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Action at a distance

What is the force on the test charge Q due to a source

charge q?

concept of action at a distance.

which all the source charges are stationary.

explanation of the mechanism by which the force is

transmitted from one point to the other.

between any two charges is completely unaffected by the

presence of others.

his theory.

gravitational, electric, and magnetic field.

1

How does one particle sense the presence of the other?

charges.

around it. A second charged particle does not interact

directly with the first; rather, it responds to whatever field it

encounters. In this sense, the field acts as an intermediary

between the particles.

directly by experiment.

F=

kqQ

1 qQ

r =

r

2

4 0 r 2

r

F = F1 + F2 + " =

N m2

Where k = 9 10

C2

C2

12

and 0 = 8.86 10

N m2

9

where E =

1

4 0

Q

4 0

q1

q

r + 22 r2 + ") = QE

2 1

r1

r2

q1

q

1

r + 22 r2 + ") =

2 1

4 0

r1

r2

i =1

qi

r

2 i

ri

unit charge placed at that point.

Example

100 N/C directed vertically down at the earths surface.

Compare the electrical and gravitational forces on an

electron.

Solution:

of charge, one must divide the charge distribution into

infinitesimal elements of charge dq which may be considered to

be point charges.

1

1 dq

dq

dE =

4 0 r 2

E=

4 0

Fe=eE=1.6x10-19x100=1.6x10-17 N. (upward)

The magnitude of the gravitational force is

Fg=mg=9.11x10-31x9.8=8.9x10-30 N. (downward)

5

Example

Example 2.1

charge density C/m2. What is the field strength at a

distance y from the center along the central axis.

line of charge with linear charge density C/m.

Solution:

Since the charge carrier is infinite long,

the electric field in y-direction completely

cancel out. Thus the resultant field is

along the x-axis.

dE x =

=

Ex =

Solution:

The y-component of the field is

kdq y

r2 r

2

2

2

where r = x + y and dq = (2 xdx)

a

2 xdx

E y = k y

0 ( x 2 + y 2 )3/ 2

a

dx 2

= k y

2

0 ( x + y 2 )3/ 2

dE y = dE cos =

1 cos dA

1 R sec 2 cos d

=

2

4 0

r

4 0

( R sec ) 2

1 cos d

4 0

R

1

4 0

/2

cos d =

/2

2 0 R

2.2.1 Field Lines, Flux, and Gausss Law

Field Lines

How to determine the field strength from the field lines?

field strength?

The field strength at any point could be represented by an

arrow drawn to scale. However, when several charges are

present, the use of arrows of varying length and orientations

becomes confusing. Instead we represent the electric field by

continuous field lines or lines of force.

The lines are crowed together when the field is strong and

spread apart where the field is weaker. The field strength is

proportional to the density of the lines.

10

Flux

Example

this surface is defined as

E = EA cos

Solution:

= EA

(a)Symmetry

(b)Near field

(c)Far field

(d)Null point

E = E n da

(e)Number of lines

11

12

Flux

Gausss Law

entering a closed surface is negative.

a point charge?

lines that enter the surface is equal to the number that

leave.

Gaussian surface is

E = E n da

=

Q

4 0 r 2

4 r 2 =

The net flux through a closed surface equals 1/0 times the

net charge enclosed by the surface.

Can we prove the above statement for arbitrary closed shape?

13

14

from integral equation into differential form

The circle on the integral sign indicates that the Gaussian

surface must be enclosed.

The flux through a surface is determined by the net charge

enclosed.

E da = E n da =

S

Qenc

E n da = ( E)d

S

So

and

Qenc

d

v

( E)d = d

v

Since this holds for any volume, the integrands must be equal

How to apply Gausss law?

1. Use symmetry.

2. Properly choose a Gaussian surface (E//A or EA).

E =

15

16

2.2.3 Application of the Gausss Law

Example 2.2

A non-conducting uniform charged sphere of radius R has

a total charge Q uniformly distributed throughout its volume.

Find the field (a) inside, and (b) outside, the sphere.

E=

1

4 0

all space

dq

1

r =

2

r

4 0

all space

r

(r)d

r2

1

E =

4 0

r

all space ( r 2 ) (r)d

operator doesnt apply

on the r coordinate?

r

) = 4 3 (r ),

2

r

1

1

E =

4 3 (r r) (r)d = (r )

4 0 all space

0

Solution:

(a) inside

Q 43 r 3

enc

1

E=

r = ( 4 3 )

r

2

4r

4 0 r 2

3 R

Since (

4 0 R 3

(b) outside

E=

17

rr

r =

r

2

4r

4 0 r 2

18

Example 2.5

Example 2.3

A long cylinder carries a charge density that is proportional

to the distance from the axis: =ks, for some constant k.

