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Information
f
about
the Book
Title:ModernTechnologyofPrinting&WritingInks(withFormulae&
Processes)2ndRevisedEdition
)

Author:NIIRBoardofConsultants&Engineers
Format:Paperback
ISBN:9788178330822
Code:ENI75
75
Pages:480
Published:2015
P bli h AsiaPacificBusinessPressInc.
Publisher:

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Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or


dyes and is used to colour a surface to produce an
image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing or
writing with a pen,
pen brush,
brush or quill.
quill Thicker inks,
inks in
paste form, are used extensively in letterpress and
lithographic printing.
printing Ink can be a complex
medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes,
resins
resins,
lubricants
lubricants,
solubilizers
solubilizers,
surfactants
surfactants,
particulate matter, fluorescents, and other
materials.
materials
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The components of inks serve many purposes;


the inks carrier, colorants, and other additives
affect the flow and thickness of the ink and its
appearance when dry.
India is among the fast growing printing &
writing ink markets globally spurred by the
rapid
id expansion
i
off the
th domestic
d
ti print
i t
markets.
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Backed by a strong demand from key end


user segments such as package printing,
printing
newsprint,
publishing
and
other
commercial
i l printing,
i ti
th printing
the
i ti
i k
ink
market in India has registered strong
growth over the years. The printing ink
g
with hundreds of
industryy is fragmented
manufacturers and a large number of
players in the unorganised sector.
sector
wwww entrepreneurindia co
wwww.entrepreneurindia.co

Printing ink sector in India witnessed a


growth
h off around
d 7.5%
% per annum during
d i
the Past years. Printed packaging accounts
for around 27% of the demand for printing
inks in India followed by newspapers at 20%.
Commercial
printing/promotional
and
printed
advertising
together
account
for around 19% of the demand.
wwwww entrepreneurindia co
wwwww.entrepreneurindia.co

Other key end user segments for printing inks


include books and stationery. With the print
sector
t
f
forecast
t to
t grow att around
d 8% per
annum, in coming years, printing ink segment
is expected to grow strongly. This handbook is
g
for use byy everyone
y
engaged
g g
in the
designed
printing & writing ink industry and the
associated industries.
industries It provides all the
information required by the ink technical for
th daytoday
the
d t d formulation
f
l ti off inks.
i k
www.entrepreneurindia.co
d

It
supplies
the
details
of
the
manufacturing methods,
methods including large
large
scale production, and gives guidance on
achieving
hi i
quality
lit assessmentt and
d total
t t l
quality management specifications. The
book also describes properties and uses of
the raw materials used in the formulation
of printing & writing inks.

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The major content of the book are the colour and


colour
l
matching,
h
raw materials,
l printing inks,
k
pp
problems, writing
p
g
ink formulations, applications
inks, project profile, how to estimate, order &
handle ink, testing of writing & miscellaneous
inks, testing of printing inks, rollers, waterborne
inkjet inks.
inks The book contains addresses of raw
material suppliers, plant & machinery suppliers
with
i h their
h i Photographs.
Ph
h This
Thi book
b k will
ill be
b a mile
il
stone for the entrepreneurs, existing units,
libraries etc.
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Table off Contents


1.INTRODUCTION
VisualCharacteristicsofInks
ThecolourofInks
TheTransparencyandopacityofprintinginks
Theglossofprintinginks
ThenatureofPrintingInksAsDeterminedBy
TheprintingProcess
Flexographicandgravureinks
Lithographicandletterpressinks
ScreenInks

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Thedryingcharacteristics
Ab
Absorptiondrying
i d i
Oxidationdrying
Evaporationdrying
Chemicaldrying
Radiationinduceddrying
y g
TheAdhesiveNatureofPrintingInks
TheResistancepropertiesofPrintingInks
Li h f
Lightfactness

