the mathematical problems of totally abstract theory
and the practical issues of epidemiology. Combining competences in
various fields, the project helps reduce theoretical results to practice as
quickly as possible. As an example, during the sudden attack of the H1N1
virus in 2009, Gergely Rst and one of his students, Dina Knipl, studied
the spread of the virus in Hungary and conducted a mathematical analysis.
With their model they successfully captured the movement of the H1N1
epidemic in Hungary, whereby the mathematicians of Szeged successfully
predicted as early as at the beginning of December that the epidemic would
reach its peak in the middle of the month, and would phase out by January
2010. They were also able to prove that, contrary to the classic system
of protection, vaccinating young people who actively intermingle in their
communities will prevent the propagation of the disease moreeffectively
than vaccinating old people. It is very simple, when an epidemic breaks
out, we take note of the number of patients day by day, or hour by hour,
which practically results in a function. The question is the shape of its

58

curve. There are certain laws, about for instance the mechanism through
which a disease propagates, which may be captured by a mathematical
model. In the initial phase of an epidemic, we are aware of the beginning
of the curve and wish to predict the way it continues, when and how high
it will culminate, how many people it will infect and how various strategies
such as treatment, vaccination, quarantine, closing of schools will influence
the curve, he said.
In 2012, researchers at the Institute of Mathematics of the University
of Szeged (Attila Dnes, Pter Kevei, Gergely Rst) and a Japanese
epidemiology expert (Hiroshi Nishiura) examined the potential consequences
of a measles epidemic, which had erupted at one of the venues of the
European Football Championships in the Ukraine. As measles is one of
the most contagious diseases and the degree of vaccination in numerous
European countries is below what would be required to prevent an endemic,
the measles epidemic raging in the Ukraine threatened the supporters
of the European Football Championships in 2012. Hundreds of thousands
of visitors arrived in the Ukraine to attend the European Championships,
and therefore there was risk that the returning supporters will carry the
disease home from the championships,which will trigger an epidemic in
their own countries. To contain the phenomenon, a new mathematical
model was developed to describe the propagation of the disease during
the championships and to model the potential epidemic in the countries of
the football fans returning home. On the basis of that model, the estimated
number of people returning home with the disease and the outbreak of a
major epidemic could be projected with analytical tools.
Specialists can respond to numerous questions with a sophisticated model
based on exact parameters. They can predict the length of an epidemic, the
number of people affected by it, the time and height at which the epidemic
peaks, and models can also estimate the volume of vaccines and drugs
required for controlling an epidemic, the efficiency of other measures and
the direction and speed of the progression of the disease. It is forbidden to
experimentally toy with an epidemic, but if a good model exists, it can be
used to simulate various scenarios.
m; The secrets of prime numbers and their application Jnos Pintz
We asked Jnos Pintz, scientist and research professor of the Rnyi Alfrd
Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, who also
researches mathematical analysis under a European Research Council
Advanced Grant, about his professional work and achievements.
Isnt the branch of mathematics dedicated to prime numbers too
abstract or remote from practical applications?
My field of mathematics, number theory, was called by Gauss, the Princeps
Mathematicorum the queen of mathematics, but for most of the centuries
it seemed to be a part of pure mathematics without any application. Yet
it influenced applied mathematicsindirectly, since after a discovery of
Riemann about 150 years ago it turned out that the properties of primes

59

can be investigated through complex functions. This was the motivation


behind the development of complex function theory which already has
many applications in physics for example. However, about 35 years ago
three mathematicians found an application of large primes (having 50, 100
or 200 digits) in the theory of secret coding of information. Since then this
algorithm (which is based actually on the properties of primes discovered
already 300 years ago by the great mathematicians Fermat and Euler) has
been used even in everyday life, as, for example, in banking. Today also a
considerable part of such secret information coding, called cryptography,
is based on number theory, very often on the theory of primes. However,
the largest part of number theory developed independently from possible
applications, driven by pure human curiosity, as for example the research
to solve or at least to approximate as closely as possible several famous
conjectures about primes.
What are the most exciting new developments and stories in the
research of prime numbers?
The greatest sensation in this area was the discovery of Y. Zhang (a Chinese
mathematician working in USA) and somewhat later of J. Maynard (England)
and T. Tao (a mathematician born from Chinese parents in Australia, who
has been living and working in the USA for more than 20 years).According
to the discovery there are really infinitely many close prime pairs whose
distance from each other is smaller than a given bound. This bound was
first proved in 2013 by Zhang to be at most 70 million. However little later,
during a few months of a new type of open collaboration by a bunch of
mathematicians on the Internet (so-called Polymath project) led by T. Tao
(who might be considered today the most famous mathematician) was
reduced to 4680. Again a few months later with another method this was
further reduced by Maynard (and simultaneously and independently by Tao)
to 600. Finally, after another few months of a new Polymath project the
bound 246 was reached. This means that although we do not know whether
the difference 2 occurs infinitely often as the gap between consecutive
primes, we know that there are infinitely many gaps not exceeding 246.
Both methods of Zhang and that of Maynard and Tao are based on our
original method found ten years ago by Goldston, Yildirim and myself.
What are the specific features of your research in that field?
In the last 10 years I worked together with two (or in some cases three)
colleagues from USA and Turkey, namely mainly with Professors D.A.
Goldston and C.Y. Yildirim (at some instances still with Professor S.W.
Graham) on some approximations of one of the oldest conjectures of
whole mathematics, the so called twin prime conjecture. (An integer n
is called a prime if it has exactly two divisors, the number one and n
itself.) This conjecture which according to the Encyclopedia Britannica
was known already 2300 year ago by the Greeks - states that the smallest
possible distance between primes, the number two (apart from the single
appearance of the difference one between the primes two and three)
appears beyond every limit, that is, infinitely many times. Ten years ago

60

the mathematical world knew only that there are infinitely many pairs of
close primes where the gap between the neighboring primes is less than
of the average distance in that range. (The average distance between
neighboring primes is the natural logarithm of the size of the primes. This
average gap is apart from a factor 2.3 precisely ln10, where lnx denotes
the natural logarithm of x the number of decimal digits of the relevant
primes.) Together with Goldston and Yildirim we showed ten years ago that
this gap will be infinitely often smaller than any constant portion, say one
billionth, of the average gap size. Somewhat later we proved that there are
infinitely many neighboring prime pairs whose distance from each other is
smaller than the square root of the average gap. (In case of large numbers
the square root of a number will be smaller than any constant portion
of the number if the starting number is sufficiently large.) On the other
hand we showed that if a very deep general result about the distribution
of primes can be improved somewhat then this distance will be infinitely
many times smaller than some given fixed bound (independently from the
size of the primes). This seemed to open the way to a still much better
approximation to one of the oldest and most famous unsolved problem of
mathematics.
Do your plans for the future cover any new potential achievements
with prime numbers?
My further main plans for the future belong naturally to the theory of
prime numbers as well. The first area of problems is related to the above
mentioned one. However instead of trying to get even closer numerically
to the twin prime conjecture I began recently and plan to continue to
use the recently developed new methods to investigate other conjectures
related to the difference of consecutive primes and raised mostly by the
world famous late Hungarian mathematician Paul Erds about 40 to 80
years ago. These seemed to be inaccessible until now but the mentioned
recent dramatic breakthroughs changed this situation. Another area of
research where I worked before considering problems related to the twin
prime conjecture are various approximations to the Goldbach conjecture.
This problem arose in correspondence between Goldbach, an amateur
mathematician, the secretary of the Saint Petersburg Academy and Euler,
the leading mathematician of the eighteens century. This conjecture states
that every even number greater than two can be written as the sum of two
primes. This conjecture has also several approximations which all yield
towards the truth of the original conjecture. (It is usual in mathematics
that if a problem is too difficult or even hopeless we try to solve some
weaker form of it, which does not imply the original conjecture but shows
the truth of some related phenomenon, whose proof although still often
very difficult is accessible at the present state of mathematics.) My goal
is to show a possibly good upper bound for the number of even integers
less than a given very large number X for which the Goldbach conjecture
might fail, that is to show that apart from a relatively thin set of exceptions
(which may be still infinite) most even numbers can really be written as the
sum of two primes. We do not look for counterexamples to the conjecture
because practically all mathematicians believe that there is no exceptional

61

number to the conjecture apart from the single exception two (one is by
definition not prime neither composite so 2=1+1 is not a suitable way
to write 2 as the sum of two primes). The first results in this direction were
found 80 years ago and my plan is to reach a considerable improvement
in bounding the possible exceptional set (what we believe consists of the
single element 2, as mentioned above.) I believe that the methods are
applicable for other similar problems as well and in such a way they might
lead to approximations to other hopeless conjectures in the area of the so
called additive theory of primes.

n; Within four dimensions in mathematics Andrs Stipsicz

Andrs Stipsicz, researcher at the Rnyi Alfrd Institute of Mathematical


Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Professor of the
Doctoral School of Etvs Lornd University and Budapest University of
Technology and Economics, holds a Advanced Grant from the European
Research Council.
What does low dimensional topology mean and why is it important?
Low dimensional topology considers questions related to geometric and
topological objects of dimension at most 4. These questions are relevant
in many other branches of mathematics --- in mathematical physics, for
example, 4-dimensional surfaces (called 4-manifolds) play a crucial role:
Einsteins equations are given on such objects. In theoretical biology some
DNA sequences are modelled by knots (knotted loops in the three-space),
and standard knot theoretical manipulations admit interpretations as
actions of enzymes on these DNA chains.
Which issues do you think are the most exciting in that field?
 e study various properties of 4-dimensional surfaces: for example, we
W
have found so-called exoticdifferentiable structures on many 4-dimensional
manifolds. These structures are designed to underpin the difference
between smooth (that is, differentiable) and continuous. The first concepts
(smoothness) is what is really relevant in applications (like the in the above
mentioned connection to physics) while the second concept (continuity)
admits convenient mathematical descriptions in the framework of topology.
Therefore their interrelation is of crucial importance. Such studies now have
a relatively long history, and their importance is shown by the fact that in
the past thirty years many mathematicians working in low dimensional
topology were awarded by major mathematical prizes (including several
Fields medals). The main open question in the subject (whether the
4-dimensional sphere admits such an exotic smooth structure) is still open,
and despite repeated effort from many research groups (including ours)
we do not see the answer to this fundamental question about the structure
of 4-dimensional spaces.Another aspect of our research is concerned with
3-dimensional surfaces and knots (knotted loops) in them. There is a variety
of newly found invariants of these objects, which rely on rather delicate
constructions from analysis, and we try to simplify the constructions, while

62

trying to understand the significance and real meaning of the invariants.


Using these invariants one can attack classical problems (concerning
knotted loops in the three-space), and technically more challenging ones
on properties of 4-dimensional spaces associated to knots. The difficulty in
these studies arises from the fact that many techniques one needs to use
comes from other branches of mathematics. Besides a solid topological
background, we also need to study results in complex analysis, partial
differential equations, from homological algebra and algebraic geometry,
and recently we realized that we cannot avoid to understand some recent
and deep results of combinatorics as well.
What are the international connections of these research activities?
These research directions are integral parts of current trends in topology.
Using a European Research Council Advanced Grant, we can invite
researchers from other European centres, and hire post-doctoral fellows
to spend years that the Rnyi Institute, and therefore provide a close
connection for both students and researchers working here. In addition,
we also actively participate in the CAST network, a European network
studying specific structures (contact and symplectic) on manifolds. Our
constant presence in the mathematical community is provided by lectures
on major conferences and publications in peer-reviewed, prestigious
journals. These efforts (together with supports from Orszgos Tudomnyos
Kutatsi Alapprogramok and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, through
the Lendletproject) allowed us to build a strong group (a potential seed of
a school) in the subject.
In building such a group I rely on my previous experiences I had in my
earlier years. I visited many of the leading research institutions around
the world: I had the opportunity to spend two years in Princeton at the
Institute for Advanced Study (USA), another year in the Mathematical
Sciences Research Institute in Berkely (USA), the Simons Center in
Geometry and Physics in Stony Brook (USA) and some months in theMaxPlanck-Institute in Bonn (Germany). Besides learning the tools to attach
problems in my chosen field, I also witnessed how to organize a lively
mathematical surrounding for a research group, which provides further
impetus to ongoing mathematical research.
I have to point out that our research directions belong to basic research,
with very small likelihood for immediate industrial applications. The
significance of the results we obtain, therefore can be measured only
within pure mathematics.
Is the same topic also covered in teaching?
Another important aspect of a mathematicians life is teaching. On the
doctoral level teaching (and advising graduate students) is of mutual
benefit for the parties: the students learn the mathematics, while teachers
get the chance to look at their subject and the motivating questions from a
new angle, provided by the feedback from the students. For this reason we
keep a close connection with universities in Budapest which have a doctoral

63

program in mathematics: Etvs Lornd University, Central European


University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
The trends of young researchers moving abroad in an early stage of their
career is probably even stronger in mathematics than in other disciplines.
To slow down this process, it is insufficient (bit absolutely necessary)
to provide higher salaries. Students and young researchers will stay
home (or return home) only if they are convinced that they will enjoy
comparable research environment here than in the places they would give
up to return to Hungary. Therefore the Rnyi Institute (and as part of it,
our research group) tries to attract the next generation by world class
research environment. We hope that in the long run these efforts will be
successful.
3. Network science
What are the similarities between society, internet and the operation of
cells? These are the questions to which network science, the science of
the 21st century is trying to find answers. The purpose of network science
is to understand the operation and problems of various network systems
and its results are widely used, primarily in the interest of the successful
operation of these networks. The networks present in our lives are complex
systems expanding on the basis of similar regularities of various networks.
The special approach and methods of network research are suitable for
analysing the importance and correlation between the elements of these
networks at greater depths than by former methods. Network science
can be applied in numerous fields of science, society and everyday life.
The conclusions of network analyses are used by the most successful
companies of the world in their services, such as Facebook or Google.
Network science, which relies primarily on the theory of physics,
mathematics and computer science, was given new momentum by the
dissemination of the worldwide web and the appearance of massive
amounts of data and information. Hungarian research has dominated
network sciencefrom the very beginning to the present day: Pl Erds
and Alfrd Rnyi reported the most important findings of graph theory,
which constitute the basis of this approach, in the 1950sand their efforts
propelled the discipline to become an outstanding field of mathematics
with extensive literature. Apart from graph theory, network science was
also dominated by another branch of mathematics, game theory, a field
that owes much to the excellent mathematician, Jnos Neumann and the
Nobel Prize winning economist, Jnos Harsnyi.
Presumably the best known theorems of network scienceinclude the
small-world theory, strong and weak ties, network-centric approach and
positive and negative relationships. These models are suitable primarily
for describing social networks. According to the small world theory, which
was published in social sciences in the 1960s, anyone may be related
to anyone else on the Earth through a chain of awareness. A commonly
known Hungarian aspect of the theory relates to Frigyes Karinthy, a popular
Hungarian author, who kept thinking, as early as in the 1920s, about chains

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that connected us, people on Earth. According to research performed in


recent years the distance between two elements is 5-6 steps. Apart from
the small distance, this research also proved that people were able to
find the appropriate people and ways to a small step, and that such
small steps were capable of overcoming geographic distances. Research
into the power of weak ties indicated that, surprisingly, it is often exactly
those that can provide sufficient access to networksthat the individual has
no close relationship with. Although the theory was already published in
the 1960s and 1970s, only the huge data sets created in the 21st century
made it possible to study thoroughly the theory of weak ties together with
numerous other theories.
Network science by far exceeded the analysis of social networks, and
over the last few years, the analysis of the structure of various biological
networks began to develop more dynamically. The latter aims primarily
at identifying the background of various diseases and at preventing
the propagation of certain illnesses. The results of network science are
used,for instance, to model how various epidemics spread and the ways to
prevent that. Although networks are different, network level dynamisms
are similar to that of social networksand the study of biological epidemics
is extremely important for understanding propagation or, in other words,
future processes. The results of network science are used in numerous
disciplines, including economics. Our economic system is also increasingly
dependent on the operation of various complex networks. Owing to the
complexity of those networks, their behaviours have become almost
unpredictable and managing the problems of such systems is also
increasingly risky. Management efforts often led to a series of interrelated
errors or even triggered a financial crisis. Networked learning, along with
the role of learning and the networks have also become a point of interest
for those engaged in network science in recent years. Testing various
models, such as the Bayes model or de Groot model, has become one of
the most interesting areas of research.
Lszl Barabsi-Albert, a Hungarian network researcher and recognised
international scientist, used the operation of the internet to develop a
theory of scale-free networks and used it in an empirical analysis to study
the operation of the worldwide web. TO date it is one of the basic concepts
in network research. Lszl Barabsi-Albert, who keeps travelling to and
fro between Hungary and the United States, has conducted research in
numerous topics in recent years. At the moment he is most interested
in analysing the correlation between talent and success with the tools of
network science.
Recently the Central European University of Budapest launched a PhD
course in network studies as one of the first courses of this kind in the
world. The training programme offered by the Center for Network Science
of the Central European University is an interdisciplinary programme, which
focuses primarily on identifying, and finding responses to,the problems of
mathematics, sociology, economics, political sciences and environmental
sciences by using the tools of network science. Academician Jnos Kertsz,
one of the fellows of the centre is also a prominent researcher of the field.

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o; Movement of birds and statistical physics Tams Vicsek

Over the past 35 years Tams Vicsek, professor of Ervs Lorand University,
has made a number of discoveries concerning the description and the
mechanisms behind an unusually wide range of phenomena, all related to
concepts of statistical physics. He has followed a unique path starting from
the simulation of fluids and recently leading to the quantitative interpretation
of collective human behaviour and robots. His main discovery is that there
are a few fundamental (universal) patterns of collective motion which are
manifested in almost all aspects of nature, from the scale of molecules
through the colonies of simple organisms up to society.
He has demonstrated the existence of such universal patterns of behavior
on examples involving in various ways collective motion and growth. The
simple models and experiments he proposed and studied in detail have
played an essential role in understanding how orderly motion and complex
geometries emerge in biological systems. His simulations of people trying to
leave a closed area (escape panic) are the most realistic so far and can be
used for civil engineering purposes to avoid disasters. His ideas concerning
the emergence of coordinated motion have also been deeply inspiring in the
research on collective robotics and various other multi-angent systems.
The activity and results of Tams Vicsek are highly interdisciplinary or
rather, multidisciplinary, proving that physics and, in particular, statistical
physics can trigger essential contributions to other fields of science. It
is expected that the latest results based on the models he proposed will
result in applications serving the benefit of mankind and, in this way, be in
accord with the best traditions of physics.
The area of complex system research which Tams Vicsek has made
seminal contributions to is a quickly developing new field of interdisciplinary
science. With the impressively growing performance of computers and
information technology devices and methods, a previously unprecedented
amount of data is becoming available about all sorts of systems vital to
research as well as to our everyday life. Complex systems are typically
made of many thousands or even millions of units each having its specific
features relevant from the point of the whole.
In 1989 he published the first comprehensive book on fractal growth which
became a bestseller and has been used as a textbook at universities. His
work on the dynamic scaling behaviour of fractal aggregates played a
pioneering role in the quantitative characterization of growth phenomena
and has been very extensively cited in the literature.
He has demonstrated experimentally that many of the self-similar and selfaffine growth patterns observed in non-living systems emerge in bacterial
colonies as well. In recent experiments he showed that migrating skin
cells go through a velocity ordering transition as a function of cell density
(thereby, enhancing, e,g., morphogenesis.)
The model he proposed in 1995 for describing ordered motion in the presence
of external fluctuations is now widely quoted as the Vicsek model (about
2000 independent citations: this number growing quickly these years).

66

This simple, ferromagnetic type model of collective motion is capable


of grabbing the common in an unusually wide range of phenomena. He
has also been able to model collective human behaviours including panic,
spreading of excitement and rhythmic applause resulting in simulations
being in quantitative agreement with observations.
Over a dozen of his papers have been published in Nature. In the latest one
(also a cover story) he showed with his collaborators, that already even
groups of pigeons are capable of maintaining too parallel, but different(!)
hierarchical organizations, one used for problem solving the other one
corresponding to dominance in the loft. Last this year (to get deeper insight
into living systems), his group produced the first flock of aerial robots
capable of joint manoeuvring including various kinds of formation flights.
The method he recently proposed to uncover the modular structure of
large networks (such as those of co-authors, interacting proteins etc.) is
now widely used for locating overlapping coherent structures in networks.
He showed that such an approach can be used for predicting, e.g., protein
function or dissolution of a community of collaborators.
The above investigations and results have widened the road towards a
better interpretation of collective phenomena in general and as such, they
have important applications inthe related fields.
For example, his studies of the crowd behaviour can be (and is) used by
civil engineers to design better common areas, such as stadia or crowed
squares with pedestrian crossings. The aerial robotic (drones) work has
obviously many applications from aerial photography to agriculture or
finding lost people. Using a whole flock instead of a single drone speeds up
and gives additional angles to such activities.
At an early stage of his carrier he became in touch with the group of the
world famous Prof. EH. E. Stanley of the Boston University since their work
largely overlapped and in cases the Budapest group (J. Kertsz and T.V.)
succeeded in cutting ahead of the Boston group. This was well received
and the beginning of a long period of collaboration and learning from
the way research was organized in the group of Stanley. An altogether 4
years long series of studies in various places in the USA has helped Tams
Vicsek to acquire the successful methods of his American colleagues, both
concerning working style and presenting results.
Over the years (spent mostly in Hungary) he has had a number of very talented
Hungarian students and postdocs, perhaps the best known of whom is AlbertLszl Barabsi (now a professor at various universities including Harvard.
Although he has concentrated mainly on collaborations within Hungary, he
has relevant papers with scientist from Atlanta and Oxford University.
p; Networked nature, technology and science

Lszl Barabsi-Albert
Lszl Barabsi-Albert physicist, network researcher, one of the authors
of the Barabsi-Albert model is one of the most frequently quoted network
researchers of the world.

67

The Barabsi-Albert model is partly based on the graph theory of two


other excellent Hungarian mathematicians, Alfrd Rnyi and Pl Erds.
Graphs are structures consisting of nodes and edges connecting them, and
are suitable for modelling numerous networks and connections. The Erds
number is an excellent example of graph theory. The number indicates
how many steps one needsto take (through scientific articles) to reach Pl
Erds. Pl Erds own Erds number is zero. To date the Erds number has
been an indicator that shows the distance between others and Erds in
steps. Co-authors of articleswritten with Pl Erds have Erds number 1,
and those who co-authored an article with any of the co-authors of Erds,
have Erds number 2, etc. The concept of the Erds number reflects the
wide recognition of the legendary mathematician, the versatile nature of
his work as well as the basic concept of network science simultaneously.
The Erds-Rnyi model addresses the production of infinite graphs, but the
Barabsi-Albert model describes the progression of the development of real
networks. The two corner points of the model are growth and preferential
connection. The Erds-Rnyi model targeted momentary infinite graphs
(and, ultimately networks), while the Barabsi-Albert model focuses on the
structure of networks, visible in nature and technology, such as continuous
creation of online references. According to preferential connections, nodes
with a higher degree number are more likely to obtain new edges (the
more popular nodes will become even more popular).
Network research conducted by Lszl Barabsi-Albert can be used on a
wide scale, in almost all scientific disciplines from natural sciences, through
social sciences to philological sciences. One of the basic concepts of network
science is that a structure does not only consists of its components, but
also of its relations. Network science helps interpret the gene map, assess
the structure of proteins, or human relationships in society. It also helps us
understand ecological systems, economic processes and the internet.
Lszl Barabsi-Albert was born in Karcfalva, in 1967. He graduated from Etvs
Lornd University as a theoretical physician. At the moment he is the professor of
Northeastern University, Harvard University and the Central European University
of Budapest. He is in charge of the Complex Network Research Centre at
Northeastern University, has worked at the International Business Machines T.J.
Watson Research Center and at Notre Dame University. Lszl Barabsi-Albert
has been awarded numerous prizes: NSF CAREER prize, the Excellence Award
of Physics Review, the FEBS System Biology Award, a presidential award at the
Notre Dame University and the Neumann Prize. He is one of the most frequently
quoted researchers, whose research activities have already been covered on the
title pages of Nature and Science, the two largest scientific journals, and so far
he has published more than 200 scientific articles. He is an external member of
the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and also of Academia Europeae.

