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ae172 aircraft performance metu aee lecture notes

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Spring 2014

AE172: Introduction to Aircraft

Performance

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ali Trker Kutay

Middle East Technical University

Department of Aerospace Engineering

Introduction

Instructor

Students

MSc, METU, Aeronautical Engineering, 1999

PhD, Georgia Tech, Aerospace Engineering, 2005

Course

We learn how aircrafts fly!

http://www.ae.metu.edu.tr/~ae172/

Page 1 of 225

Teaching Philosophy

easiest to understand for MYSELF

Everybody has a different way of learning

Student participation is very important

Majority of learning takes place outside the

classroom

materials

Share your knowledge with the class. You cannot

lose knowledge by sharing, you can only gain more!

http://www.ae.metu.edu.tr/~ae172/

Online Sources

http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-01-physics-i-classical-mechanics-fall1999/

(http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/short.html)

Other sources on basic physics and aerodynamics

http://www.ae.metu.edu.tr/~ae172/

Page 2 of 225

METU Online

Log on to https://online.metu.edu.tr/

http://www.ae.metu.edu.tr/~ae172/

METU Online

entire class will know about it in 24 hours.

On METU Online I will post

Lecture notes

Supplementary materials (reading materials, pictures, videos, etc.)

related to course topics

Other interesting things which I believe will make you better

engineers

Homework assignments

Important announcements (homework extensions, quizzes, )

Post your comments about the lectures, homework, etc.

Discuss course (or engineering) related topics

Share your experiences and opinions about the course (engineering)

http://www.ae.metu.edu.tr/~ae172/

Page 3 of 225

AE Prerequisite Chain

http://www.ae.metu.edu.tr/~ae172/

Page 4 of 225

Spring 2013

AE172: Introduction to Aircraft

Performance

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ali Trker Kutay

Middle East Technical University

Department of Aerospace Engineering

supported by the air. An aircraft counters the force

of gravity by using either static lift or by using the

dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the

downward thrust from jet engines.

Page 5 of 225

Performance

What is the maximum altitude it can fly at? (ceiling)

How far can it go? (range)

How long can it stay in the air? (endurance)

How fast can it climb to the cruising altitude?

How fast can it descend?

How quickly can it stop on the ground?

How quickly can it take off?

What is the minimum radius of turn?

What is the minimum time of turn?

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 3

Flight Mechanics

moves through the air by generating the

necessary forces.

Classical mechanics is concerned with the

set of physical laws mathematically

describing the motions of bodies under the

action of a system of forces.

Flight mechanics is the study of the forces

that act on an aircraft in flight, and the way

the aircraft responds to those forces.

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 4

Page 6 of 225

rest or uniform motion (constant velocity)

unless it is acted upon by an external

unbalanced force.

net force F undergoes an acceleration a that

has the same direction as the force and a

magnitude that is directly proportional to the

force and inversely proportional to the mass:

F ma m

dv

d 2x

m 2

dt

dt

m is assumed to be constant

Page 7 of 225

reaction between two bodies are equal,

opposite and collinear. This means that

whenever a first body exerts a force F on a

second body, the second body exerts a force

F on the first body. F and F are equal in

magnitude and opposite in direction.

Aircraft

supported by the air. An aircraft counters the force

of gravity by using either static lift or by using the

dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the

downward thrust from jet engines.

Page 8 of 225

Static Lift

created when the air around the aircraft is static

Buoyancy

In physics, buoyancy is an

upward acting force exerted

by a fluid, that opposes an

object's weight. If the object

is either less dense than the

liquid or is shaped

appropriately (as in a boat),

the force can keep the

object afloat.

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 9

A large container filled with a substance that is Lighter than

Air (LTA) (has a density that is lower than that of air) to make

the whole craft lighter than air:

Hot air

Neon

Water vapor

Ammonia

Methane

Hydrogen

Helium

Page 9 of 225

Balloon

made in a hot air balloon built by the

Montgolfier brothers on November 21,

1783. The flight started in Paris and

reached a height of 500 feet or so and

covered about 5 miles in 25 minutes.

LTA Aircraft

Unpowered

Powered

Page 10 of 225

Dynamic Lift

by the motion of the air around the aircraft

Page 11 of 225

Air Pressure

molecules that are very small relative to the

distance between molecules. The molecules of a

gas are in constant, random motion and

frequently collide with each other and with the

walls of any container.

As the gas molecules collide with the walls of a

container the molecules impart momentum to

the walls, producing a force perpendicular to the

wall. The sum of the forces of all the molecules

striking the wall divided by the area of the wall is

defined to be the pressure.

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 15

exerts a surface force on it.

Page 12 of 225

Surface

required to create sufficient lift force over

fixed wings.

Page 13 of 225

flow around them without having to move the

aircraft forward.

downwards to create the vertical force to

balance the weight.

Page 14 of 225

10

Spring 2010

AE172: Introduction to Aircraft

Performance

Elements of an Aircraft

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ali Trker Kutay

Middle East Technical University

Department of Aerospace Engineering

Flight Mechanics

Orientation (3 rotational states)

Yaw

Pitch

x

Roll

z

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 2

Page 15 of 225

Conventional Aircraft

traditional, normal, etc.

Unconventional Aircraft

V-22 Osprey

X-29

Fanwing

Page 16 of 225

Elements of an Aircraft

Fuselage: or body of the airplane, is a long hollow tube which holds all the pieces of

an airplane together.

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 5

Fuselage

Page 17 of 225

Fuselage (contd)

Elements of an Aircraft

the pilot of an airplane sits.

Page 18 of 225

Cockpit

Elements of an Aircraft

Pylon

Nacelle

Jet engine

gaseous combustion products.

Nacelle:

A separate streamlined enclosure on an aircraft housing

an engine.

Pylon:

An assembly attached to an airplane, usually under the

wing, to hold an engine, fuel tank, weapon, etc.

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 10

Page 19 of 225

Elements of an Aircraft

Wings

Wing: is a surface used to produce lift for flight through the air.

Wing

Wing area (S)

Leading edge

ct

cr

cr

ct

Aspect Ratio AR

b2

S

Taper Ratio

ct

cr

ct

cr

c

Trailing edge

wingspan

b

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 12

Page 20 of 225

Wing

Elements of an Aircraft

Rudder

Vertical stabilizer

Vertical stabilizer: is a fixed wing section

whose job is to provide stability for the

aircraft, to keep it flying straight. The

vertical stabilizer prevents side-toside, or yawing, motion of the aircraft

nose.

Rudder: is the small moving section at

the rear of the stabilizer that is

attached to the fixed sections by

hinges. Because the rudder moves, it

varies the amount of force generated

by the tail surface and is used to

generate and control the yawing

motion of the aircraft.

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 14

Page 21 of 225

Vertical Stabilizer

Rudder

Page 22 of 225

Rudder Control

Elements of an Aircraft

Horizontal stabilizer: is a fixed wing

section whose job is to provide

stability for the aircraft, to keep it

flying straight. The horizontal

stabilizer prevents up-and-down, or

pitching, motion of the aircraft.

Elevator: is the small moving section at

the rear of the stabilizer that is

attached to the fixed sections by

hinges. It is used to generate and

control the pitching motion of the

aircraft. There is an elevator attached

to each side of the fuselage. The

elevators work in pairs; when the right

elevator goes up, the left elevator also

goes up.

Horizontal stabilizer

Elevator

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 18

Page 23 of 225

Horizontal Stabilizer

projecting from the fuselage of an

aircraft, such as a space shuttle,

mounted forward of the main wing and

serving as a horizontal stabilizer.

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 19

Elevator

Page 24 of 225

10

Aileron

Page 25 of 225

11

Spring 2010

AE172: Introduction to Aircraft

Performance

Elements of an Aircraft

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ali Trker Kutay

Middle East Technical University

Department of Aerospace Engineering

Flight Mechanics

Orientation (3 rotational states)

Yaw

Pitch

x

Roll

z

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 2

Page 26 of 225

Dynamic Lift

aerodynamic forces to develop.

L, D V 2

V1 L1

aV1 a 2 L1

Landing speed: 300 km / h

Lift while landing

9

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 3

depends on the shape of the airfoil, the

wing area, and the aircraft velocity.

During takeoff and landing the airplane's

velocity is relatively low. To keep the lift

high, airplane designers try to increase

the wing area and change the airfoil

shape by putting some moving parts on

the wings' leading and trailing edges. The

part on the trailing edge is called a flap.

Flaps

Page 27 of 225

Elements of an Aircraft

increasing lift is called a slat.

Slats

Page 28 of 225

Elements of an Aircraft

Spoilers: are small, hinged plates on the top portion of wings intended to reduce lift

in an aircraft. Spoilers can be used to slow an aircraft, or to make an aircraft

descend, if they are deployed on both wings. Spoilers can also be used to

generate a rolling motion for an aircraft, if they are deployed on only one wing.

Spoiler

Page 29 of 225

Elements of an Aircraft

Landing gear: is the structure (usually wheels, but sometimes skids, floats or

other elements) that supports an aircraft on the ground and

allows it to taxi, takeoff and land.

Taxiing:

refers to the movement of an aircraft on the ground, under its own

power

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 9

Aircraft Instruments

Traditional Cockpit

Difficult to maintain and operate (a flight engineer

is required for large aircrafts)

Glass Cockpit

Simpler to maintain and operate

Page 30 of 225

Traditional Cockpits

Page 31 of 225

Glass Cockpits

Page 32 of 225

Flight Instruments

Altimeter: The altimeter

shows the aircraft's height

(usually in feet or meters)

above some reference

level (usually sea-level) by

measuring the local air

pressure. It is adjustable

for local barometric

pressure (referred to sea

level) which must be set

correctly to obtain accurate

altitude readings

Flight Instruments

Artificial horizon: shows the

aircraft's attitude relative to

the horizon. From this the

pilot can tell whether the

wings are level and if the

aircraft nose is pointing

above or below the

horizon. This is a primary

instrument for instrument

flight and is also useful in

conditions of poor visibility.

Page 33 of 225

Flight Instruments

Airspeed indicator: shows

the aircraft's speed (usually

in knots) relative to the

surrounding air. It works by

measuring the ram-air

pressure in the aircraft's

pitot tube. The indicated

airspeed must be corrected

for air density (which varies

with altitude, temperature

and humidity) in order to

obtain the true airspeed,

and for wind conditions in

order to obtain the speed

over the ground.

Dr. Ali Trker Kutay 17

Flight Instruments

Magnetic compass: The

compass shows the

aircraft's heading relative to

magnetic north. While

reliable in steady level

flight it can give confusing

indications when turning,

climbing, descending, or

accelerating due to the

inclination of the earth's

magnetic field.

Page 34 of 225

Flight Instruments

Heading indicator: displays

the aircraft's heading with

respect to geographical

north. Principle of

operation is a spinning

gyroscope, and is therefore

subject to drift errors

(called precession) which

must be periodically

corrected by calibrating the

instrument to the magnetic

compass.

Flight Instruments

Turn coordinator: displays

the aircraft's heading with

respect to geographical

north. Principle of

operation is a spinning

gyroscope, and is therefore

subject to drift errors

(called precession) which

must be periodically

corrected by calibrating the

instrument to the magnetic

compass.

Page 35 of 225

10

Flight Instruments

Vertical speed indicator

(VSI) (variometer):

Senses changing air

pressure, and displays that

information to the pilot as a

rate of climb or descent in

feet per minute, meters per

second or knots

T Arrangement

Page 36 of 225

11

Flight Instruments

used in aircraft navigation

to determine an aircraft's

lateral position in relation to

a track. If the location of

the aircraft is to the left of

course, the needle deflects

to the right, and vice versa.

Glass Cockpits

Page 37 of 225

12

Head-up Display

Head-up display: is any

transparent display that

presents data without

requiring the user to look

away from his or her usual

viewpoint. Typically displays

airspeed, altitude, a horizon

line, heading, turn/bank and

slip/skid indicators.

Page 38 of 225

13

Page 39 of 225

Notes_2014.02.28.pdf page 1 of 4

At any instant millions of molecules hit the surface and apply a force on the surface.

The sum of all these forces form the pressure force.

Page 40 of 225

Notes_2014.02.28.pdf page 2 of 4

Page 41 of 225

Notes_2014.02.28.pdf page 3 of 4

Page 42 of 225

Notes_2014.02.28.pdf page 4 of 4

If the air is steady (no air flow) a pressure transducer will measure the

same pressure at every orientation. If there is an air flow, then the

transducer measures a different pressure depending on its orientation

with respect to the flow.

