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Chap 7 Resistance and Powering of Ship


Objectives
Prediction of Ships Power
- Ships driving system and concept of power
- Resistance of ship and its components
frictional resistance
wave-making resistance
others
- Froude expansion
- Effective horse power calculation

Introduction

When the hull form has been decided upon, it is necessary to determine the amount
of engine power that will enable the ship to meet its operational requirements.
Knowing the power required to propel a ship enables the naval architect to select a
propulsion plant, determine the amount of fuel storage required, and refine the
ships center of gravity estimate
naval architects have endeavored to increase the speed of ships.
wind was the force used to propel ships through the water and ships could only go
as fast as the wind would propel them.
wind was the force used to propel ships through the water and ships could only go
as fast as the wind would propel them.
Testing of full-scale ships and models determined that the power required to propel
a ship through the water was directly related to the amount of resistance a hull
experiences when moving through the water.
the modern screw propeller was developed, replacing the paddle wheel as the prime
mode of ship propulsion. The screw propeller, with many modifications to its
original design, remains the principle method of ship propulsion to this day.

Ship Drive Shaft and Power


Ship Drive Shaft System
EHP
Engine

Reduction
Gear

Bearing

Strut Screw
Seals
THP

BHP

SHP

DHP
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Ship Drive shaft and Power


Horse Power in Drive Train
Brake Horse Power (BHP)
- Power output at the shaft coming out of the engine before
the reduction gears
Shaft Horse Power (SHP)
- Power output after the reduction gears
- SHP=BHP - losses in reduction gear

Ship Drive Train and Power


Delivered Horse Power (DHP)
- Power delivered to the propeller
- DHP=SHP losses in shafting, shaft bearings and seals
Thrust Horse Power (THP)
- Power created by the screw/propeller
- THP=DHP Propeller losses
E/G

BHP

R/G

SHP

Shaft
Bearing

DHP

Prop.

THP

Hull

EHP

Relative Magnitudes
BHP>SHP>DHP>THP>EHP

Effective Horse Power (EHP)


EHP : The power required to move the ship hull at a given
speed in the absence of propeller action
(EHP is not related with Power Train System)
EHP can be determined from the towing tank experiments at
the various speeds of the model ship.
EHP of the model ship is converted into EHP of the full scale
ship by Froudes Law.
Towing Tank

Measured EHP
V
Towing carriage

Effective Horsepower, EHP (HP)

Effective Horse Power (EHP)


POWERCURVE
YARDPATROL CRAFT

1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

10

12

14

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Ship Speed, Vs (Knots)

Typical EHP Curve of YP

Effective Horse Power (EHP)


Efficiencies
Hull Efficiency

EHP
H =
THP
- Hull efficiency changes due to hull-propeller interactions.
- Well-designed ship : H 1
- Poorly-designed ship : H 1
Well-designed

Poorly-designed

- Flow is not smooth.


- THP is reduced.
- High THP is needed
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to get designed speed.

Effective Horse Power (EHP)


Efficiencies (contd)
EHP
Propeller Efficiency

propeller

Screw

THP
=
DHP

Propulsive Coefficients (PC)

THP
SHP

DHP

EHP
p =
SHP

p 0.6 for well designed propeller

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Total Hull Resistance


Total Hull Resistance (RT)
The force that the ship experiences opposite to the motion of
the ship as it moves.
EHP Calculation

ft
RT (lb) VS
s
EHP(H P ) =
ft lb

550
s HP

RT = total hull resistance


VS = speed of ship

ft lb ft J
RT V S ( lb ) =
= = Watts : Power
s
s
s
1 Watts = 1 / 550 H P
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Total Hull Resistance (cont)


Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance
- Non-dimensional value of total resistance

RT
lb

non - dimension
CT =
2
2
lb s 2 ft 2
0.5 Vs S
4
ft
ft

CT = Coefficient of total hull resistance in calm water


RT = Total hull resistance

= Fluid density
VS = Speed of ship
S = wetted surface area on the submerged hull

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Total Hull Resistance (cont)


Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance (contd)
-Total Resistance of full scale ship can be determined
using

CT , , S and VS

RT (lb) = 0.5SVS CT
CT : determined by the model test

: available from water property table


S : obtained from Curves of form
VS : Full scale ship speed
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Total Resistance, Rt (lb)

Total Hull Resistance (cont)

Relation of Total Resistance Coefficient and Speed


T
O
T
A
LR
E
S
IS
T
A
N
C
EC
U
R
V
E
Y
A
R
DP
A
T
R
O
LC
R
A
F
T

20000

15000

10000

5000

0
0

RT CT VS
VS

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S
hipS
peed, V
s(knots)

n = from 2 at low speed


to 5 at high speed

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14

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EHP RTVS CT VS VS
VS

n = from 3 at low speed


to 6 at high speed 14

Components of Total Resistance


Total Resistance

RT = RV + RW + RA
RV : Viscous Resistance
RW : Wave Making Resistance
RA : Air Resistance
Viscous Resistance
- Resistance due to the viscous stresses that the fluid exerts
on the hull.
( due to friction of the water against the surface of the ship)
- Viscosity, ships velocity, wetted surface area of ship
generally affect the viscous resistance.
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Components of Total Resistance


Wave-Making Resistance
- Resistance caused by waves generated by the motion of the ship
- Wave-making resistance is affected by beam to length ratio,
displacement, shape of hull, Froude number (ship length &
speed)
Air Resistance
- Resistance caused by the flow of air over the ship with no
wind present
- Air resistance is affected by projected area, shape of the ship
above the water line, wind velocity and direction
- Typically 4 ~ 8 % of the total resistance

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Components of Total Hull Resistance

Resistance (lb)

Total Resistance and Relative Magnitude of Components

Air Resistance
Hollow
Hump

Wave-making

Viscous
Speed (kts)

- Low speed : Viscous R


- Higher speed : Wave-making R
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- Hump (Hollow) : location is function of ship length and speed.

