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ABSTRACT

It is effective to use the orthogonal arrays in fractional factorial designs. The linear graphs

were developed by Taguchi to allocate the factors to the orthogonal arrays easily. The linear

graphs are prepared for each orthogonal array beforehand. In three-level orthogonal arrays,

because the degree of freedom for a two-factor interaction is four. Two factor interactions

will appear across two columns. Due to this reason, the number of factors that can be

considered is limited. Actually, there are only two prepared linear graphs for L27. The

confounding occurs if we try to design the experiment experimental design other than the two

prepared linear graphs for L27. In this study, we consider the experimental design that cannot

design in prepared linear graphs for L27. And, to allocate more factors to L27, we propose the

practical experimental design that partial confounding is allowed. In addition, we simulate to

the propose the experimental practical design of experiment to allocate additional factors, and

evaluate its validity through simulation.

Key words: L27 orthogonal array, Linear graph, Partial confounding,

1. INTRODUCTION

The experimental design is widely used in various fields including industry, medicine and

psychology. The fractional factorial designs are effective when the number we consider a lot

of factors considered is large and when it is difficult for us to experiment by all the level

combinations. In fractional factorial designs, it is effective to use the orthogonal arrays. The

linear graph was developed by Taguchi to allocate factors to the orthogonal arrays

analytically and easily (Ojima, et al, 2001). The linear graph is prepared for each orthogonal

array beforehand. The orthogonal arrays to be used changes according to the number of

factors and levels deliberated. Two-level orthogonal arrays such as L8 and L16 are used when

we consider factors of two levels. Three-level orthogonal arrays such as L9 and L27 are used

when we consider factors of three levels.

We consider the L27 orthogonal array that is a kind of three-level orthogonal arrays. In twolevel and three-level orthogonal arrays, a basic concept is almost the same. However, it is

greatly different degree of freedom. In three-level orthogonal arrays, the degrees of freedom

for two-factor interaction are is four. Therefore, the effect of two-factor interaction is appears

across two columns in three-level orthogonal array. Due to this reason, the number of factors

that can be considered is limited. Actually, there are only two prepared linear graphs for L27.

The confounding occurs if we try to design the experiment other than the two prepared linear

graphs for L27 (Ojima, et al, 2001).

In this paper, we propose the experimental design to allocate more factors to L27.

Concretely, we consider the design that partial confounding has occurred to two-factor

interactions to design that becomes impossible to design in L27 orthogonal array. And we

propose the analysis methods to estimate two-factor interaction effects, and then we evaluate

appropriateness of the analysis methods by simulation.

This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we discuss the concept of three-level

orthogonal arrays and linear graphs. In Section 3, we describe the practical experimental

design in this study. First, we describe the motivation of this study, and then, we explain the

analysis methods proposed in this study. Section 4 investigates the distribution of the effect of

two-factor interaction to two columns. In Section 5, we simulate to verify appropriateness of

the analysis methods in this study. Conclusions are given in Section 6.

When the considered factor is all three levels, we use three-level orthogonal arrays. Some

kinds exist also in three-level orthogonal arrays as well as two-level orthogonal arrays. Table

1 shows L27 orthogonal array that is the one.

Table 1: L27 orthogonal array

The feature of three-level orthogonal arrays that can be read from Table 1 is as follows.

1. Three-level orthogonal arrays have any Each column several times each has the figure

of 1, 2 and 3. And, they show the level of the column respectively.

2. When we choose two arbitrary columns, There is a combinations of (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3),

(2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2) and (3, 3) appear the same number of times. This

means orthogonality the same number of times when two arbitrary columns are chosen.

Furthermore, degree of freedom of one column is two because level of one column is three

in three-level orthogonal arrays. L27 orthogonal array has 13 columns. Therefore, degree of

freedom of column is 26 in total.

When orthogonal arrays are used, it is necessary to distinguish two-factor interactions that

should be considered and two-factor interactions that may disregard beforehand. We

should understand the columns that appear for the considered two-factor interactions. And

then, we should allocate factors so that confounding should not occur.

In three-level orthogonal arrays, because degree of freedom of main effects is two, degree

two columns in three-level orthogonal arrays. When the number of factors is little, it is not

too difficult to allocate factors trying and erring. However, allocation of factors will be

difficult when there are a lot of numbers for factors and considered two-factor interactions.

For this case, the use of linear graphs is very effective.

Linear graph is figure where columns of the orthogonal array are expressed by vertices and

edges, and the relation between factors and two-factor interactions is shown. Linear graphs

where factors and two-factor interactions that we considered was shown are called necessary

linear graph. Linear graphs are prepared beforehand each orthogonal array. In L27 orthogonal

array, two linear graphs are prepared shown in Figure 1.

The vertex shows one column.

The edge shows one column for two-level orthogonal arrays, and shows the

column any two for the three-level orthogonal arrays.

The edge where vertex and vertex are connected shows column to which twofactor interaction between columns that those two vertices show appears.

The figure written in vertex and edge shows column index.

Moreover, the procedure of allocation that uses the linear graph is as follows.

1. Factors and the two-factor interactions considered by the experiment are shown

in vertices vertex and edges respectively, and the relation between factors and

two-factor interactions is expressed in linear graph figure. This linear graph at

this stage is called necessary linear graph.

2. The necessary (required) linear graph is built into prepared linear graph. As a

result, it is decided that the distribution of the factor is an allocation of the twofactor interaction we can decide columns that allocation main effects and twofactor interactions.

3. Main effects that doesnt relate to two-factor interactions are allocated to

columns that has become empty.

4. Columns of remaining vertices and edges allocate the error.

3.1 Motivation of this study

In three-level orthogonal arrays, because degree of freedom of main effects one column is

distributed or allocated by is two, the degree of freedom of the two-factor interaction is four.

Therefore, the two-factor interactions will be allocated in two specific columns. Due to this

reason, it may be difficult to allocate so that the confounding does not occur to factorial

effects. Actually, there are only two prepared linear graphs for L27 orthogonal array. If we try

to design the experiment other than two prepared linear graphs, confounding always occur.

Here, we consider the simple allocation shown in Figure 2. This linear graph cannot be

built into the prepared linear graphs in L27 orthogonal array. Therefore, confounding occurs

whenever we try this and the design becomes impossible and then we cannot experiment in

this design. Consequently, both number of factors and two-factor interactions that we can

consider is limited.

Then, we focus on two-factor interaction appears across two columns, if the confounding

has not occurred to the other column of two-factor interaction though the confounding has

occurred to one column of two-factor interaction, it seems that effects can be estimated by

using the column that confounding has not occurred (Wu,et al, 2000).

In this paper, we propose the practical experimental design to which partial confounding is

allowed, for it is impossible to design by the prepared linear graphs in L27. If this idea can be

applied in actual scene, the design that factor cannot be allocated we come to be able to

design shown in Figure 3 becomes possible. What is more, In addition, applicable scope of

L27 orthogonal array may be expands.

References

Ojima, Y, Suzuki, T and Yasui, S. (2001) An Alternative Expression of the Fractional

Quality Control, 309-316, 2004

Wu C. F. J, and Hamada, M (2000), Experiments Planning, Analysis, and Parameter

Design Optimization. NY: John Wiley & Sons.

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