Suppose that there is a flow with speed V0. This means every

particle has its random velocity plus the velocity of the flow.

the molecules, and not due to air flow. That means it

only measures the static pressure, since it doesn't get

hit by more particles due to air flow.

Page 43 of 225

due to the random

motion of the

molecules AND due to

air flow. There are

more collisions and the

pressure is higher.

This measues the total

pressure, static

pressure (pressure of

the air when there is

no flow) plus the

additional pressure

due to air flow.

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 1 of 14

direction will get hit by more particles compared to the transducers

placed in parallel. Transducers placed perpendiculary to the flow

measure the total pressure. When there is no flow total pressure is

equal to the static pressure. Total pressure increases as the speed of

the flow increaes. By comparing the total and static pressure

measurements you can estimate the speed of the flow. This is how

an aircraft's speed is measured in a pitot-static tube.

Page 44 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 2 of 14

pressure. To get the best static pressure measurement the sensor

should be placed in a location where it is least affected from the

airflow.

Sensors placed on airfoil surface will measure the

local static pressure, which will be significantly

different than the freestream static pressure.

Page 45 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 3 of 14

Just like camber, thickness of an airfoil also usually changes along the chord, it is also a function of x.

If you know the thickness and camber distributions you can draw the airfoil.

Flow close to the aircraft is not uniform. Magnitude and direction of the flow velocity changes around the

aircraft. Flow that is sufficiently far away from the aircraft is uniform (assuming that there are no winds) and

V_infinity represents the magnitude of the speed in that region. That is why the infinity symbol is used to

represent it. Note that in reality if there are no winds the air is steady and the aircraft moves through it.

V_infinity represents velocity of the air with respect to the aircraft (velocity of the air with respect to ground is

zero) and it is same as the velocity vector of the aircraft (with respect to ground), but in the opposite direction.

Page 46 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 4 of 14

Pressure difference occured due to flow (with respect to the no flow case) is the difference between the green

distribution and the blue distribution. This can be found by overlaying the green distribution on the blue one and then

subtracting the blue distribution from the green one. To show this graphically you can draw arrows from the green

pressure levels to the blue ones as shown below.

Here green arrows are shorter than the

blue arrows, meaning the pressure when

there is flow is less than the pressure

when there is no flow (freestream

pressure).

arrows, meaning the pressure when there is

flow is greater than the pressure when there

is no flow (freestream pressure).

distribution subtracted from the green distribution.

Page 47 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 5 of 14

The blue curve represents pressure distribution when there is no flow (pressure is the same at every point on

the surface). Green curve represents pressure distribuition with flow. Pressure gets lower on the upper

surface and higher on the lower surface.

Pressure is force per unit area. When integrated over a certain area, total force due to that pressure distribution

can be found. Total aerodynamic force can be found by integrating the pressure distribution over the entire wing

area. In the no flow case total aerodynamic force is zero since pressure is same everywhere and we have a

closed surface.

Distributed pressure

Page 48 of 225

the surface, the net force is equal to zero.

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 6 of 14

When the pressure distribution with flow is integrated we get a total net force since the distribution is not symmetric

anymore. The total net force is a vector, which has a magnitude, direction, and a point of application.

Distributed pressure

Page 49 of 225

pressure can be equivalently repesented by a single force

vector R acting on a certain point on the chord line, which is

called the center of pressure. And R can be represented using

its components L and D.

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 7 of 14

Total

aerodynamic

force vector for

the entire wing

Center of pressure of

the wing.

Centers of pressure

of the airfoils

Page 50 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 8 of 14

In the above situation there is an unbalanced nose down pitching moment. The

aircraft cannot fly straight, it will go nose down. To keep the aircraft fly straight,

we need to have zero pitching moment. One way to have no pitching moment is

to have center of pressure of the aircraft coincide with the center of gravity. This

is not a good way of doing that, due to many reasons both center of gravity and

center of pressure may change during the flight, resulting in nonzero pitching

moment.

are used.

Force on the horizontal stabilizer can be changed to make the total pitching

moment zero. That's why it is called horizontal stabilizer, its job is to make the

aircraft fly horizontally in a stable way.

Page 51 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 9 of 14

R is a vector in 2D space, which can be represented using two scalar quantities. If you chose to represent R using

polar coordinates, you need to specify its magnitude and angle. Or you can represent it using cartesian

coordinates. For that we need to choose two axes and then we can represent the R vector using its components

along these two axes. First axis is chosen to be along the direction of V_inf and the second one is perpendicular to

that. The component of R along V_inf direction is called the Drag force, and the other component perpendicular to

V_inf is called the Lift force.

The resultant force R (its magnitude, direction, and the point where it applies on the chord, i.e., center of pressure

(c.p.)) depends on various factors, including V_, alpha, c (chord length, i.e., size of the airfoil), and camber and

thickness distribution.

Flow on the upper and lower surfaces are symmetric. As a result of that we get no lift force. The net resultant

aerodynamic force is in the direction of flow. In this case R = D.

Page 52 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 10 of 14

Streamline

With a symetric airfoil we can get lift force if we have a nonzero angle of attack.

For a symmetric airfoil under a symmetric air flow the pressure distribution on the upper and lower surfaces will be

symmetric. A symmetric air flow is achieved when the air flow is parallel to the chord line (zero angle of attack). If

the angle of attack is different than zero then both the air flow and pressure distribution are not symmetric

it's not pure rotation, length of the V vector may change as well.

Above diagram represents a conventional aircraft in horizontal flight. Horizontal stabilizor has a symmetric airfoil

and since alpha=0 there is no lift force on the horizontal stabilizor. Elevator is used to control the lift force (both

magnitude and direction) on the horizontal stabilizer such that the pitching moment on the center of gravity is zero

for

Page 53 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 11 of 14

By changing the elevator angle the horziontal stabilizor starts deflecting the air. This creates a lift force on the

horizontal stabilizor. In the above case we get a nose down pitching moment. We can get a moment in the orther

direction by changing the elevator angle in the other direction.

Page 54 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 12 of 14

If the angle of attack of a SYMMETRIC airfoil changes, R vector changes (both its magnitude

and direction, or both L and D), but the point of application (cp) does not change.

If the angle of attack of a CAMBERED airfoil changes, both the R vector (both its magnitude and direction, or

both L and D) and the point of application (cp) change.

Page 55 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 13 of 14

moves forward as alpha is increased.

Page 56 of 225

Notes_2014.03.04.pdf page 14 of 14

quantities, which are L, D and center of pressure. It is difficult to work with a force

with a changing center of application. To avoid that, we consider a fixed point on

the aircraft, and assume that the L and D forces are applied at this fixed point.

For the calculation to be correct, we introduce a pitching moment applied at that

fixed point by the original force vector.

aircraft!

applied at the leading edge and in addition to the R vector there is a pitching

moment applied at that point. Above two cases are exactly equal to each other.

The difference is that in the first one we need to know the R vector and center of

pressure that will be changing during the flight. In the second one we need to

know the R vector and the moment with respect to the leading edge, which will

also be changing during the flight. This idea becomes very useful in a wind

tunnel where pitching moment with respect to a fixed point can be measured very

easily compared to center of pressure.

Page 57 of 225

Notes_2014.03.07.pdf page 1 of 5

For various reasons (to compute its performance, motion, etc.) as aerospace engineers

we would like to compute the forces and moments acting on aircraft. We want to make

our lives easier by coming up with formulations that are easy enough to work with. We

will be considering conventional aircraft only. Conventional aircraft have a dedicated

part to create aerodynamic forces, called wing.

In reality every part of the aircraft is surface is subject to air pressure that contributes

to the total forces and moments. To make our lives easier we only consider the

forces generated by the main wing and the tail surfaces. We loose some accuracy by

doing that, but for conventional airfraft the results we get are very close to the real

numbers.

Another trick we do to simplify equations is that instead of the actual distributed

forces we work with equivalent concentrated forces (R). We don't loose any accuracy

here, the vector R represents the distributed forces exactly without any error. R

vector is represented using three scalar quantities (L and D forces and the location of

cp, x_cp).

R force creates a moment on a fixed point (leading edge for example) on the aircraft due

to having a moment arm (l). Pitching moment is equal to R times l. In this case instead

of using these three scalar quantities (L and D forces and c.p.) we can replace c.p. with

pitching moment with respect to a fixed point. In this case the R vector can equivalently

be represented by L, D, and M_LE (if it is moment with respect to the leading edge).

Other fixed points such as quarter chord point can be used as well.

Page 58 of 225

Notes_2014.03.07.pdf page 2 of 5

What we need to do now is to find some mathematical formulas that give numerical vaues of these three quantities

(L, D, and M for longitudinal motion) for the type of aircraft we have for all possible flight conditions (altitude, speed,

angle of attack, ...). In other words we are looking for mathematical functions that contain the effects of all the

factors that contribute to aerodynamic forces. For example for the lift force we are looking for a function of following

variables (and many others). We need similar functions for D and M as well.

There are a lot of factors that affect these forces (airfoil thickness, camber, wing planform shape, etc.) and every

one of these factors should be included in the equations for the results to be useful. Effects of some factors are

predictable and very easy to model. For example air density (denoted by Greek letter rho) has a direct effect on the

forces. In other words all aerodynamic forces change linearly with air density. This means if the air density is

changed by a factor "a", then the forces change by the same factor "a". In this case we can include the effect of

density by including it as a multiplicative term in our equations.

Another factor whose effect on the forces is predictable is the flow speed. Both theoretical and experimental

studies show that the relation between aerodynamic forces and flow speed is quadratic. This means if the flow

speed is changed by a factor "a", then the forces change by the square of the same factor "a". In this case we can

include the effect of V_inf by including V_inf squared as a multiplicative term in our equations. In this case the

equation becomes

Page 59 of 225

Notes_2014.03.07.pdf page 3 of 5

There is one other thing that can be modeled by a simple linear relation, and that is the size of the aircraft.

Consider two aircraft with exactly the same design, but with different dimensions. One is a scaled model of the

other. The forces on these two aircraft will be scaled as well. In this case the effect of the size of the aircraft can

be taken out of the equation by introducing the wing planform area S:

With the factor 1/2 introduced above we get the dynamic pressure in the aerodynamic equations, which can be

considered as the kinetic energy of fluid particles. The remaining factors in the f_3 function are not easy to model

with simple analytic functions. Therefore we leave that function as it is and call it an aerodynamic coefficient.

is the lift coefficient that depends on the shape of the airfoil, wing, viscosity and compressibility

effects of the air, etc.

Page 60 of 225

Notes_2014.03.07.pdf page 4 of 5

Dynamic pressure has the physical unit of force per area. S is wing surface area. So dynamic pressure multiplied

by wing surface area gives a force. Left hand side of the equations are force as well, this means aerodynamic

coefficients (C_L, C_D, C_Y) are dimensionless. From the above equations we can write them as

Now the problem of finding equations that give aerodynamic force values becomes the problem of finding the

nondimensional values of aerodynamic coefficients. If you want to find the lift force for a particular aircraft flying

with a certain configuration (flaps, spoilers, ailerons, elevator, etc are all set to certain positions) at a certain angle

of attack you need to know the value of C_L for that particular configuration. The benefit of using nondimensional

coefficients for this purpose instead of the dimensional force (L) is that you can find the values of coefficients by

doing experiments on much smaller scale models.

Page 61 of 225

Notes_2014.03.07.pdf page 5 of 5

Dynamic pressure has the physical unit of force per area. S is wing surface area. So dynamic pressure multiplied

by wing surface area gives a force. Left hand side of the equations are also force, this means aerodynamic

coefficients (C_L, C_D, C_Y) are dimensionless. We use the same equation structure for aerodynamic moments

as well, but since moment has the unit of force times distance, to make moment coefficients dimensionless we

need to introduce a distance to the right hand side. For this purpose mean aerodynamic chord length is used for

the pitching moment and wing span is used for the rolling and yawing moments as follows:

Now the problem of finding equations that give aerodynamic force values becomes the problem of finding the

nondimensional values of aerodynamic coefficients. If you want to find the lift force for a particular aircraft flying

with a certain configuration (flaps, spoilers, ailerons, elevator, etc are all set to certain positions) at a certain angle

of attack you need to know the value of C_L for that particular configuration. The benefit of using nondimensional

coefficients for this purpose instead of the dimensional force (L) is that you can find the values of coefficients by

doing experiments on much smaller scale models.

Page 62 of 225

Notes_2014.03.11.pdf page 1 of 9

In order to find the forces for all possible configurations you need to have a huge database of aerodynamic

coefficients for all those configurations. There are different ways to obtain these values. One is to actually do

experiments and measure all these forces with sensors. ALso there are advanced computer programs that can

calculate these values by solving complex fluid mechanics equations. Obviously doing real experiments for large

aircraft is not possible. But much smaller scale models can be built and tested in wind tunnels to find these values.