Find the electric field inside the cylinder?

charge with surface charge density +; (b) two parallel

infinite sheets with charges density + and -.

Solution:

Solution:

Pick up a Gaussian surface as shown in the figure.

The total charge enclosed is

s

2

Qenc = A (ks) sdsd = kAs 3

0

3

Qenc

1

E=

= ks 2 in s direction

0 2sA 3

19

20

The electric field can be expressed in the following form

Symmetry is crucial to the application of Gausss law.

There are only three kinds of symmetry that work:

E=

1

4 0

all space

1

r

(r)d =

2

r

4 0

all space

1

( ) (r)d

r

1. Spherical symmetry: Make your Gaussian surface a

concentric sphere.

2. Cylindrical symmetry: Make your Gaussian surface a

coaxial cylinder.

3. Plane symmetry: Use a Gaussian pillbox, which

straddles the surface.

E =

1

4 0

operator doesnt apply

1

( ( )) (r)d on the r coordinate?

all space

r

The principle of superposition states that the total field is

a vector sum of their individual fields E=E1+E2+

21

2.3.1&2 Introduction to and Comments on Potential

Can we apply the concept of potential, first introduced in

mechanics, to electrostatic system and find the law of

conservation of energy?

22

The motion of a particle with positive charge q in a uniform

electric field is analogous to the motion of a particle of mass

m in uniform gravitational field near the earth.

WEXT = + U = U f U i

gravitational potential energy, and apply the law of

conservation of energy in the analysis of electrical problems.

Potential is a property of a point in space and depends only

on the source charges.

Potential is not equal to the potential energy.

23

external agent on the charges.

If WEXT <0, work is done on the

external agent by the field.

Potential energy depends not only on the source but also

on the test particle. Thus it will be more convenient if we

can define a potential function which is function of source

24

only.

We see that only changes in potential V, rather than the

specific value of Vi and Vf, are significant.

electrostatic field, the change in electric potential, V, is

defined as the change in electrostatic potential energy per

unit charge,

U

V =

the zero of potential.

a positive unit charge, at constant speed, from the position

of zero potential to the given point.

1V = 1 J / C = 1 N m / C

charges tend to decrease the electrostatic potential energy.

source charges, not on the test charge.

two conducting plates with potential difference, higher or

lower potential side?

WEXT = qV = q(V f Vi )

25

26

Potential is Conservative

In mechanics, the definition of potential energy in terms of

the work done by the conservative force is U=-Wc.. The

negative sign tells us that positive work by the conservative

force leads to a decrease in potential energy.

Therefore, the change in potential energy, associated with

an infinitesimal displacement ds, is

dU = Fc ds = qE ds

dV =

dU

= E ds

q

The fundamental theorem of gradient states that

B

VB VA = (V ) ds

A

and

VB VA = E ds

A

so

E = V

whose curl is always zero.

E = ( V ) = 0

VB VA = E ds

A

this line integral depends only on the end points A and B,

27

not on the path taken.

potential, which is a scalar, rather than the electric field

strength, which is a vector.

28

spherical shell of radius R, which carries a uniform surface

charge. Set the reference point at infinity.

potential.

E = V

and then use the electric field to calculate the potential.

terms of V?

Inside (r < R ) E = 0

outside (r > R ) E = 4 r 2

0

r

q

(r > R)

V ( r ) = E dA =

4 0 r

and V (r ) =

q

4 0 R

Gauss' s law E = ( V ) = 2V =

E = ( V ) = 0

Curl law

E = 0 permits E = V ;

in turn, E = V guarantees E = 0

(r < R)

29

Distribution

charge q at the origin is

V (r ) =

1

4 0

q

1 q

dr =

2

r

4 0 r

30

V (r ) =

1

4 0

qi

r

i =1

chosen precisely in order to make the potential of a positive

charge come out positive.

V (r ) =

dq

1

4 0 r

V (r ) =

31

1

4 0

(r)

r

1

(r)

d

4 0

r

1

(r)

d

4 0

r

32

Example

Example

charge density C/m2. What is the potential at a point on

the axis of the disk at a distance from its center.

over its surface. Find the potential at a distance r >R from

its center.