Heatresistance
Abrasionresistance
Productresistance
Weathering
g

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2.THEPRINTINGPROCESSES
TheLetterpressProcess
PressConfigurations
ThePlatenpress
Flatbedcylinderpress
Rotarypresses
Letterpressforme production
g
p
Originalplates
LinePlates
Halftoneplates
Duplicateplates
l
l
Makeready:
Substrates
Applications
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RotaryInk
y
QuicksetInk
HighglossInk
M i t
MoisturesetInk
tI k
WaterWashableInk
NewInk
MiscellaneousJobInk
TheOffsetLithographicProcess
ThePrintingunit
Thedampingsystem,
Th ff tbl k t
Theoffsetblanket
PressConfigurations
Thesmalloffsetpress
Largersheetfedpresses
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Weboffsetpresses
Blankettoblanketpress
CommonImpressiondrumpresses
Threecylinderpresses
Oithographic platemaking
Presensitised surfaceplates
WipeonPlates
Deepetchplates
p
p
Multimetalplates
Electrostaticimagedplates
Chemicaldiffusiontransferplates
Photodirect plates
Laserexposedplates
Directimageplates
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Thedriographic plate
Processcontrol
Platemaking control
Controlincolourprinting
p
g
Inkduct presettingandcontrol
Substratesandinks
Ul
Ultraviolet(UV)euring
i l (UV) i inkds
i kd 25
Infraredradiation25
Inksforlithography
DryoffsetofLetterst
FundamentalsofLithography
g p y
LithographicProblems
TheGravureprocess
Th i ti it
Theprintingunit
Theinkingsystem
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Doctorblades
Theimpressionroll
h
ll
Dryingsystem
PressConfigurations
Gravurecylinderpreparation
Conventionaletching
g
Singlebathetching
HalftoneProcess
D bl i i
Doublepositivesystemhalftonegravure
h lf

Halftonegravure
Mechanicalengraving
Lasergravure
Presscontrolsystems
y
Substratesandinks
Applications
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GravureInks
TheFlexographicProcess
Theprintingunit
Pressconfigurations
Flexographicplatemaking
Rubberplates
Photopolymerplates
Platemounting
g
Applications
FlexographicInks
FlexographicProblems,
Thescreenprintingprocess
Pressconfigurations
ScreenStencilManufacture
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MountingtheScreen
Applicationofthestencil
Aftertreatment
Substratesandinks
Application
ElectrostaticPrinting
CopperPlateandDieStamping
NonImpactPrintingprocesses
p
gp
InkjetPrinting
Continuousjet
Impulseordropondemand
Electrophotography
PrintRecognition
Letterpress
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Flexography
Lithography
Off L
OffsetLetterpress
Gravure
ScreenPrinting
Non_Impact printing
SubstrateSelection
GeneralPaperproperties
Runnability
P i t bilit
Printability