In this example put the small model in a wind tunnel and measure the lift

force for a particular configuration. C_L will be

Once you find C_L for the small model you can compute the lift force for the

real aircraft as follows:

means their values are the same for both the small

scale wind tunnel model and the full scale real

aircfraft.

Dynamic pressure for the wind tunnel test conditions and the wing

surface area of the small scale test model.

Dimensional lift force you measure in the tunnel.

You take the C_L value you obtained in the test into the following equation to

estimate the force on the real aircraft:

The same lift coefficient as before.

Dynamic pressure for the real flight condition and the wing surface area

of the full scale real aircraft.

Lift force acting on the real aircraft.

Page 63 of 225

Notes_2014.03.11.pdf page 2 of 9

should be zero.

At the point where the model is fixed we place sensors that can measure forces and

moment. In other words in the above example Fx, Fy, and Mr are directly measured,

which gives the drag force, lift force, and moment with respect to leading edge.

As you see, in a wind tunnel we can measure lift and drag forces and the pitching moment

with respect to a fixed point directly. From the moment measurement we can go back to

the center of pressure location as follows:

We use these forces to simulate the aircraft for example, for which we use the equations of

motion:

Even if we measure the center of pressure directly, we need to

convert it to moment for simulation purposes. Therefore

measuring the moment directly simplifies our job.

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Notes_2014.03.11.pdf page 3 of 9

So for every possible aircraft configuration and flight condition we need to know the

corresponding values of the aerodynamic coefficients. This requires a huge number of

aerodynamic coefficient values to be known.

combinations of these

variables, number of

required coefficient values

can easily reach tens of

millions for a realistic

simulation.

Considering all the possible configuration changes you need a huge database to cover all possible options. Multi

dimensional databases are created for that.

??? You do a test to find the aerdynamic coefficients for this particular

configuration.

This is a slightly different configuration where the elevator deflection angle has

changed a little bit. You do another test to measure the forces for this configuration

as well and find the aerodynamic coefficients for this configuration.

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Notes_2014.03.11.pdf page 4 of 9

Considering the number of variables and that you need to find the values for combinations of all possible values for

all these variables, for a fairly realistic database you need millions of values for your aerodynamic coefficients.

Now the quesiton is how can we make sure that aerodynamic coefficients of a real aircraft with a wing span of 50

m flying at a speed of 800 km/h will be the same as the aerodynamic coefficient of a scaled model with a wing

span of 50 cm flying in a wind tunnel at a different speed? The answer is that you need to check the Reynolds and

Mach numbers. If they are the same (or in the same range) then you can be sure that the coefficients you

obtained on a scale model can be used to correctly estimate the forces and moments on the real aircraft. But what

are these Reynolds and Mach numbers?? These will be discussed below.

Suppose that a 100 m long ship is released in sea at a speed of 10 km/h, it will continue moving for some time

before it eventually stops. Then consider a 10 cm long model released at the same speed. It will come to stop

much sooner (even you measure the distance in terms of length of the model).

So far we have been talking about pressure forces that form the aerodynamic forces. By definition pressure

forces are perpendicular to the surface. Due to viscosity of air there are some tangential forces as well.

The total force acting on the airfoil is actually the

sum of the pressure and friction forces. For a

large aircraft flying at high speeds the pressure

forces are much greater than the friction forces

and hence the friction forces may be neglected.

But for a very small model under a slower flow the

importance of friction forces increases.

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Notes_2014.03.11.pdf page 5 of 9

There are various factors that determine when the friction forces become significant or negligible. Reynolds

number is a nondimensional number that practically tells this. A very important factor is how sticky the fluid is,

measured by its viscosity. From our point of view this is not an issue since we almost always consider aircraft

flying in air. Other factors are the speed of the flow and the size of the object.

You can also consider it as the ratio of the green arrows to the red arrows in the above figure. If the Reynolds

number is large that means the friction forces can be neglected. If it is low, especially less than one than that

means the frictions forces are the dominant forces acting on the object.

For a small bird Re may be on the order of 100, for a fly, on the order of 1, and for micro organisms

moving in water it may be on the order of 0.0001.

forces (tangential forces). Since it is a ratio of two forces it has no units. If the

ratio is much greater than one, that means the tangential forces are negligible:

In this case stickyness of the fluid has almost no effect. As a

result the fluid cannot stay together and that's why you get a

splashy response when you drop an object into a fluid.

If Reynolds number is low (less than one) than the tangential forces are greater.

In this case stickyness of the fluid is very important. As a

result the fluid wants to stick, it stays together and that's

why you get a very smooth and non-splashy response

when you drop an object into a fluid.

You cannot predict flow conditions by checking viscosity only, you need to

consider the Reynolds number. A bacteria swimming in water has a very low

Reynolds number, on the order of 10^-5. This means the bacteria will feel too

much fluid friction, it will compare to an insect swimming in honey.

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Notes_2014.03.11.pdf page 6 of 9

viscosity of the fluid. Other parameters that effect the Reynolds number (V and

D) are the same in these four cases. You will get the same results if you achieve

the above Reynolds numbers by changing other things like the speed of the jet,

or the diameter of the flow.

Reynolds number (ratio of inertial to viscous forces) determines the characteristics of the flow. For low Re flow

viscous forces are important, meaning the fluid wants to stay together. This results in laminar flow. In laminar

flow streamlines are parallel to each other, at any given instant the velocity of the flow will be the same. We call

this steady flow.

In contrast for high Re flow, viscosity becomes negligible. The fluid doesn't want to stay together anymore. Just

like in the animations we saw the flow becomes random and chaotic. This means the streamlines get mixed up

and constantly change randomly.

Since the streamlines change constantly the flow is unsteady and such flows are called turbulent flows.

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Notes_2014.03.11.pdf page 7 of 9

Suppose that a ball of diameter 1 cm is dropped into honey and water at a speed of 10 m/s.

15<2000 meaning that the second test with honey results in laminar flow whereas for first test Re1=100000 and

that tells that we get turbulent flow. This agrees with what we see in the animation. Remember that viscosity is

very important in getting a laminar or turbulent flow, but it is NOT the only factor. So we can't decide on the flow

type by just considering the viscosity, we need to know the Re #.

Now suppose that a dust particle with a diameter of 10^-5 m drops into water at a speed of 1 m/s. The Re # is

then:

Obviously we get a laminar flow for this case. In other

words even though we have water, the little particle

dropped into it will not cause any splashes and will

smoothly sink into it as in the bottom animation. Again, just

because water is not as sticky as honey, you can't say that

it will always cause a turbulent flow.

Now to complete the story, also consider a ball of diameter 1 m dropped into honey at a speed of 100 m/s. The

Re # for this case can be found as:

splashing around randomly, just like the top animation.

Page 69 of 225

Notes_2014.03.11.pdf page 8 of 9

In this figure you see lift coefficients measured for the NACA

4412 airfoil in a wind tunnel. The tests were conducted as

various Reynolds numbers. Remember the Re # formula is:

constant. You may change them a little bit by changing the

temperature, but you can't change the Re # too much by just

changing the temperature. If you want to change the Re #

by a factor 150 as seen here, just changing the flow speed

will not be sufficient either. Because if you try to increase

the speed that much you will change the Mach number

significantly, which will introduce compressibility effects. So

you need to change V and c_bar together to vary the Re #

that much. In other words you start with a very small c_bar

(small wing) at a very low speed and get a low Re # that

way. Then you bring in a much bigger wing and test it at a

much greater speed to obtain a much bigger Re #. The last

question (#5) in AE172_Spring2011_MT1.pdf is related to

this. L and D data obtained at different Re #'s are given.

You need to use the data for the correct Re # to find the

answer.

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When something moves in air, it disturbs the air and creates pressure waves. These waves travel at the speed of

sound. If the disturbing object approaches the speed of sound, the waves cannot get away fast enough and they

start to accumulate. Accumulated pressure waves form a shock wave. Shock waves and supersonic flow are

explained in detail in Aerodynamics 2 course. All you need to know for this course is that as the speed of flow

increases air becomes more and more compressible. Like viscosity, there is a single nondimensional number that

tells you whether you need to be worried about compressibility or not. This is the Mach number. If M<0.3 then you

have an incompressible (subsonic) flow. For the remainder of this course we will always assume that it is the case.

and as a result the pitching moment acting on

the aircraft is not zero anymore. This causes

the aircraft to start rotating around the pitch axis

very rapidly.

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Notes_2014.03.14.pdf page 1 of 2

Normally the elevator is used to control the pitching moment, but in a supersonic

flow, elevators become useless due to shock waves. To overcome this problem

and have a controllable aircraft at supersonic speeds, they proposed to use all

moving horizontal stabilizers. In other words the entire horizontal stabilizer is

used as an elevator.

Even when the aircraft is flying at M<1, local speed of the flow around the A/C may exceed M = 1 resulting in shock

waves. To be able to fly as fast as possible without getting the drag increase due to shock waves you should design

your aircraft such that the speed at which shock waves start to form is as high as possible. This speed is called the

critical Mach number, which is always less than 1 (why?). On old aircraft critical Mach number may be as low as

0.6. Today modern aircraft can fly at speeds close to M=0.9 without getting substantial drag increase. The optimum

cruising speeds are less than M=0.85. Formation of shock waves on the wings can be delayed by using special

airfoil designs called supercritical airfoil.

Critical Mach number is the greatest limit on the speeds of modern airliners. That's why the ideal cruising speeds of

all modern airliners are between M = 0.8 and 0.85. Sure you can make an aircraft that can fly at M = 1, but for a

very little benefit in speed you may have to consume twice as much fuel, which nobody wants, especially at today's

fuel prices.

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Notes_2014.03.14.pdf page 2 of 2

3D Effects

We have talked about how aerodynamic forces are created on a 2-dimensional airfoil. On many aerodynamic data sources you can find values of

aerodynamic coefficients given for airfoils. Data given for an airfoil refers to an idealized wing with infinite span.

The assumption here is that we have a wing section with the same airfoil at every y

location and the wing has infinite wing span. In this configuration nothing changes along

the y direction and the resultant aerodynamic force for every airfoil is the same as shown

in this figure. This idealized configuration is referred to as a 2D wing.

In reality however aircraft have finite wing spans and have 3D wings.

Page 73 of 225

If you look at the situation at either end of a wing (wing tip) you can easily

convince yourselves that the high pressure air from below the wing will jump

up to fill the low pressure zone at the top. In inner sections the wing

separates the air at different pressure levels and the high pressure air at the

bottom can push the wing up, creating the lift force. At the wing tips however

the physical separation ends and this allows the two flows to mix. High

pressure air from below swirls up to the low pressure area above forming a

rotating flow called a vortex. Since at the wing tip the pressure equalizes no

lift force can be created, but relatively strong drag force acts on the wing at

the tips. As you move from the centerline to the wing tips, lift force reduces

and drag force increases. In other words the resultant aerodynamic force is

tilted backwards as shown with blue arrows in this figure.

Page 74 of 225

leading and trailing edges as well, but the

freestream flow prevents that. High pressure

air below the wing can only escape to the low

pressure area through the wing tips. For

wings with very high sweep angles vortices

can be created at the leading edge as well as

shown below.

Freestream flow

rectangular wing (sweep angle is zero)

Page 75 of 225

Freestream flow

hits the airfoil is the perpendicular component of

the freestream flow and it will be slower. In that

case leading edge vortices may be created.

during landing. Note that the lift coefficient

during landing is close to maximum, meaning the

pressure difference is too much. Strongest

vortices are created in such conditions.

Page 76 of 225

In 2D case since all the force vectors on all the airfoil sections are the same you see

just one vector in the side view.

But in the 3D case due to high pressure air at the lower surface jumping up to the

upper surface at the wing tips we loose lift at the wing tips and get more drag

force. In other words the R vector gets tilted towards the drag direction as you

get closer to the wing tips.

If you look at the lift force distribution from the front you see something like this:

For the infinitely wide 2D wing you get the same lift force everywhere.

In 2D flow the only thing that determines the aerodynamic performance (how much lift force is

obtained for how much drag force) is the airfoil. But in 3D flow wing planform is important as well

for aerodynamic performance. In other words two wings with the same airfoil and same total

surface area, but with different planforms will have different aerodynamic performance.

Even if the two wings shown above have the same airfoil and surface area, their lift and drag

forces for the same flow conditions (speed and angle of attack) will be different. The one on the

right is aerodynamically more efficient because it has a smaller chord length at the wing tips. This

means the region where vortices are created is smaller and hence the wing tip vortices (wake

turbulence) will be weaker. As a result there will be less lift loss and less drag increase.