He started out in network science as a physicist in 1999 with Rka Albert,


and their efforts led to the frequently quoted Barabsi-Albert model. This
model describes the development of complex networks and can be used in
a diversified manner. The research was inspired by the World Wide Web,
which was still relatively small in 1999, when the research team began to
analyse the interconnections between the links and references on the web.

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Lszl Barabsi-Albert is still working on the practical utilisation of his


achievements in network science, including the understanding of social
relations, cell functions and metabolic networks. One of the greatest
achievements of the researcher is the discovery that huge networks are
not at all random, they often follow exponential function distribution. They
are scale-free networks, without an average node that would be typical
of the whole system. The World Wide Web is also a scale-free network.
Apart from hundreds of scientific articles and extensive interdisciplinary
cooperation, Lszl Barabsi-Albert also devotes a lot of time to teaching
and science education. Those efforts are reflected in Networked - New
science of networks, an instructive book, which explains the basics of
network science in a way that is enjoyable and easy to understand. The
book was published in 2002 and has been translated into 15 languages and
featured on numerous bestseller lists in the past ten years.
During his career, the articles of Lszl Barabsi-Albert have been quoted
on more than 120,000 occasions, his Hirsch index is greater than 100.
This year he made it to the group of most influential researchers of the
Thomson Reuters ScienceWatch in the category of physics.
q; W
 eak ties in cell organisation and cancer treatment Pter Csermely
The main research areas of Pter Csermely include network science,
adaptation of complex systems (stress) and ageing. Working in cooperation
with biochemist Csaba Sti to study stress, he discovered two ATP binding
places of Hsp90, a stress protein occurring in the largest quantity in human
cells, which paved the way to developing new cancer treatment drugs that
exert their effect at those points of attack. During his network studies he
discovered numerous general adaptation mechanisms of complex networks
that describe proteins, human cells and the human brain, human society
and a considerable part of the culture of mankind (internet, world-wideweb, power networks, etc.). He pointed out the general stabilising power
of low intensity weak ties and, together with goston Mihalik, identified
the responses of groups of networks to stress and recognised that more
complicated systems existing in nature, from simple molecules to society,
adapt to changed environmental conditions through cyclic selection
between softer (playfully testing numerous forms of behaviour) and
harder (choosing the optimal behaviour from those tested in the previous
step in the particular situation) forms. This is the principle that drives most
of the highly effective artificial intelligence procedures.
Pter Csermely is a biochemist and network researcher, a corresponding
member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.He was born in Budapest in
1958. He graduated as a chemist from the Faculty of Natural Sciences of Etvs
Lornd University in 1982. He is a university lecturer at the Institute of Medical
Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Pathobiochemistry of Semmelweis University.
Pter Csermely received numerous awards for his scientific and talent support
activities, including the Ashoka, Fogarty, Howard Hughes, Rockefeller Fellow
and the Hungarian Inheritance award. He considers recognition by his students,
fellow workers and colleagues to be the greatest award both in science and
talent support.

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Network science is an extremely important scientific discipline, because


it helps classify and understandthe sea of data containing far more than
billion times billion data collected by mankind minute by minute. A human
brain is not capable of capturing or understanding even a small fragment of
such a large quantity of data. By using network methods, the key actors of
complicated systems can be identified and it is possible to say who and what
controls these systems, hence it becomes possible to plan interventions
that alter the behaviour of a complicated system in the desired direction.
As an example, Professor Csermely (with the involvement of start-up
companies founded by his students) developed network procedures from
the beginning of 2010 to identify the points at which the cancerous cells of
a particular patient need to be attacked in order to successfully force the
cancerous cell into self-destructing programmed cell death.
Pter Csermely not only researches but also builds networks. His own
network research team, the LINK Group, (www.linkgroup.hu) builds a
network of researchers and research students from various disciplines
and different institutions. It has been committed to the organisation of
talent support networks since 1995. He received the Descartes Prize of the
European Union for establishing the Student Research Movement, which
is currently led by former research students (and has involved more than
10,000 talented secondary school students in research of the highest level
in the country in the last 20 years, www.kutdiak.hu). As the President of
the National Talent Support Council, he has been assisting the development
of a talent support network (www.tehetseg.hu) in the whole Carpathian
Basin since 2006, which managed to involve almost 200,000 people in the
first ten years. As the President of the European Council of High Ability,
he began building a European Talent Support Networkin 2012, which set
up European Talent Support Centres starting 2015. The European Talent
Support Centre in Budapest was the first institution of this kind, and is
engaged in exemplary and trend setting activities on a global scale.
4. The decade of brain research
Nowadays whenever thirty leading experts of the world are invited to an
international conference on brain research, four of them will definitely be
Hungarian. The quality of Hungarian brain research is also marked with
the fact that The Brain Prize, provided by the Danish Grete Lundbeck
European Brain Research Foundation was awarded to three Hungarian brain
researchers, Pter Somogyi, Tams Freund and Gyrgy Buzski in 2011.
On the basis of the high professional standard and in order to increase the
economic and social importance of research, the Hungarian Government
launched a National Brain Research Programme in 2012 to concentrate in a
network the activities of all recognised Hungarian university and academic
workshops engaged in research in that area.
The initiative turned into an exemplary and leading scientific programme
even on global scale (President Barack Obama announced the USA BRAIN
Initiative programme in the United States in April 2013, supported by
the state with USD 3 billion for 10 years). The programme was driven by
practical social and economic factors. The burden on society and economy,

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caused by brain disorders is extremely high across the world. According to


statistics one million patients suffer from migraine in Hungary. Each year
40,000 people are hit by stroke while cerebral vascular disasters claim
18,000 lives each year. Approximately 80,000-100,000 people suffer from
epilepsy and there are almost 18,000 registered patients with Parkinson
disease. As life expectancy increases, the probability of the occurrence of
Alzheimers disease and other neurodegenerative illnesses also becomes
higher. In 2010, the total cost of nervous system maladies reached EUR
798 billion in Europe, also including indirect expenses, such as the cost of
working days lost due to an illness. WHO records indicate that the illnesses
with most severe implications on the health economy in the 2020-2030s will be
depression, anxiety and their somatic consequences, which are also actively
studied by the researchers of the National Brain Research Programme.
Taking into account current scientific relevance and Hungarian specificities,
the Programme focuses on five thematic pillars: exploring research, clinical
neurology studies, cooperation in pharmaceutical research, bionicsinfobionics and epidemiology, neuro-ethics, legal, social and economic
aspects. The National Brain Research Programme is chaired by Tams
Freud, Director of the Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences (MTA KOKI) and former president of the Federation
of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS).
The National Brain Research Programme (Hungarian abbreviation: NAP)
targets research conducted on challenges, such as optogenetics, i.e. light
manipulation of neurons, deep brain stimulation applied in Parkinsons
disease, cerebral sensors preventing epileptic fits, the dumb epidemic of
skull damages and pharmaceutical research. The exploring research focuses
on neuro-psychiatric diseases: depression, anxiety and schizophrenia.
Oneof the robust components of the programme relies on the results
achieved in Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), a group of inherited diseases that
cause the decay of retina cells. At the moment, the disease belonging to
Retinitis Pigmentosa cannot be cured and there is no evidence either that
the deterioration of the condition can be prevented. Nonetheless, there is
extensive research in optogenetics, which may bring major success within
a foreseeable time.
The study of the role of CB1 cannabinoid receptor is a breakthrough
approach in the research on epilepsy. Further significant achievements
were made in previously mentioned areas in the study of depression,
anxiety and Parkinsons disease and also in the identification of the genetic
and neuronal background of Autism. The identification of a new biomarker
(a spectrin decomposition product) in translation research is an original
Hungarian discovery. Furthermore, hidden structural and operational
damages, detected with special MRI sequences in the course of examining
light skull injuries set the scene for another Hungarian success story.
It is a true national network in which rural regions have a major role as well.
The University of Szeged is one of them, where during clinical research,
scientists try to identify the role of the non-coding RNS phases in the
development of various diseases and how certain diseases can be diagnosed

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by examining the level of certain molecules, and what correlations exist


between neurophysiology features and clinical diseases. The scientists
engaged in pharmaceutical research are primarily trying to find a way to
reduce the progress of diseases that involve mental degradation.
Results in neurobiology are also outstanding: A group led by Botond
Penke focuses on researching neurodegeneration diseases (Alzheimers
and Parkinsons as well as ALS (amiotrophic lateral sclerosis)). Led by
Gbor Tams, an ERC Grant winning professor, the cerebral cortex neuron
network research team of the University of Szeged and the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences identifies mechanisms connecting individual neurons
to neuron networks by defining the role of specifically identified neurons
in the cerebral cortex. Research laboratories at the Neurology Clinic led
by Lszl Vcsei are engaged primarily in neurodegeneration, headache
and sclerosis multiplex. Under the leadership of university lecturer Lajos
Kemny, immunologists conduct research on skin diseases and the operation
of the skin as an immune organ. Yvette Mndis research team analyses
the genetic risk factors of stroke, acute pancreatitis and diabetes.
a; Epilepsy and cerebral transmission rhythmicity Antal Bernyi
Antal Bernyi is a neurophysiologist, focusing in his research on finding a
treatment that reduces the frequency and duration of epilepticseizures. I
became interested in epilepsy as an ideal rhythmic operation model, and
experiments showed relatively soon that the electric stimulation I applied could
be effective in terminating a certain type of epileptic seizures. These results
were summarised in an article published in Science magazine in 2012.
The issue is also a socially important research topic because approximately
1-1.5 percent of the population of Hungary suffer from a type of epilepsy.
For approximately one-third of the patients, currently available drug
therapies are not effective at all, or only to a limited extent. Recurring
epileptic seizures cause patients problems in lifestyle, impeding their work
or everyday activities, such as office administration or driving a car. In
addition, the illness also indirectly affects the life of the whole family of
the patient.
The research project of the Szeged team was the first in the world to use
timed electrical stimulation (TES), a most advanced and spatially focused
form of stimulating cerebral neural networks with an external source
outside the skull to register neural activity for the purposes of studying
the progression of epileptic seizures. They hope that their results will help
develop a therapy that reduces the frequency and duration of seizures. The
research team is assisted in their work by an optogenetic and a histological
laboratory, the latter providing the background of electrophysiological
measurements. The Szeged laboratory is unique in the world in terms its
capacity for spatial and temporal resolution i.e., in terms of the size of the
area of the brain that can be simultaneously analysed at cell level with
millisecond accuracy.
Antal Bernyi began his research in the New York Laboratory of Gyrgy
Buzski, an external member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciencesonly

72

to return home to Szeged in 2013 to join the Institute of Physiology of the


Faculty of General Medical Sciences of the University of Szeged with the
help of the Momentum programme of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Bernyi is also a research physician who develops instruments. His
instruments are used in a new scientific procedure (wireless data
transmission technique) he invented. He founded his own company which
produces and distributes instruments for examining animals during free
motion or in other words for measuring cerebral activity at much larger
resolution than ever before. He believes that it is easy to examine a tissue
or a cell under a microscope, but to put an active cell of a living creature
under the microscope is a serious challenge. The Bernyi instrument tries
to respond to that challenge.
b; Cooperation of cerebral centres in space and time

Pter Somogyi
Pter Somogyi is a biologist and neurobiologist, as well as a brain researcher.
He is a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and a senior
professor at Oxford University. He conducts research into the structure
of the central nervous system and the brain and into the operation of the
neuron networks. He focuses on the spatial and timely structure of cerebral
centres, and especially on the complex operation of the cerebral cortex. He
has focussed mainly on the operation of higher level neural functions, such
as thinking, memory and information processing capacity over the last
few decades. He was the first to develop methodsfor describing neuron
networks in the cerebral cortex and for identifying various types of neurons
and their cooperation in space and in time. At the moment, he studies the
temporal relationship between events in the brain and behaviour.
The methods he introduced and applied are now used worldwide. His
studies helpedhim discover numerous neurons in the cerebral cortex,
the hippocampus, the cerebellum and in the basal ganglia, and identified
their location in sympathetic networks. His studies also extended to the
controlled operation of neurons, by focusing on what coordinated and
synchronised the activity of neurons and how it was achieved. In that
respect, he also studied the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
His works reveal that each neuron is influenced by cells simultaneously
releasing GABA from a separate source. In that area he continued the
research activities of Jnos Szentgothai. One of the greatest discoveries
of Pter Somogyi is that the various inhibition cells, which organise the
operation of neurons are subject to temporal specificity in addition to
being spatially specialised.
Pter Somogyi was born in Szentendre in 1950. He graduated from Etvs
Lornd University of Budapest as a biologist. Since 1985 he has been lecturing
in Oxford upon the invitation of the British Council of Medical Research. He is
a school creating researcher: after returning, he initially acted as co-director
and scientific leader of the Institute of Anatomic Neuropharmacology of Oxford
University, where he was appointed director in October 1998. In 1996 he became
professor of the University of Oxford. Since 2004 he has been Nicholas Kurti

73

Senior Research Fellow Lecturer at the Brasenose College of Oxford. In 2000 he


was elected member of the Royal Society of England. Since 2006 he has been
an elected member of the Medical Academy of Sciences of London and in the
same year Leopoldina,the German National Academy of Sciencesalso elected
him as a member. In 2009 he became a member of Academia Europaea. He is a
member of the editorial boards of numerous international scientific journals.

c; S
 timulus transfer in the neural network, and knowledge
dissemination in society Szilveszter E. Vizi
Brain researcher Szilveszter E. Vizi, former president of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, is a prominent figure in Hungarys research sector,
and one of the most internationally reputed brain researchers. At the
beginning of his career, he worked with Sir William Paton in Oxfords Bellior
College. One of his discoveries was related to the presence of receptors
supporting message transfer in nerve endings. Vizi also discovered that
chemical matter could diffuse and exert an impact farther than previously
thought. He was encouraged by and received wise guidance from grand
old men about the anatomical aspects of his discoveries. Vizis first
publication about the above two topics became a citation classic, i.e. it
is one of the most frequently quoted studies in its field. The results are
pharmaceutically significant in therapy as they support the interpretation
of diseases such as schizophrenia, depression or mood swings.
Vizis research results are primarily related to the pre-synaptic regulation of
neuro-chemical stimulus transfer and the first description of non-synaptic
interactions between neurons. He found that gastrin and cholecystokinin
exerted their effects via acetylcholine released from cholinergic neurons.
He described the pre-synaptic inhibition of stimulus transfer via adenosine
and ATP. His study entitled Non-synaptic interactions between neurons,
describing an entirely new possibility of interaction between neurons, was
published in the USA. In cooperation with a team led byacademician Szntay
(Experimental Medical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy
of Sciences), he discovered a new, selective alpha-2-receptor inhibitor
patented by the pharmaceutical company Chinoin in 41 countries of the
world. They studied the role of non-synaptic receptors and transporters
in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as depression,
Parkinsons disease, and drug addiction. He described the sympathetic
nervous systems connecting role in the bodys immune responses to
cognitive and non-cognitive stimuli.
Besides creating a new school of thinking, Vizi offered a world-class
scientific environment to prominent figures of Hungarian and international
brain research for 15 years as director of the Experimental Medical
Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The institute
targets its work mainly at understanding the operation of the nervous
system; specific topics include learning and memory processes, behaviour,
various cerebral damages, as well as the regulation of hormone secretion
by the central and peripheral nervous system. The Institute has a tradition
of maintaining good relations with the pharmaceutical industry. Having
spent years in leading European and American laboratories, the staff

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returned with knowledge of the latest examination methods, which have


been adopted by the Institute. The organisation also receives 10-15 guest
researchers every year, who spend various time periods here.
Szilveszter E. Vizi was born in Budapest in 1936. He commenced his studies
at the Medical University of Pcs in 1955, and then switched to the Medical
University of Budapest, where became a qualified doctor in 1961. He qualified
for a candidates degree in 1969 and became an academic doctor in 1977. He is
on several committees of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 1985, he was
elected a corresponding member of HAS, and a full member in 1990. He was
appointed vice president of the Academy in 1996, and became president six
years later (when he quit as Director General). He was re-elected for another
three years in 2005, and remained in office until 2008. Furthermore, he became
a member of Londons Academia Europaea in 1992, and Salzburgs European
Academy of Science and Art in 1994.

According to the credo of the president of the Hungarian Academy of


Sciences, the prime task of Hungarys scientists is to contribute to
global scientific heritage with internationally recognised results worthy
of their notable predecessors. The Academy should primarily support
basic research and, with contribution by top Hungarian scientists, should
make the latest scientific results easily understandable to the public. The
remarkable success among Hungarians living in the Carpathian Basin
and elsewhere in the world of the University of Omniscience, a TV
series launched in September 2002 in order to promote sciences, served
as an important confirmation of what was then the most modern form of
disseminating scientific knowledge.

d; Effect of mind-altering drugs on neurons Tams Freund

Brain researcher, neuro-biologist and university professor Tams Freund is a full


member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and vice president of the Life
Sciences section. He is an internationally renowned researcher of the operation
of the cerebral cortex. His results have contributed to the interpretation of
several physiological and pathophysiological processes in the hippocampus,
such as neural network activity patterns connected to two phases of memory
processes, theta and gamma oscillation, as well as the neural network-related
basics of the emergence of sharp wave activity; the pathological mechanism
of epileptic cerebral damage; the description of inhibiting neuron types and
their inhibition functions; their regulation via subcortical paths and stimulus
transmission materials (e.g. serotonin and acetyl-choline), receptors and ionic
transporters; and the role of trophic factors in the development of specific
synaptic links. The latest and most dynamically developing field researched
by his team involves the neuronal signalling mediated by endocannabinoids,
and its role in cerebral functions as well as the emergence and new pharmacotherapy of anxiety conditions. Freund also examined the effects of cannabis:
he and his work team were the first in the world to identify the neuron types
affected by these mind-altering materials.
Tams Freund was born in Zirc in 1959. He studied at the Jzsef Attila University
of Szeged and, from his second academic year, at the department of biology at

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Etvs Lornd University in Budapest. In Anatomy Institute 1 of Semmelweis


Medical University, he belonged to the science study circle of Jnos Szentgothai
and Pter Somogyi (1980-1983), received a science scholarship (1983-1986),
and then worked as a research fellow (1986-1989). In the Experimental Medical
Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he worked as senior
research fellow and department head (1990-1993), research consultant (1992),
deputy director (1994-2002), and director (from 2002). He leads the Neurobiology
Department of the Information Technology Department of the Pzmny Pter
Catholic University (from 2003). He received a scientific grant from Britains
Oxford University (1982-1983), where he worked as a research fellow (1985)
and senior research fellow (1986-1988). As a guest researcher, he worked at the
University of Lund, Sweden (1985), the University of California in San Diego (1989)
and Los Angeles, USA (2004; 2007), Germanys Freiburg University (1998; 2007),
the Pasteur institute in Paris, France (1992; 1996), and the Rutgers University
in Newark, USA (1995; 2005). He is chairman of the National Brain Research
Program and recipient of numerous Hungarian and international awards, notably
the Bolyai and Szchenyi Awards, as well as The Brain Prize which he received
together with Pter Somogyi and Gyrgy Buzski in 2011.

Besides his profession, he has been involved in music since his youth as a
clarinet player and choir singer. As an actively religious man, he says the
following about his ideology: Science certainly played a major role in the
formation of my faith as an adult; if you dig deep enough in knowledge
about living matter in my case the brain , you start thinking that
someone must have designed all that.
e; Information coding in the central neural system Zoltn Nusser
Zoltn Nusser is an internationally renowned expert belonging to the third
generation of Hungarian brain research. As a professor of neuro-biological
research at the Experimental Medical Research Institute of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, he researches information coding, processing and
storage in the central nervous system. His team primarily aims to find out
what happens when a specific piece of information, an activity pattern,
arrives in a part of the brain; how the neuron network handles the
information, and what intra-cellular processes are involved in transforming
the stimulus pattern. Besides in vitro physiological tests, Nusser and his
team perform structural examinations using light and electron microscopy
in the Cellular Neuro-Physiology Laboratory, conduct high-level immunehistochemical experiments, and use neuron and mathematical models to
describe the system at the level of cells and small networks. The goal is to
predict the role of certain cells, connections and synapses in higher-level
neural activities.
Zoltn Nusser, born in Bonyhd in 1968, graduated from the Budapest Veterinary
University in 1992. He started his studies for a PhD degree in Hertford College,
a part of Oxford University in the same year. His supervisor was Pter Somogyi.
He defended his PhD thesis in 1995, which earned him the British Brain Research
Associations Glaxo-Wellcome Award for the best PhD thesis. Between 1995 and
1998, he worked as researcher of the universitys anatomical neuro-pharmacology
institution. For two years starting 1998, he was researcher at the neurology

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department of the University of California, Los Angeles, in Istvn Mdys lab.


He became a corresponding and full member of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences in 2007 and in 2013, respectively. Upon returning to Hungary in 2000,
he established the Cellular Neuro-Physiology Team of the Experimental Medical
Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which he leads.

What do you perceive as the international strengths of your


research?
Our team is at the forefront of global research in two fields: 1) molecular,
morphological and functional examination of synaptic neurotransmission in
rodents hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum; and 2) mapping of
the precise, quantitative distribution of tension-dependent ionic channels
on the axo-somato-dendritic surface of neurons. Thanks to the benefits
of our widely used combined molecular, anatomical and physiological
approach, we are in the position to examine phenomena in additional
dimensions that others in the world find it hard to relate to.
What are the most promising research topics in your field concerning
scientific discoveries or their social-economic utilisation?
Its hard to highlight any one major issue. We see several breakthroughs
in global neuro-biology that we could not even dream of a decade ago. The
invention of so-called opto-genetics and its introduction in brain research
is one of these fundamentally new and immensely promising things. To put
it simply, it involves the usage of light to influence the activity of certain
neurons, even in animals. This allows for the identification of the role of
certain neurons in high-level neural activities.
 hat do personally you consider your prime research objective
W
from a scientific and/or practical point of view?
The main goal of researching the nervous system is to understand how the
brain works and to alleviate or cure neurological and psychiatric diseases
caused by pathological changes in the brain. In my view, we need to
understand the operation of the healthy nervous system as a precondition
to curing its diseases. In other words, we must understand the internal
characteristics of the neurons that constitute the brain and the operation
of the synapses connecting them, and must map the network of links
between neurons. It is these objectives that guide our research.
5. Mind games with a scientific eye cognitive sciences
One of the most exciting interdisciplinary fields of research involves
integrated approaches to several branches of science such as (primarily)
psychology, linguistics, neurobiology, information technology, ethology and
philosophy. These approaches provide a fresh insight into the characteristics
of perception, thinking, social behaviour or speech. The results of this
diverse scientific approach are successfully used in several workshops at
Hungarian universities, as illustrated by the following random examples.