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2.COLOURANDCOLOURMATCHING
ThePhysicalnatureofColour
h h
l
f l
LightSources
ThePerceptionofcolour
Theeye
Defectivecolourvision
Chromaticadaptationandcolourconstancy
Metamerism
Di h i
Dichrosim
Illuminationqualityandlevels
AdditiveandSubtractiveColourMixing
Theadditiveprimaries
Thesubtractiveprimaries
p
TheCIESystem
OriginsofcolourinPrintedMaterial
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Pigments
Dyes
Originsofcolour
Transparencyandopacity
ColourStrenghtss
Substrateeffects
ColourIndexClassificaton
GraphicReproduction
Threecolourprinting
h
l i i
FourColourprinting
Undercolourremoval
Masking
Halftonedots
Dotgain
DotGeneration
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TheMeasurementofColour
C l i t
Colorimeters
Densitometer
spectrophotometers
Opticalgeometry
TheRecordingofColourdataAndtheSpecificationofcolour
ColourDifference
ColourMatching
Selectionofrawmaterials
Matchingtechniques
Thecolourcircle
Procedures
OilInks
LiquidInks
InstrumentalColourmatchPrediction
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3.RAWMATERIALS
Pigments
YellowPigments
Diarylide Yellows
Ironoxide yellows
Tartrazine yellowlake
Chromeyellows
C
Cadmiumyellows
y
Fluorescentyellow
OrangePigments
DNAOrange
Pyrazolone orange
Diarylide orange
FastOrange52G
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Benzimidazolone orangeHL
EthyllakeredC
h ll k
d
RedPigments
ParaRed
Naphthol Red(OrPermanentRedFrre)
Toluidine Red
PermanentRed'R'(ChlorinatedParaRed)
CarmineF.B.
Naphthol
h h l F4R
R
Naphtho RedLF
PermanentRedFRL
BordeauxFRR(F4R)
Naphthol
p
Red
Naphthol RedLight
Naphthol RedDark
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Lithol reds
BonRed(LackredCBon)
d(
k d
)
LakeRedC
Lithol Rubin4B
BONMaroon
PMTAPink,rhodamine
,
6G
Molybdate Orange,ChromeScarlet,OrangeChrome
Calmium Red
BO A l id Red,Naphthol
BONArylamide
R d
h h l RedFGR
R d GR
Quinacridone MagentaY
Naphthol CarmineFBB
CopperFerrocyanide Pink
Naphthol
p
RedF5RK
5
Benzimidazolone CarmineHF3C
Naphthol Rubine F6B
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Benzimidazolone CarmineHF4C
Rubine
b
Red6B
d
Quinacridone MagentaB
Benzimidazolone RedHF2B
Naphthol RedF6RK
Azo MagentaG
g
Anthraquinone Scarlet
Quinacridone Violet
B
Benzimidazolone
i id l
B d
BordeauxHF3R
R
GreenPigments
BluePigments
VioletPigments
BrownPigments
g
BlackPigments
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WhitePigmentsandExtenders
PearlescentMaterials
l
l
MetallicPigments
FluorescentPigments
GeneralPropertiesofPigments
AcidDyes
y
BasicDyes
SolventDyes
Di
DisperseDyes
D
DryingVegetableOils
Linseedoil
Tungoil(Chinawoodoil)
Oiticica oil
Dehydratedcastoroil
Otheroils
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Marineoils
Nondryign oils
Newsinkd oils
Nondryingvegetableoils
Resins
NaturalResins
Shellac
Manilacopal
p
Asphalts
Starchanddextrin
Gumarabic
Syntheticresins
Purephenolic resins
Rosinmodifiedphenolic resins
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PigmentInteractions
g
Hardresininteractions
Filmformingproperties
H d
Hydrocarbonresins
b i
Polystyreneresinsandcopolymers
Terpene resins
Siliconeresins
Alkylated ureaformaldehyderesins
Alkylated melamineformaldehyderesins
Polyamideresins
P l ( id i id ) i
Poly(amideimide)resins
Chlorinatedrubber
Cyclisedrubber(isomerisedrubber)
Vinylresins
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Polyvinylalcohol
Ketone resins
Acrylicresins
Epoxide resins
Polyisocyanates andpolyurethanes
Nitrocellulose,N/C(CellulosenitrateCN)
, / (
)
Ethyle cellulose
Ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose(EHEC)
C ll l
Celluloseacetatepropionate(CAP)