Page 77 of 225

2D wing data for an airfoil can be gathered in wind tunnel by making the wing extend through the entire width of the test section as shown above. This

leaves no gaps at the wing tips and hence the lower and upper flows cannot mix. In such a test almost constant lift force can be obtained at every y location

throuhout the entire wing span just like in a 2D wing.

leave enough space on all sides so that you don't measure

any wall effects.

Losses in lift and increases in drag due to wing tip effects can be improved by using a more slender wing planform.

If you compare the areas under the blue and red lift distributions you will find out that for the wing on the left you loose a bigger percentage of

the 2D lift. Wing tip effects depend on how slender the wing planform is, which is measured by the aspect ratio.

engines. However gliders have no engines that can provide thrust force.

Therefore minimizing drag on gliders is crucial and that's why they use

very high aspect ratio wings.

Page 78 of 225

High aspect ratio wings are good for aerodynamic efficiency, but for large aircraft it is not

practical to use them due to structural concerns. If you used a high AR wing on an airliner it

would look like this. It looks funny, but more importantly such an aircraft would have a very

large wing span. This would create problems at airports. Also making such a huge wing

strong enough is not easy. Probably it will end up being much heavier compared to an

aircraft with a normal wing, and this defeats the purpose of having a high AR wing.

High AR means that you have a wing that is closer to an ideal 2D wing. In the limit as AR goes to infinity a 3D wing approaches a 2D wing. And

as AR gets smaller you get farther away from a 2D wing. As you can see in the below CL vs alpha plot at a given alpha a low AR wing has a

smaller lift coefficient than a high AR wing. Low AR wings however stall at higher angles.

Page 79 of 225

When the angle of attack reaches stall angle flow separates and

increases almost linearly with

the lift coefficient does not increase anymore. Furthermore due to

angle of attack. Since there is

separation flow becomes unsteady.

no separation flow is steady.

the same lift coefficient. However there is a difference, alpha1 is

before stall so you get a steady lift force since the flow is

attached to the wing surface. Alpha2 is after stall where the flow

is detached, so there is separated turbulent flow over the wing,

which gives a fluctuating force. On average you get the same

force, but it will be fluctuating force and hence it will cause the

aircraft to shake.

Page 80 of 225

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the air). While flying the coefficients change due to pilot control inputs and flight

conditions. Effect of flight speed is already included in the V^2 term, but speed

may still change the coefficients if Re and M numbers change significantly. For

most flights changes in these numbers will be negligible. During a flight except

for pilot inputs the most important factor that causes the aerodynamic

coefficients to change is the angle of attack.

For performance calculations we need to know the lift and drag coefficients in

the entire flight interval.

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Notes_2014.03.25.pdf page 1 of 9

Induced Drag

Forces (lift and drag) on a 3D wing are different than the forces on a 2D wing due to

wing tip vortices, which are created by the pressure difference between the upper

and lower surfaces at the wing tips. These vortices cause the lift to reduce and drag

to increase around the wing tips. For airfoils usually 2D coefficients are measured in

wind tunnels and we need to make corrections for 3D wings to use these data for

real aircraft.

Decrease of lift on a 3D wing

is not easy to model and

there are no simple

equations that we can use to

compute lift loss. Therefore

to estimate the lift of a real

3D aircraft you need test

results obtained with the 3D

configuration.

Total drag

coefficient

of the 3D

wing

Form drag,

or parasite

drag. Drag

coefficient

when there is

no lift.

Page 89 of 225

difference between 3D and 2D wings. It is caused by wing

tip vortices, which are created by the pressure difference

between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. If there

is no pressure difference, there will be no vortices and no lift

force. In other words induced drag is present only when

there is pressure difference (or lift force). Therefore this

drag term is also known as lift induced drag, or drag due

to lift.

Notes_2014.03.25.pdf page 2 of 9

CDi coefficient than the other wing.

For a single 2D design (airfoil) there may be infinitely many 3D designs. All these

different 3D designs will have different CDi coefficients. So we need to have a

mathematical mechanism to incorporate the critical aspects of 3D design into the CDi

formula. In other words we need to have an equation that will give us the CDi values of

the two wings shown above correctly.

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Notes_2014.03.25.pdf page 3 of 9

For any flying object, total drag coefficient is a function of the lift coefficient. When CL is

zero CDi will be zero as well. As CL increases, pressure difference will be increased as

well and as a result wing tip vortices will be stronger. In this case drag increase will be

more (CDi will be higher). From the physics of the problem we expect CDi values to

increase with increasing CL values. Relation between CD and CL can be studied

experimentally.

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Notes_2014.03.25.pdf page 4 of 9

For typical aircraft all experiments made shows a parabolic relation between lift and drag

coefficients:

can be expressed mathematically as

The "a" coefficient in the parabolic equation is for the drag that exists even when

there is no lift force, and the "b" coefficient shows how much drag is increased

when there is lift force, which is related to the 3D design. Effects of the planform

shape and aspect ratio are both included in the "b" coefficient.

where K is a function of planform shape and aspect

ratio.

Above equation is called the drag polar equation. From the textbook: " The drag

polar of an aircraft contains almost all the information required to analyse its

performance and hence to begin a design".

In general there is a third component in the drag coefficient that represents

compressibility effects:

CDw gets very large when there are shock waves. In this course we assume

that flow is incompressible and hence ignore CDw.

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Notes_2014.03.25.pdf page 5 of 9

In a wing design there are three main factors. First one is the selection of the airfoil. Effect

of the airfoil is included in the CD0 term. The other two main factors related to wing design

are planform shape and aspect ratio. To study the effects of these two factors we can

study them separetly. First freeze the planform shape and change aspect ratio to see its

effect on the K coefficient. Then freeze the aspect ratio and change the planform shape to

see its effect on the K coefficient.

Aspect ratio of a 3D wing is important. Having high aspect ratio is better in the sense that the losses due to

wing tip effects get relatively smaller.

Aspect ratio is important, but it cannot by itself quantify the losses. This is because you may have various

wings with the same aspect ratio, but they may all have different losses.

Suppose that the two wings above have the same aspect ratio, but we

expect the one on the right to be more efficient (its C_Di must be lower).

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We already discussed that high aspect ratio is good for aerodynamic efficiency. Let's keep

aspect ratio fixed and consider the effect of the planform shape on aerodynamic efficiency.

Again there are some theoretical studies that show that the most efficient

planform design is the one that has an elliptical spanwise lift distribution.

From both theoretical and experimental studies we

know that the best possible aerodynamic efficiency

(smallest K value) is obtained when the lift distribution

is an ellipse.

Front view of a wing, showing the spanwise lift distribution. Theoretical studies

show that the best possible 3D design is the one where the distribution is an

ellipse. One obvious way to achieve elliptic lift distribution is to have the wing

planform in the shape of an ellipse.

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Notes_2014.03.25.pdf page 7 of 9

and "e" is a nondimensional number referred to as the Oswald efficiency factor.

Effect of the aspect ratio is explicitly included in the K expression. The effect of

the wing planform shape is included in the e parameter. Since the best

possible wing design is elliptical, e=1 for an elliptical wing and for any other

design it is less than one. For a rectangle it is 0.7

different levels of losses due to wing tip

vortices even if they have the same aspect

ratio. The effect of the wing planform shape

on the induced drag coefficient is taken into

account by a nondimesional number called

the Oswald efficiency factor. It is known that

the best possible wing planform shape is

elliptical. For every other wing shape C_Di

will be greater. Oswald efficiency factor is

denoted with "e". Its value is 1 for elliptical

wings and smaller for everything else. For

rectangular planform e=0.7.

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Notes_2014.03.25.pdf page 8 of 9

flight. For high speed flight to avoid shock waves

swept wings are used as shown here. Also for

efficiency (low induced drag) what is important is that

the spanwise lift distribution should be close to

elliptical. If the wing planform is elliptical you get an

elliptical spanwise lift distribution. You can get

spanwise lift distributions close to elliptical with other

planform shapes as well. Planforms of modern

airliners are far from being elliptical, but their

efficiencies are not that bad (e>0.85)

In the dynamic pressure term we have the air density. To use these equations

for performance calculations we need to know its value.

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Notes_2014.03.25.pdf page 9 of 9

= 16.17 2

= 10.91

A 1/50 scale model of this aircraft is built and tested in a wind tunnel at a speed of = 30 /

where the air density was = 1.225 /3 . Following lift and drag forces are measured:

0.5

4

3

2

1

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-2

6

8

(deg)

10

12

14

16

-2

6

8

(deg)

10

12

14

16

Part a): Assuming that the drag polar of the aircraft is given by the following equation, find the

parasite drag coefficient 0 and Oswald efficiency factor for this aircraft:

2

= 0 +

Part b): The real aircraft with a mass of 2,500 is flying at an altitude of 4,000 at a speed of

100 /. What should the angle of attack be so that the aircraft can maintain its altitude? How

much thrust force should its engine provide so that it can keep its speed?

Solution: In the drag polar equation there are two unknowns, 0 and . We are given a set of lift

and drag force measurements obtained in the tunnel. We can relate these force measurements to

and coefficients and then using these coefficient values we can solve for the two unknowns in

the above equations. Since there are two unknowns, two sets of data will be sufficient to

find these unknowns.

Lift and Drag forces are given by the following equations:

1 2

2

1

= 2

2

=

Note that = 16.17 2 for the real aircraft and a 1/50 scale model is tested in the tunnel. So for

the test we can use the following equations for aerodynamic forces:

1

16.17

(1.225)(30)2 (

)

2

502

1

16.17

)

= (1.225)(30)2 (

2

502

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Notes_2014.03.28.pdf page 1 of 8

In the data plot given above there are 19 measurement points and any two will be sufficient for us to

solve for 0 and . From the figure it is seen that at = 2 we have = 0 and = 0.1 . If

we use this point we can directly solve for 0 using a single equation. For = 2 we can write

1

16.17

(1.225)(30)2 (

)

2

502

1

16.17

)

0.1 = (1.225)(30)2 (

2

502

0=

= 0

= 0.028

Inserting the above pair into the drag polar equation we get

0.028 = 0 +

(0)2

0 = 0.028

Now we are left with one unknown, . To find that we need one more pair. From the figure

we see that we have round numbers at = 14 . Using the data for = 14 we get:

1

16.17

(1.225)(30)2 (

)

2

502

1

16.17

)

0.5 = (1.225)(30)2 (

2

502

5=

= 1.40

= 0.14

Inserting the above pair into the drag polar equation we get

0.14 = 0.028 +

(1.4)2

=

2 (10.91)2

=

= 7.36

16.17

=

(1.4)2

= 0.76

(0.14 0.028)

To be able to claim that above number is the true Oswald efficiency factor, the wind tunnel test

must have been performed without any wall effects as shown below. Unfortunately the tunnel we

will use for our tests is small and our tests will look like the one on the left, with significant wall

effects.

significant wall effects, since tunnel walls

are too close to the model

Page 98 of 225

negligible wall effects, since tunnel walls

are far away from the model

Notes_2014.03.28.pdf page 2 of 8

Part b): The aircraft is flying at a mass of 2,500 kg is flying at an altitude of 4,000 m at a speed of 100

m/s. We are asked to find the angle of attack.

To maintain the altitude there should be no acceleration in the vertical direction. There are two

forces in the vertical direction and their sum should be equal to zero.

Note that no wind tunnel data is used to find the necessary lift coefficient value above. We need the

data to find the corresponding angle of attack. Wind tunnel data is given in terms of dimensional

forces in Newtons. So first we need to find the dimensional lift force on the tunnel model when =

0.37:

From the given data we see that 1.32 N corresponds to approximately 1.5 deg. So we can conclude

that the real aircraft must be flying at an angle of attack of 1.5 deg. Here we are making a very

important assumption that lift vs angle of attack curves for the wind tunnel model and the real

aircraft are the same. For this to be true the Reynolds and Mach numbers for both cases must be

close enough! I didnt check them here, please find them yourselves and see how different these

numbers are.

Next we are asked to find the necessary thrust force so that the speed of the aircraft doesn't change.

This requires that there should be no horizontal acceleration and hence

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Notes_2014.03.28.pdf page 3 of 8

To find the necessary thrust force I need to find the drag force. I know that the angle of attack is

approximately 1.5 deg. From the wind tunnel data the drag force value for the wind tunnel test at

1.5 deg is seen to be approximately 0.13 . Corresponding drag coefficient can be found as

You should be careful to use the correct , and values here. Since = 0.13 is for the

tunnel model we should use the values for the tunnel test. Then using = 0.036 found above we

can find the drag force for the real aircraft as

So for the given aircraft to continue flying at the given altitude and speed it needs a thrust force of

2,384 .