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Neuropsychology is the science exploring the connection between cerebral


functions and behaviour, mostly focusing on brain injuries and the
symptoms of old-age dementia. Researchers aim to learn about the impact
of the development of cerebral formulas on metal functions through topics
such as executive functions, language, or navigation. Zoltn Janka of the
University of Szeged and Boldizsr Czh, who has recently returned to
the University of Pcs, boast outstanding achievements in researching
depression. In clinical depression, stress-induced structural changes are
observed in the hippocampus. Consequently, the dendrite trees of neurons
contract and the generation of new cells slows down. This complex set of
symptoms has a major effect on a persons memory and motivation to
discover the world. One of Czhs much-cited research projects has proved
that certain antidepressants can mitigate or even cure both neurological
and psychological symptoms.
Creativity, defined as the ability to come up with ideas to solve a problem
in a new and useful way, is an even more complex phenomenon. As early
as in the 1970s, Csaba Plh and Ilona Barkczi researched how Zoltn
Kodlysmethod of teaching music influenced creativity. Valria Cspe (of
the Research Centre for Natural Sciences within the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences) aims to demonstrate the effect of Kodlys method on developing
creativity not only at the level of behaviour but also in terms of brain signals.
As cerebral imaging procedures develop, more and more research projects
have been focused on the cerebral background of creativity. The left-side
frontopolar cortex is a cerebral area that many researchers have found to be
related to creativity. The farther the categories that we mentally connect,
the higher the activity of this brain area. Tams Freund highlights the role
of deep cerebral formulas. These subcortical seeds consist of merely a few
ten thousand neurons but can influence the activity of the entire cerebral
cortex (pacemaker cells). The activity of these cells is strongly influenced
by emotions and motivations, i.e. by our inner state. This could explain
why one person sees and processes the world differently from another.
According to the cognitive approach, learning means changes in the strength
of connections. While this is a rather radical notion of the brain, it has the
advantage that it facilitates modelling the nervous system. The question
how the psychological level can be reduced to such processesemerges. In
response, the proponents of the model claim that rules and symbols can
be recognised in external appearance (when we think about our thinking),
but that is not how they are mapped in the system itself. One of the most
significant statements of the model is the assumption that there are no
rules. Children do not learn rules when learning a language but make
associations based on many individual cases. Observable changes occur
because children initially meet more irregular verbs, so they learn those
more thoroughly. Statistical learning is a widely spread approach nowadays,
not only in language learning but also in the research of perception. Judit
Gervain (Sorbonne) examines this acquisition of connection underlying
grammar by children.
The cognitive approach is also present in world-class ethological research
in Hungary, thanks to Vilmos Csnyi, dm Miklsi and Jzsef Topl

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(Etvs Lornd University). They have found that the intelligence of dogs
is very unique in the animal kingdom. Primates capabilities have emerged
over several million years by adaptation to the environment. But the
domestication of wolves, which led to the appearance of todays dog breeds,
could only have started some 3,000 years ago. Evolutionally speaking,
this is a very short time. During domestication, man essentially created
an environment for artificial evolution that favoured the development
of outstanding social skills. Dogs can cooperate with humans in a very
complex manner. For example, if we hide food in one of two boxes, bring
in a chimpanzee and point a finger at the box containing the food, the ape
will not take that into consideration when making a choice. A dog, however,
can follow which object we are looking or pointing at.
The effect of drugs on the brain is a biological and socio-cultural matter; in
fact, the results published by Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Sasvri-Szkely et
al. (Etvs Lornd University) indicate that genetics may also be involved.
Some results show that people with an innately underactive dopamine
system are more susceptible to addiction. And certain genetic variations
also increase that susceptibility. On the other hand, the researchers
found that other genetic variations rarely occur in addicts. As to alcohol
consumption, however, the main motivations are social motivation, followed
by a yearning for stupor, and coping with problems. The Problematic
Internet Usage Questionnaire, developed by Zsolt Demetrovics and his
colleagues, is used around the world to test for the latest addiction of our
age, dependence on online content.
Cognitive sciences are also present in research performed in the leading
psychology workshop in Hungarys higher education system, the Institute
of Psychology of the Pedagogy and Psychology Department of the Etvs
Lornd University. Many foreign students can attest to that because hundreds
of them have studied psychology in the ELUP program in the past years,
relying on internationally recognised research. The Hypnosis Research
Laboratory at the Affective Psychology Department is a global leader in
its field, applying a multi-layered approach to hypnotic interaction. Applied
research confirming the effectiveness of hypnosis and suggestive methods
is conducted in several fields of medicine such as oncology, critical conditions,
surgery, and ophthalmology. The Department of Clinical Psychology
and Addictology conducts extended research into the epidemiological
characteristics and personality psychology background of chemical and
behavioural addictions. The departments Memory and Language Research
Team primarily focuses on neuropsychology, while the Criminal Psychology
Research Team examines the psychological and behavioural characteristics
of psychopathological phenomena. The staff of the Personality and Health
Psychology Department are internationally reputed researchers of positive
psychology, clinical health psychology, chrono-psychology, and health
behaviour. The department is home to Hungarys only Positive Psychology
Laboratory where electroencephalographic research is conducted in order
to identify electro-physiological markers of the flow experience; further
topics include the personality determinants of the flow experience, and
the effect of social flow on performance and learning. The Brczi Gusztv
Medical Pedagogy Department runs a training program focused on autism

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spectrum pedagogy that is unique in Europe and boasts important basic


psychological research aimed at better understanding the nature of autism
spectrum disorders. The Journal of Behavioural Addictions, the worlds
premier international magazine in that field, is published in cooperation by
the Psychology Institute and the publishing house Akadmiai Kiad.
Ilona Kovcs researches vision, perceptual learning and development,
cerebral plasticity, the connection between sleep and learning, and changes
in the cerebral cortex in adolescence. She also examines perceptual
and cognitive development disorders, including responses given by the
human brain to external stimuli, adaptation to them, and issues related
to vulnerability. Her work, performed in cooperation with Gbor Jand of
the University of Pcs and Bla Trk, researcher at the Kantonsspital of
St. Gallen, involved the examination of prematurely born babies who, after
two months of additional stimulus, exhibited cerebral waves indicating
stereoscopic vision in the third month after birth. The main conclusion is
that the stereoscopic vision of prematurely born babies develops as fast
as in peers born after a normal pregnancy period, because this ability is
invoked by the environment. This means that the human brain is much more
sensitive to external stimuli than indicated by previous observations.
Gergely Csibra, professor at the Department of Cognitive Science of the
Central European University and the University of London, researches the
cognitive development of children with support from the ERC Advanced
Grant. In cooperation with Gyrgy Gergely, he devised the notion of natural
pedagogy, describing the process of human evolution from the perspective
of knowledge sharing. According to their theory, the development of human
communication has been governed by the transfer of general knowledge;
the special learning processes exhibited by infants are also attributable
to that. They have proved that one-year-old children use the principle
of conclusion for rational decisions, similarly to adults. Gergely Csibras
research extends to the examination of imaging and cerebral functions.
These examples prove that international standards of cognitive science are
achieved at almost all Hungarian research universities.

a; The Infinite Mind Csaba Plh

Csaba Plh is a psychologist, linguist, university professor and permanent


member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He is an accomplished
researcher in a variety of fields, has published over 500 papers, a dozen
books, half of which were published in English and arecited in 2,000
publications. For the past fifty years,he has been conducting research in
three main areas, which continue to interesthim and to provide topics for
his publications. In every area, he endeavours to move beyond unilaterality
in science by linking humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. He
views the human being as a culture creating biological creature in terms of
both theory and empiricalresearch.
After conducting numerous experiments in the field of psycholinguistics, he
espoused the theory of language specific processing together with Gyrgy
Gergely. In essence the theory holds that we use universal resourcesfor

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different objectives during language processing. In agglutinative languages


like Hungarian, we tend to use working memory resources to integrate
words, and apply the same resources to integrate sentences in languages
with shallow morphology such as English. Professor Plh researched
relationships of cognition and language in the context of the use of
spatial expressions. According to the results of corpus observations and
experimental research mostly conducted on children, target preferences
appear at a very early age, which equally influences the acquisition of
artificial expressions. In his theoretical psycholinguistic publications,
Professor Plh analyses the relationship between the theory of cognition,
the grammar-centric Chomsky approach and social theory. More recently,
he has been collaborating with researchers from Cambridge, San Diego and
Belgrade and has focussed his psycholinguistic studies on an information
theory approach.to morphological analysis.
Csaba Plh carried out groundbreaking research by analysing neurological
and cognitive developmental disorders. During the course of this work, his
research associates focused on the Williams syndrome, the Down syndrome
and so-called distinct language developmental disorders and cognitive
deficits. The most relevant outcome of this research was that there is no
clear dissociation between specific language areas and cognitive functions
as espoused earlier by numerous theories and that there are distinct
relationship between spatial cognition and language development. There
are presumably distinct connections between the degree of the genetic
disorder, impaired neurological development and the pattern of cognitive
impairment. There are both theoretical and practical implications to this
based on the nondeterministic explanation of genetic disorders.
The theory of cognition and the history of cognitive research is Professor
Plhs third main field of research. More specifically, Professor Plh focused
on comparing the mechanical and biological models of cognitive science and
the history of key notions, such as modularity and innatism. Analysing the
cognitive and relationship consequences of todays information technology
is one of his key research topics.
Csaba Plh was born in Srisp in 1945, got a degree in psychology at Etvs
Lornd University in 1969, became a corresponding member of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences in 1998 and a permanent member in 2004. He has been
a member of Academia Europaea (London) since 2007, was a member of the
European Science Foundation Standing Committee of the Humanities (2008
2013) and is an evaluator and panel chairman of the European Research
Council (from 2012). He has lectured at leading Hungarian universities and
colleges, as well as at the University of Vienna, the University of Triest, the
University of Zagreb, Rutgers University (New Jersey) and Indiana University
(Bloomington). He is a member of the editorial board of major scientific
journals, such as the History of Psychology, Acta Linguistica Hungarica, Journal
of Evolutionary Psychology, as well as Learning and Perception. Professor Plh
was editor-in-chief of Hungarian Psychological Review, the leading Hungarian
psychological journal from 1996 to 2015.

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In your opinion, what major contributions has your research/


workshop made to international achievements in your field?
I am involved in many things, but I am a psychologist as far as my personal
identity goes, in which regard there are a few lifestyle and worldview
implications. As a psychologist, I believe in the multiple dimensions of
human behaviour and experiences. The consequences of this in science
is that I always view mono-centric theories explaining everything from a
single position with suspicion, while the day-to-day consequences of this
is that I have a tolerant attitude toward human variations and that I am
convinced that human beings need to be understood on the grounds of
what drives them, instead of some sort of moral grounds looking down on
the diversity of human behaviour. We have to be surprised, but also know
that even if very strange things happen to us or our fellow human beings,
this does not make them alien or someone to frown on.
I am dedicated to evolutionary psychology within the field of psychology.
There are three key factors for me in terms of its scientific content.
The natural and the cultural aspect are not opposites, but complement
one another in understanding the human being. Our special culture and
language is not an abyss, but can be understood by taking the approach of
a natural scientist, in which framework even social life, as the key driving
force, is given a biological meaning. Both psychological phenomena and
culture should generally be researched within the framework of a general
Darwinian functional framework in which everyone has to interpret the role
of survival in both the classical Darwinian sense and in terms of cultural
cultivation. Both people and cultures necessarily show variations and
variation is not some sort of interfering factor bypassed by researchers, it
specifically proves how diverse life actually is.
This view of the worldis just as prevalent in my day-to-day life. I try to be
open to change when it comes to my friends, students or colleagues. I even
view the people that surround me as constantly developing and changing
systems where control must mostly imply the fulfilment of the range of
choices of self-development. I am an optimistic person and believe that it
is possible to increase subjective well-being and good feeling, just like it is
possible to encourage cooperation, if we view our own set of driving forces
with wide open eyes.
A strange thing ensues from this. Even though I am dedicated to cognitive
psychology, the world of modelling human beings, I am nevertheless
convinced that understanding factors driving human beings is the real task
of psychology. The psychology of the future, if I may use such a pompous
expression, will, in my view once again be psychology of motivation.
In which direction are your research undertakings heading?
I am involved in two research projects recently: writing a new integrative
history of psychology and studying Ego centred networks. I am trying
to analyze history of psychology with an eye open to both the history of
ideas and that of institutions. I am trying to analyze the symbolic and the
institutional embedding of the history of social science. This makes my

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history of psychology project a project of broad interdisciplinary relevance.


I am trying to embed the history of psychology into the larger frame of the
history of research on the mind from a biological and several philosophical
perspectives.
My general attitude is characterized by three factors. A more multi-centric
vision of social science than usually presented. Situate developments
of psychology in the framework of other social sciences (anthropology,
sociology, education, linguistics) and philosophical disciplines (logic,
philosophy of science), as well as relate them to developments in natural
science, mainly biology. I believe in the importance of European psychology
all over twentieth Century. In the usual treatment, psychology is seen from
the 1920s on more and more as an issue of exclusively North American
developments.
The standard overall treatments still take an almost entirely internalist
attitude, i.e. talking merely about the seemingly inherent changes of
theories. I am trying to redress the balance in this regard, emphasizing
a balance of the three layers determining the development of psychology:
the intellectual, the personal, and the social should be treated together, as
aspects of the real life of the scientist. I combine an interest in presenting
psychology in its social setting, especially when it regards the development
of the profession of psychology. At the same time I do not subscribe
to an entirely socio-centric vision. I do try to portray psychology as
developing in three overlapping contexts, the context of ideas, of society,
and of individual lives. This is a combination of historico-sociological and
disciplinary attitudes to the history of a given field.
Though I am not claiming for an entire and integral social determinism
in the development of science, I still do believe that there is a need for a
balanced consideration of the three layers determining the development
of psychology as well: the intellectual, the personal, and the social should
be treated together, as aspects of the real life of the scientist. The social
determination of science issue is especially challenging with my background.
Being an East European, for whom the social ideas of Marxist officialdom
became rather discredited, I had a hard time to accept some of the claims
of the strong program of the science studies movement. The attitude
taken in the book is a compromise between the belief in the inherently antiauthoritarian nature of science and the social factors indirectly shaping the
work of the scientist
The background of our project (Ego centred network) is to relate and
connect the three basic traditions of social network research: broad scale
networks; social scale networks research; and ego centred networks
research. The essential aim is to connect these traditions of network
research with the issue of the personal determinants and the quality of
relations.
The general network theory represented by Barabsi and others, is always
event based, presupposing that interaction time and resource allocation
parameters make possible inferences towards networked distribution of
thoughts and emotional relations as well. Sociological network research is

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slightly more sophisticated. It presupposes that connections can work as


channels (diffusion nets) as already entertained by classic diffusion theories
in the 1950s proposed by Bavelas. Networks also work, however, as ties,
representing social resources (who can I ask advice, money, help etc.).
Networks in anthropological research initiated by Dunbar (1993) and in
traditional psychology, like in sociometry as practiced by Moreno, starts
from the idea that individuals have a limited network capacity. Their
egos are embedded into a concentric layer of connections of intimates
(3-5 people), cliques (8-15), gangs (20-50), and large groups (100-200)
as proposed by Hill and Dunbar. Researchers in psychology are greatly
interested in how the variations of these layers are related to differences
in cognitive abilities such as memory, to personality, and incidentally to
psychopathology.
Using the theoretical framework proposed by Robin Dunbar about networks
with layers of varying strength, our studies had shown that the new ICT
tools mainly widen our relations in the superficial layers. Regarding the
personality determinants of network size, we mainly find that even in the
context of new media we still practice strong ties mainly with people with
whom we have secure attachment relations.
On the whole, we find that in our relationships networks we tend to be
relatively conservative, technology mainly serves as a tool to maintain
relations.

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b; Flow Inside and Around Us Mihly Cskszentmihlyi

Mihly Cskszentmihlyi is a professor of psychology of Hungarian origin at


Claremont University (California), pioneering thinker of positive philosophy,
university lecturer and external member of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences. Professor Cskszentmihlyi is known for having scientifically
defined the flow experience.
During his research, he endeavoured to find an answer to something that
everyone experiences over and over again, namely, the way in which
people become so immersed in whatever they are doing that they seem to
fall into something like a trance. By primarily conducting highly targeted
interviews with artists and chess players, he found that during such selfimmersion orengrossment people may even lose their sense of space
and time. Cskszentmihlyi dubbed activities of this kind autoteletic,
expressing that these acts are performed for their own sake without being
aware of theattainable result or the external reward while engaged in the
act of doing. That started to crystalize the notion of flow. His book published
in 1990 became a worldwide success, as a result of which Cskszentmihlyi
began to extend the use of this notion by claiming that it can apply to a
variety of areas: Flow inspired schools, factories and museums to offer
more enjoyable experiences to employees and visitors. That is illustrated
by Getty Center (Los Angeles), a building complex housing one of the
richest private collections in the world, which was designed on the basis
of his recommendations and he was also requested to express an opinion
by practical industrial sectors about the design of cars(Nissan). The use
of the notion of flow extended even further when a game simulation was
developed in 2007 on the basis of an e-learning version of his book, FLOW
is Good Business. Thatdemonstrated to the business sector the individual
and organisational added value of FLOW, as well as the interrelatedness of
FLOW and business performance.
Cskszentmihlyis research mainly focused on what happiness is, how it is
experienced and on the opportunities and modalities for reaching it in the
functioning of human beings. In his view, happiness is not simply a feeling, it
is based on the interpretation of things that happen to us. We are complete
in this regard, that is to say we evaluate by fully experiencing each event,
which involves both positive and negative experiences. Consequently,
actual flow experience is not limited to favourable circumstances.
Accounts by people who have endured long and serious hardshipsof flow
experienced during the calamities they went through demonstrates that.
In other words, it is not the activity itself, but rather the mode in which it is
performed that determines peak experiences of this nature. Therefore,
a peak experience occurs whenever we are entirely immersed in whatever
we are doing and as human beings we are fully absorbed in that activity.
However, this experience generally arises in situations when we have to
perform at our highest physical or mental capacity.

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Based on his interviews, Cskszentmihlyi concluded that at least one of


the following factors should be involved in achieving flow:
A challenging job that we can perform based on using our skills to the
utmost, which will bring productive results
Ability to intensely focus on the activity
Clear and understandable goals
Immediate positive feedback
Focus attention on the activity without making any effort
Experiencing control over the activity
The Reflective Self
Vanishing self-consciousness, thoughts about existence disappearing
Modified sense of time
When in flow, the experience of boredom, anxiety and apathy (e.g. in
work) one feels during routine problems disappears and is replaced by
joyful experiences. Exceptional dedication is also typical of the activities
performed in flow, which is why they help develop ones personality and
offer an opportunity for self-actualisation.
In Hungary, Professor Attila Olh and research associates study further
personality psychology implications of flow at the Faculty of Pedagogy and
Psychology of the Institute of Psychology of Etvs Lornd University.
6. F
 rom the Smallest to the Biggest Nanotechnology and
Astrophysics
There are several university, academic and applied research centres in
Hungary that lean on the centuries-long tradition of physical sciences.
At Etvs Lornd University, the Department of Astronomy directed by
Kristf Petrovay focuses first of all on celestial mechanics, solar and
astrophysical magneto-hydrodynamics, galactic astronomy and cosmology
and its research also covers the analysis of solar cycles. The Department
of Material Physics at Etvs Lornd University also conducts research
into material sciences and, for example, models dislocation structures,
observes micro-structural changes and analyses ceramic, glass and
heterogeneous materials (alloys, composites, metal foams). Furthermore,
the department analyses layers and modified surfaces by applying the
process of ion implantation. The PLASMON project coordinated by Etvs
Lrand University under the direction of Jnos Lichtenberger seeks to
describe the source domain of high-energy particles that threaten the
functioning of space devices and the health of astronauts, radiation
belts surrounding Earth and physical processes. The international team
comprised of 14 researchers uses the data of three terrestrial monitoring
networks for developing a new model of the plasmasphere. One of the three
global and unique networks, AWDANet, was developed by the universitys
space research team.

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Zsolt Frei is a physicist, astrophysicist, cosmologist and head of the


Department of Astrophysics at Etvs Lornd University. He is an
acknowledged international researcher of gravitational waves and
specialises in the field of extragalactic astrophysics. Professor Frei jointly
developed the concept of perfect wetting with Professor Andrs Patks
and the same duo of researchers went on to write the textbook Inflationary
Cosmology. By researching the morphology of galaxies, i.e. the shape
and properties of galaxies and automatic classification, Professor Frei
developed the method of removing foreground stars from galaxy profiles.
The Etvs Gravity Research Group was set up jointly by the Etvs
Lrnd University and the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences (Debrecen) with the aim to locate gravitational
waves and to develop gravitational interferometers. Theresponsibilitiesof
the Institute range from developing metering instruments through data
analysis to laying down the theoretical background. The team directed
by Professor Frei takes part in leading international research projects
focusing on gravitational waves. They resolved the problem of acoustic
noise interference affecting interferometers and developed an infrasound
microphone that measures low-frequency noise interference (such as a
truck passing by) in the immediate vicinity of the device.
Plasmonic and nano-optic research and gravitational theory research are
conducted at the University of Szeged, while research into, among others,
changing stars and supernovas was pursued at the Szeged Observatory.
Research associates at the University of Szeged also discovered numerous
dwarf planets within the framework of the Szeged Asteroid Programme.
Besides exploring solid-state physics and optics, researchers at the
Department of Physics of the Budapest University of Technology and
Economics focus especially on the field of nanophysics and magnetooptical spectroscopy. Research fellows at the department, namely, Sndor
Bordcs, Istvn Kzsmrk, Dvid Szaller and Lszl Demk were the first
to demonstrate in the world that magnetic fields can change the chirality
or optical isomerism or right or left-handednessof materials. Szabolcs
Csonka is a nanophysicist whose fields of research cover experimental
solid state physics and low temperature transport measurements. He
explores the quantum phenomena of semiconductor hybrid nanostructures
(semiconductor nanorods, spin transport, quantumdots, supraconductor
correlations), as well as the electric and magnetic properties of molecular
structures and atomic-size metal contacts, point-contact spectroscopy,
Andreev spectroscopy. Szabolcs Csonka has recently embarked on a
new field of research to explore the quantum effects of nanofabricated
superconducting electrical circuits. His research is funded by the ERC
Starting Grant. There is also a Department of Material Physics and
Technology at the university where research activities, among others,
focus on metal foams, micro-spheres, carbon and alloys.
The University of Pcs conducts research in a unique field in Hungary,
the generation of terraherz impulses, a domain where the research
department plays an internationally leading role. Project are implemented
in collaboration with the Dresden Helmholtz Research Centre and the Swiss

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Paul Scherer Institute, and the latter also supports part of the research at
the Szeged laser centre.
The depths and perspectives of materials are equally present in university
research in Hungary. As regards one of the directions, Hungarian science
has managed to remain at par with international scientific trends by
launching nanotechnology research conducted in a miniature world of
formerly inconceivable sizes: each Hungarian research university placed
heavy emphasis on nano research, which intensified at the turn of the
millennium. On the other hand, astrophysics, which explores the secrets
of the universe,has a more pronounced presence in Hungarian higher
education albeit with international results.
Professor Imre Mojzes played a key role in promoting nanotechnology
research in Hungary, who, among others, established the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences Nano Table and took part in developing nanotechnology
courses at numerous universities. Professor Mojzes specialises in the field
of compound semiconductors, microwaves and naturally nanotechnology
and continues to do research at three leading technology universities in
Hungary.
The Budapest University of Technology and Economics accommodates the
Nanotechnology Laboratory Network used jointly by several departments,
including the colloidal chemistry team, and assists biological applications,
as well as the research activities of sensorics faculties. The laboratory
researches numerous branches of nanotechnology, such as nanoelectronics,
surface nanostructures and structural and functional materials.
The electrochemical method is applied for carbon nanotube syntheses
at the University of Miskolc where research is also conducted on metal
emulsion and aluminium composites reinforced by carbon nanofibres, as
well as metal foams and nanoparticles. Modine, which focuses on heat
regulation, Admatis, which, among others, produces materials needed for
space research and ISD DUNAFERR are the key partners of the BAY-LOGI
Nanomaterials Unit. Professor Gyrgy Kaptay is the head researcher in
these fields, while Sytchez Jaroslav is the researcher in charge of studies
into producing carbon nanotubes by applying the electrochemical method,
aluminium composites reinforced by carbon nanofibres and coating nonconductive particles and surfaces with metal.
The Veszprm departments of the University of Pannonia engage in the
industrial production of nanotubes in collaboration with government bodies
and take part in numerous joint projects with the pharmaceutical company
Richter Gedeon, such as processing di-cyclopropyl-lactol-methyl-ether
mother liquor, the production of the diuretic and antihypersensitive
spironolactone drug and class of drugs, researching high MgO filtration
from raw lagnotrigine solution (drug used to treat epilepsy and bipolar
disorders).

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a; T
 he Physics of Light and the Relevance of Scientific Diplomacy
Norbert Kro
Professor Norber Kro is an internationally acknowledged physicist and one
the leading figures of European science diplomacy. He has been actively
researching solid state dynamics, laser physics, optics and neutron physics
for decades, his publications are frequently cited and he also has registered
forty patents. Most of his research focuses on the various physical aspects of
light, exploring the structure, dynamics and optical properties of structured
condensed matter systems. His theoretical research undertaken in the field
of solid state lasers has paved the way to several practical developments
and applications in the field of physics. As regards the physics of metals,
Professor Kro has also been interested in the light imitating properties
(i.e. light emission) of various metal layers and metal-metal oxide-metal
structures, while in the world of laser, hestudied the interaction between
light and matter, as well as the cooperation between and the combination
of lasers and tunnelling microscopy. During his work, he also explored nonlinear optics, surface plasmons and nanophysics.
Norbert Kro (Budapest, 19 September 1934) is a Hungarian physicist and
permanent member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Professor Kro was
the secretary of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1999 to 2005 and was
appointed vice president in 2005. Professor Kro is a leading researcher of solid
state, who acted as director of the Institute for Solid StatePhysics at the Central
Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1981
to 1998, and as a member of the European Research Council and shaped the
EUs research and development policies later on as a consultant to various EU
science policy bodies and officials. Professor Kro was one of the initiators that
launched the University of All Knowledge (also known as Encompass).