Solution:

Solution:

It is more straightforward to use the electric field, which we

know from Gausss law.

dV =

4 0 r

, dq = (2xdx)

dV =

4 0 x + y

2

4 0 x 2 + y 2

V =

=

dq

dx 2

E=

Q

4 0 r

r

2

33

V (r ) =

dx 2

[

[

( x 2 + y 2 ) 0.5 y ]0 =

(a 2 + y 2 ) 0.5 y ]

2 0

2 0

V ( r ) V ( ) =

4 0 r

dr =

2

1

Q

4 0 r 0

1

Q

4 0 r

conducting sphere equal to the potential at the surface.

34

The electric field is not

continuous at a surface with

charge density . Why?

interrelating three fundamental

quantities: , E and V.

E da =

S

Qenc

A

0

limit as the thickness goes to zero.

The principle of superposition: a general rule applying to

all electromagnetic forces.

( Eabove

Ebelow

)A =

35

( Eabove

Ebelow

)=

0

0

36

n (Vabove Vbelow ) = n

0

0

V

V

or ( above below ) =

0

n

n

by contract, is always continuous.

Consider a thin rectangular loop.

The curl of the electric field states that

E above E below =

E dA = 0

P

Vabove

= V n

n

denotes the normal derivative of V.

where

The ends gives nothing (as 0), and the sides give

//

//

//

//

( Eabove

Ebelow

)A = 0 Eabove

= Ebelow

Why?

0

37

2.4.1 The Work Done to Move a charge

Homework #3

Problems: 2.9,

38

you move a test charge Q from point

a to point b?

to do the job.

b

So V (b) V (a) = W / Q

The potential difference between points a and b is equal to

the work per unit charge required to carry a particle from a

to b.

39

40

The motion of a charge in an electric field may be discussed

in terms of the conservation of energy, K+U =0. In terms of

potential, the conservation law may be written as

assemble an entire collection of point

charges?

q

q

q

1

1

W1 = 0, W2 =

q2 ( 1 ) , W3 =

q3 ( 1 + 2 )

4 0

r12

4 0

r13 r23

K = qV

It is convenient to measure the energy of elementary

particles, such as electrons and protons, in terms of a non-SI

unit called the electronvolt (1 eV=1.6x10-19 J).

qq qq q q

W=

( 1 2 + 1 3 + 2 3)

4 0 r12

r13

r23

1

=

1

4 0

qi q j

i =1 j =1

j >i

1 n

1

qi (

2 i =1 4 0

rij

n

=

qj

r

j =1

j i

ij

1

8 0

)=

i =1 j =1

j i

qi q j

of eV for an electron of rest mass 9.1x10-31 kg, where the

speed of light is 3x108 m/s.

rij

1 n

qiVi (ri )

2 i =1

E=9.1x10-31x(3x108)2/1.6x10-19=0.511 MeV

41

42

Example

parallel plates a distance 20 cm apart. There is a uniform

electric field of 3x105 V/m between the plates, as shown below.

If the initial speed of the proton is 5x106 m/s, what is its final

speed?

1

1

dWi = (dqi )Vi (ri ) = iVi (ri )(d )

2

2

1

1

W = Vd = ( 0 E)Vd = 0 ( E)Vd

2

2

2

(VE) = (V ) E + ( E)V

Integration by parts:

W=

W=

( E)Vd =

2

2

0

2

1 2 1 2

mv f mvi = qV

2

2

[ E (V )d + (EV )da]

[ E d + (EV )da]

2

E d

Solution:

v f = vi2 + 2qV / m

= ((5 106 ) 2 2 1.6 1019 6 104 / 1.67 1027 ))0.5

divergence theorem

= 6 106 m/s.

all space

43

44

Example

which an electron orbits a stationary proton in a circular

path. Find the total mechanical energy of the electron given

that the radius of the orbit is 0.53x10-10 m.

Solution:

The mechanical energy is the sum of the kinetic and

potential energies, E=K+U. The centripetal force is

provided by the coulomb attraction.

U =

F=

45

e2

4 0 r

e2

4 0 r

W =

W=

q

4 0 r

dq =

46

Solution:

4 0 r

mv 2

1

e2

K = mv 2 =

r

2

8 0 r

potential energy.