This is a very simple example, but can be used to calculate many things. Here are a few examples,

please study them and find the answers yourselves:

Part c): Total drag force is found in part b. How much of this force is for parasite drag and how much

is for induced drag? Find the ratio of /0 where is the induced drag force with =

and 0 is the parasite drag force with = 0 .

Part d): The aircraft drops 500 of cargo and the total weight reduces to 2,000 . If the pilot

wants to maintain the same flight with = 100 / at = 4,000 , what should the new

angle of attack be? What will be the necessary thrust force? Find the /0 ratio.

Part e): Repeat part d for the case with an added cargo of 500 such that the total weight

increases to 3,000 .

Part f): Suppose that the weight reduces to 2,000 as in part d. Angle of attack changes such that

the lift force becomes equal to the new weight. But this time the pilot doesnt change the

thrust force. Will the aircraft accelerate or decelerate? Suppose that the speed of the

aircraft changes at the same altitude and aircraft reaches a new equilibrium speed. What is

the new speed?

Part g): Suppose that the weight reduces to 2,000 as in part d. Angle of attack stays the same as

before. Will the aircraft climb or descend? Aircraft changes altitude by keeping alpha the

same and reaches a new equilibrium at a different altitude. What is the new altitude? You

need to find the air density at the new altitude and then find the corresponding altitude from

a standard atmosphere table by interpolation. Assume that the pilot adjusts the thrust force

such that the speed of the aircraft stays constant at = 100 / during the altitude

change.

Notes_2014.03.28.pdf page 4 of 8

Part h): Consider part g where the altitude of the aircraft changes with constant angle of attack. This

time the thrust force stays the same during the altitude change so the speed will change as

well. Find the new altitude and speed. Note that in reality if the throttle is kept fixed, thrust

force changes with altitude as we will see later. But in this question we are assuming that

the thrust force doesnt change with altitude.

Notes_2014.03.28.pdf page 5 of 8

We need to know the density, temperature, and pressure of air to estimate aerodynamic forces. Rho directly

appears in equations, temperature and pressure are required to compute the Mach and Reynolds numbers.

Variations of these air properties on the surface of the Earth are impossible to model with deterministic equations.

However their variations with altitude are fairly uniform and easy to predict. Let's take a look at these three

properties separately.

Pressure: Air pressure at any altitude is determined by the weight of the air above that level. This is easier to

understand if you consider water. Water is incompressible. That means in a given volume of water the density will

be the same everywhere. For air things are more complicated because it is compressible.

depends on the weight of the air above that level. But

since air density also changes with altitude, to compute

the air pressure you need to take varying air density into

account. Density decreases with altitude and it gradually

becomes zero. Therefore there is no boundary for air in

the atmosphere and hence there is no h value you can

use for computing the pressure.

Notes_2014.03.28.pdf page 6 of 8

In case of air, calculation of variation of pressure with altitude involves an integral equation that comes from the

equation of fluid statics. If you would like to see how this equation is obtained you can refer to the pdf file for

the lecture notes I posted at the beginning of the semester.

Temperature: Unlike pressure there are no simple equations that give variation of temperature with altitude.

However experimentally obtained measurements show that temperature variation with altitude consists of

straight lines as shown below.

Density: Once pressure and temperature are known, rho can be computed using the ideal gas law:

altitudes have been found according to

standard atmosphere assumptions

and presented in standard atmosphere

tables. To study the performance of

an aircraft at any altitude you can

simply take these values from the

standard atmosphere table.

Notes_2014.03.28.pdf page 7 of 8

Notes_2014.03.28.pdf page 8 of 8

= 16.17 2

= 10.91

A 1/50 scale model of this aircraft is built and tested in a wind tunnel at a speed of = 30 /

where the air density was = 1.225 /3 . Following lift and drag forces are measured:

0.5

4

3

2

1

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-2

6

8

(deg)

10

12

14

16

-2

6

8

(deg)

10

12

14

16

Part a): Assuming that the drag polar of the aircraft is given by the following equation, find the

parasite drag coefficient 0 and Oswald efficiency factor for this aircraft:

2

= 0 +

Part b): The real aircraft with a mass of 2,500 is flying at an altitude of 4,000 at a speed of

100 /. What should the angle of attack be so that the aircraft can maintain its altitude? How

much thrust force should its engine provide so that it can keep its speed?

Solution: In the drag polar equation there are two unknowns, 0 and . We are given a set of lift

and drag force measurements obtained in the tunnel. We can relate these force measurements to

and coefficients and then using these coefficient values we can solve for the two unknowns in

the above equations. Since there are two unknowns, two sets of data will be sufficient to

find these unknowns.

Lift and Drag forces are given by the following equations:

1 2

2

1

= 2

2

=

Note that = 16.17 2 for the real aircraft and a 1/50 scale model is tested in the tunnel. So for

the test we can use the following equations for aerodynamic forces:

1

16.17

(1.225)(30)2 (

)

2

502

1

16.17

)

= (1.225)(30)2 (

2

502

In the data plot given above there are 19 measurement points and any two will be sufficient for us to

solve for 0 and . From the figure it is seen that at = 2 we have = 0 and = 0.1 . If

we use this point we can directly solve for 0 using a single equation. For = 2 we can write

1

16.17

(1.225)(30)2 (

)

2

502

1

16.17

)

0.1 = (1.225)(30)2 (

2

502

0=

= 0

= 0.028

Inserting the above pair into the drag polar equation we get

0.028 = 0 +

(0)2

0 = 0.028

Now we are left with one unknown, . To find that we need one more pair. From the figure

we see that we have round numbers at = 14 . Using the data for = 14 we get:

1

16.17

(1.225)(30)2 (

)

2

502

1

16.17

)

0.5 = (1.225)(30)2 (

2

502

5=

= 1.40

= 0.14

Inserting the above pair into the drag polar equation we get

0.14 = 0.028 +

(1.4)2

=

2 (10.91)2

=

= 7.36

16.17

=

(1.4)2

= 0.76

(0.14 0.028)

To be able to claim that above number is the true Oswald efficiency factor, the wind tunnel test

must have been performed without any wall effects as shown below. Unfortunately the tunnel we

will use for our tests is small and our tests will look like the one on the left, with significant wall

effects.

significant wall effects, since tunnel walls

are too close to the model

negligible wall effects, since tunnel walls

are far away from the model

Part b): The aircraft is flying at a mass of 2,500 kg is flying at an altitude of 4,000 m at a speed of 100

m/s. We are asked to find the angle of attack.

To maintain the altitude there should be no acceleration in the vertical direction. There are two

forces in the vertical direction and their sum should be equal to zero.

Note that no wind tunnel data is used to find the necessary lift coefficient value above. We need the

data to find the corresponding angle of attack. Wind tunnel data is given in terms of dimensional

forces in Newtons. So first we need to find the dimensional lift force on the tunnel model when =

0.37:

From the given data we see that 1.32 N corresponds to approximately 1.5 deg. So we can conclude

that the real aircraft must be flying at an angle of attack of 1.5 deg. Here we are making a very

important assumption that lift vs angle of attack curves for the wind tunnel model and the real

aircraft are the same. For this to be true the Reynolds and Mach numbers for both cases must be

close enough! I didnt check them here, please find them yourselves and see how different these

numbers are.

Next we are asked to find the necessary thrust force so that the speed of the aircraft doesn't change.

This requires that there should be no horizontal acceleration and hence

To find the necessary thrust force I need to find the drag force. I know that the angle of attack is

approximately 1.5 deg. From the wind tunnel data the drag force value for the wind tunnel test at

1.5 deg is seen to be approximately 0.13 . Corresponding drag coefficient can be found as

You should be careful to use the correct , and values here. Since = 0.13 is for the

tunnel model we should use the values for the tunnel test. Then using = 0.036 found above we

can find the drag force for the real aircraft as

So for the given aircraft to continue flying at the given altitude and speed it needs a thrust force of

2,384 .

This is a very simple example, but can be used to calculate many things. Here are a few examples,

please study them and find the answers yourselves:

Part c): Total drag force is found in part b. How much of this force is for parasite drag and how much

is for induced drag? Find the ratio of /0 where is the induced drag force with =

and 0 is the parasite drag force with = 0 .

Part d): The aircraft drops 500 of cargo and the total weight reduces to 2,000 . If the pilot

wants to maintain the same flight with = 100 / at = 4,000 , what should the new

angle of attack be? What will be the necessary thrust force? Find the /0 ratio.

Part e): Repeat part d for the case with an added cargo of 500 such that the total weight

increases to 3,000 .

Part f): Suppose that the weight reduces to 2,000 as in part d. Angle of attack changes such that

the lift force becomes equal to the new weight. But this time the pilot doesnt change the

thrust force. Will the aircraft accelerate or decelerate? Suppose that the speed of the

aircraft changes at the same altitude and aircraft reaches a new equilibrium speed. What is

the new speed?

Part g): Suppose that the weight reduces to 2,000 as in part d. Angle of attack stays the same as

before. Will the aircraft climb or descend? Aircraft changes altitude by keeping alpha the

same and reaches a new equilibrium at a different altitude. What is the new altitude? You

need to find the air density at the new altitude and then find the corresponding altitude from

a standard atmosphere table by interpolation. Assume that the pilot adjusts the thrust force

such that the speed of the aircraft stays constant at = 100 / during the altitude

change.

Part h): Consider part g where the altitude of the aircraft changes with constant angle of attack. This

time the thrust force stays the same during the altitude change so the speed will change as

well. Find the new altitude and speed. Note that in reality if the throttle is kept fixed, thrust

force changes with altitude as we will see later. But in this question we are assuming that

the thrust force doesnt change with altitude.

In general there may be an angle between the chord line and the x axis of an

aircraft, called the wing incidence angle, shown above. In the below formulation

it is assumed to be zero. In our wind tunnel model it is 2.5 degrees. Also we

assume the thrust force to be parallel to the x axis, and in general there may be a

small angle between the two as shown below.

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 1 of 12

axes and rotation around 3 axes, making a 6 degrees of freedom motion

(6DOF). Analysis of 6DOF motion mathematically is a complex problem. The

problem is simplified a lot if we restrict the motion to one plane only. For this

purpose we start with the analysis of longitudinal flight where the motion is

restricted to the vertical plane only (x-z plane).

In this case the A/C is allowed to translate along x and z axes and rotate

around the y axis (pitch) only. Therefore longitudinal flight is a 3DOF motion.

The main forces involved in longitudinal motion are given in the above

diagram.

To obtain the equations of motion we need to write the Newton's second law of motion two times (since we

are working on motion in 2D plane).

lift force) cause the aircraft to rotate in the

vertical plane around some unkown point in

the air.

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 2 of 12

We simplify the problem further by considering a steady flight (at constant speed) at constant altitude. Since the

altitude doesn't change the flight path is horizontal (gamma = 0).

You can also call this steady level flight, steady means flight variables (V and alpha)

do not change with time, and level means flight path is horizontal, or altitude is

constant. This is also known as cruising flight.

that alpha is a small

angle.

These equations are valid for the simplest flight you can ever have, but it is perhaps the most important flight

phase. A big part of most of the flights take place as steady level flights at constant speed and altitude. If

you consider commercial flights between two cities for example you can say that more than 90% of the flight

fit into this category. Therefore performance of an aircraft in steady level flight is very important and luckily

performance calculations for this flight phase are the easiest.

In this flight phase the aerodynamic lift force should be equal to the weight and the engine(s) should be

producing enough thrust force to balance the aerodynamic drag force. If the lift force becomes smaller than

W, then there will be a net force in the direction of W, which will lead to an acceleration in W direction. As a

result the aircraft will start loosing altitude. Similarly if T gets smaller than D, there will be an acceleration in

direction of D, and as a result the aircraft will start to slow down.

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 3 of 12

We also make an additional assumption that angle of attack is a small angle and

hence cos(alpha)=1 and sin(alpha)=0.

To maintain a steady level flight at a given speed V, lift coefficient has to have a specific value that can be

found from:

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 4 of 12

Example: Consider a Boeing 747 aircraft in steady level flight at an altitude where rho = 0.8 kg/m^3.

Suppose that the CL vs. alpha curves for various flap configurations are as follows:

Find the minimum speed at which the Boeing 747 can maintain a steady level flight with a clean wing (no

flaps).

We are looking for the minimum V value for which the above equations should be satisfied. V can be solved

from the above equations as follows:

W and S are constants. Since the altitude is also constant, rho is a constant number as well. In this case the

only variable in the above expression is C_L. The minimum V value is the one that corresponds to the largest

C_L value, which is 1.5 with no flaps.