According to his latest research, the intense femtosecond laser impulse ratio
measured in gold films in a given domain causes anomalies suggesting the
formation of an electron pair, known as the Meissner effect. According to
the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect, supraconductors expel all magnetic fields,
not only the changing field, if cooled under a critical temperature. His final
conclusion is that the phenomena observed points to supraconductivity
induced at room temperature by surface plasmons. This property of
supraconductors opens up new horizons for numerous applications.
Beyond many foreign scientific awards of excellence, Professor Norbert Kro
received the Prima Primissima Award in 2011. Backing young researchers
is his most important mission. He gave all the technical equipment he
received as a gift from the German laboratory of the Max Planck Society
to the young researchers in his institute. He is convinced that the field of
quantum optics research has extremely important innovations in stall for
the world.
As a European science policy maker, Professor Kro has been a member of
the European Research Council ever since it was established and presided
over its work in the early phases. He was involved in the development
of the Starting Grant and Advanced Grant systems and consistently
represents the European science grant system based on excellence. He

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remains adamant about achieving closer cooperation among EU member


states in the field of science, as well as increasing EU expenditure in the
field of research and development.
b; Increasing Electrical Capacity and Spintronics Ferenc Simon
Ferenc Simon is a physicist researching spinotrics, electron spin resonance,
Raman spectroscopy and the theory of spin relaxation. He is a university
lecturer at the Solid State Physics Laboratory of the Department of Physics
of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Within the framework of spinotrics research, researchers attempt to
examine and model the properties of materials we call three-dimensional
bulk materials or block materials used to examine spin relaxation
behaviour. These results have been applied to nanostructure materials,
such as carbon nanotubes and graphene. According to Professor Simon,
this discovery (where the two areas intersect) opens up new exciting
horizons for researchers.
Ferenc Simon was born in 1974 and graduated from secondary school in 1992 in
the mathematics class of Fazekas Mihly High School. He admitted that he was
not among the top physics students, yet he went on to study at engineering and
physics at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. He spent one
year at the University of Manchester during his university studies. He got his
PhD in 2002 at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics under the
supervision of Professor Andrs. He has been holding seminars and lecturing
at the university since 1997 and lectured and habilitated at the University of
Vienna in 2007. He was awarded the title of doctor of the Hungarian Academy
of Sciences in 2009 at the age of 35 and has been a university professor at the
Budapest University of Technology and Economics since 2011 after habilitating
at the university in 2010. The Hungarian Academy of Sciences Talent Award and
the European Research Council Starting Grant are his most prestigious merits.
Within the framework of the latter, his research activities received funding at
1,23 million Euros from the European Union.

The sustainable development of increasingly higher computational and


information storage capacities in the development of electronic and IT
equipment is the greatest challenge of our day and age. Compared to
conventional electronic devices spintronics developments promise that
the same functions can be performed on fewer electrons, in smaller units
and greater reliability on the equipment of the future by building on the
coherent state of spins. Ferenc Simon and his associates are searching for
new solutions in this dynamically developing field and publish results in
prestigious scientific journals, most recently in Scientific Reports. He has
been working on the problem of spintronics together with other researchers
on the team of Budapest University of Technology and Economics, namely,
academicians Andrs Jnossy Andrs, BalzsDra, AnnamriaKiss, as well
as doctor of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Jen Krti from Etvs
Lornd University, Viktor Zlyomi and Jnos Koltai since 2001.
Beyond engaging in research, Simon also teaches and has supervised 20
theses over the past 4 years.

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This is what he said about his profession in an interview: For me, physics
is the joy of problem-solving, which inspires me and it means that I use my
brain. I am not dissatisfied, I like what I do, but also had to work hard to
achieve what I have managed to. I was never a spoilt child. My father was
a blue-collar worker and my mother was an accountant, so I dont come
from a middle class background where I had everything at my fingertips,
like learning foreign languages. This is why I encourage my students to
work with perseverance and success will come.
c; Mapping the Universe and the Science of Big Data

Sndor A. Szalay
Sndor Alex Szalay is a Szchenyi Award-winning astrophysicist and
astronomer who has been researching in America for a long time. He
graduated from and lectured at Etvs Lornd University, is currently a
professor at John Hopkins University and corresponding member of the
Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
He has actively participated in numerous astronomy projects, of which
the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the most significant. The Sloan
Digital Sky Survey Programme created the biggest ever astrophysics
database with the explicit aim of surveying the sky, gaining insight into and
describing the universe that surrounds us. SDSS is essentially the biggest
and most detailed map of space.
A telescope is needed to draw this map, which in the case of SDSS is located
in the Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, the area that has one of
the darkest skies in the United States. The 2.5 metre diameter panoramic
telescope with mirrors set up at this site operates at -80 degrees Celsius
and has high resolution CCD sensors capable of taking up to 120 megapixel
images of the sky. The telescope not only senses colours visible to the
human eye, but also sees the ultraviolet and infrared domain of shorter
and longer wavelengths. Beyond broad images, it is capable of focusing on
selected celestial bodies and gathering detailed information from these,
for example, about their composition, mass or age and even studies the
space between the celestial body and Earth.
Making and sorting five-colour images require a great deal of effort. The
database continually developed by SDSS also needs to be interpreted and
the relevant information needs to be extracted. This leads to the problem
of managing very large data sets, which Sndor A. Szalay managed to
resolve. Googly Sky, the Microsoft World Wide Telescope was developed on
underlying SDSS data, similarly to GalaxyZoo developed by Szalay.
The task of GalaxyZoo was to identify certain field objects on the map
of space, i.e., identify astronomical objects like stars, planets, galaxies,
quasars, etc. In the case of GalaxyZoo, instead of applying conventional
research tools, Szalay opted to take an entirely different approach to the
detailed analysis of the SDSS map by asking for help from the general
public. He made his database accessible to the public, offering anyone
the opportunity to have fun and search for astronomical objects. Over
300,000 volunteers from around the world, including high school and

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university students and even kindergarten pupils joined in the game in the
first few days. A total of 50,000 classes were dedicated to the Sky Survey
Programme in various schools and there are over one million active users
today. Both students and teachers have made several discoveries with the
help of Szalay and have discovered galaxies that not even professional
astronomers noticed before, as an outcome of which astronomical research
evolved into a global project. Free access to the SkyServer has reached
Internet scientists who take part in scientific research as ordinary
citizens. In 2009 the article on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey was the most
widely cited publication in the field of astronomy.
SDSS collects over 40 terabytes of raw data on over 300 million different
objects and has distance information about 1 million of these objects. After
the Human Genome Project, this is how the SkyServer given the nickname
Cosmic Genome Project came about. Beyond Internet scientists, new data
management trends and a global research scene is needed to process the
data, which the Big Data and virtual research platforms will presumably
resolve. Sndor A. Szalay and Jim Gray from Microsoft jointly worked on
unravelling and sorting very large databases, like the data collected by
SDSS. They were pioneers in the research trend espousing that discoveries
are no longer made on the grounds of new data, but by analysing available
large data sets in an alternative, new way. Another Hungarian researcher,
namely Tams Budavri played a major role in reading the SDSS database
by developing MyDB. Sndor A. Szalay and Jim Gray developed the first
public version of SDSS in 2001 within a period of barely two weeks (by
working 20 hours a day).
Sndor A. Szalay was the first to receive the Jim Gray Award in 2007 for his
research on very large databases, which proves that Szalay moved beyond
his physicists role and made astronomy accessible to the general public
with the help of IT.
The National Virtual Observatory was launched under the direction of
Szalay and his colleague Paul Messina in an attempt to consolidate most of
the astronomy databases in the world, including SDSS, hence establishing
a virtual research platform where discoveries can be made without having
to use telescopes. NASA and the National Science Fund also support this
project. The virtual observatory now present in 15 countries emerging
from the National Virtual Observatory lead to the Virtual Astronomical
Observatory (VAO).
He jointly established the data sharing service SciDrive with Dmitry Mishin
and Dmitry Medvedev, which provides an online platform for researchers
where they can share their data strings and collaborate, hence accelerating
research and uniting researchers that may happen to be working in various
areas around the world.
Sndor A. Szalay not only made major discoveries in astronomy, but also
in scientific methods by connecting different fields of science, distant
researchers and laboratories, hence supporting new research trends
where discoveries are not only made through observations, but ensue
from existing data.

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d; The Physics of Atoms and Stars Together Gyrgy Gyrky

Gyrgy Gyrky (born in 1974) works in the field of nuclear astrophysics.


This truly interdisciplinary science represents the connection between
nuclear physics (the physics of atomic nuclei) and astrophysics (the physics
of stars). The aim of nuclear astrophysics is the better understanding
of processes taking place in stars and for this purpose those nuclear
reactions are studied which take place in different stellar environments
and in various stages of stellar evolution from star formation to supernova
explosions. Since most of the chemical elements building up our universe
are produced in stars, it is also the task of nuclear astrophysics to reveal
the processes of the synthesis of chemical elements.
Presently, the only place in Hungary where scientist carry out research
in the field of nuclear astrophysics is in Debrecen at the Institute for
Nuclear Research (Atomki). One of the leaders of this experimental group is
Gyrgy Gyrky. Using the particle accelerators of Atomki the group studies
experimentally various nuclear reaction of astrophysical relevance. One
of their most important research topics is the study of the astrophysical
p-process. This process, which takes place most likely in supernova
explosions, is responsible for the production of the proton rich isotopes of the
heavy elements. This is a rather poorly known process of the nucleosynthesis
and therefore its study is of high importance. The group of Gyrgy Gyrky
measures the important characteristics of some proton and alpha induced
nuclear reactions relevant for the p-process. Their experimental data gives
an important contribution to the better understanding of this process. In
2008 Gyrgy Gyrky received a Staring Grant of the European Research
Council. This prestigious grant had its important contribution to the fact
that his group has a high international reputation and is one of the leaders
in the experimental study of the p-process.
The p-process, however, is not the only astrophysical process which is
investigated by the group of Atomki. Various hydrogen burning reactions
that power for example our Sun and other stars, are also the target of their
investigations. Gyrgy Gyrky got involved in such experiments first at
the Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, where he could work together with
Prof. Claus Rolfs, one of the most famous experts of nuclear astrophysics.
Based on the connections established in Bochum, Gyrgy Gyrky became
a member of the international LUNA collaboration which is the world leader
collaboration of studying hydrogen burning reactions. The study of these
reactions is technically challenging, it requires for example extreme low
background conditions. The LUNA collaboration operates therefore the
worlds only deep underground accelerator in the LNGS national laboratory
of Italy in Gran Sasso. In the circumstance provided by the underground
location, the study of some astrophysical key reactions became possible
with unprecedented accuracy.
Despite the huge progress of nuclear astrophysics in the last decades,
the understanding of processes taking place in stars is still far from being
perfect. The study of nuclear reactions of astrophysical relevance is thus
still in the frontline of modern physics. The group of Gyrgy Gyrky want
to preserve its important role in the international nuclear astrophysics

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community. This is planned to be done partly in international collaborations


and by experiments carried out in Atomki. The LUNA collaboration is in
the phase of upgrading its infrastructure by installing a new underground
accelerator. The nuclear astrophysics group of Atomki is an active partner in
this process. Experiments with radioactive ion beams is a quickly developing
field of nuclear physics having its role also in nuclear astrophysics. The
group has initiatives also into this direction.
The study of p-process remains an important research topic of the group
carried out with the local infrastructure of Atomki. New perspectives,
however, are opening also in their home institution. Based on a successful
proposal of Gyrgy Gyrky, Atomki is installing a new electrostatic
accelerator with the purpose of replacing its old homemade Van de
Graaff machine. This new accelerator will provide particle beams of much
better quality and higher intensity than the old instrument. The enhanced
capabilities will be exploited in several fields of science from ion beam
analysis to atomic physics. Based on this new infrastructure, Gyrgy
Gyrky and his group is setting up a new nuclear astrophysics research
program. In the coming years some of those nuclear reactions will be
investigated which could not be studied so far with the old accelerator. It
is already apparent that the new facility represents a stronger attractive
force towards undergraduate students of the University of Debrecen.
Therefore, Gyrgy Gyrky and the group members hope that the nuclear
astrophysics research in Debrecen has a bright future regarding both the
infrastructural and the human resource background.
e; Birth of Matter at the Beginning of the Universe Sndor Katz
Sndor Katz is a theoretical physicist who focuses on high energy physics.
He is alsoProfessor and Head of Department of Theoretical Physics of the
Faculty of Natural Sciences atEtvs Lornd University.
He specialises in the field of quantum colour dynamics, i.e., researches
QCD phase transition, the formation of particles, protons and neutrons
in the early universe. These hadrons are not elementary particles, but
are complex comprised of so-called quarks that stick gluons together.
Sndor Katz researched how quark-gluon plasma transforms into hadrons
to model the state of and birth of matter in the early universe. Working in
tandem with Zoltn Fodor who is based in Germany,he developed a scientific
approach geared to studying the system of particles and anti-particles. In
his most cited article, he described the critical point on the temperaturechemistry axis in quantum colour dynamics that is exceptionally important
in heavy ion experiments.
Interaction between quarks and gluons is highly relevant for understanding
the fundamental properties and mass of particles. According to his
research, quarks of different mass and charge may, for example, provide
an explanation for why there is such a tiny difference between the mass of
protons and neutrons.
Sndor Katz directs the Lattice Theory Group at the Theoretical Physics
Department of Etvs Lornd University, which group is involved in QCD

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research. This was the first group in Hungary to evolve into a key CUDA
Research Centre in 2011 when the technology company Nvidia also began
to finance the research. Extremely high computational capacities are
required for modelling and calculating QCD models, which is what the
CUDA compatible Nvidia system comprised of video accelerators is able to
guarantee, on which Monte Carlo simulations can be run faster. At Etvs
Lornd University, the Lattice Gauge Theory Group, among others, studies
chiral symmetry, finite chemical potential, the QCD hadron spectrum and
overlaps of own values of Dirac operators.
Sndor Katz was born in Bonyhd in 1975 where he graduated from secondary
schoolto continue his studies at the Department of Physics of Etvs Lornd
University in 1993 and later on at its doctoral school. He got his PhD in 2001
and embarked on his post-doctoral studies at the Electrosincotron Institute of
DESY in Hamburg where he researched high energy physics, the formation of
protons and physics of astro-particles. He was a post-doctorate scholarship
student at Bergische Universitt Wuppertal from 2003, received the Talentum
(Talent) Award in 2008 and the Junior Prima Award in 2008 in the Hungarian
science category. He has published numerous articles in Natureand Science. His
publications have been cited over 8,500 times.

The European Research Council awarded the European Research Council


Starting Grant to the research group led by Sndor Katz in 2008. It was in that
framework that they had the opportunity to research the thermodynamics
of QCD grids. In 2012, he won a grant through the Momentum Programme
set up by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences to support excellent young
researchers, which enabled the team to continue the project they began
earlier. He established scientific relationships with two physicists from
Houston, Claudia Ratti and Rene Bellwied, as an outcome of which the
group was given computer time in the USA DOE INCITE project which
promotes cooperation with the European Nuclear Research Institute. In
addition to providing computer time in various computer centres for the
group, these projects also helpedEtvs Lornd University build its own
supercomputer centre with time.

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7. L
 ife and Matter at a Molecular Level - Molecular Biology,
Chemistry and Environmental Impacts
Classical natural science disciplines have changed everywhere around
the world thanks to research methods enabling deeper insight into the
structure of matter. Biology and chemistry research often intersect at the
molecular level, and even lead to interdisciplinary results that, for example,
computer science can use.
The research units of Molecular Medicine at the University of Debrecen
study the regulation and anomalies of human gene expression, the
process of cellular differentiation and cell death, transmission paths
with a role in certain immune processes and mechanisms facilitating
vascular integration. This research may bring us closer to understanding,
diagnosing and treating cardiovascular and tumorous disorders, chronic
inflammation and diabetes. Researching the interaction between biological
macromolecules and micro-molecules, molecular design with a selected
effect, exploring carbohydrate-protein structures, protein crystallography
and studying the active state of proteins are the main fields of research
for these research units. Research into bio-coordination chemistry
(e.g.exploring the interaction between prion proteins and metal ions and its
role in the development of Alzheimers disease) and the basic coordination
chemistry research into the development of contrast materialsfor magnetic
resonance molecular imaging earned the team international recognition.
Their research into homogenous catalysis, which covers the catalytic
modification of biological systems is particularly effective.
The discovery of complex redox reactionsin environmental chemistry
contributes to developing techniques for removing pollutants from the
soil, groundwater and sources of drinking water with chemical substances.
Debrecen is the only university outside Budapest that operates a crystal
X-ray diffraction laboratory, which offers invaluable assistance to mapping
the structure of molecules.
Research conducted at the four institutes (Biophysics, Biochemistry,
Genetics and Plant Biology) of the Szeged Research Centre for Biology
of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in close cooperation with the
University of Szeged focuses on the biological research of flora and
fauna. The Regional Neurobiological University Knowledge Centre of the
Southern Great Plain (RNUK) was established as a collaborative effort by
the University of Szeged, the Research Centre for Biology of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, EGIS pharmaceutical company and ten other
companies. By establishing the RNUK, a research and development network
was set up for developing new, effective molecules and diagnostics for
treating neurological diseases (Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease,
depression, anxiety).Its activities encompass numerous segments of drug
research and development. The Neuroproteomics Centre established by
RNUK is a major hub for researching human diseases with an excellent
team of experts and state-of-the-art equipment.
Biological interventions affect fundamental life processes, which raises
more and more social questions. Bioethics is becoming an increasingly

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important topic in both international and Hungarian science, uniting


knowledge relating to philosophy, sociology and biology. Semmelweis
University researches these considerations of medical genetics, while the
University of Debrecen compiles a linguistic database of the social debate
on genetically modified organisms, which may contribute to the public
discourse on stem cell research. At the same time, courses at Pzmny
Pter Catholic University and at Lutheran Theological University focus on
moral and religious implications.
a; The Spatial Structure of Peptides and Proteins Andrs Perczel
Andrs Perczel is a chemist, professor and head of department at Etvs
Lornd University and corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy
of Sciences.
Professor Perczel is the head of the Protein Modelling Research Group
of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences at Etvs Lornd University. This
research team primarily focuses on researching the spatial structure of
proteins and ligands at the level of atoms essentially needed for exploring
biochemical processes. Professor Perczelconducts two research projects
with his team, one into the binding of intrinsically unstructured proteins
(the calpain/calpastatin system) and another into controlled protein cutting
or the structure acylpeptide hydrolase.
Professor Perczel is primarily interested in the field of organic chemistry.
Researching peptide and protein synthesis, biopeptides by applying solidphase and biotechnological techniques and protein spectroscopy are his
main fields of research. In addition, Professor Perczel also researches
the structure and stability of and peptides, as well as the nanofibre
formation and their aggregation potential. The bioNMR spectroscopy of
proteins is capable of exposing the molecular background of the structure,
dynamics and biological effect in globular and functionally unregulated
systems.
One of his most significant research areas demonstrates the interdisciplinary
nature of his research activities. Professor Perczel jointly developed a
procedure with the mathematician Gbor Tusndy and chemist Imre Jkl,
which is used everywhere around the world to quantitatively define the
ratio of secondary structural elements in proteins. This is an algorithm
that makes it possible, for example, to define the spatial structure related
data of proteins by analysing spectrum families. His work has contributed
to understanding the molecular background of certain diseases, such as
Alzheimers disease or diabetes.
Andrs Perczel was born in Budapest in 1959, is married and the father of three
children. He graduated from the Piarist Secondary School in Budapest and got
a degree in chemistry at Etvs Lrnd University in 1985. He has been a
corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences since 2010 and
has contributed to organic chemistry research as a founder, member and board
member of research organisations. He is a member of Foundation for Hungarian
Peptide and Protein Research, theKajtr Mrton Public Benefit Foundation, as
well as the Biological Chemical Group of the Association of Hungarian Chemists.

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He was the founding president of the latter. Professor Perczelis also involved in
the work of international organisations, such as COST, the EuCheMS Chemistry
for Life Sciences division and European Peptide Symposium.

Professor Perczel believespublishing articles is not only mandatory, it


is also good, because you have to systematically set straight your ideas
and results, which lends structure to your daily work. Professor Perczel
has published over 200 scientific papers in Hungarian and English either
independently or as a co-author. His work has been cited on over 2,000
occasions. He takes part in the work of the Journal of Molecular Structure
as a member of the editorial board.

b; Gene Technology and Flora - Dnes Dudits

Within the framework of his research undertakings, Dnes Dudits explores


plant molecular and cell biology phenomena and has implemented several
biotechnological innovations in agriculture.
As the former director of the Szeged Research Centre for Biology of the
Hungarian Academy of Sciences and later as former vice president of
the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Professor Dudits played a pivotal
role shaping the policy of research in life sciences. Creating new genetic
variations, the use of somatic hybridisation in the fusion of protoplasts
(plants with cell walls removed) represents a milestone in his research
career. Developing the asymmetric somatic hybridisation method to realise
gene transmission between species that cannot be crossed is one of his
initiatives acknowledged at an international level as well.
Professor Dudits launched the mitochondrial plasmid cloning of maize in
collaboration with Csaba Koncz at the beginning of the 80s, which introduced
the use of the method of recombinational DNA repair in Hungary by applying
this method on plants. With his team of researchers he was the first to
publish the production of genetically modified (GM) alfalfa in 1986. Lucernes
carrying a bacterium gene were the first genetically modified plants in
Hungary. During the decades-long cooperation with the company Hoechst,
he teamed up with maize breeder Sndor Mricz to develop and patent a
method of plant regeneration from maize protoplasts, which opened the
way for producing genetically modified maize genotypes efficiently. This
joint Hungarian-German patent served as the basis for the development
of Liberty Link GM, which are still cultivated on the American continent.
Isolating cyclin-dependent kinase genes from alfalfa was an internationally
successful initiative in the framework of research intothe molecular processes
of somatic embryogenesis based on the totipotential of cultured plant cells,
which opened up new paths in researching plant cell division cycles.
His research team engages actively in the functional description
of
cyclinretinoblastonoma,
phosphataseretinoblastonoma,
cyclin
inhibitorretinoblastonoma plant genes and proteins, which is necessary
for an insight into the molecular processes regulating the division of
plant cells. As coordinator of the wheat consortium established on two
occasions, he integrated wheat research conducted in Hungary into a single
programme, from functional genomes to breeding species. Together with

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his associates and wheat breeder Jnos Pauk, Professor Dudits developed
drought-tolerant genetically modified wheat breeding stock by embedding
analfalfagene coding a detoxifying enzyme into the wheat genome. The
first Hungarian automatic phenotyping device designed in collaboration
with Imre Vass and associates and initiated by Professor Dudits was
also used to describe the characteristics of genetically modified wheat,
enabling the group to join the European programme of the European Plant
Phenotyping Network.
To increase the accuracy of gene technology interventions, the team
used short synthetic DNA molecules (oligonucleotides) to select genespecific targeted mutations, and proved that itwas possible to increase
the efficiency of genome sequencing with these molecules by loosening
the chromatine structure of the plant. Tree species with short cutting
cycles, such as the energy willow, play an increasing role in renewable
green energy. Dnes Dudits and his associates developed several teraploid
energy willow variations with a duplicate chromosome structure, capturing
more carbon dioxide from photosynthesis and with a higher biomass yield.
These energy willow genotypes may help reduce the negative impacts of
climate change.
Professor Dudits established and is the president of the Zoltn Barabs
Bioltechnology Association,an organisation that integrates Hungarian green
technology and presents the role of genetically modified plants developed
by gene technology in agriculture and environmental protection.
The citation of his publications in 4,000 articles and a Hirsch Index of
39 demonstrates vividly the international response to research led by
Professor Dudits.
c; From Motor Enzymes toward Molecular Bio-IT

Andrs Mlnsi-Csizmadia
Andrs Mlnsi-Csizmadia is a bio-chemist, professor at Etvs Lornd
University and director of the Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics
Research Group. His group specialises in studying the molecular
mechanisms triggered by enzymes, as well as molecular modelling and
molecular bioinformatics. His research efforts are focussed first of all on
the effect on intramolecular forces arising in motor enzymes on enzyme
reactions. His research group has been awarded numerous national and
international grants. His FORCEMAP project was implemented between
2008 and 2013 from funding granted by the European Research Area.
Understanding how enzymes function is essential for designing the active
ingredients of drugs. This research project aimed at mapping mechanical
lines of force inside enzyme molecules. The research group developed
active ingredients which are activated by light and can be used in live cells
and studying live animals.