i
(CAP)
Celluloseacetatebutyrate(CAB)
Sodiumcarboxymethyl cellulose(CMC)
Chemicalconstitution
SectionV:Solvents
HydrocarbonSolvents
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Lowboilingpetroleumdistillatealipatic
gp
p
Whitespirt
Paraffinoil(kerosene0
Hi hb ili t l
Highboilingpetroleumdistillatesaliphatic
di till t
li h ti
Hydrocarbonsolvents naphthenic
Aromatichydrocarbons
Highboilingaromaticsolvents
Alcohols
Glycols
Ketones
E t
Esters
SectionVI:Plasticisers
SectionVII:Waxes
Syntheticwaxes
Polyethylenewaxes
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Polytetrafluoroethylene
H l
Halogenatedhydrocarbonwaxes
t dh d
b
Fattyacidamides
Petroleumwaxes
Slackwax
Scalewax
Fullyrefinedparaffinwax
Pettrolatum orpetroleumjelly
Microcrystallinewaxe
Ceresinwax
Montan wax
Montan esters
Naturalwaxes
Beeswax
Carnaubawax
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Miscellaneousnaturalwaxes
SectionVIII:Driers
LiquidDriers
C b lt
Cobalt
PasteDriers
SectionIXMiscellaneousAdditives
ChelatingAgents
Antioxidants
Surfactants
AnionicSurfactants
C ti i f t t
Cationicsurfactants
NonIonicsurfactants
Amphoteric surfactants
DeodorantsandReodorants
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PureChemicals
Alkalis
Defoaming Agents
Laking
g Agents
g
TannicAcid
Tannicacidsubstitutes
R M
RawMaterialsForRadiationCuringSystems
i l F R di i C i S
PigmentSelection
Prepolymers
Epoxyacrylates
Polyesteracrylates
y
y
andunsaturatedpolyesters
p y
Urethance acrylates
ReactiveDiluents
Ph t i iti t
Photoinitiators
AdditivesandInhibitors
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4.PRINTINGINKS
ManufactureofInksandvarnishes
f
f k
d
h
GeneralRequirements
TheManufacturig Processes
Themanufactureofoleoresinoussystems
Deaeration andpotting
p
g
Themanufacturefo polyer/solventsystems
Varnishmanufacture
C i i mixer
Cavitation
i
Rotor/statormixer
Manufactureofadditives
Liquidinkmanufacture
Ballmills
BeadMills
Chips
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Pigmentchipmanufacture
Manufactureofdyebasedinks
MixingEquipment
Butterflymixers(Changepan)
Rotorandstatorhighspeedmixers.
The star impellertype
The'star'impellertype
Thehighspeeddisperser
Thefixedoronlinemixer
Highspeedmixing
MillingEquipment
Threerollmills
Floatingrollingsystem
Developmentofsinglecst rollers
Beadmills
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Opensievemill
Closedsievemill
l d
ll
Gapseparationmill
Johnmill
Texmill
Dyno
y mill
STSmill
ElectronicallycontrolledCopramill
B
Boa500mill(BuhlerBrothersLtd)
ill(B hl B h d)
Coballmill
Microflow mill
Ballmilling
Disavantages
g ofballmills
Handling,Storageandmanufactureofuv Inks
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ManufactureofnewspaperInks
Modernproductiontrends
Computerisation
Costsofproductionandrelatedsubjects
gy
p
g
y
Maintenancestrategyintheprintinginkindustry
Onfailuremaintenance
'Fixedtime'maintenance
'Conditionbasedmaintenance
d
b d
Computersandmaintenance
Thefuture
Plantcontrolsystem
Furtherplantfeatures
p
Manufacturingplant
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5.INKFORMULATIONS
LetterpressInk
Plateninkforabsorbentpapers
C li d
Cylinderpressinkofuncoatedpapers
i k f
t d
Quicksetinksofcated paper
Letterpressinkdryign byoxidation
Waterreducibleinks
Processinks
NewspaperColouredInks
Rotaryblackinksfornewspapers
F
FormulaA:GeneralPurposelowmistblack
l A G
lP
l i tbl k
FormulaB:Inkrail
FormulaC:Page Pak
FormulaC:PagePak
FormulaD:KeylessInking(Indirectflexo)
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Lithoraphic
p
Inks
TypicalinksandVarnishers
Inksandvarnishesforsheetfedpaperprinting
Sh t f dl b li k
Sheetfeedlabelinks
Smalloffset
Inksandvarnishesforsheet fedcarbonboardprinting
Inksandvarnishesforsheetfedcarbonboardprinting
Inkforsheetfedimpervioussubstrateprinting
Inksforweboffsetpaperprinting
Coldset
Heatset
G
GravureInks
I k
PublicationInks
Inksforcatalogueprinting
Packaginginksforpaperandboardlables
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Metalliclable inks
Paperwrapperinks
CartonInks
F ili k
Foilinks
Foilboardlaminates
Inksforpolyethylenefilm
Inksfortreatedpolypropylenefilms
Coatedpolypropylenefilms
Cellulosefilms
Polyesterfims
W ll
Wallcoverings
i
Inksforpaper
Vinylcoatedwallcoverings
Specialitysystems
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Metallicinks
Aluminiumbasedinks
l
b d k
Pearlescentinks
flexographicInks
Syebasedinks
Pigmentedinksforspecificsubstrates
g
p
Paperandboard
Nitrocellulosecoatedfilms
P dC Copolymercoatedfilm
PVdC
C
l