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 5 of 12

Find also the minimum speeds for half flap and full flap configurations.

The speeds found above are called stall speeds. That means if the speed gets lower than the above speeds,

the lift force will become smaller than W and the aircraft will start loosing altitude.

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 6 of 12

For a steady level flight the drag force on an aircraft is given by:

So the drag depends on rho (flight altitude), V (flight speed), C_L (depends on alpha, and alpha is

determined by the flight speed from the W=L equation), S, C_D0, e, AR, W (which are all properties of the

aircraft, W dependence comes from C_L).

To maintain the steady level flight on a given aircraft and flight condition (altitude and speed), the thrust

force generated by the engine(s) should be equal to the drag force.

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 7 of 12

Next let's calculate the necessary lift coefficient and resulting drag coefficients

and drag forces at another speed, V = 50 m/s.

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 8 of 12

If you compute C_L, C_D, D_0, D_i in a certain velocity range you get the

following plots:

becomes significant as Mach number increases.

Page 118 of 225

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 9 of 12

As long as you can provide a thrust force equal to the drag force, your aircraft will continue is flight at the

same speed. This required thrust force can be supplied by various different engine types. Whatever type of

engine you use, the required thrust doesn't change.

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 10 of 12

drag component. This is because at a low

speed, to achive a lift force that is equal to the

weight of the aircraft, you need to have a large

C_L value. But this means there will a be large

pressure difference between the upper and

lower surfaces of the wing. This will cause

strong vortices to be created at the wing tips

and as a result the losses due to wing tip

vortices will be too much.

hence the induced drag force will be small as well.

This time however the parasite drag will be large and

that is because the dynamic pressure will be large.

For better performance (to fly the aircraft with less

fuel) we need to make T_R smaller. As you can see

from the figure on the right, the minimum T_R value

is obtained at a specific V value.

Mathematically the V value at which the T_R will be minimum can be calculated from:

For T_R to be minimum, we need the ratio of C_L/C_D to be maximum. At a given flight speed C_L has to

have a certain value for the L=W equation to hold. C_D has two components. C_D0 is constant, but C_Di

depends on C_L. Therefore for every flight speed C_L/C_D has a certain value. The C_L/C_D ratio makes a

peak at a certain speed and this speed corresponds to minimum T_R.

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 11 of 12

We are looking for the condition where C_L/C_D ratio becomes maximum. This can

be found by using the drag polar relation as follows:

So for the lift-to-drag ratio to be maximum, induced drag coefficient should be equal to the

parasite drag coefficient. Therefore we can easily find the minimum T_R point if we know

the parasite drag coefficient.

Notes_2014.04.01.pdf page 12 of 12

Notes_2014.04.08.pdf page 1 of 9

If you know the parasite drag coefficient of your aircraft, then you can say that the minimum

required thrust force for a steady level flight is achieved when CDi=CD0 and hence the total

drag coefficient is equal to twice the parasite drag coefficient.

In most cases you measure CD and CL coefficients in a wind tunnel and obtain the drag

polar graph experimentally:

when the line drawn from origin to the drag

polar curve is tangent to it. Therefore if we

have the drag polar curve, we can find the

aerodynamic condition for minimum drag

point (CL and CD values for minimum drag)

directly from the graph.

Notes_2014.04.08.pdf page 2 of 9

Drag vs. V curve for an aircraft in steady level flight is known together with the thrust force

provided by the engine. Since this is a steady level flight, there are only two possibilities for

the speed of the flight. The two possible speeds are shown above in the figure as V1 and

V2. If we have the Drag curve, we can simply find V1 and V2 graphically by intersecting the

constant thrust line with the drag curve as shown above. But if we want to calculate the two

possible speeds analytically we can use the drag equation as follows:

We are looking for two values of V for which the drag force given by the above equation

becomes equal to T.

Notes_2014.04.08.pdf page 3 of 9

Using the above relation we can find the possible flight speeds for different thrust values

as shown next.

Notes_2014.04.08.pdf page 4 of 9

Notes_2014.04.08.pdf page 5 of 9

correspond to two aircraft with two

different wing loadings with

everything else being the same.

The wing loading for the green

curve is twice the wing loading of

the blue curve.

Notes_2014.04.08.pdf page 6 of 9

For an aircraft to maintain a steady level flight at a given altitude and speed, the thrust force

produced by the engine(s) must be equal to the aerodynamic drag force, which is called thrust

required. T_R is determined by the flight condition and aerodynamic design of the aircraft.

called wave drag. For incompressible

flows at M<0.4 wave drag is negligible.

As M number increases wave drag

increases as well and becomes

dominant at transonic speeds (M~1).

But in this course we only consider

subsonic flights and C_Dw will always

be ignored.

T_A can be changed by the pilot through the throttle lever in the cockpit.

During a steady level flight

Notes_2014.04.08.pdf page 7 of 9

Note that this is the maximum cruising speed. An aircraft can reach higher speeds momentarily,

while diving for example, but the maximum sustainable flight speed at constant altitude can be

calculated from (T_A)_max = T_R.

Notes_2014.04.08.pdf page 8 of 9

When one person pushes another, his muscle power turns in to kinetic energy for both of them. The

energy transferred by the pusher to the other person is a loss for the pusher. If the same person

pushes himself agains a wall he gets a larger acceleration because his entire power becomes a kinetic

energy for himself.

If he pushes the wall with the same force

he gets a higher kinetic energy.

spent by the climber turns into

useful energy for himself. There

is no energy loss here, so

efficiency is 100%.

spent by the climber turns into

useful energy for himself and

some of it goes to the mass. The

energy that goes to the mass is

lost (unless the purpose of the

person is to raise the mass).

Since some energy is lost here

efficiency is less than 100%.

Notes_2014.04.08.pdf page 9 of 9

Let's assume that within time Delta_t, the amount of air that goes into the engine is Delta_m. In this case the

momentum of the air going in is equal to

Notes_2014.04.11.pdf page 1 of 3

So the thrust of an air breathing engine depends on mass flow rate and the speed increase of the air. There are

two things that determine the amount of thrust produced by an engine, these are mass flow rate

(m_dot) and speed difference. To get large thrust you need to make both of these large. That means

you need to breathe more air in and make it exit the engine at a higher speed.

Now let's take a look at the energy increase in the flow. As air accelerates, its kinetic energy increases and this is

actually lost energy for our purpose since our purpose is to generate thrust force and not to accelerate air. Within

time Delta_t, Delta_m amount of air flows through the engine and the kinetic energy increase for this air is given

by:

Notes_2014.04.11.pdf page 2 of 3

Notes_2014.04.11.pdf page 3 of 3

For an ideal engine (with no wasted energy) V_j should converge V_infinity and m_dot should

converge infinity. Helicopters come close to doing that by getting in a very high flow rate through

a very large disk area, while jet aircraft that can takeoff vertically (Harrier, F35) does the opposite.

They take in much smaller amount of air but give that air a very large acceleration. As a result

they can generate sufficient force to balance the weight, but they waste a lot of energy for doing

that.

fuel goes to two places. A part of that energy goes to

useful work by creating thrust force, and the rest is

wasted in terms of kinetic energy of the injected air.

Useful work done by the thrust force is:

Notes_2014.04.15.pdf page 1 of 7

Notes_2014.04.15.pdf page 2 of 7

The speed at which the required thrust force is minimum for aircraft performance. We found earlier that T_R

becomes minimum when the CL to CD ratio is maximum. Similarly minimum P_R point is important as well

and we can also find the aerodynamic condition for that point.

Notes_2014.04.15.pdf page 3 of 7

Notes_2014.04.15.pdf page 4 of 7

Fan in front of the engine works as a propeller. Big part of the thrust comes from the fan, smaller part comes from

the jet.

Notes_2014.04.15.pdf page 5 of 7

In a propeller engine, power generated can be considered to be constant with speed. If you plot

power available from a propeller engine together with power required you get something like this:

Since P=TV, thrust from a propeller becomes:

high thrust can be obtained at low speeds, but at

high speeds propeller thrust drops.

Notes_2014.04.15.pdf page 6 of 7

assumed to be constant with flight speed.

Notes_2014.04.15.pdf page 7 of 7

Example:Consideranaircraftwiththefollowingliftanddragcoefficientsobtainedinawindtunnelexperiment:

Alpha (deg)

CL

CD

-----------------------------0

0

0.0200

1.0000

0.1121

0.0221

2.0000

0.2242

0.0252

3.0000

0.3364

0.0288

4.0000

0.4485

0.0341

5.0000

0.5606

0.0408

6.0000

0.6727

0.0482

7.0000

0.7848

0.0565

8.0000

0.8707

0.0676

9.0000

0.9532

0.0777

10.0000

1.0000

0.0900

11.0000

0.9308

0.1046

12.0000

0.4925

0.1164

the equations. For that we first need to

find the CD0 and K values by curve

fitting. Resulting TR and PR curves will

be approximate since the fitted drag

polar curve doesn't match the real drag

polar at high CD values.

Notes_2014.04.18.pdf page 1 of 4

For more realistic plots we can use the experimental data directly without using the idealized drag polar curve.

Here's how we do it:

Notes_2014.04.18.pdf page 2 of 4

To find the minimum throttle setting at which the aircraft can maintain a steady level flight, we find the

minimum PR value, which is 9750 W. This corresponds to 16.25% of the maximum power.

Notes_2014.04.18.pdf page 3 of 4

For steady level flight thrust and power required were calculated using

Notes_2014.04.18.pdf page 4 of 4

AE172 Introduction to Aircraft Performance

18.04.2014

Dr. A. Trker Kutay

Example: Consider an aircraft with the following lift and drag coefficients obtained in a wind tunnel

experiment:

Alpha (deg)

CL

CD

-----------------------------0

0

0.0200

1.0000

0.1121

0.0221

2.0000

0.2242

0.0252

3.0000

0.3364

0.0288

4.0000

0.4485

0.0341

5.0000

0.5606

0.0408

6.0000

0.6727

0.0482

7.0000

0.7848

0.0565

8.0000

0.8707

0.0676

9.0000

0.9532

0.0777

10.0000

1.0000

0.0900

11.0000

0.9308

0.1046

12.0000

0.4925

0.1164

vs and drag polar curves can be drawn as follows:

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

C

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0

0

5

(deg)

0

0

10

0.05

C

D

0.1

The aircraft has a wing surface area of = 30 2 , weight of = 6,000 and is flying at the altitude

where = 1 /3 . Plot vs and vs curves for this aircraft.

First we should find a velocity range. The maximum lift coefficient is given to be ( ) = 1. This

can be used to find the stall speed of the aircraft from:

1

= = 2

2

Minimum will be obtained for the largest :

2

=

( )

20 /

The aircraft cannot maintain a steady level flight at a smaller speed, so we can start the and

curves from this speed. At this speed where = 1, we see that = 0.09. Using this we can find

the and values as:

1

Page 145 of 225

AE172 Introduction to Aircraft Performance

= =

18.04.2014

Dr. A. Trker Kutay

1 2

2

1

1 (20)2 30 0.09

2

= 540

1

= = 3

2

1

= 1 (20)2 30 0.09

2

= 10800

=

Above numbers correspond to a single point on and curves at = 20 /. To obtain the curves

we need to find and values for a number of velocities. When flying at a different velocity, the

aircraft should have a different value to satisfy the = equation and there will be a different

value corresponding to that. For the second point of our curves we can use the values before

( ) , which corresponds to = 9. For that point we have:

=9 =

2

( )=9

20.5 /

Corresponding drag coefficient from the table

is = 0.078. Then we find the following

values:

1000

800

R

T (N)

1

( = 20.5) = 1 (20.5)2 30

2

0.078

489

1

( = 20.5) = 1 (20.5)2 30

2

0.078

= 10024

1200

600

400

200

0

0

8,7, ,1. Note that we shouldnt use = 0

because at that angle = 0 and that

corresponds to = !!! Resulting and

curves are shown to the right.

20

40

60

40

60

x 10

P (W)

6

4

2

0

0

20

V (m/s)

2

Page 146 of 225

AE172 Introduction to Aircraft Performance

18.04.2014

Dr. A. Trker Kutay

is producing 50% of its maximum power:

= 0.50 60,000

= 30,000

1200

800

600

T @50% throttle

400

200

0

0

available power is constant with speed. We can

show this on the curve as shown in the figure.

From the figure we can read the corresponding

speed as 42.9 /. We can find the available

thrust force from

aircraft at full throttle as = 55.3 /.

As an exercise find the / values at these two

speeds.