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The research team intends to develop new methods to explore how specific
functional areas of enzymes communicate with each other inside a molecule.
The bioinformatics sub-group set up by Delta Informatics Ltd. provides a
wide in silico background for molecular biology projects. Andrs MlnsiCsizmadia founded Drugmotif, a for-profit company in 2012 where he is
in charge of the research and development division. Drugmotif has been
studying new approaches to drug design and is involved in the development
of numerous innovations. The company set up a joint research division
with the Department of Biochemistry of the Faculty of Natural Sciences of
Etvs Lrnd University at the beginning of 2014.
Andrs Mlnsi-Csizmadia was born in Szkesfehrvr, got his PhD at Etvs
Lornd University in 1999, and gathered international experience at Brandeis
University in Boston from 1997 to 1999 and at the University of Leicester in the
United Kingdom from 2000 to 2003.

He has been in charge of the project Neuron Infocommunication Technology


(n-Euro-ICT): The Development of the First Nerve Cell-basedMicroprocessor
by Laser Engraving since 2013. The project is implemented in collaboration
with Semmelweis University, Etvs Lornd University, the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences and the Experimental Medical Science Research
Institute. Neuron-based microprocessors would raise the development
of computer science to a new level, since a neuron computer would
fundamentally have new properties compared to systems relying on
silicon. The spatial and temporal plasticity of this digital-analogue nonbinary system supports autonomous adaptation. The ability to block
permanently or to activate specific synopses by specific laser engraving
of active substances and to engrave logical gateways in neuron networks
verify the results of the research group. This represents a breakthrough in
the field of biocomputational science and opens the gateway to developing
neural microprocessors.
d; Theoretical Chemistry and Atmospheric Research Mihly Kllay
Mihly Kllay is a chemist and professor at the Budapest University of
Technology and Economics. His research topics stem from theoretical
chemistry and cover semi-empirical methods, localised approaches,
the theory of coupled-cluster and configurational interaction and the
automated application of quantum chemistry methods. He aims to develop
models that present smaller computational demand thancurrent models,
and yet are capable of producing accurate and measurable results against
experimental data even about large molecules. He is also involved in the
application of theoretical methods of chemistry, high accuracy calculations
of fullerenes and the nanostructure and molecular properties of fullerenes,
the thermo-chemistry of molecules and radicals, as well as atmospheric
chemistry.
Mihly Kllay was born in Budapest in 1974, graduated from Etvs Lornd
University where he got a degree in chemistry in 1998. He has been in charge
of the Spectroscopy Laboratory at the Budapest University of Technology and
Economics since 2007. He lectures in the field of computer science, electronics

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and measurement technology, chemical structure of materials (introduction


to quantum mechanics and modes of researching the chemical structure of
materials), as well as chemical physics (thermodynamics, reaction kinetics,
electro-chemistry). He has been awarded numerous scholarships, awards,
as well as grants. He was awarded the ERC Starting Independent Research
Grant from 2008 to 2013 and received the Ern Punger Award, as well as the
International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science Award in 2009. He was
granted funding in the field of chemistry in 2013 within the framework of the
Momentum Programme.

e; The Importance of the Eco-system and Bio-gases - University


Environmental Research
Research carried out at the Regional Science Centre of Szent Istvn University
focuses on the environmental sector and provides research and development
services for the corporate sector. Research carried out at the centre focuses
on exploring and assessing various components insamples taken from
animals and plants, the physical and chemical composition and the organic
and non-organic micro pollutants of surface waters, underground water in
geological formations, waste water and drinking water; on environmental
remediation and monitoring, on the propagation of microbe strains, on
molecular biological analysis, ecological and water toxicity analyses, on the
cloning and expression of enzymes suitable for industrial use and on isolating
and selecting microbes suitable for biodegadration. Research carried out by
the Plant Ecology Research Group focuses on analysing carbon dioxide traffic
between vegetation and ecosystems. In addition, their research activities also
include reviewing the vulnerability of ecosystems to drought. The research
group is also involved in mapping adaptation opportunities in agriculture due
to climate change, studying the impact of the elevated level of atmospheric
carbon dioxide on vegetation and analysingthe mechanism of dehydration
tolerance.
Developing and promoting sustainable development and environmentally
friendly technologies is the key focus of the Cooperation Research Centre
of the Chemical Engineering Institute at the University of Pannonia.
The Cooperation Research Centre of the Chemical Engineering Institute
established the Clean World Chemistry Analysis Laboratory at the University
of Pannonia which specialises in environmental protection research and
analysis. Its field of research covers the analysis of airborne organic and
metal pollutants, the analysis of the concentration of hydrocarbons in
engine flue gas emissions, the assessment of the oil content of the soil and
the analysis of the solid and liquid matter content of plastics.
Research on the use of biogases has been carried out over the past decade
in the Petroleum and Natural Gas Institute of the Faculty of Earth Sciences
and Engineering at the University of Miskolc. This research analysed the
type of gas dehydration and preparation methods to use with various types
of biogas of different origin (landfill gas, sewer gas, mine gas) to optimise
the quality of gas required for various applications (gas engine, gas turbine,
fuel cell, heat production, feeding into the natural gas network).

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According to European Union principles, biogas is classified as bio-fuel.


The carbon dioxide emission of vehicles powered by biogas is 45% lower
than petrol driven vehicles and their nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide
emissions could be 95% less than vehicles powered by petrol. Sweden is a
pioneer in the use of biogas as fuel, and tries to encourage citizens to drive
biofuel powered cars by allowing them to park their cars free of charge.
High investment costs and the high costs of filtering systems constrain the
wider use of biogas as fuel.
Biogas is most frequently used in gas engines for the purpose of generating
electricity. The simultaneous generation othermal energy (heat) and
electricity is known as cogeneration. The biogas produced in waste water
plants is generally used on site, with on average 2030% of the heat
generated from biogas used to heat the fermenters. The biogas produced
in livestock farms is generally used to heat agricultural plants, stables and
residential buildings. It is also possible to use biogas in district heating
networks to heat buildings located at a distance from the production site.
Researchers at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Debrecen
create integrated models of the sustainability of geothermal systems. They
also study engineering solutions of the adaptation to climate change, the
results of which are used by the Facility Energy Management Cluster with
the aim of minimising the energy use of buildings.
The Department of Mathematics and Informatics of the Faculty of
Horticultural Science of Budapest Corvinus University implements the
project Preparing for Climate Change. Research focusesfirst of all on
surveying past weather anomalies and their impact on health.
8. P
 articles and Lasers Internationally Recognised Physics
Research Centres in Hungary
Cutting edge natural sciences research demand a large pool of equipment
and research capacity in the form of human resources today. A sufficient
concentration of these factors allows scientists to work in a truly state-ofthe-art research environment. These conditions exist in Hungary in the
fields of particle and laser physics and will be significantly expanded in the
near future.

a; Nuclear Physics with Interdisciplinary Radiation Debrecen

Owing to their scientific cooperation, the University of Debrecen is inseparable


from the Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI) of the Hungarian Academy
of Sciences, a particle physics research centre that has been internationally
noted for the past six decades. The European Physical Society declared the
main building of the institute a memorial site, since that is where Sndor
Szalay and Gyula Csk confirmed the existence of the neutrino. The institute
also boasts particle accelerators and medical diagnostics devices (positron
emission tomography scan). Researchers from the University of Debrecen
recently made pioneering discoveries in the field of nanoscale phenomena
(diffusion, sensory processes and memory effects), during the research carried

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out in connection with the LHC accelerator of the European Laboratory for
Particle Physicsand with exploring and modelling the process of fracturing in
rigid bodies. Breakthroughs were achieved in material sciences by producing
polymer nanocomposites suitable for medical and pharmaceutical uses and
developing materialsfor use in dentistry. By building on these results, as well
as results achieved in six other fields of research, state-of-the-art, pioneering
research is carried out in the Northern Great Plain region.
Research associates at the Experimental Nuclear Physics Unit study
nuclei, whichmake up the largest mass in atoms,nuclear structure and
the interactions between nuclei. This is essential for understanding the
behaviour of objects that make up the universe, since 99% of the mass of
an atom comprises protons and neutrons. Research on exotic nuclei is the
teams successful field of research carried out jointly with researchers from
RIKEN in Tokyo, GANIL in Caen and the Darmstadt research laboratories.
Research is also in progress about superdeformed and hyperdeformed
nuclei. These nuclei are not spherical, but form an ellipsoid. Elliptic nuclei
have special spin properties and the unit is equipped with a split-pole
magnetic spectrograph and avalanche detectors developed by the unit.
Applied research is carried in the Ion Beam Applications Laboratory in
the field of environmental protection, medicine, biology, geology, material
and surface physics and even archaeology. Surfaces are bombarded with
charged ion beams and are subsequently analysed. The project led to the
creation for the first time in the world of a moving part integrated into
silicon, a microturbine created by proton beam writing and porous silicon
milling at the Institute for Nuclear Research.
The Nuclear Astrophysics Group researches the process of the formation of
elements and the structure of these nuclei. The astrophysical p-process is
the groups main field of research, which explores the process of formation
of rare proton-rich nuclei in, among others, the CIRCE particle accelerator
in Naples, as well as the new tandem accelerator at the Institute for Nuclear
Research. The Institute for Nuclear Research hosted the biggest scientific
nuclear astrophysics conference Nuclei in the Cosmos in 2014.
The Theoretical Physics Unit focuses on theoretical questions of quantum
physics, particle physics and the theory of nucleus, such as nucleus
symmetries, problems with exact solutions, theory of diffusion, resonances,
binding energy, nuclear shape and the science of quantum correlations.
Zoltn Trcsnyi and Dezs Horvth, who also research particle physics in
the CERN, also work at the unit under the management of Andrs Kruppa.
This unit studies quantum colour dynamics, engages in antimatter research
and researches new physics in the CERN hadron collider.
Set up in 2009, the Particle Accelerator Centre is the youngest unit of
the Institute for Nuclear Research and consolidates all of the particle
accelerators of the institute, sets beam-time schedules and undertakes
the maintenance of the expanding fleet of accelerators. Measurement
devices extend to include a cyclotron, VdG-5 and VdG-1 accelerators, ECR
ion source, isotope separator and tandetron. The Centre was classified
Strategic Research Infrastructure one year after it was established.

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ATOMKI research associates developed a third generation positron emission


tomography scan in 2013. This state-of-the-art medical diagnostics
device is capable of exposing brain abnormalities that may lead to the
development of old age diseases, such as Alzheimers or Parkinsons disease
or Huntington syndrome. Alongside Austria, the Netherlands and Italy, the
Institute for Nuclear Research coordinated the Hungarian research project
within the framework of the European Nanoelectronics Initiative Advisory
Council Central Nervous System Imaging project launched in 2010.

b; Major European Laser Research Investment in Szeged

Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is the next phase of building panEuropean research facilities within the framework of European Strategy
Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). Just like the LHC particle
accelerator set up earlier in the CERN, ELI facilities open up new horizons
in physics, as well as other sciences by providing research facilities for
the whole of Europe that are capable of launching new scientific trends
never seen before by uniting individual, isolated European researches on a
single platform. Contrary to the particle accelerator, the facility in Szeged
will engage in both basic research and applied science. ELI is constructed
for the purpose of multi-disciplinary research covering material science,
medical science and environmental research.
ELI emerged from the European laser community, more specifically
the LASERLAB-EUROPE European laser research infrastructure. This
community integrates thirty research centres (including two Hungarian
research centres, the University of Szeged and the Wigner Research Centre
for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) and twenty laboratories
on the continent involving 16 countries. The European Union gives high
priority to laser research and research conducted with lasers in its science
programme. Setting up competitive, interdisciplinary, international
laboratories and developing European laser research is the key objective
of LASERLAB-EUROPE.
The University of Szeged is the key partner of the Hungarian ELI-ALPS
investment and played a pivotal role in planning the project. The decision
to construct one of the three pillars of ELI (Attosecond Light Pulse
Source) in Szeged was made in 2009. The University of Szeged ensures
the professional scientific background for the laser research centre and
endeavours to link up various scientific fields. Active research may begin
in 2015; however, all three ELI sites are only expected to operate at full
capacity in 2018.
Generating ultra-short light impulses in, among others, the extreme
ultraviolet (XUV) and Xrays frequency domain is the main task of the
Szeged based Attosecond Light Pulse Source. Impulses may range from a
repetition frequency of 10Hz up to 100 kHz. A peak intensity, the facility is
capable of generating 200 PW impulses. Energy peaks of that height have
never before been generated in the world, which is why this centre will be a
unique research facility. The observation of valence and core electrons, 4D
imaging, relativistic interactions and biological, medical applications are

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the key fields of research of ELI-ALPS. The super-laser is capable of seeing


into the components of matter and, as a super-slow camera, observing
things that were invisible to the eye before. However, ELI is not simply a
laser centre, it is also a centre for laser research that serves as a venue
for studying wide range of scientific fields.
The Science Park built around ELI offers a venue for both education and
enterprises and this is where both developers and users will be working.
The University of Szeged and its spin-off and start-up companies will
occupy this Science Park. ELI and the Science Park may create over 4,000
jobs during the seven-year construction phase. Some of the researchers
will be arriving from around European; however, the University of Szeged
has already begun to educate future researchers working at the centre
atits Physics Doctoral School. ELI also has an educational function through
cooperating with the university.
In addition to the super-laser, secondary beam sources, laser preparation,
laboratories and workshops, ELI will also accommodate 150 researchers and
other associated employees. In the future, most of the researchers working
at ELI-ALPS will not be physicists. The institute will function well if most of the
researchers are doctors, biologists, chemists and mineralogists, said Kroly
Osvay, director for research technology at one of his Free University lectures.
The ELI-SPS facility established in Szeged is only a part of the investment
worth over 850 million Euros. The other two facilities, including ELI-NP for
nuclear physics set up in Mgurele, Romania and ELI-BEAMS, a beamline
facility to be used as a source of secondary particles, which is being set up
in Doln Beanyin the Czech Republic. There will also be a fourth ELI pillar
which is still in its planning phase, and not a great deal is known about it
for the time being, but will presumably be one level more powerful than the
ELI facilities that are currently being built. This pan-European project is
financed by the innovation policy consultancy body of the European Union,
the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures.
The selection of Szeged as the venue for one of the ELI facilities is due
mostly to the several decades of world class laser research carried out
at the university. The internationally acknowledged Department of Optics
and Quantum Electronics of the University of Szeged has been successfully
operating in the field of laser physics for a long time. The department is
proud to boast acknowledged scientists like Zsolt Bor, Bla Hopp, Gbor
Szab or Kroly Osvay.

c; Photo Acoustics, Research Management Gbor Szab

Gbor Szab is a physicist and university professor at the Department


of Optics and Quantum Electronics of the University of Szeged. The
objective of the Photoacoustic Research Group set up jointly by the
University of Szeged and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 2013
under the direction of Professor Szab is to use the photoacoustic imaging
systems available as a result of the research undertaken over of the
past 20 years in research conducted for the benefit of several fields in
environmental physics and medical science.

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Professor Szabs earlier, successful research projects focused on


increasing the performance of and energy emitted by lasers. His research
underpinned the cooperation established between the Hungarian Academy
of Sciences and the German Research Foundation and gave Professor
Szab the opportunity to spend a longer period of time from 1981 to
1989as a guest researcher at the Max Planck Institute. During that period,
Professor Szab developed new methods for generating pictosecond and
femtosecond laser impulses and described the special diffusion properties
of these types of impulses. From 1990 to 1995, he worked at Rice University,
one of the top electrical engineering faculties in the U.S.
He has published 160 scientific articles in international journals, given 95
lectures at international conferences and published 31 articles in Hungarian.
He is cited on 1,460 occasions, his combined impact factor is 251,688 and
has 11 Hungarian, 5 U.S. and 3 German registered patents.
During the 90s, numerous special laser equipment research and development
projects were carried at the former Department of Experimental Physics
within the framework of a research project undertaken jointly with a
Chinese research institute. The revenue generated from this played a key
role in setting up the laboratory at the department, operating it at a world
class level and extending its instrumentation and equipment. This helped
Szeged laboratory become a member of Laserlab Europe, the professional
organisation of European countries.
Professor Szabs photoacoustic research also takes a practical approach.
The results of the first research and development project implemented
successfully measured water vapour pollution in natural gas based on
this principle. New devices were developed later on to detect both water
vapour and to measure the concentration of hydrogen sulphide, another
highly critical pollutant.These units were installed at various gas plants.
The industrial use of photoacoustics was also considered a novelty
worldwide, as prior successful uses were confined to laboratories. In
recent years, emphasis of his research shifted towards environmental
protection and physiological applications. His research group is currently
researching photoacoustics in collaboration with the Department of Earth
and Environmental Science of the University of Pannonia, the Department
of Meteorology of Etvs Lornd University, the National Meteorology
Service and Contitech Rubber Industrial Ltd., as well as foreign partners
(such as, the Karlsruhe Research Centre).
Beyond his research undertakings, Professor Szab is dedicated to
promoting the popularity of science. He assumed national and university
level activities in research management, initially as the state secretary for
research and development and later on as the rector of the University of
Szeged from 2010. In addition, he has been the president of the Hungarian
Association for Innovation since 2009.

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d; Lasers for Therapeutic Purposes Zsolt Bor

Zsolt Bor is a laser physicist, professor at the University of Szeged and


permanent member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Laser physics,
more specifically, femtosecond optics is his specific field of research. His
most relevant innovations were developed in the field of femtosecond laser
spectroscopy, in which field Professor Bor developed a novel approach,
namely, the theory of self-Q switching and its experimental demonstration
and proof of its existence. He has also carried out significant research
in connection with the medical, particularly ophthalmological use of
lasers. Moreover, he also studies high-speed photography, flight time
interferometry and the paint laser. He has achieved major results in his
research on the diffusion, compression and distortion of femtosecond laser
impulses, as well as universal implications of refractive index derivatives.
He has been researching super-sight for the past few decades, which is
fundamentally about how it is possible to increase the fine details of images
by up to six times their original detail by correcting the small optical errors
of the human eye.
The femtosecond laser, which is a state-of-the-art optical technique in
precision surgery even in international comparison, was developed by
Professor Bor in 2012 at the Medical and Health Science Centre of the
University of Debrecen. This new device makes it possible for the computer
to independently perform procedures tailored to the individual based
on data registered in advance during cataracts transplants and other
corrective eye surgery.
Zsolt Bor was born in Oroshza in 1949, got a degree in physics at Jzsef Attila
University in Szeged, was appointed university professor in 1989 and is the
head of the Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics. He is married and
the father of three boys. At present, he lives in the United States of America.
Professor Bor gathered international experience in Germany, Switzerland and the
United States and worked on developing laser cataract surgery in collaboration
with Hungarian optometrists as research and development director at Alcon/
Novartis. He developed a new, innovative optometric procedure and one million
surgical interventions are now performed around the world each year. He
currently conducts part of his research in Szeged, Hungary. The results he
reached in the field of laser physics also played a role in the selection of Szeged
as a venue of one of the laser research centresof the ELI project. He is on the
editorial board of several international and Hungarian science journals, Acta
Physica Hungarica B., New Journal of Physics, Quantum Electronics.

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9. Science in Everyday Devices, Instruments


Technical Sciences, IT
There is a centuries-long tradition of technical sciences in Hungary. There
are numerous Hungarian engineers on the list of technical innovators and
world famous inventors, namely: Dnes Gbor Nobel Laureate and inventor
of the transformer, Kroly Zipernowsky, Miksa Dri and Ott Blthy, Tdor
Krmn father of hypersonic astronautics, Andrs Mechwart, who launched
the electricity industry in Hungary and Ferenc Pavlics, engineer of the
Apollo lunar rover. Informatics is another major field in which Hungarians
have traditionally been represented, for example, by Jnos Neumann.
The Budapest University of Technology and Economics is the leading
higher education hub for engineering, technical and IT research in
Hungary. Sustainable energy, vehicle technology, transport and logistics,
biotechnology, health and environmental protection and the intelligent
environment and e-technologies play a pivotal role in the programme
of this research university. The university has established a wide range
of contacts in the field of research as well by, for example, operating a
joint Cooperation Research Centre with Audi Hungaria. The Biomechanical
Cooperation Research Centre researches biological systems and develops
medical devices and measurement technology procedures. Rubiks Cube,
the Gmbc, as well as Masat-1, the first Hungarian satellite, were all
developed at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
buda University is a centre of technological education in Budapest. The
institution is fundamentally practice-oriented, its scientific workshops
mostly focus research on modern matter and material technologies,
intelligent mechatronic systems, modern processor architectures and
engineering computational methods; however, major robotics research is
also undertaken at the university.
The University of Miskolc Institute for Applied Earth Sciences undertakes
interdisciplinary research in connection with mining chemistry by linking
mining and chemical engineering research. Major research is carried out at
the university in the field of oil engineering, gas engineering, hydrogeology,
mechanical technology, fluid mechanics, heat technology, automation and
electrodynamics.
The Faculty of Engineering of the University of Szeged is a leader in
agricultural engineering and the environmentally friendly use of renewable
energy, while the University of Pcs is a leader in research on innovative
electrical technologies and building engineering.
The Plastic Composites Research Group under the direction of Csilla Varga
operates at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Pannonia with
the aim of developing easy-to-produce synthetic materials with the best
possible properties. Their field of research is unique in the country and
they make fibre-reinforced filling and nanocomposites from commercial
polymers and waste materials. A Hungarian patent was even registered
by developing their compatible additive family. They build an extensive
database from the research results accumulated, which largely helps

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practically realise the production of composites. Research targeted at


motor fuels andhydrocarbonsemphasizenatural science as well as the
economy of crude oil.
Computers may break down, but the Internet never does, - this is the
motto of Jnos Tapolcai and the Future Internet Research Group of the
Budapest University of Technology and Economics and the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences. Locating and eliminating the problems of trunk
networks is one of the main fields of research of this group. Jnos Tapolcai
and his team of researchers believe that one device needs several IP
addresses for the Internet to function reliably, so that minor errors do not
togrow into more serious problems. At the same time, he understands the
problem that if several IP addresses belong to a single Internet-capable
device, the connection will be more reliable, but will also be slower, since
identification is more problematic (more locks need to be opened), in which
case larger IP tables are needed. Compacting these tables is the solution.
A team of researchers managed to downsize 10 Mb tables to 100 kb ones,
i.e. compacting them to 1/200th of their original size without reducing
speed substantially and, eventually, data transmission rate accelerated.
The Momentum research group is involved in several major international
projects by closely cooperating with the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology and the University of California, Los Angeles. They were the
first in Eastern Europe to receive the prestigious Google Faculty Award
and also won the European Giant OpenFlow competition. Demands of the
average user and cost-efficiency the focal points of their research activities
and in the first phase they are experimenting with graph theory and
optimisation techniques, to move on to attempting to build a reliable, errorfree Internet prototype based on these techniques. Research associates
at the Department of Telecommunications and Media Informatics of the
Budapest University of Technology and Economics also actively engage in
the development of the Future Internet strategy in Hungary.
Informatics research at Etvs Lornd University is also undertaken at
an EU level, since the major research and development programme of
the European Union, namely, the European Institute of Technology (EIT)
ICT Labs consortium is an elite network integrating leading European
universities, research institutes and major infocommunication ventures.
The Faculty of Informatics of Etvs Lornd University is a member of this
network and the EIT ICT Labs Budapest Associate Partner Group under the
facultys direction is the only partner in Central Europe. The interesting
characteristic of this activity which equally includes IT knowledge and
business development is that infocommunication corporations leading
peak technology developments and innovative enterprises take part under
the coordination of the university.

a; Classical Mechanics, Modern Results Gbor Stpn

Gbor Stpn is a mechanical engineer, university professor and head


of department at Budapest University of Technology and Economics and
member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His research undertakings
in the field of mechanical sciences focus on dynamics, analytical mechanics,

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the vibration of machine tools, robot power regulation, non-linear vibration


of wheels, human and robotic balance, as well as the theory of bifurcation
and chaos. He achieved his most important results in the field of theory
of stability by exposing that the stability of robots can be better designed
by observing machine tool vibration and human balance. Professor Stpn
models the movement of wheels with non-linear dynamics.
The example of the vibrations which occur on machine tools and affect the
quality of the work piece, which is actually a machine. If the tool vibrates
a little bit, the surface quality will not be perfect. Clearly, there is a large
delay in the system in this case, as the past motion of the tool will affect
the way the work piece rotates around, and this in turn will cause variation
in chip thickness.
Stpn Gbor applied the vibration-mathematical model to the ghost
traffic jam analysis. For example, when one drives a car, the time delay
between seeing another car braking and pushing the brake is about one
second, which also becomes very important. Recently, we have been able
to explain why the so-called ghost traffic jams come and go: why traffic
jams show up where actually nothing had happened, why traffic loses its
stability and why a traffic jam builds up even if there is no accident that
causes this. Based on these recent results, a large number of computer
codes were developed to simulate traffic on highways or in large cities.
Despite the fact that the time scale looks somewhat different, we could
also explain many vibration problems in the human body. The field of
biomechanics deals with issues like how we balance ourselves, why we
are unable to stand quietly and steadily. There is always a slight, actually
chaotic oscillation of the body, and if we have to stand in the same position
for a long time and we cannot move around, we tend to find it extremely
difficult. When the computer is connected to machines, there is a much
shorter time delay, and as the speed of processors is increasing, now they
run extremely fast. However, as more and more calculations are jammed
into the processors, the time delay remains almost the same, say, in a word
processor. Computers are getting faster and they know more, while the user
cannot actually experience the change in speed, because the processor also
does too many things at the same time. So these will explain why robots
vibrate, why the segway vibrates when we try to stabilize something. Why
things vibrate when we deal with contact between robots and rigid bodies or
robots and humans. For example in the case of force, why we vibrate when
we touch each other. Force control is one of those difficult tasks where the
delay of our reflex is important. It is similar to meeting someone in a narrow
corridor: we try to pass by each other and we start to try to avoid each
other: when I realize that I moved in the wrong direction but its too late to
change, we try to do it the other way around and vibration emerges. Even
in English we say we shake hands, we dont say we hold hands. When we
touch each other and we try to express a kind of trust towards the other
person, we just start doing this probably because it would be very difficult
to hold hands. We are unable to provide a constant force, and its better
to start shaking because this gives some regularity - otherwise it would be
a chaotic and very funny feeling to touch somebody.