1

9 109 (1.6 10 19 ) 2

E =U + K = U =

= 2.18 10 18 J = 13.6 eV

2

2 0.53 10 10

Example

dW = Vdq =

W=

dq

0

2

E d

2

all space

n

1

qiVi (ri ) or 0

2 i =1

Q2

8 0 R

Does it make sense? No

the work needed to bring the

system of charges together.

W=

47

0

2

E d = 2 ( 4 r

2

all space

) 2 (r 2 sin drdd ) =

48

2.5 Conductor

2.5.1 Basic Properties

(ii) Where is the energy stored?

W=

all space

E 2 ) d

W=

1 n

qiVi (ri )

2 i =1

E = 0 inside a conductor

= 0 inside a conductor

is located. Really?

electrostatic energy is quadratic in the fields.

W=

=

0

2

0

2

E d =

2

all space

(E

2

1

0

2

(E

+ E 2 ) 2 d

A conductor is an equipotential

all space

+ E22 + 2E1 E 2 )d

all space

49

Charge Redistribution

50

are connected by a long wire. Charge will flow from one to

the other until their potential are equal. The equality of the

potential implies that

Q1 Q2

, since Q = 4R 2

=

R1 R2

E=

0 R

the sharp points on a conductor.

1 R1 = 2 R2

We infer that 1/R: The surface charge density on each

sphere is inversely proportional to the radius.

The regions with the smallest radii of curvature have the

greatest surface charge densities.

51

If the field strength is great enough (about 3x106 V/m for dry

air) it can cause an electrical discharge in air.

How does the breakdown occur in high voltage transmission

line?

52

Induced charge

on metal sphere

The potential at the surface of a charged sphere is V=kQ/R

and the field strength is E=kQ/R2. So, for a given breakdown

field strength, breakdown voltage is proportional to the

radius, VB R.

The potential of a sphere of radius 10 cm may be raised to

3x105 V before breakdown. On the other hand, a 0.05 mm

dust particle can initiate a discharge at 150 V.

cavity there is some charge, then the field in the cavity will

not be zero.

No external fields penetrate the conductor; they are

canceled at the outer surface by the induced charge there.

53

2.5.4 Capacitors

capacitor is directly proportional to the potential difference V

between the plates. Therefore, we may write

In the immediate neighborhood of the surface, the

energy is

dW = (

f =

0

2

E 2 ) d = (

Q = CV

0 2

( ) )dadx = fdadx

2 0

called the capacitance of the capacitor.

2 0

2

(F). 1Farad =1 coulomb/volt

the surface, tending to draw the charge into the field,

regardless of the sign of .

P=

0

2

E2 =

2

2 0

54

of the plates (their size, shape, and relative positions) and

the medium (such as air, paper, or plastic) between them.

55

56

Example

Parallel-plate capacitor

A common arrangement found in capacitors consists of two

plates.

0 A

Q

dQ

E=

0 A

V = Ed =

0 A

C=

Solution:

V=

of 1 mm has a capacitance of 1 F. What is the area of each

plate?

A=

Cd

1 10 3

= 1.13 108 m 2

12

8.85 10

Q

4 0 R

C = 4 0 R

6370 km, then its capacitance would be 710 uF.

Is earth a good capacitor? No.

57

58

Example

Example

spheres, as shown in the figure. The inner sphere, of radius

R1, has charge +Q, while the outer shell of radius R2, has

charge Q. Find its capacitance.

radius a surrounded by a cylindrical shell of radius b, as

shown below. Find the capacitance of a length L assuming

that air is between the plates.

Solution:

Solution:

E=

Q

4 0 r

C = 4 0 (

R2

V = Edr =

R1

Q

4 0

1

1

)

R2 R1

R1 R2

)

R2 R1

=

0 2rL 2 0 r

b

b

ln( )

Vr = Er dr =

a

2 0

a

Er =

b

ln( )

2 0 L a

2 0 L

ln(b / a )

Again, we are interested only in the magnitude of the

capacitance.

C=

59

60

The energy stored in a capacitor is equal to the work done--for example, by a battery---to charge it.

The work needed to transfer an infinitesimal charge dq from

the negative plate to the positive plate is dW=Vdq=q/Cdq.

Homework #4

Problems: 2.34, 2.36, 2.39, 2.46, 2.48

W =

q

Q 2 CV 2

dq =

=

C

2C

2

Electric potential energy.

61

62

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