40

P @100% throttle

A

P @50% throttle

A

2

0

0

20

42.9

V (m/s)

3

Page 147 of 225

60

x 10

20

4

P (W)

T @100% throttle

1000

T (N)

R

propeller and its engine can produce a maximum

useful power (that means propeller efficiency is

already included in this number) of ( ) =

60 at this altitude. Find the speed of the

aircraft if the engine throttle is set to 50%.

55.3

value as well, which comes from the drag polar relation.

Thrust required is then equal to the drag force obtained

from

the thrust equation as a function of

speed and then do

Notes_2014.04.22.pdf page 1 of 9

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Notes_2014.04.22.pdf page 3 of 9

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Notes_2014.04.22.pdf page 5 of 9

Notes_2014.04.22.pdf page 6 of 9

Notes_2014.04.22.pdf page 7 of 9

Notes_2014.04.22.pdf page 8 of 9

Notes_2014.04.22.pdf page 9 of 9

For steady level flight thrust and power required were calculated using

Notes_2014.04.25.pdf page 1 of 7

condition and also be able to

derive it from the basic

equations!!!

In the above expression for TRmin, there is rho. But this doesn't mean that TRmin depends on rho. The

reason is the V^2 term in the expression is not a variable. In other words V cannot be anything, it has to

have a certain value that corresponds to the minimum TR point. So we need to find that specific value of V

and put it there. Once we do that rho gets cancelled and we get the below experssion for TRmin which

doesn't depend on rho.

not depend on rho!

Notes_2014.04.25.pdf page 2 of 7

Previously we had concluded that if the altitude is increased (rho is reduced), (TR)min occurs at

a higher speed. Now let's find how the (TR)min speed precisely changes with air density.

As you can see in the above equation the speed at which T_R becomes minimum depends on

rho. It is inversely proportional to the square root of rho. As rho decreases (when altitude

increases) V_TR_min increases.

T_R versus speed curves shift to the right.

Notes_2014.04.25.pdf page 3 of 7

to derive it from the basic equations!!!

Notes_2014.04.25.pdf page 4 of 7

These results tell us that if the air density is changed, both the minimum PR value and the speed at which

PR becomes minimum change by the same scaling factor. This means that as rho is changed, minimum

PR point slides along a straight line as shown below

versus speed curves shift to the right and up

sliding along the dashed line shown.

Notes_2014.04.25.pdf page 5 of 7

is the maximum speed of the aircraft at sea level.

Notes_2014.04.25.pdf page 6 of 7

Next consider the same aircraft flying at a higher altitude where rho=rho1<rho0

can be computed using the following equation:

equation is the maximum speed of the

aircraft at the altitude where rho=rho1.

certain altitude where TR and TA will intersect

at one point only. This means there is only

one possible steady level flight speed at that

altitude and if the aircraft climbs any more,

then there will be no possible steady flight

conditions above this altitude. The altitude

where TR and TA lines intersect at one point

only is defined as the absolute ceiling of an

aircraft.

Notes_2014.04.25.pdf page 7 of 7

only unknown is CL, which can be found as:

The required power to maintain a steady level flight at sea level and V=61 m/s is given above.

The engine should actually be generating more power than that and this is because some of the

power generated will be lost due to propeller efficiency.

To get 52% of the maximum power the pilot should set the throttle lever to 52%.

Let's also compute the minimum TR and the speed at which TR becomes minimum:

-43.2939 +71.2430i

-43.2939 -71.2430i

79.7198

6.8679

Previously we saw that the minimum speed of an aircraft is determined by the maximum lift coefficient.

Maximum lift coefficient can be increased using high lift devices (flaps, slats, etc.) and this reduces the

stall speed. If you reduce the stall speed limit too much, then engine power can become the limiting

factor. Below a certain speed required thrust (or required power) will become greater than the

maximum engine thrust (or power) and that means even if your aircraft can aerodynamically generate

enough lift force, your engine cannot balance the resulting drag force.

Steady climb, in other words the aircraft's altitude increases at a steady rate.

The only difference between a steady level flight and steady climb is that in the former flight path

angle gamma is zero whereas in steady climb gamma is a positive nonzero number.

Normally in these

equations we should have

acceleration terms, but

here we are studying

steady climb, which

means accelerations are

In steady level flight L should be equal to W, but as you can see above in a steady climb L is

actually less than W.

Since in this expression we are taking the difference between the applied power and consumed

power, this term is called the excess power. Rate of climb for an aircraft is equal to the excess

power divided by the weight of the aircraft.

In a steady level flight thrust of the engine should be equal to the drag force (this is called required

thrust) and in this case the excess power is:

To have excess power thrust available should be greater than the drag (thrust required).

While in steady level flight engine thrust should be equal to drag, to maintain a steady climb the

aircraft needs to have a positive excess power, which means the engine thrust should be greater

than the drag force.

Since rate of climb (R/C) depends on excess power, it becomes easier to use P_R curves to study

climbing flight for both propeller and jet engines.

some excess power. One way to achieve that is to

increase the power of the engine (P_A). This will

increase thrust available and it will become greater

than T_R. In this case two things can happen (or their

combination). One is that the aircraft can start

accelerating, which increases its kinetic energy. Or the

speed stays constant but the aircraft starts climbing,

which increases its potential energy. Or these two can

happen simultaneously. How the excess power is

used

can be chosen by the pilot by adjusting the pitch angle appropriately using the elevator. Now we

are only considering the case where all the excess power is used for climbing. The more general

case of accelerated climb will be studied next.

thrust gets larger than the drag force.

In unaccelerated climb the pilot

controls the aircraft such that the

additional thrust force does not

increase the speed of the aircraft.

Instead it increases the flight path

angle and the aircraft starts climbing.

power to maximum, he gets some excess power as

shown in the figure and this causes a positive rate of

climb. Let's go back to the previous example where a

propeller aircraft was flying at sea level at 61 m/s. We

can compute the maximum rate of climb for that

aircraft at that speed at sea level as follows:

In these graphs you see changes of speed and altitude of an aircraft with time.

level flight here, both speed and

altitude are constant.

climb flight here, speed is

constant, but altitude changes

at a fixed rate.

This is the transient region where the flight is NOT steady. An aircraft cannot

jump from one steady flight condition to another instantaneously. It goes through

an unsteady phase as shown here. In this course however we only study steady

flights.

But the reduction in excess power is really slow so we can still call

it a steady climb.

The aircraft starts climbing steadily at a rate of 5 m/s. Note that this is not exactly a "steady" climb.

As the A/C climbs, both P_R and P_A change with altitude. That means as the altitude increases

the rate of climb changes even if the speed and throttle setting don't change.

As the aircraft gains altitude, excess power

reduces. But the loss in excess power is

relatively slow and we consider this to be a

steady climb.

In this figure the red curves indicate P_R and

P_A at a higher altitude. Finally the aircraft

reaches an altitude where the P_A and P_R

becomes equal and the aircraft cannot climb

anymore.

Another way to have excess power while doing a steady level flight is to reduce required power.

This can be done by changing the flight speed unless the aircraft is already flying at min P_R

speed. If the aircraft is already flying at the min P_R speed, then P_R cannot be reduced any

further, since it is already at the minimum possible value.

AnimportantdifferenceinthelowspeedR/Cperformance

canbeseenbetweenapropellerdrivenandajetA/C.Dueto

theP_A characteristicsofapistonenginepropeller

combination,largeexcesspowersareavailableatlowvalues

ofV_ justabovethestall.Incontrasttheexcesspower

availabletojetA/CatlowV_ issmall,witha

correspondinglyreducedR/Ccapability.

which depends on the speed. There is a certain speed at which excess power becomes

maximum. For propeller aircraft this corresponds to the minimum P_R speed (which

corrseponds to C_Di=3C_D0 point). For jet aircraft the exact speed for maximum excess

power can be found mathematically. This was asked in 2010 MT2 and the solution is

available.

Both the required and available power change with altitude. That means as an aircraft

climbs its rate of climb decreases with altitude. You can compute the rate of climb at a

number of altitudes and when you plot them you can obtain R/C versus altitude curves.

As you can see in the figure above, the maximum altitude an aircraft can climb to depends

on the flight speed. There is a certain speed at which the the aircraft's highest climbing

altitude becomes maximum, that maximum climb altitude is defined as the absolute ceiling.

with altitude

absolute ceiling, P_R and P_A

curves become tangent at one

point. That tangent point is the

speed for absolute ceiling.

V0 speed. But this is NOT the absolute ceiling, because

the aircraft can still climb by changing its speed.

In the sample R/C versus altitude plot given above, the situation at 6.5 km is as follows:

is equal to P_A at 85

m/s speed. Therefore

the A/C has no excess

power at all and

cannot climb at this

altitude and speed.

service ceiling.

Page 177 of 225

rate of climb of 100 ft/min. But we

cannot say that this is the service

ceiling altitude because this is not the

maximum rate of climb for this altitude.

service ceiling because the maximum

rate of climb is equal to 100 ft/min at

this altitude.

excess power. To increase the ceiling of an aircraft

you need to increase excess power. You can

achieve that by increasing power available or

reducing power required.

An aircraft cruising (performing a steady level flight) at a certain altitude and speed may need

to change its altitude due to air traffic regulations. In this case the aircraft will perform

unaccelerated climb as we studied previously.

An aircraft taking off from an airport needs to perform accelerated climb to reach its cruising

altitude and speed.

climb case we equated net forces to zero, now we

consider that flight speed is changing.

divide it by W

The pilot can choose how to split excess power between climbing and acceleration by

adjusting the elevator deflection appropriately.

We can also study the accelerated climb using the energy method.

Energy height is a measure of the total mechanical energy of an aircraft, which is composed of

potential and kinetic energies. Energy height is the sum of the actual height (altitude) and V^

2/2/g which is the contribution of the kinetic energy to the total energy.

At this point

the total

energy

height is 10

km and it is

composed

of potential

energy only

with kinetic

energy

equal to

zero.

At this point

the total

energy height

is 10 km as

well and this

time it is

composed of

kinetic energy

only with

potential

energy equal

to zero.

The blue curves you see in this plot are constant energy height contours. That means

anywhere on a curve the total energy height is constant. Different points on a contour

corresponds to different points where the sharing of the total energy between potential

energy and kinetic energy are different.

cruising condition, the

B747 flies on the

14186 m contour at

this point (h=11000

m, V=250 m/s).

326 m contour at this point (h=0, V=80 m/s).

When it reaches

the cruising

condition, the

B747 flies on the

14186 m contour

at this point (h=

11000 m, V=250

m/s)

on the 326 m contour at this point (h=

0, V=80 m/s).

Notes_2014.05.02.pdf page 1 of 8

There are infinitely many different ways to perform this climb. Two special

cases are shown below. In the red path the aircraft performs an unaccelerated

climb at the initial speed of 80 m/s and then accelerates when it reaches 11 km

altitude. In the green one it first accelerates to cruising speed at sea level, and

then climbs to 11 km. These two are extreme scenarios and in general no pilot

will perform either one of these climbs and instead will follow a path like the

blue

one where the speed and

altitude increase at the

same time.

Suppose that an aircraft is flying at sea level at a speed of 100 m/s. The pilot

increases power available and the aircraft gets an excess power of 100 000

Watts. The aircraft weight is 10000 N. What will be the rate of climb if the pilot

performs unnaccelerated climb?

Notes_2014.05.02.pdf page 2 of 8

What will be the acceleration of the aircraft if the entire excess power is used

for acceleration at constant altitude?

As the last case let's assume that the pilot starts climbing at a rate of 5 m/s and the rest

of the excess power is used for acceleration. What will be the acceleration?

This is for unaccelerated climb where the aircraft climbs at a constant speed.

If an aircraft could maintain the same rate of climb at every altitude, we could

compute the time to climb very easily. For example in a given condition if

R/C for an A/C is 5 m/s, we could directly say that it can climb 5000 m in

1000 seconds. But it is not the case, as we saw before rate of climb changes

with altitude. In this case the time to climb can be computed by integration

as follows:

For this we need to find an expression for R/C as a function of altitude.

We can find R/C expression as a function of air density (rho), but to relate

th t

Page 186 of 225

Notes_2014.05.02.pdf page 3 of 8

not easy. But we can compute the integral numerically. For that we need

to compute R/C at a finite number of altitudes and obtain the following

graph:

Then the time to climb

from 2000 m to 6000 m

for example is the area

of the region shown in

the figure.

Notes_2014.05.02.pdf page 4 of 8

As you can see in this example time to climb at different speeds are different. For this aircraft time to climb from 0

m to 5000 m at 35 m/s is quicker than the climb at 65 m/s, because the area under the green curve is bigger.

integration as follows:

Notes_2014.05.02.pdf page 5 of 8

that the speed of the

aircraft (both forward and

vertical)does not change.