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Gbor Stpn was born in Budapest in 1953 andgothis degree in mechanical


engineering at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics in 1978.
He gathered professional experience primarily in the United Kingdom and the
United States. He has been a guest researcher and guest professor at numerous
universities, namely: at Newcastle University from 1988 to 1989, the Danish
University of Technology in 1991, Delft University from 1992 to 1993, Bristol
University in 1996 and at the Pierre and Marie Curie University in 2007. Beyond
conducting research, he also lectures. Professor Stpn has been working at the
Budapest University of Technology and Economics since 1992 and was appointed
university professor in 1995. He is the director of the institutions Pattantysbrahm Gza Mechanical Sciences Doctoral School and has supervised the
work of numerous PhD students. He is a popular lecturer liked by students
at the university. He plays a key role in promoting the popularity of technical
sciences and supporting future engineers.

b; Spatial Outputs of Technical Mathematics The Gmbc

How is it possible to simultaneously find the answer to a mathematical


problem and make it a real test? A prime example for this is the Gmbc,
which is a global sensation of Hungarian mathematical and technical
science.
Invented by professors Gbor Domokos and Pter Vrkonyi of the Budapest
University of Technology and Economics,the Gmbc is a homogenous
body, which is similar to a sphere, except it is bordered byedges. This
invention is a practical answer to a theoretical question raised by Vladimir
Igorevich Arnold in 1995: is there a convex homogenous body with fewer
than four points of equilibrium? In this case convex and homogenous are
important requirements, since there are numerous objects with a single
point of equilibrium, like the roly-poly toy,unless these two parameters are
specified as criteria. On the grounds of the question, the answer involved
creating an object thathas fewer than four points of equilibrium exclusively
due to its shape. The Russian mathematician suspected that it was possible
to construct such an object; what he lacked, though, was proof.
Gbor Domokos, academician and university professor,set out with his
wife in search for an object to be devised as a solution. Pter Vrkonyi
was introduced to the problem as a PhD student of Professor Domokos
and joined the research project. It took several years of work to identify
a body that meet the requirements defined in the question. The object
they designed was much like a sphere. Seeing it barley differed from a
sphere (by no more than 0.001mm from a sphere with a diameter of 1 m),
manufacturing the object seemed impossible. That is to say Gbor Domokos
and Pter Vrkonyi only found a theoretical solution to the problem and
decided to continue working until they find a tangible object that answers
the original question. They eventually managed to createa body known as
Gmbc, which, by definition, is the first known homogenous body with a
stable and an unstable equilibrium, or in total two equilibrium points.
The stable point of equilibrium is the point the object returns to if placed
on a horizontal surface. The unstable point resembles the tip of a pencil

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pointing to the surface, i.e., a point where the object theoretically at rest,
but even the slightest disturbance will make it fall.
The invention owes its name to a popular Hungarian folk tale about Gmbc
(Hog Maw), the stuffed abdomen of a hog, which swallows everyone as it
rolls by down the road.
The first Gmbc was made in 2006 with the help of computer controlled.
Gbor Domokos and Pter Vrkonyi gave the first Gmbc to Professor Vladimir
Igorevich Arnold, the person who raised the mathematical question. The object
has since been made of several materials and in various sizes, among others
from Herend china. The Gmbc is currently a registered trademark and brand
name solely manufactured by the company of Gbor Domokos.
This invention/discovery triggered substantial global response, not only in
thefield. News about the Gmbc was disseminated in 28 languages and
it also featured on the cover page of a 2006 issue ofThe Mathematical
Intelligencer. It was the key attraction of the Hungarian pavilion at the
Shanghai Expo and its two inventors received the Order of Merit of the
Hungarian Republic.
Various cultures and fields attach different types of significance to the
Gmbc. For example, the hosts of the Shanghai Expo interpreted it as a
gesture toward the Chinese that the Hungarians chose an object that refers
to the duality of yin and yang with its single stable and unstable point as
the key attraction in the countrys pavilion. The practical use of the Gmbc
spans several areas from biology to space research. Its shape drew the
attention to, for example, tortoise species whose shell highly resembles
the surface of the Gmbc. Several prestigious journals, like Nature or
Science, have mentioned the discovery, and suggested that high-domed
turtle species must have developed this shell shape so as to be able to
recover their balance. The Gmbc also helps interpret certain processes of
wear and tear and promotes the understanding of the shape of asteroids.
Opportunities for use are still open today, with interest shown from a wide
variety of fields, such as the defence sector or flight technology.
Professor Gbor Domokos and associates have not finished researching
equilibrium points and are in search for a solution where the body is
bordered with planes unlike the curved surfaces the Gmbc. Looking
for a solution with the fewest possible number of planes, theyhave also
offered a reward and the person who comes up with an idea will get of USD
100,000 divided by the number of planes.
Gbor Domokos is currently Head of the Department of Mechanics, Materials
and Structures at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics,
university professor, academician since 2004 and adjunct professor at
Cornell University. He has been collaborating with Philip Holmes in discrete
and continuous dynamical systems research projects and focuses on chaos
and population dynamics.
Pter Vrkonyi is currently a senior lecturer at the Department of Mechanics,
Materials and Structures of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics
researching structural symmetry, bio-mechanics and modelling evolution.

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c; W
 orld Famous Logical Game and Technical Innovation
Rubiks Cube
Ern Rubik, professor at the Moholy-Nagy University of Art and Design,
Budapest invented the worlds most famous logical game. Rubiks Cube,
which appeared in 1974 almost instantaneously conquered the world,
becoming the game of choice of hundreds of millions of people and also
functions as an instrument for developing logics. The Rubiks Cube has also
become the symbol for Hungarian creativity.
Professor Rubik invented the Rubiks Cube, originally called the Magic Cube
in 1974 as a teaching tool to help students understand 3D objects. Working
out how the cube can be rotated around all three of its axes was a real
problem during the development phase. After testing a variety of axis
options (rubber ring, magnet), Professor Rubikeventually consolidated the
engineering and industrial design approach by focusing on the structural
problem of moving the parts independently without the entire mechanism
falling apart. Besides stability, enabling the pieces to easily slide over each
other is the secret to this. The points of connection of the cubelets forming
the cube permanently keep each other in a sort of flexible mechanical grip.
That lends mobility to modules and allows groups of modules to move.
When he designed the internal mechanism of the cube Rubik was inspired
by alluvial pebbles in the Danube with edges washed perfectly smooth by
the river,collecting in aggregates allowing the viewer observe that duality.
That is how the cube was created of six planes with different colours, each
containing cubelets arranged 3x3x3, with twenty-six pivoting around a
centrepiece branching into six axes. That is how an object consisting of
geometric shapes that anyone can easily manipulate carries the complexity
of infinite logic and clever solutions to the complex problems of mathematics
and design that one may experience when playing with the cube.
The product was patented in 1977 and became increasingly popular up to
1980. Up to that point in time, one million cubes had been sold in Hungary
and it received the Game of the Year award in several countries. The New
York Modern Art Museum included in its collection of architecture and
design in 1981.
The number of variations of the cube is (8! 381) (12! 2121)/2 = 43
252 003 274 489 856 000 or: 4,31019 (forty-three trillion seven hundred
and fifty billion four hundred and eighty-two million eight hundred and fiftysix thousand). This represents over 43 quintillion possible combinations,
which expressed in time units is more than the number of seconds since
the Big Bang, i.e., equivalent to 14 billion years worth of seconds.
According to Ern Rubik, the secret of its success lies in it being so
controversial, since it is concurrently simple and complex, whereby one
can simultaneously establish a connection with order and chaos.
The Rubiks Cube was such a huge success that it even surfaced in pop
culture. Its patterns have been copied onto numerous objects and gifts,
making it a part of the day-to-day life of people. Such an iconic and
easily recognised phenomenon has evolved from this simple structure
that it is featured in numerous movies, books, magazines, posters and

113

advertisements. The cube sold itself and became popular in many countries
around the world because of its simple idea and spectacular design. 7
million cubes are still currently sold each year.

d; Interdisciplinary Use of IT

Internationally acclaimed scientist and member of the Hungarian Academy


of Sciences, Professor Tams Roska, who passed away not long ago,
founded and shaped the Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics
at Pzmny Pter Catholic University. It was his spirit that dictated
the research laboratories broadened their scope of research to cover
informatics. Among others, RobotLab focuses on designing prostheses,
mentally controlling various devices (such as helicopters) with the help
of neurology and also attempts to map the motor functions of the human
organism, such as the link between vision and touch. The biomimetic robotic
hand was also designed at this laboratory under the direction of Gyrgy
Cserey. The laboratory also researches memristors (or memory resistors)
whose resistance is not constant, but depends on its previous state. The
Computer Laboratory concentrates research efforts on the processing of
computer imagesin an attempt to study and solve difficult computational
problems on array computer architectures.
As a joint institute of Pzmny Pter Catholic University and the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, Language Technology Research Centre focuses
on linking the syntax of human language and informatics. The centre
engages in the analysis of the Hungarian language from the perspective
of informatics, a goal pursued by a team of researchers comprised of
engineers, IT experts and linguists. Statistical machine translation,
processing clinical documents, corpus linguistics applications, morphology,
part-of-speech disambiguation, spellchecking and performance-based
analysis are the centres main fields of research. Results reached in
statistical machine translation are not restricted to the Hungarian
language, but are also applied on similarly complex, mostly Uralic
languages. The research centre is directed by Professor Gbor Prszky,
founder of language technology research in Hungary and a winner of the
Szchnyi Award. He is also the founder and director of MorphoLogic, an
internationally recognised company active in the business of translation
programmes.
The Microfluidics Research Group focuses on patient diagnostics and care
provided directly by the hospital bed. Microfluidics is a multidisciplinary
field which combines engineering and molecular biology. Microfluids are
fluids that travel in extremely thin (micromillimetre) tubes, which is why
their behaviour is at variance with that experienced in the macroscopic
world. The group focuses on a variety of areas from theory to practice,
such as the process of separation of red and white blood cells. Recognising
and spotting small parasites causing Lyme disease in the blood of animals
is the groups other main field of research.
The Bioinformatics Laboratory founded in 2010 and directed by Professor
Sndor Pongor mostly focuses on communication inside the organism at

114

a genome, protein or organism level. Studying information flow between


cells is their key field of research. Microbial communities are fundamental
in gaining a deeper understanding of diseases, infections, epidemics, as
well as environmental and social processes. The group endeavours to
research existing biological data by taking a new approach and searching
for new connections.

e; Critical Infrastructure Protection Research

The existence of the modern society is integrally linked to technological,


and more recently virtual, infrastructure systems (energy and drinking
water supply, IT networks, etc.), the complex network of which is
characterised by further mutual dependencies. Terror attacks that took
place over the past decade (9/11, Madrid, London, Moscow), natural
disasters (tsunami, earthquakes) and technological challenges (widespread
outages, cyberattacks) often tragically drew attention to the vulnerability
of infrastructures, as well as the interdependency of infrastructures,
society and government. That is why a joint programme of the National
University of Public Service and buda University seeks to consolidate,
and to develop as required, the necessary human resources for research
and development activities carried out at an international level (and in
cooperation) in the field of protection of critical infrastructures, and to
support innovation in these areas.
Collecting, adapting and disseminating internationally accessible knowledge,
as well as developing technologies and know-how to contribute to
guaranteeing the security of citizens against threats like terrorism, natural
catastrophes and crime by concurrently respecting fundamental human
rights, including the right to private life, was the objective of this project.
Optimising and ensuring the coordinated use of existing technologies for
the benefit of the security of citizens and enhancing cooperation between
the providers of civil security solutions and users is important from both a
systems theory and cost-efficiency perspective, which is why the project
was implemented within the framework of a consortium integrating a
military and civil university engaging in education and research in the
given field.
The project was launched on 1 January 2012 and focused on four main
fields of research: 1. highly reliable, error tolerant so-called self-healing
infrastructure subsystems; 2. managing integrated data of specific
subsystems; 3. computations distributed across subsystems and reliable
communication between subsystems; 4. sustainably raising the level
of security through the cooperation of the state institutional system,
operators, owners and citizens.

115

VI. T
 he Role of High School and Academic Science
in Supporting Higher Education Research
1. C
 ommunity of Scientists and Professional Research
Centre: the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences is a society of scientists with one of
oldest traditions in Europe. Count Istvn Szchnyi, who launched many
nation-building initiatives, proposed its foundation at a session of the
Diet convened in Pozsony (Bratislava) in 1827 and the representatives of
the citizens passed the act on the Hungarian academy or the society of
scientists to be established to cultivate the national language. Consequently,
contrary to European science academies (Royal Society, Leopoldiana)
founded by rulers, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences was established
as a civil society initiative.That explains the deep social integration of the
Hungarian Academy of Sciences: Hungarians feel that they own and highly
respect the Academy and sciences. The Hungarian Academy of Sciences is
special in that it has two functions,a status that has evolvedhistorically. The
society of scientists that originally set the goal of fostering the Hungarian
language and engaging in science in Hungarian functioned in the usual
learning society manner, to which a few research institutes were added.
It was restructured after the Second World War under Soviet influence and
a network of research institutes was set up around the Academy, which
also received competences to engage in the administration of science.
After the collapse of Communism,it became an autonomous body, but it
retained its research network.
Public Science Body
In accordance with its statues, the Academy is a scientific public body
organised with reference to the principle of local government to provide a
professional framework for the life of individuals with academic degrees. It
issues positions in connection with scientific matters at its scientific sections
and committees and represents these before the government and public
opinion. Members of the 11 autonomous scientific sections of the Academy
are representatives of a given field of science or several closely connected
fields of science (academicians and non-academician representatives in
the General Assembly). The sections of the Academy formed 84 scientific
committees and 4 cross-sectional scientific committees and together with
the cross-sectional standing committee set up 15 standing committees
during the 2011-2014 academic cycle. The Hungarian Academy of Sciences
has its own qualifications system that universities accept in the professional
career. The Hungarian Academy of Sciences publishes a journal and
organises events to promote its popularity, maintains one of the most
extensive academic libraries in the country and launches scholarships
supporting young researchers.3

Source: Act XL of 1994 on the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, consolidated version

116

The General Assembly is the supreme body that operates the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences as a public body. Besides permanent and
corresponding members, it also comprises 200 elected representatives.
The General Assembly also elects the Presidium of the Hungarian Academy
of Sciences. In Hungary, membership in the Academy is the most
prestigious title in Hungarian science. There are altogether 365 members,
including permanent body of 200 academicians below 70 years of age,
who receive a monthly honorarium, which guarantees their independence.
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences awards doctoral titles to scientists
who hold a PhD and who apply for the title on the grounds of exceptional
scientific achievements. There are around 2,000 individuals with an
academic doctoral title. The Hungarian Academy of Sciences awards the
title of honorary and external member to foreign scientists or Hungarian
scientists in neighbouring countries.4
The Academic Research Network
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences operates a professional research
network that encompasses every field of science. A total of 5,200
individuals work in this network, including 2,700 researchers, integrated
into 10 research centres and 5 autonomous research institutes, namely: the
Centre for Agricultural Research, the Research Centre for the Humanities,
the Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, the Centre for
Energy Research, the Research Centre of Economic and Regional Studies,
the Centre for Ecological Research, the Centre for Social Sciences, the
Research Centre for Natural Sciences, the Wigner Research Centre for
Physics, alongside the Debrecen Institute for Nuclear Research, the Institute
for Experimental Medicine, the Research Institute for Linguistics, the Alfrd
Rnyi Institute for Mathematics, the Institute for Computer Science and
Control and the Szeged Research Centre for Biology. This researcher
capacity represents one-sixth of the potential of Hungarian science.5
The research centres, which have a wide range of contacts with both
economic and social players conduct both basicresearch and applied
research and development. The majority of employees at every one of
these academic research institutes take part in international projects
and are present in prominent international scientific programmes (of
the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, the International
Experimental Thermonuclear Reactor, etc.). The Institute for Computer

of the Regulation and Rules of Procedure of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,


http://mta.hu/data/cikk/11/97/91/cikk_119791/ALAPSZABALY_EGYSEGES.pdf, 12
March 2015

Source: History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, http://www.sk-szeged.hu/

statikus_html/kiallitas/tudomany/tortenet.html, 12 March 2015

Source: Report on the Work of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the

General Status of Hungarian Science Presented to the National Assembly, 20112012, HAS Budapest, page 47 http://mta.hu/data/cikk/13/34/81/cikk_133481/ogy_
beszamolo_2011-2012/book.swf#p=1, 12 March 2015

117

Science and Control (SZTAKI)of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, for


example, is an independent entity in the market of economic developments
in the field of information technologies and services, the Research Centre
at Martonvsrhely enjoys similar status in agriculture and even the Alfrd
Rnyi Institute for Mathematics is proud to boast partners like J.P. Morgan,
while the Research Institute for Linguistics provides consultancy on the
use of Christian names.
Most of the associates of these research centres lecture at Hungarian
universities and colleges, as a result of which the Hungarian Academy
of Sciences provides one of the highly important scientific capacities for
Hungarian higher education. This relationship is even more direct in the
way in which the Hungarian Academy of Sciences operates a research
network in universities and public collections where currently 74 funded
research groups are operated. 90% of these are concentrated at top
research universities, while geographically nearly half of these (47%) are
located in Budapest or the Central Hungary region. Moreover, the Academy
also contributes a significant amount of financing in the form of grants to
scientific research in higher education.
State-of-the-art Research Infrastructure
The biggest ever property development of the academic research network
was completed in autumn 2013, when the new state-of-the-art Hungarian
Academy of Sciences research building of the Research Centre for Natural
Sciences opened. Chemistry and biology laboratories, rooms suitable for
performinginstrumental tests and offices where researchers can immerse
in research were set up in the building.
The fastest research data network in the world was set up in the
Hungarian Academy of Sciences Wigner Research Centre for Physics.
Capital investment worth a 40 billion Hungarian Forints financed by the
European Organisation for Nuclear Research in Geneva offers unique
information technology and scientific advantages for Hungary. The stateof-the-art data centre was established within the framework of the CERN@
Wigner project after winning a grant from among the 30 applicants within
the framework of the international call for proposals announced by the
European Organisation for Nuclear Research. The government provided
the national co-financing of 8.5 billion HUF required to implement the most
significant inforcommunicaton investment in Central Europe. The ceremony
to commission the building was held in June 2013.6
The research centre engages in experimental and theoretical physical
research focussed on discoveries using research facilities based in Hungary
or in foreign countries in the field of particle physics, nuclear physics, the
general theory of relativity and gravitation, fusion plasmaphysics, space

Source: Report on the 2012 Budget and Financial Status of the Hungarian Academy

of Sciences, page 4, http://mta.hu/data/cikk/13/18/43/cikk_131843/koltsegvetesi_


beszamolo_2012_1melleklet.pdf, 12 March 2015

118

physics, nuclear material science, rigid body physics, statistical physics,


nuclear physics, optics and material sciences within the framework of
international cooperation in numerous cases.
The International Presence of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Science diplomacy is a key responsibility of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences. As a member, it takes part in the work of international organisations
supporting and representing science and represents the interest of
Hungary in the organisations UNESCO, ICSU, IAP, ALLEA, Science Europe
and EASAC. The Academy cooperates with foreign scientific academies
and other institutes undertaking scientific research within the framework
of bilateral and multilateral agreements, represents the position of the
Academy and Hungary before the representative bodies of the European
Union and supports individual and institutional participation in the field of
international cooperation among researchers through grants and within
the framework of other forms of European cooperation.7
Following through its own initiative, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
launched the World Science Forum (WSF) in 2003 in collaboration with the
most influential scientific organisations in the world, with the participation
of researchers of excellence, policy makers and corporate decision makers,
scientific journalists and the representatives of social organisations. The
UNESCO World Conference on Science held in Budapest in 1999 lead to the
establishment of this forum. The series of biannual programs returns to
Budapest on every second occasion, i.e. every four years. Invited lecturers,
including Nobel Laureate scientists and the most influential international
and Hungarian politicians and economic decision-makers present how
they contribute to the success of global sustainability initiatives, new
methods for strengthening communication between society and science,
as well as trust in science and how real science can be recognised at
meetings coordinated by well-known international scientific journalists.
Invited guests share opinions on the inseparable link between research
and economic innovation, as well as the future of international cooperation
that can be experienced in global affairs.8
Science Development Initiatives of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
The President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences launched the
Momentum programme of excellence grant initiative for young
researchers in 2009. Momentum focuses on encouraging talented young
Hungarian researchers to return to or to remain in Hungary by offering
them serious research perspectives and ensuring competitive financing
conditions. This programme supports the establishment of research

Official website of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, http://mta.hu/cikkek/

nemzetkozi-kapcsolatok-121601, 12 March 2015

Source: official website of World Science Forum, http://www.sciforum.hu/, 12 March

2015

119

groupswhich will be attached to one of the academic research institutes


or universities. Approximately 100 Momentum research groups operate at
present in Hungary.9
Another major initiative launched by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in
2012, the Guest Researcher Programme seeks to integrate top researchers
into the research centres of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences or into
the work of the research group financed by the Academy. So far, thirteen
accomplished scientists spending 3-10 months in the country have visited
Hungary within the framework of this programme. Visits to Hungary by
acclaimed scientists from prestigious research institutes in the United
States, Great Britain, Switzerland and Finland, such as the astrophysicist
Thomas Rauscher from Basel University, the neurologist John G. Milton
from Claremont College, the neurobiologist Angus Robin Silver from
University College London or the research doctor Zoltn from Harvard
Childrens Hospital demonstrate the attractiveness of academic research
institutes and the Hungarian scientific community.10
The objective the Postdoctoral Research Programme, a traditional, but
equally important programme of the Academy, is to provide opportunities
for talented young researchers with an academic degree to conduct
research in the research network of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
Hungarian universities or in best Hungarian scientific workshops; to support
the mobility of researchers, to integrate foreign researchers in Hungarian
research and to help integrate young researchers returning to Hungary
from foreign countries in the work of state-of-the-art Hungarian research
institutes. This postdoctoral programme is open to young Hungarian and
foreign researchers under the age of 35, offering employment for a definite
period of 24 months in the research centres of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences, in Momentum research groups or at Hungarian universities and
research groups.11
Social Presence of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences is highly active in promoting the
popularity of science. Hungarian Science Day has been celebrated since
1997, but annual official commemoration (relating to the anniversary of
the establishment of the Academy)started on 3 November 2003 in the
form of a programme series lasting several weeks seeks to mobilise the
entire domain of Hungarian higher education and research in Hungary
and neighbouring countries. Lectures, presentations, films screened and

Source: official website of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, http://mta.hu/

lendulet/?node_id=26327, 12 March 2015

Source: official website of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, http://mta.hu/cikkek/

10

mta-vendegkutatoi-program-133078, 12 March 2015

Source: official website of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, http://mta.hu/data/

11

cikk/13/54/36/cikk_135436/posztdoktori_kutatoi_program_kiiras_2015_HU.pdf, 12
March 2015

120

scientific forums always focus on a central theme, such as youth, brain


research or economic utilisation.
The main building of the Academy is the most beautiful representative venue
for its programmes, which is one of the most impressive buildings in Europe
situated on a picturesque site by the Danube at the foot of Chain Bridge,
facing the Castle across the river. The palatial building was inaugurated
in 1865 is one of the first, yet most mature and prestigious examples of
historicist neo-renaissance architecture. This building accommodates the
offices of the directors of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Library
of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Besides scientific programmes,
receptions are also frequently held in the building, which further raises the
prestige and reputation of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.12
The public esteem of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is also important
for Hungarian science, because its institution plays a key role in shaping
Hungarian science policy. The opinion of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
must mandatorily be requested in respect of decisions made by the
government in connection with science, which is formulated and issued by
highly respected scientists. The Hungarian Academy of Sciences delegates
members to several key committees involved in scientific funding and
research and development decision-making. The collaboration of experts
from various bodies of the relevant field of science of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences is often requested in respect of sectoral policies. The
President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences reports on the status of
Hungarian science every two years in the National Assembly.
2. S
 cience Cannot Begin Early Enough in Hungary:
the Student Research Movement
The Student Research Movement was established in 1996 with the active
collaboration of Professor Pter Csermely, physician, biologist and network
researcher. The initiative offers talented secondary school students an
opportunity and forum to actively get involved in scientific life, primarily
by taking part in research activities. In addition to managing talent,
this movement has been highly successful in promoting the popularity
of science over the past 18 years. One of the underlying reasons for its
success was the robust tradition of scientific student movements existing
in Hungary at the time. Its success is also attributable to the great deal
of work and highly conscious organisation effort. The movement reached
a new phase in 1999 when the National Alliance of Student Researchers
(KutDik) was established. Besides playing an active role in Hungary, the
alliance manages Hungarian talents in Hungarian secondary schools in
neighbouring countries: over 500 of its students study in a neighbouring
country.

