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Introduction to FEM

FEM Modeling:
Introduction

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 1

Introduction to FEM

FEM Terminology
degrees of freedom (abbrv: DOF)
state (primary) variables: displacements in mechanics
conjugate variables: forces in mechanics
stiffness matrix
master stiffness equations

Ku =f
K u = fM + fI

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 2

Introduction to FEM

Physical Significance of Vectors u and f


in Miscellaneous FEM Applications
Application
Problem

State (DOF) vector u


represents

Forcing vector f
represents

Structures and solid mechanics

Displacement

Mechanical force

Heat conduction

Temperature

Heat flux

Acoustic fluid

Displacement potential

Particle velocity

Potential flows

Pressure

Particle velocity

General flows

Velocity

Fluxes

Electrostatics

Electric potential

Charge density

Magnetostatics

Magnetic potential

Magnetic intensity

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 3

Introduction to FEM

Where FEM Fits (from Chapter 1)


IDEALIZATION
Physical
system

DISCRETIZATION

Mathematical
model

REALIZATION &
IDENTIFICATION

FEM

SOLUTION
Discrete
solution

Discrete
model

CONTINUIFICATION

Solution error

Discretization + solution error

Modeling + discretization + solution error

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 4

Introduction to FEM

Idealization Process (from Chapter 2)


member
support
joint

Physical System

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IDEALIZATION

Mathematical Model

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 5

Introduction to FEM

Mathematical Model Definition


Traditional definition
Scaled fabricated version of a physical system
(think of a car or train model)

Simulation oriented definition


A model is a symbolic device built to simulate
and predict aspects of behavior of a system

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 6

Introduction to FEM

Implicit Modeling
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IFEM Ch 6 Slide 7

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di del
mo

Introduction to FEM

Recall the "Breakdown" DSM Steps

Disconnection
Breakdown

Localization
Member (Element) Formation
-> generic elements

Let Stop Here and


Study Generic Elements next

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 8

Introduction to FEM

... Because Most of the Remaining DSM Steps

Globalization
Merge
Application of BCs
Solution
Recovery of Node Forces

are Element Independent

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 9

Introduction to FEM

Attributes of Mechanical Finite Elements


Dimensionality
Nodes serve two purposes:
geometric definition
home for DOFs (connectors)
Degrees of freedom (DOFs) or "freedoms"
Conjugate node forces
Material properties
Fabrication properties

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 10

Introduction to FEM

Element Geometry Is Defined


by Node Locations
1D

2D

2D

3D

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 11

Introduction to FEM

Classification of Mechanical Finite Elements


Primitive Structural
Continuum

Macroelements

Substructures

Special

Superelements

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 12

Primitive Structural Elements

Introduction to FEM

(often built from MoM models)


Physical
Structural
Component

Mathematical
Model Name
bar

beam

tube, pipe

spar (web)

shear panel
(2D version of above)

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 13

Finite Element
Discretization

Introduction to FEM

Continuum Elements
Physical

Finite element
idealization

Physical

plates

Finite element
idealization

3D solids

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 14

Introduction to FEM

Special Elements

Infinity

double node

Crack
element

Infinite
element

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 15

Honeycomb
panel

Introduction to FEM

MacroElements

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 16

Introduction to FEM

Substructures

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 17

Introduction to FEM

Substructures (cont'd)

S2

S6

S4

S5

S1
S3

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 18

An Early Use of FEM Substructuring


Boeing 747

Introduction to FEM

Global Analysis: 1966


Local Analysis (shaded
regions): 1967-68
First flight: 1970

WING BODY INTERSECTION ANALYSIS


4 substructures,12549 elements
4266 nodes, 25596 freedoms

CARGO DOOR CABIN ANALYSIS


747 Regions Analyzed with FEM-DSM at Boeing

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 19

Introduction to FEM

Boundary Conditions (BCs)


The most difficult topic for FEM
program users ("the devil hides in
the boundary")

Essential
Two types

Natural

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 20

Introduction to FEM

Boundary Conditions
Essential vs. Natural
Recipe:
1. If a BC involves one or more DOF in a
direct way, it is essential and goes to the
Left Hand Side (LHS) of Ku = f
2. Otherwise it is natural and goes to the
Right Hand Side (RHS) of Ku = f

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 21

Examples of Structural Models:


Machine Component (Mech. Engrg)

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 22

Introduction to FEM

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Introduction to FEM

Examples of Structural Models:


Dam under Ground Motion (Civil Engrg)

Cavitating volume

Water

Concrete

Saturated soil

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Unsaturated fill
Sandstone

Base rock

Base ground motion

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 23

Introduction to FEM

Examples of Structural Models:


Rocket Nozzle (Aerospace Engrg)
Rotational axis

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GRAPHITE

21.37"

INSULATOR

GLASS FILAMENT
GLASS FABRIC
STEEL SHELL
ASBESTOS

(a) Typical solid rocket nozzle


(Aerojet Corp., 1963)

(b) Finite element idealization

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 24

Examples of Structural Models:


SuperTanker (Marine Engrg)

Introduction to FEM

Neutral Axis
Stringer
Web Frame
Cross section of tanker

Centerline Girder

Longitudinal

Typical internal structure of tanker

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 25

Examples of Structural Models:


F16 External View (Aero)

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 26

Introduction to FEM

Examples of Structural Models:


F16 Internal Structure (Aero)

IFEM Ch 6 Slide 27

Introduction to FEM