Notes_2014.05.02.pdf page 6 of 8

aerodynamic efficiency. For a lot of different reasons a high L/D ratio is

preferred. This is one of them, if you have a high L/D you can glide at a

small angle, this means when released at a certain altitude you can travel

a long distance.

The max L/D condition is obtained when C_Di=C_D0, which is the point

where T_R becomes minimum. For maximum gliding range an aircraft

has to fly at the min T_R point.

Page 190 of 225

Notes_2014.05.02.pdf page 7 of 8

For best gliding range an aircraft needs to fly at the maximum L/D

condition, which happens to be the same condition for T_R minimum.

Flying at any other speed will result in an L/D value that is smaller than

(L/D)_max and this will reduce the gliding range.

Notes_2014.05.02.pdf page 8 of 8

sets the speed to 410 km/h and achieves a glide ratio of

12:1.

According to a Google search the best CL:CD ratio for this aircraft is approximately

18.

the flight

variable, equal to zero at the beginning of the

flight, increases during the flight

This is also constant, equal to W_0 minus the weight of

full tank of fuel

their sum is constant.

The sum of W_f and W_fb gives the weight of the full tank of fuel. At the

beginning of the flight W_fb is zero and at the end of the flight when the aircraft

runs out of fuel W_f becomes zero.

Page 192 of 225

Notes_2014.05.06.pdf page 1 of 8

Above definitions of c and c_t assume that fuel consumption rate linearly

depends on engine power for piston engines and engine thrust for jet engines.

For piston engines W_fb_dot

versus Power graph is a line with

slope equal to c.

For jet engines W_fb_dot versus

Thrust graph is a line with slope

equal to c_t.

For propeller aircraft driven

by piston (reciprocating)

engines

Page 193 of 225

Notes_2014.05.06.pdf page 2 of 8

as long as

engine produces

power (or thrust)

Notes_2014.05.06.pdf page 3 of 8

In the above integration the right hand side integral is taken from the initial full

weight (W_0) to empty weight (W_1). In this case the left hand side gives the

total time spent while the full tank of fuel is consumed, which is defined as the

endurance.

The above equation gives the endurance for any flight condition. We didn't

make any assumptions to get to this equation. Starting from takeoff, during

climb, different steady flight phases, descend, etc. power of the engine will be

changing. If you insert the varying P in to above equation you can compute the

endurance.

Let's consider an aircraft taking off, cruising for a certain amount of time and

then lands. Assume that the aircraft burns all its fuel during this flight.

Notes_2014.05.06.pdf page 4 of 8

To compute the endurance you need to plot 1/cP as a function of weight and

then calculate the area under that curve between W_1 and W_0.

Notes_2014.05.06.pdf page 5 of 8

Again the above equation for range is valid for any flight condition. Note that

during a flight speed may be changing, therefore in general V_infinity in the

above equation is a variable.

equations given. Note that the above shown curves are not typical curves for

1/cP and V/cP. Shapes of the curves may be very different depending on the

flight.

Simpler equtions may be obtained for specific phases of flight. Steady level

flight (cruising) is the easiest but probably the most important phase of flight.

So let's take a look at the simplified equations for cruising flight:

Page 197 of 225

Notes_2014.05.06.pdf page 6 of 8

flight.

Notes_2014.05.06.pdf page 7 of 8

Notes_2014.05.06.pdf page 8 of 8

To quickly conclude what maximizes range and endurance for propeller and jet aircraft we can consider the SFC

definitions.

For maximum endurance, fuel consumption per unit time has to be minimum.

For maximum range, fuel consumption per unit distance has to be minimum.

level turn maneuver.

Sustained means that the

aircraft turns in a steady

manner. Speed and altitude

of the aircraft do not change

during the turn.

Notes_2014.05.13.pdf page 1 of 10

One way to change the direction of an aircraft is to turn it like a car. That

means the wings of the aircraft stay parallel to the ground and the aircraft

turns with pure yawing with roll angle equal to zero.

This turn maneuver is called "skid-to-turn" maneuver and most missiles turn

this way. But for aircraft this turn maneuver is not preferred because the

people on board feel a lateral force due to centrifugal acceleration.

Cars have to follow the road surface and drivers cannot change the roll angle

during a turn. This is not the case for aircraft. Pilots can control the roll angle.

By adjusting the roll angle appropriately the pilot can assure that

Page 204 of 225

Notes_2014.05.13.pdf page 2 of 10

phi is the roll angle. If you set the roll (bank)

angle such that the aircraft y axis becomes

perpendicular to the total acceleration vector,

then people sitting in the aircraft will feel no

lateral acceleration (forces).

This is the total acceleration vector. Aircraft's

bank angle is set such that its z axis becomes

parallel to the acceleration vector, and y axis

becomes perpendicular to that.

This type of turn where the bank angle is set perfectly to ensure no lateral

acceleration occurs is called a "coordinated turn". Changing the bank angle

for a turning maneuver is called "bank-to-turn" maneuver. It is harder to

perform this manuever (compared to skid-to-turn maneuver) since the pilot has

to control the ailerons, elevator, rudder, and throttle simultaneously and that is

why most missile autopilots perform skid-to-turn maneuvers.

Notes_2014.05.13.pdf page 3 of 10

Notes_2014.05.13.pdf page 4 of 10

When we sit straight we only feel the gravitational acceleration, which gives

our weight. But while turning we feel a larger acceleration, which is the vector

of gravitational acceleration and centrifugal acceleration, given by:

Let's take a look at the total acceleration felt by the pilot during a

coordinated turn maneuver:

During a sustained level turn maneuver with a load factor n, people on board

experience a net acceleration that is n times the gravitational acceleration g.

Notes_2014.05.13.pdf page 5 of 10

During a sustained level turn maneuver load factor is determined by the bank

angle only. If the bank angle is large that means load factor is large as well.

Notes_2014.05.13.pdf page 6 of 10

Turning performance of an aircraft depends on the flight speed and load factor.

An aircraft that can make faster and tighter turns is said to be highly

maneuverable. So for better maneuverability you need a large load factor.

Page 209 of 225

Notes_2014.05.13.pdf page 7 of 10

make sure that your aircraft can have high load factors. Now the question

becomes how is the load factor related to the design of the aircraft? In other

words how should you design the aircraft such that it can handle high load

factors? We can answer this question by looking at the load factor definition:

For a high load factor aircraft, the aircraft should be capable of creating very

large lift forces. For a 9 g turn, lift should be equal to 9 times the weight. This

puts a constraint on aerodynamics.

Notes_2014.05.13.pdf page 8 of 10

But we know that C_L cannot be greater than C_Lmax, otherwise the

aircraft stalls. For a given C_Lmax the maximum load factor an aircraft

can have is given by:

can have is limited aerodynamically by the above equation. If you plot the

above equation as a function of V you get:

Let's see what is the maximum load factor an aircraft can have. There are different

limiting factors. Let's consider the aerodynamics first.

Notes_2014.05.13.pdf page 9 of 10

Notes_2014.05.13.pdf page 10 of 10

Let's study the turning performance of the C-130 aircraft. Data used are taken

from the a953109.pdf file and the internet. We have

W0 = 5.5315e+005

S = 162.1;

rho = 1.225;

At any speed the maximum lift force is achieved with the maximum lift coefficient.

Assume that a fully loaded (W=W0) C-130 is flying with a clean wing (no flaps) at a

speed of 100 m/s. What is highest load factor the aircraft can achieve?

Maximum speed of the aircraft at sea level with W=W0 can be found from the power

curve.

Page 213 of 225

Notes_2014.05.16.pdf page 1 of 8

Above plot shows us that the C-130 aircraft is capable of achieving a load factor

of up to 13 with flaps fully extended aerodynamically.

capable of achieving a load

factor of 8.5 while flying at

maximum speed.

Next let's find out if the aircraft

can perform a sustained level

turn maneuver with a load factor

of 7 at a speed of 156 m/s.

We need to check if the engines

can provide sufficient power to

balance the required power

during that maneuver.

Notes_2014.05.16.pdf page 2 of 8

Obviously the aircraft cannot sustain a turn under these conditions because it doesn't

have enough power to maintain the speed. Then the question is what is the

maximum load factor it can sustain??? For the maximum sustainable maneuver at

V=156 m/s, required power should be equal to the maximum available power. For

that the drag coefficient must be less than 0.23. What should CD be?

Therefore the maximum sustainable load factor is the one corresponding to this CL

Notes_2014.05.16.pdf page 3 of 8

But aerodynamic limit is not the only limiting factor. At such hight lift forces there

will be very large drag forces as well. If you need to sustain the maneuver your

engines should give you enough thrust force. Let's calculate the thrust required

(or power required) at the maximum load factor:

Therefore even though C-130 can aerodynamically generate a load factor 7, its

engines are far from giving the necessary power to sustain a level turn at that

speed and load factor. In this case propulsive limit is much lower than the

aerodynamic limit.

So the next question is what is the maximum load factor then engines will allow for

a sustained maneuver? Consider the V=156 m/s speed again. The maximum

power is

From the drag polar, the CL value corresponding to CD=0.0291 is 0.44. The lift force at

that speed and CL value is

Notes_2014.05.16.pdf page 4 of 8

You can calculate the maximum load factor limited by the engine as follows:

Choose a flight speed

Running at full throttle find the maximum thrust at that speed.

Using T=D, find the maximum C_D

Find the C_L value corresponding to the C_D you found above. If you are using

the drag polar equation you can solve it from there. If you are using the drag

polar curve you read the C_L value from the curve.

Find the lift force corresponding to the C_L value you found above.

Find n_max_limited by the engines from L/W. For C-130 you get the following

curves:

In addition to aerodynamic and propulsive limit, you also need to consider the

structural limit. For C-130 maximum load factor with maximum weight is given as

2. That means even if aerodynamic and porpulsive limitations let you have a

large load factor, you need to take structural limit into account as well, otherwise

the wings will be damaged or even they will be broken as we saw in the videos.

Notes_2014.05.16.pdf page 5 of 8

According to this

graph the maximum

load factor for C-130

limited by the

aerodynamics is less

than 6 with no flaps.

If the flaps are

extended fully n_max

increases to about 9.

This plot shows the aerodynamic limit for load factor. There are other factors that limit n_max. In other words you

cannot make a highly maneuverable aircraft by just making C_Lmax large. At large C_L values C_D becomes

large as well. So to sustain a maneuver the engines should be powerful enough to overcome aerodynamic drag.

So the maximum power the engines can provide is another limiting factor.

Aerodynamically we know that we can get ~9g at max speed with full flaps. Let's

see if the engines are powerful enough to sustain a 9g maneuver at that speed.

We need to compute P_R at that condition and see if the engine can provide

that.

From the a953109.pdf document, C_D corresponding to C_Lmax for full flaps is

approximately 0.26. P_R at that condition is then

164.4 m/s speed is approximately 10 times the maximum power engines can

provide. This means to make C-130 a 9g aircraft we need 40 of these engines!!!

Notes_2014.05.16.pdf page 6 of 8

C-130 is flying

at its

aerodynamic

and propulsive

limit. That

means C_L =

C_Lmax and

P_R = P_Amax

V* the maximum load

factor is limited by

C_Lmax.

V* the maximum load

factor is limited by the

engines.

The red curve for propulsion limit starts at high speed values. For every point on the red curve there are

corresponding C_L and C_D values. If you want to extend the red curve to lower speed values, C_L values required

for those points will be outside the drag polar curve. That's why the red curve does not extend to low speed values.

Notes_2014.05.16.pdf page 7 of 8

So far we saw that to make C-130 a 9g aircraft we need to extend the flaps fully

and make the engines 10 times more powerful. Is this enough? Can a C-130

make 9g maneuvers by just having more powerful engines? The answer is no.

That's because during a 9g maneuver the lift force will be 9 times the weight of

the aircraft. But the wings are designed for the originial n_max of ~2.25 g. That

means to make C-130 a 9g aircraft you need to make the wings approximately 4

times stronger. But this will change the overall weight and you need to start from

the beginning again.

Typical V-n diagram, showing the maximum load factor an aircraft can get at different speeds, also called the

flight envelope.

margin of safety

Notes_2014.05.16.pdf page 8 of 8

Notes_2014.05.20.pdf page 1 of 5

Notes_2014.05.20.pdf page 2 of 5

Notes_2014.05.20.pdf page 3 of 5

Parabolic Flight:

Notes_2014.05.20.pdf page 4 of 5

Notes_2014.05.20.pdf page 5 of 5

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