Source: official website of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, http://mta.hu/

12

cikkek/a-szekhaz-102661, 12 March 2015

121

Secondary school students may join so as to get in touch with the mentors
of the movement, take part in research and other scientific activities.
Researching students may associate with several mentors, whose main task
is to help and support their work. In 1996, students could choose mentors
from 300 research centres, but they now have the opportunity to select
a mentor from over one thousand Hungarian and international research
institutes. Mentors include Nobel Laureates, as well as several members
of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Students have the opportunity to
choose from a wide range of scientific fields and research topics.
Secondary school students have the opportunity to gather experiences in
a real research environment and learn how to become good, successful
researchers, how to deliver a good lecture, how to construct a poster orto
engage actively in the work of a scientific community.
The movement finds it important for its students to present results,
experiences at various events, such as scientific conferences and academic
competitions. The National Conference of Scientific Students Associations
(TUDOK) has been organised each year since 1997, which gives students
the opportunity to meet famous, acclaimed scientists holding presentations
and gain insight into their work. In addition, an essay competition has been
organised since 2003 and the Scientific Poster Competition was launched
in 2008. Beyond these, students may also take part in events organised
by other organisations, such as the Scientific and Innovation Competition
of the Hungarian Innovation Association. The Student Research Movement
Science Weekend has been organised since 2012 at the Hungarian Academy
of Sciences. Winners and runners up of the poster and essay competition
of the event receive prizes. The movement launched KutMagazine, its own
scientific journal in 2007 with the fundamental aim to bring scientific life
and researcher lifestyle closer to secondary school students.
Numerous professional and scientific opportunities may open up for
students entering the movement. Students that win or are runners up in
competitions have the opportunity to take part in talent management camps
and international competitions each year, as well as academic contests
organised for students in higher education. They have the opportunity to
present their work on the movements website, which also provides them
assistance in publishing their studies in scientific journals. Since 2002, the
best student of the movement has had the opportunity to attend the Nobel
Prize Awards Ceremony. Beyond scientific work, the movement also offers
community space for participating students.
The movement is based on the organisation of scientific programmes,
which were fundamentally set up with the aim to organise and consolidate
the work of students researching the same scientific field. The movement
is currently organised into three programmes, the Humanities and
Social Sciences Programme, which is the oldest of the three, the Life
and Environment Sciences Programme, whichis the most populous and
the Technological and Science Programme which was launched in 2012
as the youngest. These programmes engage in highly active scientific
and professional work. The coordinators of these programmes and their
deputies are selected from the students that have demonstrated leadership

122

skills. These programmes also engage actively in independent professional


work, organise events and take part in excursions, cultural programmes
and debates.
The Teacher Research Movement emerged as an offspring from this
movement, as did the Network of Youth Excellence, which acts as an
umbrella for similar international movements. The National Alliance of
Student Researchers is a unique movement in the world in terms or its
organisation and coverage. Its founder, Pter Csermely was awarded the
EU Descartes Prize in 2004 for taking part in the establishment of the
movement.
Movement partnersinclude, among others, the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences, the Night of Researchers popular science promotion programme
series, Etvs Jzsef College and the Network of Youth Excellence.
Sponsors of the alliance include for-profit organisations, state institutions,
programmes implemented from EU funding as well as private individuals.
3. T
 he School of Nobel Laureates: the Professor Rcz Award
So we not only know the names of world famous scientists, but also the
names of their teachers... this is the motto of the Professor Rcz Lifework Award. The award was founded in 2000 by world famous Hungarian
companies, including Ericsson Hungary, Graphisoft and Richter Gedeon
with the aim to present awards to primary and secondary school teachers
who play an exceptional role in the field of natural science education. The
Hungarian Natural Science Education award acknowledges the work of
teachers engaging in talent management and promoting the popularity of
subjects in the field of mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology.
The award concurrently salutes the sensational achievements of Hungarian
public education. Exceptionally talented researchers and Nobel Laureates
studied in the school system at the turn of the 20th century, many of
whom attended the Fasor Lutheran Secondary School. Lszl Rtz (18631950) was a respected teacher and director for a while at this school. Two
of Professor Raczs students, physicist Jen Wigner and mathematician
Jnos Neumann went on to become Nobel Laureates.
Lszl Rtz studied philosophy at Berlin University and natural sciences
at Strasbourg University. He joined Budapest Lutheran Central Secondary
Grammar School in 1890 as a practicing teacher and was later granted
permanent status. He was director of the high school from 1909 to 1914.
He played a pioneering role in reforming mathematics education and
shaping talent management.
The board of advisors has granted the award named after him to over a
hundred secondary school teachers since the turn of the 20th century.
Lszl Holics, the legendary teacher in Hungarian public education was
one of the award winners. Professor Holics teaches physics and also
promotes the popularity of the subject. His excellence is demonstratedby
his membership of the editorial board of the Journal of Secondary School
Mathematics publishing in the journal was a huge prestige even for the

123

best Hungarian mathematicians of the world. Professor Holics is one of


the key figures of the reform of physics education and the person who
developed the system pf specialisation in secondary education. He is
over 80 years old, but still actively teaches at the famous Apczai Csere
Jnos Secondary School in Budapest and his students have become highly
successful in physics engineering fields.
After teaching and directing a school in Srospatak, Dr Lszl Velkey
teaches chemistry and biology in Miskolc at present. He is an exemplary
scientist and teacher. While he is a dedicated and tireless secondary school
teacher, he organised an academic degree and also collaborates in the
behavioural neurobiology PhD programme. In addition to his efforts in the
field of methodology, he also launched student chemist days to promote
the popularity of chemistry.
The lifes work Mihly Breny and his wife Mrs Mihly Breny ne Anna
Kemny is a prime professional and human example of a teaching career.
They have taught mathematics, chemistry and physical education working
together as a couple and supporting one another in the past fifty years.
They teach in Kecskemt and their talent management work is mostly
exceptional in mathematics education. They follow-up on their students,
have a legendary capacity to work which helped them publish numerous
articles and hold countless lectures in teacher training courses. They are
respected citizens in their community and hometown and the work they have
undertaken in the field of mathematics talent management and promoting
the popularity of the subject has been acknowledged by several awards.

124

VII. Science in social networks


The Social Communications Research Team of the Faculty of Pedagogy and
Psychology of Etvs Lrnd University conducted a survey on national
representative samples in 20132014 to learn about the knowledge and
views of Hungarians about science.
The scientific performance of a country is also determined a great deal by
how supportive its environment and public opinion of its society are. In
Hungary the general public thoughts are supportive of science with regard
to both foreigners and Hungarians.
Hungarians keep track of scientific results: in a national representative
survey conducted in 2013 the 10 scientists two thirds of the respondents
mentioned most frequently are among those recognised in the world.
Awareness of science expressed as a percentage
of the names of Hungarian scientistsmentioned (N=992, household)

Source: Survey of the Social Communications Research Team of ELTE


PPK, 20132014
The level of education in science is clearly higher in Hungary than EU
average: our 2013 survey and that conducted by Eurobarometer asked
the same questions and clearly Hungarian respondents knew the right
answer to almost all questions. Respondents had to decide whether the
statements were true or false.

125

Scientific question (true/false?)

Right answers
EU

Hungary

The centre of the Earth is very hot.

86%

87.7%

The Earth needs one month to revolve around the Sun.

66%

69.3%

The continents, on which we live, have been moving for millions of year and will continue to
move in the future too.

87%

88.0%

Lasers work by focusing on sound waves.

47%

51.2%

The Sun moves around the Earth.

66%

83.9%

Radioactive milk can be made secure by boiling.

75%

73.8%

Antibiotics kill both viruses and bacteria.

46%

56.0%

The mother's genes decide whether the child will be a boy or a girl.

64%

57.9%

Electrons are smaller than atoms.

46%

59.3%

As far as we currently know, men developed from the animal world.

70%

81.3%

The oxygen we breath in originates from plants.

82%

83.7%

All radioactivity is of human origin.

59%

61.8%

Source: Survey of the Social Communications Research Team of ELTE


PPK, 20132014
It is not accidental: science and higher education are positioned highly
among the various interests.
According to self-declarations, the interests of the population are more
favourable than expected and, presumably, than would be reasonable,
because culture and science are at the top of the list, while traditional
tabloid topics beat only politics. Obviously the situation is not as favourable
in daily access to information, but as a characteristic feature, the majority
of people consider interest in science a norm to be followed. However,
disregarding gossip, medical discoveries and news from science and
technology are also followed intensively.
Areas of interest in 2013 (N=1496)
2013
average

variance

Culture

2.85

0.85

Medical discoveries

2.77

0.91

New scientific discoveries

2.69

0.93

Technical innovation

2,66

0.95

Sports

2.55

1.09

Economics, finances

2.37

0.91

Politics

2.15

0.91

Source: Survey of the Social Communications Research Team of ELTE


PPK, 20132014
The questionnaire also addressed the degree of interest by scientific
discipline. Accordingly, the respondents were most interested in natural
medical sciences, followed by technical sciences and information
technology.

126

Interest in Scientific Disciplines (%) (N=1500, household)

34.4%

65.6%
natural sciences

64.5%

36.4%

35.5%

65%

technical sciences

71.8%

35%
informatics

28.2%

76.7%

economics, economic science

80.5%

63.6%

medicine, medical science

19.5%
philology

23.3%
social sciences

81.8%

18.2%
law

interested

not interested

Source: Survey of the Social Communications Research Team of ELTE


PPK, 20132014
Economics and social sciences were slightly behind, and finally philology
and law came at the end of the list.
The interest in various scientific disciplines varies when social and
demographic variables are also taken into account. Interest in philology,
economics, natural sciences and social sciences increases among people

127

with higher qualifications. There are also significant differences in


information technology and technical sciences, which are the most popular
among people holding a certificate of secondary education as the highest
level of qualification. There was no relevant difference in the interest in law
and medical sciences across various qualification categories.
By gender, philology, social and medical scientists appeal mostly to female
respondents, while male respondents were interested more in technical
sciences and information technology. No difference was found in the
interest in law, economics and natural sciences.
Information technology and medical sciences were the two disciplines
where significant differences could be observed among the age groups.
Younger people were interested more in the former, and the older in the
latter. No difference was found in the interest in various scientific disciplines
by the type of settlement.
The data are practically identical with the results of our survey conducted
ten years ago. Then we distinguished between natural and social sciences,
and 52% found the former and 15% the latter interesting. Summarising
the data of the current research, we can conclude that owing to economics,
the average interest in human disciplines is higher than 20%, while
approximately 50% interest remained in natural sciences.
The prestige of science can also be grasped directly by the authority of its
institutions. A timeline-based comparison shows that scientific institutions
claim prominent positions on a scale from 1 to 4. In comparison to the
survey conducted seven years ago, some insignificant changes can be
observed in relation to several institutions, yet only two types scientific
institutions, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the universities,
made it to the top quadrant of the confidence indexin 2013.

128

Confidence index in 2004 (N=1250), in 2006 (N=1194) and in 2013


(N=1480) based on the responses of the household survey
2004

2006

NA

NA

3.13

HungarianAcademy of Sciences

3.43

3.09

3.09

Constitutional Court

3.08

2.97

2.74

NA

2.86

NA

2.98

2.82

2.67

universities

European Commission
President of the Republic

2013

public prosecutors

NA

2.79

NA

National Bank of Hungary

NA

2.79

NA

local governments

2.81

2.76

2.71

Hungarian television (2013: public media)

2.82

2.67

2.38

courts

2.78

2.66

2.65

Hungarian Radio (2013: public media)

2.89

2.64

2.38
2.63

police

2.67

2.6

army

2.58

2.53

2.6

churches

2.49

2.4

2.51

daily papers

2.59

2.39

2.22

NA

NA

2.24

Parliament

2.34

2.21

2.21

Government

2.32

2.07

2.18

trade union

2.01

2.06

2.06

commercial banks

commercial media

2.44

2.34

2.03

insurance companies

2.1

2.11

2.04

political parties

1.9

2.02

1.9

Source: Survey of the Social Communications Research Team of ELTE


PPK, 20132014
Respect for the representatives of various occupations is another important
additional aspect of the social perception of knowledge and value. Here
we can compare results to the data collected ten years ago, because
both surveys were conducted on representative samples. The data reveal
stability in the degree of respect for certain occupations: there has been
major improvement in the perception of sportsmen and businessmen,
while, surprisingly, respect for priests and businessmen has declined rather
sharply, judges and scientists have also lost some of the earlier respect.

129

Prestige of occupations in 2002(N=1197, household) and in 2013 (N=1452,


household) and the change between the two years The representatives
of which occupations do you respect most? Please choose three
of the occupations on the card. (Percentage of respondents selecting
the particular occupation in the first, second or third place, %)
2013

2002

physician

78.5

75.1

change
3.4

scientist

49.6

59.1

-9.5

engineer

33.3

27.8

5.5

teacher

31.9

25.8

6.1

university professor

23.4

n.a.

n.a.

sportsman

19.5

12.5

artist

17.5

18.6

-1.1
-0.2

attorney at law

14.9

15.1

judge

10.4

15.6

-5.2

priest

9.5

26

-16.5

businessman

7.9

3.5

4.4

politician

2.4

3.2

-0.8

journalist

1.1

4.3

-3.2

Source: Survey of the Social Communications Research Team of ELTE


PPK, 20132014
ittabba Looking at the difference between the two surveys it is clear
that the positive views about sportsmen and teachers have improved. At
the same time, the position of priests and judges has deteriorated since
2002 and the reputation of scientists has also declined slightly. The other
occupations have shown a stable trend over the last ten years.
Prestige of occupations in 2002 (N=1197) and in 2013 (N=1452) The
representatives of which occupations do you respect most?

2002 total

journalist

priest

teacher

politician

businessman

lawyer

university
professor

artist

sportsman

judge

engineer

scientist

physician

2013 total

Source: Survey of the Social Communications Research Team of ELTE


PPK, 20132014

130

In the case of scientists, the difference is mainly due to the addition of


the category of university professors. In terms of knowledge and value,
the impressive position of the three occupations directly associated with
education and science indicates prestige, which also shows the stability
of respect for science in society, especially in conjunction with the high
confidence index of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and universities.
This respect is so strong that it is also present among those who are not
really interested in science. The reputation of scientists and teachers even
greater among them than among those interested in science, while e.g.,
respect for physicians is smaller.
Another set of direct questions revealed household views on the nature
of scientific activities. We made 13 statements that often occur in the
press and in public talks in relation to scientific research. On the basis of
the results developing according to the expressed agreement and nonagreement (scale of 1 to 5) it is clear that according to the public science
has remained in the positive value range. The average score of the positive
statements about science is higher than that of the more critical statements.
The figure also reveals that not only the average figures are lower towards
the negative statements, bit the spread is also greater, i.e., there is a lot
more variance in the critical or sceptical views about science.
Views on science (N=1486, household)
he best scientists have to go abroad because
they cannot get on in life in Hungary
scientific discoveries move
the world forward
scientific results are the best way
to earn reputation for a country
scientific development also involves seious
risks because we interfere too deeply...
knowledge and discovery are valuable to
society on their own, irrespective of the direct...
scientific development has a favourable
impact on our standard of life
scientific development can resolve
the main problems of mankind
social sciences are as valuable as
natural sciences and...
science and discovery are of major
importance for an individual
(the scientist, the explorer)...
scientific development can resolve
a great deal of economic problems
faced by mankind...

5 (I fully agree)

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
3

1 (I fully disagree)

I do not know

Source: Survey of the Social Communications Research Team of ELTE


PPK, 20132014
In total we can conclude that for Hungarians science is one of the main
factors of our national identity, which is highly appreciated.

131

VIII. National Excellence Program:


the attraction of Hungarian research
The National Excellence Program
If Hungary was to successfully and competitively integrate into the
European research space, it seemed indispensable to further extend the
range opportunities for young talents so that more of them could join
internationally acknowledged research projects.
In line with the objectives of the New Szchenyi Plan, the National
Excellence Program aims to improve the position of the research sector
in the labour market and to remove obstacles limiting its competitiveness.
The main goal is to develop the quality of human resources that constitute
a cornerstone of the countrys competitiveness, innovation performance
and social renewal. To that end, a comprehensive grant and support
scheme is to be set up and operated in order to support talented students
and researchers careers in general.
The scheme (National Excellence Program a system supporting Hungarian
students and researchers) was launched in April 2012. One of its crucial
goals is to keep Hungarian researchers inside the country, and lure back
home those who have left by promoting outstanding education and research
activities, so that Hungary can achieve results that are significant in the
national and European economy.
This system, which fills a gap, provides top-notch support and grants
to outstanding students and lecturing researchers, thus contributing to
the strengthening of Hungarian research, development and innovation
activities as well as to the development of higher education and training.
The project develops human resources in the area of research and
innovation by encouraging talented youth to choose a research career.
The main components of the program include a nationwide project and one
designed for a convergence region. The total budget is HUF 6.75 billion. The
nationwide program is open for students and lecturers of higher education
institutions operating in Budapest and Pest country, while the scheme for
the convergence region allows staff and researchers of universities located
elsewhere in the country to apply for funding. The two projects are closely
related and complement each other.

132

We asked Zsolt Batr-Cserna, alumni leader and officer responsible for scientific
communication in the National Excellence Program in the convergence region,
about the results achieved in the past three years.
The National Excellence Program has been established to support
the domestic activities of outstanding researchers working in
Hungary and abroad. The focus is specifically on excellence and
thus on Hungarys increased competitiveness. Do you think that
goal has been achieved?
Yes, we think that we have reached that goal because 1,915 persons have
received support from the program since May 2012 when the availability of
the first specific grant was announced.
According to feedback from recipients, the program has given them an
opportunity to gather experience abroad, to participate in international
conferences, and to present their research results to a wider audience via
popular scientific activities aimed at disseminating knowledge.
What results are you the proudest of in the scheme? How would
you express the programs success in numbers?
We are proud that over HUF 5.2 billion of the programs HUF 6.75 billion
budget has been paid out in grants.
We are also proud that, as mentioned above, 1,915 people have received
grants in the two projects. Of these, 452 persons were studying for their
masters degrees, 452 were Ph.D. students, and 348 had completed their
Ph.D. studies but were still before dissertation. In addition, 494 were
young lecturers and researchers, 132 were experienced lecturers and
researchers, while four were guest lecturers.
Furthermore, we are also proud that the applicants belonged to as many
as 32 nationalities. Of the 5,360 total applications, 4,846 were valid. The
high number of applicants indicates that those pursuing a research career
consider our grant program as a good opportunity.
Could you list a few projects or cooperation initiatives that have been
realised with support from the National Excellence Program?
Promoting science is a key objective of the Program. We have tried
to introduce science to everyday life in order to prove that it is not an
abstraction but an interesting field that permeates our lives even if we
are unaware of it. Our main goal was to attract young people to a career
of science by disseminating information about it. This has given us many
opportunities for fascinating cooperation.
The largest series of events within the National Excellence Program was
held at the national festival of university students in Miskolctapolca.
Another goal besides presenting the results achieved since 2012 was to
create an informal yet professional relationship with the prime target group
(higher education students) so that more young people should open their

133

minds to a research career. The program comprised four themed days.


The first focused on the road from talent to success in culture and arts;
the second was about equal chances; the third was devoted to sustainable
development and ecological innovation; and on the last day, a round table
discussion was held on the opportunities offered by grant schemes in
Hungary. Our grant recipients easily adapted to the special circumstances
and atmosphere of the festival; thanks to the interesting and relatively light
topics, attendance at all of the presentations and events was significant.
I should also note our participation in the Night of Researchers in 2014,
which also aroused much interest. Despite the cold night, thousands of
people visited the main site at Budapests Drer Event Centre to attend,
among others, presentations under the National Excellence Program, partly
funded by the Social Renewal Operational Program (TMOP-4.2.4). This
was the third time that the NEP participated in the Night of Researchers.
In addition, a Researchers Fair organised in cooperation with the Tempus
Public Foundation was held in the Experidance room. In the room dedicated
to the Program, NEP grant recipients gave presentations, and an official
of the Palace of Wonders presented two spectacular physics experiments
relating to dry ice formation.
The third of our numerous events that I want to mention is our presence
at the 15th International Education Expo, a three-day event held in the
SYMA Exhibition Centre where researchers supported by our program
were introduced as role models to thousands of interested youth. Once
again, we erected our own stand and contributed with many original ideas.
The Expo had some 26,000 visitors during the three days. Young people
queued up all day at the stand of the National Excellence Program to put
their knowledge to the test in an interactive educational game under a
huge apple tree, and to chat with researchers supported by the program.
Also, seven NEP representatives took the main stage of the exhibition to
talk about the results of research supported by our program, and explain
why and how they started a career in science.
The announcement of a Women in Science Excellence Award
seems especially interesting. What were your considerations and
who received the award?
The Women in Science Excellence Award was established by a partner of
ours, the Association for Women in Science. We joined this great initiative
and were proud to note that three of the recipients were supported by the
National Excellence Program.
 ow did you use modern technologies and the Internet in creating
H
research networks? Are you planning any further development in
that regard? Has the social media, which is very important in this
age, helped your work? Do you consider the usage of creative tools
in spreading information about the program successful?
As to the age of our grant recipients, 61% are younger than 31 years, so
it was a must that we use social media. Naturally, our main channels of

134

communication included a dedicated electronic system for applications and


the related reports and a regularly updatedweb site;however, as I mentioned
above, we are also on Facebookwith coverage of the latest events and general
information that should reach the supported researchers immediately. The
number of visits at Facebook is increasing steadily; more than 1,300 people
like us at present. And our third interface is the Programs own YouTube
channel, which runs clips about the work of 20 grant recipients, shows the
Programs own movies and covers events. The most popular clip has been
viewed by 744 times so far.
Based on feedback, we definitely think that the creative information forms
and appearances have been successful.
What long-term plans do you have about continuing the program?
And what long-term impacts do you see?
 n 24 March 2015, the management of the Program received a letter from
O
a state secretary of the Ministry of Human Resources. He notified the
chairman of the Public Administration and Justice Office that the relevant
chapter of the state budget contained no further funds for the National
Excellence Program. So after three years of success, the Program will be
concluded on 31 May 2015. Its long-term effects could only be estimated,
and we would rather not do that because we have insufficient information
about future grant and application schemes.