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance


Viscous Flow around a ship

Real ship : Turbulent flow exists near the bow.


Model ship : Studs or sand strips are attached at the bow
to create the turbulent flow.
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Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)


Coefficients of Viscous Resistance
- Non-dimensional quantity of viscous resistance
- It consists of tangential and normal components.

flow

a
norm

CV = Ctangential+ Cnormal= CF + KCF


bow

ta n

ia
t
n
e

ship

stern

Tangential Component : CF
- Tangential stress is parallel to ships hull and causes
a net force opposing the motion ; Skin Friction
- It is assumed CF can be obtained from the experimental
data of flat plate.
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Wave-Making Resistance
Typical Wave Pattern
Stern divergent wave

Bow divergent wave

L
Transverse wave

Wave Length
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Wave-Making Resistance
Transverse wave System
It travels at approximately the same speed as the ship.
At slow speed, several crests exist along the ship length
because the wave lengths are smaller than the ship length.
As the ship speeds up, the length of the transverse wave
increases.
When the transverse wave length approaches the ship length,
the wave making resistance increases very rapidly.
This is the main reason for the dramatic increase in
Total Resistance as speed increases.
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Wave-Making Resistance (cont)


Transverse wave System
Vs < Hull Speed

Vs Hull Speed

Slow
Speed
Wave
Length
High
Speed
Wave Length

Hull Speed : speed at which the transverse wave length equals


the ship length.
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(Wavemaking resistance drastically increases above hull speed)

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)


Calculation of Wave-Making Resistance Coeff.
Wave-making resistance is affected by
- beam to length ratio
- displacement
- hull shape
- Froude number
The calculation of the coefficient is far difficult and inaccurate
from any theoretical or empirical equation.
(Because mathematical modeling of the flow around ship
is very complex since there exists fluid-air boundary,
wave-body interaction)
Therefore model test in the towing tank and Froude expansion
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are needed to calculate the Cw of the real ship.

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)


Bulbous Bow

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Other Type of Resistances


Appendage Resistance
- Frictional resistance caused by the underwater appendages
such as rudder, propeller shaft, bilge keels and struts
- 2 24% of the total resistance in naval ship.
Steering Resistance
- Resistance caused by the rudder motion.
- Small in warships but troublesome in sail boats
Added Resistance
- Resistance due to sea waves which will cause the ship
motions (pitching, rolling, heaving, yawing).
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Other Resistances
Increased Resistance in Shallow Water
- Resistance caused by shallow water effect
- Flow velocities under the hull increases in shallow water.
: Increment of frictional resistance due to the velocities
: Pressure drop, suction, increment of wetted surface area
Increases frictional resistance
- The waves created in shallow water take more energy from
the ship than they do in deep water for the same speed.
Increases wave making resistance
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Basic Theory Behind Ship Modeling


Modeling a ship
- It is not possible to measure the resistance of the full-scale ship
- The ship needs to be scaled down to test in the tank but
the scaled ship (model) must behave in exactly same way
as the real ship.
- How do we scale the prototype ship ?
- Geometric and Dynamic similarity must be achieved.

prototype ship

prototype

?
Dimension
Speed
Force

model ship

Model
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Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling


Geometric Similarity
- Geometric similarity exists between model and
prototype if the ratios of all characteristic dimensions
in model and prototype are equal.
- The ratio of the ship length to the model length is typically
used to define the scale factor.
Scale Factor =
LS (ft)
=
: Length
LM (ft)
S S (ft 2 )
=
S M (ft 2 )

: Area

S (ft 3 )
=
M (ft 3 )

: Volume

S : full scale ship


M : Model

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Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling


Dynamic Similarity
- Dynamic Similarity exists between model and prototype
if the ratios of all forces in model and prototype are the
same.
- Total Resistance : Frictional Resistance+ Wave Making+Others

CV = f ( Rn ),

CW = f ( Fn )

RnS = RnM ,

FnS = FnM

LSVS LMVM
=
,
vS
vM
vM LS
VM = VS
,
vS LM

VS
VM
=
gLS
gLM
VM = VS

LM
LS
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Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling


Corresponding Speeds
FnS = FnM ,

VS
VM
=
gLS
gLM

VS (ft/s) VM (ft/s)
=
LS (ft)
LM (ft)
- Example :
Ship length = 200 ft, Model length : 10 ft
Ship speed = 20 kts, Model speed towed ?

VM = VS
= VS

LM
1
= VS
LS
LS / LM
1
1
= 20kts
= 4.47 kts

20

1kt.=1.688 ft/s

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