135

IX. Sources
The information included in this volume is mostly based on information
presented on the websites of universities, research institutes and
workshops (departments, research groups, etc.) mentioned, as well as
omnibus scientific portals (www.mta.hu, doktori.hu, mindentudas.hu, wsf.
org, tudaspresszo.hu, www.agykutatas.com, Wikipedia etc.). In addition,
we received information and feedback from most prominent scientists.
Moreover, we used media articlesabout the given topic to support our
presentation of the themes.
University of Szeged: www.u-szeged.hu/
Faculty of Medicine: www.med.u-szeged.hu/
Faculty of Engineering: www.mk.u-szeged.hu/
University of Pcs: http://pte.hu/
University of Debrecen: www.unideb.hu/
Faculty of Medicine: aok.unideb.hu
Faculty of Engineering: www.eng.unideb.hu/
Pzmny Pter Catholic University: https://ppke.hu/
Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics:
https://itk.ppke.hu/
Corvinus University Budapest: http://www.uni-corvinus.hu/
Faculty of Horticultural Science:
kerteszettudomany.uni-corvinus.hu/
Budapest University of Technology and Economics:
http://www.bme.hu/
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering: www.gtk.bme.hu/
Faculty of Natural Sciences: www.ttk.bme.hu/
Hungarian Academy of Sciences: http://mta.hu/
Semmelweis University: http://semmelweis.hu/
University of West Hungary: http://www.nyme.hu/
University of Kaposvr: www.ke.hu/
University of Miskolc: www.uni-miskolc.hu
Faculty of Earth Science and Engineering: mfk.uni-miskolc.hu
Kecskemt College: kefoportal.kefo.hu/
Eszterhzy Kroly Teacher Training College: uni-eger.hu/

136

Szent Istvn University: https://www.szie.hu


Faculty of Veterinary Science: www.univet.hu/
Etvs Lornd University: www.elte.hu/
Faculty of Education and Psychology: www.ppk.elte.hu/
Faculty of Natural Sciences: ttk.elte.hu/
Brczi Gusztv Faculty of Special Education: www.barczi.elte.hu/
Faculty of Informatics: www.inf.elte.hu/
University of Pannonia: uni-pannon.hu
Faculty of Engineering: mk.uni-pannon.hu/
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[No author]
[20.03.2013]

Gergely

Csibra,

http://people.ceu.edu/gergely_csibra,

GERGELY,
Gyrgy;
CSIBRA,
Gergely,
Teleologikus
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[NO AUTHOR], Lendletben: A szegedi epilepszia kutats (In Momentum:
Epilepsy Research in Szeged), http://www.sciencecaffe.com/hu/sze-201307-31-1048/lenduletben-szegedi-epilepszia-kutatas [03.12.2014]
[NO AUTHOR], A hazakltzs nem dnts krdse, hanem ktelessg
volt (Returning Home was not a Matter of Deciding, but a Duty), http://
mta.hu/lendulet/berenyi-antal-132235/ [20.03.2013]
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Website of the research group: http://tamaslab.org
STAAR, GYULA, Egy tudsember mrfldkvei (Milestones of a Scientist),
http://www.termeszetvilaga.hu/szamok/kulonszamok/k0602/interju.html
[20.03.2013]
[NO AUTHOR], Gygyszerkutatsi kutatcsoport (Pharmaceutical
Research Group), http://www.koki.hu/main.php?folderID=887
[20.03.2013]
DOBSZAY, JNOS, KELEMEN ZOLTN, Bolyai-djas agykutat (Bolyai
Award-wining Brain Researcher), http://mta.hu/sajtoszemle/nusser-zoltanakademikus-bolyai-dijas-agykutato-132223/ [20.03.2013]

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S.V.,Sejtek, kutatk, hlzatok: Beszlgets Nusser Zoltnnal (Cells,


Networks: Discussion with Zoltn Nusser), http://www.otka.hu/otkamagazin/a-honap-kutatoja/2006-1/2006-januar [20.03.2013]
Wikipedia: http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nusser_Zolt%C3%A1n [20.03.2013]
http://www.szbk.u-szeged.hu/research.php
[NO AUTHOR], Partnersg a kutatsban s az oktatsban (Partnership
in Education and Research), http://www.u-szeged.hu/kapcsolataink/
partnerseg-kutatasban [20.03.2013]
[NO AUTHOR], Nvnyi Testfelptsi s Fejldsi Csoport (Plant
Structure and Development Group), http://www.szbk.u-szeged.hu/plant_
architecture_and_development.php [20.03.2013]
PINTR, M. LAJOS, Szab Gbor: Kezdjen vgre mkdni a plyzati rendszer!
(Lets Get the Tendering System Up and Running!), http://szegedma.
hu/cimke/szabo-gabor-akademikus[20.03.2013]
https://videotorium.hu/
hu/recordings/details/6560,Szent-Gyorgyi_biofizikaig_vezeto_utja_a_
tudomanyagak _hatarainak _elmosodasarol_a_kutatashoz_hasznalt_
muszerekrol_a_paprikacentrifugatol_a_szuperlezerig
SZAB, GBOR, Szent-Gyrgyi biofizikig vezet tja, a tudo-mnygak
hatrainak elmosdsrl, a kutatshoz hasznlt mszerekrl a
paprikacentrifugtl a szuperlzerig (The Pioneering Biophysics Path of
Szent-Gyrgyi, Intersections of Scientific Fields, Devices Used in Research
from the Capsicum Centrifuge to the Super Laser), http://www.u-szeged.
hu/juniorszabadegyetem/junior-szabadegyetem-120207-1/lezerek-multjajelene/eloadonkrol-dr-szabo [20.03.2013]
STAAR, Gyula, A folytonos kzelts mestere, Beszlgets TOTIK VILMOS
akadmikussal, (The Master of Continuous Approach. Discussion with
VILMOS TOTIK) Termszet Vilga (World of Nature), 2002, 133/3, http://
www.termeszetvilaga.hu/tv2002/tv0203/totik.html [20.03.2013]
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hun/kutatas/index.html [13.03.2015]
[No author], Kutats (Research), http://metal.elte.hu/aft.elte.hu/Kutatas_
HU.html [13.03.2015]
[No author], Vkonyrtegek s mdostott felletek mechanikai vizsglata,
(The Mechanical Research of Thin Layers and Modified Surfaces),
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Vekonyretegek.html [13.03.2015]
[No author], A new, ground based data-assimilative model of theEarths
Plasma Sphere a critical contribution to Radiation Belt modelling for
Space Weather purposes, http://plasmon.elte.hu/plasmon_objectives.pdf
[13.03.2015]
[No author], Research Conducted by the Department of Physics of
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astro.u-szeged.hu/ [13.03.2015]
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hu.html [19.03.2013]
[No author], Research, http://www.physics.ttk.pte.hu/kutatas
[19.03.2015]
[No author], IMRE MOJZES 19482009, Members of the HAS Nano
Table, Magyar Tudomny(Hungarian Science), http://www.matud.iif.
hu/2009/09aug/14.htm, [19.03.2015]
[No author], the Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Nanotechology Laboratory Network, http://nano.bme.hu/ [19.03.2015]
[No author], History of the External Department of the Nanotechnology
Institute,
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[19.03.2015]
[No author], The Activities of the Research and Development Centre, http://
mik.uni-pannon.hu/hu/innovacio/k-f-kozpontok/info-bio-nano-kutatofejleszto-kozpont [19.03.2015]
The Physics of Light and the Relevance
of Science Diplomacy - Norbert Kro
[No author], HAS members - Norbert Kro, http://mta.hu/koztes-tuleti_
tagok?PersonId=19212, [19.03.2015]
[No author], Website of Norbert Kro, http://www.szfki.hu/~kroo/indexhu.
html, [19.03.2015]
[No author], Authors Monogram: -szzs-], Prima Primissima Award-winner
Kro Norbert, http://mta.hu/mta_hirei/kroo-norbert-prima-primissimadijas-128983/, [19.03.2015]
[No author], Norber Kro Norbert, ERC, http://erc.europa.eu/organisation/
kroo-norbert, [19.03.2015]
Increasing Electrical Capacity and Spintronics Ferenc Simon
SIMON, Ferenc, Synthesis and fundamental studies of novel nanostructural
materials,
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description.pdf, [19.03.2015]
SIMON, Ferenc, Professional Biography, http://dept.phy.bme.hu/staff/
simon/simon_cv.pdf, [19.03.2015]
[-HA-], A PROBLMAMEGOLDS INSPIRLRME A SPINTRO-NIKA
VILGBAN (The Inspiring Joy of Problem-solving in the World of
Spinotrics),
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inspiralo_orome_a_spintronika_vilagaban, [19.03.2015]

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[No author], Szabolcs, Csonka,


csonka_hu.html, [19.03.2015]

http://dept.phy.bme.hu/staff/csonka/

CSONKA, Szabolcs, Professional Biography, http://dept.phy.bme.hu/staff/


csonka/csonka_cv_hu.html, [19.03.2013]
[No author], Nanofizika (Nanophysics), http://doktori.bme.hu/bme/kutato_
muhely/nanofizika/nanofizika_hu/index.html, [19.03.2013]
Mapping the Universe and the Science of
Big Data Sndor A. Szalay
SZALAY, Alex, Personal Information, http://www.sdss.jhu.edu/~szalay/,
[19.03.2013]
[No author], The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Mapping the Universe, http://
www.sdss.org/, [2015.03.19]
SZALAY, Alex, Collaborative Research on Large Databases, http://www.
sdss.jhu.edu/~szalay/servers.html, [19.03.2013]
[No author],
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Apache

Point

Observatory,

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[No author], GalaxyZoo, http://www.galaxyzoo.org/, [19.03.2013]


[No author], Jim Gray eScience Award, http://research.microsoft.com/enus/collaboration/focus/escience/jim-gray-award.aspx, [19.03.2013]
[No author], SciDrive, http://scidrive.org/, [19.03.2013]

Gravitational Waves
and Extra-galactic Astrophysics Zsolt Frei
[No author], Zsolt Frei, Biography, https://fizika.elte.hu/hu/index.
php?page=munkatars&tid=1&id=1, [19.03.2013]
FREI, Zsolt, PATKS, Andrs, Perfect Wetting: An Alternative for Hadronic
Matter Formation in the Cooling Universe, Physics Letters B, 1989, Volume
229, Issue 1-2, pp. 102-106
[No author],
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Etvs

Gravity

Research

Group,

http://egrg.elte.hu/,

[No author], Hullmvadszok (Wave Hunters), http://tv.hir24.hu/musorok/


film/hullamvadaszok, [19.03.2013]

The Physics of Atoms and Stars Together Gyrgy Gyrky


GYRKY, Gyrgy, Professional Biography, http://www.atomki.hu/atomki/
IonBeam/nag/staff_nag_cv/gyurky_cv.pdf, [19.03.2013]
GYRKY, Gyrgy, Csillagok s atommagok (Stars and Nuclei), Magyar
Tudomny (Hungarian Science), 2008/04, p. 486

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GYRKY, Gyrgy, Az asztrofizikai p-folyamat, (The Astrophysical p-process)


Fizikai Szemle (Journal of Physics), Volume 2010/LX, Issue 2, pp. 37-41
[No author], ATOMKI-PPROCESS, http://www.atomki.hu/~gyurky/ERC/
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Birth of Matter at the Beginning of the Universe Sndor Katz
[No author],
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Lattice

Gauge

Theory

Group,

http://bodri.elte.hu/,

FODOR, Zoltn, KATZ Sndor, VOLT-E (VAN-E) FZISTMENET A BIG BANG


(LITTLE BANG) SORN?, Fizikai Szemle (Journal of Physics), 2006/12, p. 393
[No author], Katz Sndor Who is Who, http://www.whoiswho-verlag.
ch/versionnew/ungarn/verlag/63.php?txt_Language=HU&real_str_Pe
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[19.03.2013]
[No author], QCD thermodynamics on the lattice, http://cordis.europa.eu/
project/rcn/87485_en.html, [19.03.2013]

Particles and Lasers International Physics


Research Centres in Hungary
DCZI, Rita, A NEUTRN VISSZALK HATSNAK SZLELSE A 6He
BTA-BOMLSBAN 50 VVEL EZELTT (Sensing the Pullback Effect
of Neutrino in the Decomposition of 6HeBta), Fizikai Szemle (Journal of
Physics), 2005/10, pp. 356-361
[No author], CERN International Relations, Hungary, http://internationalrelations.web.cern.ch/international-relations/ms/hu.html, [19.03.2013]
[No author] List of the Topics of Research Conducted at ATOMKI, http://
www.atomki.hu/tudomany/temalista.pdf, [19.03.2013]
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projects.html, [19.03.2013]
[No author] Research activities and developments in the field of ion beam
analytics, http://iba.atomki.hu/projects.html, [19.03.2013]
[No author] Research activities in the field of nuclear astrophysics, http://
www.atomki.hu/atomki/IonBeam/nag/projects.html, [19.03.2013]
[No author], Research activities, http://www.atomki.hu/atomki/TheorPhys/
projects.html, [19.03.2013]
[No author], Activities in the field of research, http://www.atomki.hu/
atomki/AtomPhys/projects_en.html, [19.03.2013]
[No author], State-of-the-art biomedical imaging device developed
under the direction of HAS ATOMKI researchers, mta.hu/mta_hirei/
vilagszinvonalu-orvosbiologiai-kepalkoto-berendezest-fejlesztettek-ki-azmta-atomki-kutatoinak-vezetesevel-132630, [17.03.2015]

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Major European Laser Research Investment in Szeged


[No author], ELI - extreme light infrastructure, http://www.eli-laser.eu/,
[19.03.2013]
[No author], The Integrated Initiative of European Laser Research
Infrastructures, http://www.laserlab-europe.net/, [19.03.2013]
[No author], Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) Attosecond Light Pulse
Source (ALPS), http://www.eli-hu.hu/?q=hu/2_2_Param%C3%A9terek,
[19.03.2013]
VARGA Anna, ELI science park regional collaboration is nee-ded to exploit
economic potentials, http://szegedma.hu/hir/sze-ged/2013/11/eli-sciencepark.html, [19.03.2013]
[No author], University of Szeged Department of Optics and Quantum
Electronics, http://opt.physx.u-szeged.hu/, [19.03.2013]

Photo Acoustics, Research Management Gbor Szab


[No author] Dr Gbor Szab, https://www.u-szeged.hu/rektor,
[19.03.2013]
[Sz.N,] HAS-University of Szeged Photoacoustics Research Group, Research
Topics, http://www.fotoakusztika.hu/~opthome/foto-akusztika_drupal/hu/
node/3, [19.03.2015]

Lasers for Therapeutic Purposes


[No author] Zsolt Bor Professional Biography, http://titan.physx.u-szeged.
hu/~opthome/optics/honlap/borh.html, [19.03.2013]
[No author], HAS-University of Szeged Department of Physics Research
Group, Scientific Achievements in the 19992002-period, http://
titan.physx.u-szeged.hu/~opthome/optics/mtakut/kutcsoprol2.htm,
[19.03.2013]
[No author] Zsolt Bor, Prima Primissima, http://primissima.hu/dijazottak/
dr-bor-zsolt/350/, [19.03.2015]

Science in Everyday Devices, Instruments


Technical Sciences, IT
[No author], Budapest University of Technology and Economics Research
University, https://kutatas.bme.hu/portal/, [19.03.2013]
[No author], budai University, Science, http://uni-obuda.hu/tudomany,
[19.03.2013]
[No author], Applied Research and Development, http://mufio.afki.hu/
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[No author], University of Szeged Calls for Proposals, http://www.mk.uszeged.hu/content/14, [19.03.2013]


[No author], University of Pcs, Science, http://pmmik.pte.hu/pmmik_
Tudomany, [19.03.2013]
[No author], University of Pannonia Faculty of Engineering, Research and
Development and Innovation, http://www.scribd.com/doc/238502249/
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[19.03.2013]
[No author], International Recognition of the Momentum Research
Group,
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[No author], Introducing EIT ICT Labs, http://ictlabs.elte.hu/_old/index.
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Classical Mechanics, Modern Results Gbor Stpn


[No author], Website of Gbor Stpn, http://www.mm.bme.hu/~stepan/
index.html, [20.03.2013]
[No author], Gbor Stpn Complete bio, http://www.mm.bme.hu/~stepan/
docs/SG_CV_EN.pdf, [20.03.2013]
[No author], Research Topics, http://www.mm.bme.hu/~stepan/research.
html, [20.03.2013]

Spatial Outputs of Technical Mathematics The Gmbc


VRKONYI, Pter, DOMOKOS, Gbor, Static equilibria of rigid bodies: dice,
pebbles and the Poincare-Hopf Theorem, J. Nonlinear Sci. Vol 16, 2006,
255281.
[No author], Gbor Domokos, Professor, http://wow.iit.bme.hu/~domokos/,
[20.03.2013]
[No author], Homepage of Pter Vrkonyi, http://mit.bme.hu/~vpeter/,
[20.03.2013]
GERGELY, Andrs, Man-made shape explains how turtles self-right,
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BALL, Philip, How tortoises turn right-side up, Nature, 16 October 2007,
http://www.nature.com/news/2007/071016/full/news.2007.170.html,
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World Famous Logical Game and Technical Innovation


Rubiks Cube
[No author],
[20.03.2013]

Cube

Facts,

http://www.rubiks.com/about/cube-facts,

[No author], Ern Rubik and his Inventions, http://www.sztnh.gov.hu/


feltalalok/rubik.html, [20.03.2013]
[No author], The Mathematics of the Rubiks Cube, Introduction to Group
Theory and Permutation Puzzles, http://web.mit.edu/sp.268/www/rubik.
pdf, [20.03.2013]

Interdisciplinary Use of Information Technology


Tams Roska
[No author], Professional Biography of Tams ROSKA, http://wwwold.sztaki.
hu/sztaki/ake/analogic/roska-cv-2000-e.html, [20.03.2015]
STREH, Mria, Analogika, Rendhagy interj Roska Tams Bolyai-djas
akadmikussal (Analogics, Unconventional Interview with the Bolyai
Award-winning academic Professor Tams Roska), Termszet Vilga (World
of Nature), 13 April 2002, 133/4, http://www.termeszetvilaga.hu/tv2002/
tv0204/roska.html, [20.03.2015]
[No author], RobotLab, http://robotlab.itk.ppke.hu/, [20.03.2015]
[No author], HAS-Pzmny Pter Catholic University Hungarian Language
Technology Research Group, http://nlpg.itk.ppke.hu/mtappke-kutcsop,
[20.03.2015]
[No author] Biomicrofluidics
Research, [20.03.2015]

Lab,

http://biomicrofluidics.itk.ppke.hu/

[No author], Jedlik Laboratories: Bioinformatics, http://pongor.itk.ppke.


hu/, [20.03.2015]

A Lendlet lehetv teszi egy komoly kutatcsoport kiptst s


kiszmthat mkdst. Interj Kllay Mihllyal (Momentum Makes it
Possible to Build and Reliably Operate a Serious Research Group. Interview
with Mihly Kllay) [No author], http://mta.hu/mta_hirei/a-lenduletlehetove-teszi-egy-komoly-kutatocsoport-kiepiteset-es-kiszamithatomukodeset-132351/
A magyar matematikai kutatsok 19451970 kztt (Hungarian
Mathematical Research 19451970). Edited by: FBRY, GYRGY: Mszaki
s termszettudomnyok (Technical and Natural Sciences), Volume IV.
Budapest. Babits Publishing 1996-2000, http://mek.oszk.hu/02100/02185/
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Professional Biolography of Albert-Lszl Barabsi, www.barabasi.com
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Professional Biography of Zsolt Bor [No author], http://mta.hu/junk_h_rek/


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CSERMELY, Pter: A kutat dikok mozgalmrl (The Student Research
Movement), www.csermelyblog.tehetsegpont.hu [19.03.2013]
CSERMELY, Pter: Interj Kllay Mihllyal, az ERC djazottjval (Interview
with the ERC Award-winner Professor Mihly Kllay) = http://www.matud.
iif.hu/08maj/15.html [19.03.2013]
Csonka Szabolcs lettjrl, munkjrl (The Work and Career of Szabolcs
Csonka) [No author], http://dept.phy.bme.hu/staff/csonka/csonka_hu.html
[19.03.2013]
DOMOKOS, Pter VRKONYI, Gbor. The Gmbc, www.gomboc.eu
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Freund Tams - HAS - Databases - Committee Members [No author],
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Kllay Mihly lettjrl, munkjrl (The Work and Career of Mihly
Kllai) [No author] = http://www.fkt.bme.hu/~sp/staff/mihaly-kallay/
[19.03.2013]
NAGY, Lszl: Rszecskegyorst az asztalon. Interj Bor Zsolttal. (Particle
Accelerator on the Table. Interview with Zsolt Bor), http://index.hu/
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Plh Csaba lettjrl, munkjrl (The Work and Career of Csaba Plh),
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Ferenc lettjrl, munkjrl (The Work and Career of Ferenc Simon) [No
author], http://dept.phy.bme.hu/staff/simon/simon_hu.html [19.03.2013]
Somogyi, Pter Pl - HAS - Databases Committee Members, [No
author], http://mta.hu/koztestuleti_tagok?PersonId=19473 [19.03.2013]
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Vera akadmikussal. (The Lady Professor of Mathematics, Discussion with
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2000,
http://www.termeszetvilaga.hu/tv2000/tv0009/matematika.html
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Stpn, Gbor - HAS - Databases - Committee Members [No author], http:
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The inaugural address of Pter Somogyi Oxford researcher at the Academy
[No author], http://tudomany.blog.hu/2013/11/13/somogyi_peter_agydijas_oxfordi_kutato_akademiai_szekfoglaloja [19.03.2013]
Pter Somogyi neurobiologist, first permanent Hungarian member of
the Royal Society, http://tudomany.blog.hu/2011/12/27/somogyi_peter_
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SZILGYI, Jnos: Freund Tams. A trelmetlen professzor (Tams Freund,


the Impatient Professor). http://gentleman.hu/magazin/2013/09/11/
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Golden Age of Hungarian Mathematics Last?), http://444.hu/2013/07/10/
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Kovcs, Ilona - HAS - Databases - Committee Members [No author], http://
mta.hu/koztestuleti_tagok?PersonId=14464&nomination=1 [19.03.2013]
Kovcs, Ilona [No author], https://btk.ppke.hu/karunkrol/intezetekt ans ze ke k /p s zic holo gia-inteze t-r e gi/alt alano s-le le k t an-t ans ze k /
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KOVCS, Ilona: Bizonyos rtelemben a szem a llek tkre (The Eye
Reflects the Soul in a Certain Sense) [No author], http://www.origo.hu/
vendegszoba/tudomany/20061016kovacs.html [19.03.2013]
Elmletben jk vagyunkInterj Stpn Gbor egyetemi tanrral, a BME
Mszaki Mechanikai Tanszk vezetjvel (Were OK in Theory. Interview
with University Professor Gbor Stepn, Head of the Budapest University
of Technology Department of Technical Mechanics) [No author], http://
www.cons.hu/index.php?menu=cikk&id=103 [19.03.2013]

147

The book is published in the framework of


TMOP 4.2.4.B/2-11/1-2012-0001 Project.
Balassi Institute, 2015
National Publisher of Civil Service and
Textbook Shareholding Company, 2015
All Rights Reserved.
ISBN: 978-615-5389-46-7
Editor inchief:
Krisztina Szentkirlyi-Szsz
Managing editor:
Gyrgy Fbri
Contributing editors:
gnes Simon, Kinga Herr,
Martina Kiss
Copy editing:
Krisztina Szentkirlyi-Szsz
Published by the Balassi Institute.
Director General of the Institute:
Judit Hammerstein
Cover design, layout, typography:
MoD. Zrnyi Mapping and Communication Servicing
Non-profit Limited Company
Printed:
MoD. Zrnyi Mapping and Communication Servicing
Non-profit Limited Company
Managing director:
Dr. Kroly Bozsonyi