dfil
Polyolefinfilms
MetalandmetallisedsubstratesAlmuminium foil
Metallicinks
ScreenInks
Inksforpaperandboard
Thinfilmscreeninks
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Ultrathinfilmscreeninks
Oxidationdryingglossinks
InksforImpervioussurfaces
M t l i
Metalsigns
Metalcontainers
Inksforsheetplastic
inksforglass
InksforPlasticcontainers
Polythenecontainers
PVCcontainers
T til I k
TextileInks
DaylightfluorescentInks
Processinks
Uv andElectronBeamcuringInks
Inksfordayoffsetapplicationonplasticsandmetal
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Ultravioletcurablesilkscreen
Ultravioletcurablevarnishandcoatings
l
l
bl
h d
NonMipact Printing
Electrostaticimaging
Inksforjetprinting
Typicalinkformulations
yp
InksfortheElectronicsIndustry
Printedcircuitproducts
InksforWallcoverings
k f W ll
i
TextileTransferInks
SterilisationInks
MetalDecoratingInks.
Decorationof sheets
Printingapreformedcontainer
lettersetPrinting
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6.APPLICATIONPROBLEMS
St ki i th Pil R i d
StockinginthePileorRewind
picking
FillIn
PoorBindingandRub
Setoff
PilingandCaking
Trapping
ShowThroughandStrikeThrough
InkNotFollowingtheFountain
InkflyingandMisting
Ghosting,Shadow,Streaks,andSlurs
InkDryingonrollers
PlateWear
Crystallization
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7.WRITINGINKS
ManufactureofWritingInks
Packing
I k f iti dF
InksforwritingandFountainPens
t i P
Ferrogalotannate inks
StandardCopyingandRecordInk
StandardWritingink
Irongallate Inks:(InkPowdersandTablets)
ManufactureofInksTablets
ActionofHydrochloricAcidandSulphuricAcidinInks
P
Pormulae
l forVariousBlueBlackInks
f V i Bl Bl kI k
Manufacturefo irongallotannate inks
Manufacture
Agingofwriting
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Datingadocument
DyebasedFountainPenInks
WashableInks
QuickdryingInks
AlkalineWritingInks
blueAlkalineWritingInks
PrussianBlueInks
BallPointPenInks
StampPadInks
Basicdyes
Aciddyes
MethodofManufacture
InksforRecordingInstruments
DrawingInksBlackandColoured
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BlackDrawingInks
ColouredDrawingInks
MarkingInks
PreparationofsilverInks
AnilineblackInks
Inkscontainingothermetals
ColouredmarkingInks;
InkforMultipleCopiespurposes
p C p p p
HectographInks;
MethodofPreparation
StencilDuplicatingInks
InksofHectographCarbonPapers,CarbonPapersand
TypewriterRibbons
InksorCarbonPapers
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HectographCarbonPapers
StencilSheets
Felt,Pen,SignPen,FibreTipInks
Mothod ofManufacture
Al;cohol BasedInks
HydrocarbonBasedInks
InvisibleorSympatheticInks
InksforSpecialMaterials
p
InksforPlastics
InkforMarkingPhotographs
Inkforstampingoiledstencils
InksforGlassandPorcelain
CeramicInks

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InkforMetals
TimeCardInk
MeatStampingInk
ShowCardInks
EmbossingInks
RulingInks
ArtistColours
ColourCombination
a)WaterPints

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8.PROJECTPROFILE
9.HOWTOESTIMATE,ORDER&HANDLEINK
Estimatin InkRequirements
OrderingInk
HandlingInks
g
10.TESTINGOFWRITING&MISCELLANEOUSINKS
Wii k
WritingInks
SedimentationTest
HueandIntensity
CloggingTest

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StabilityTest
TotalSolids
IronContent
GravimetricMethod
DeterminationofCorrosion
BallPointPenInks
StampspadInks
DeterminationofGlycerolContent
Gy
C
Assessingtheperformanceofstamppadink
DrawingInks
OpacityorTransparency
Mold Growth

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MarkingInks
StencilInks
Vi
Viscosity
i
Dryingtime
Presenceoftoxicandnoxiousmaterials
Caution
PresenceofAnilineOil
Miscibilitywiththinner
Stability
Ski i
Skinningproperty
t
DuplicatingInks
TestforLead

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11.TESTINGOFPRINTINGINKS
SpecificGravity
Viscosity
Penetration
MolecularRefraction
RefractiveIndex
CoveringPowerandGloss
EvaporationRate
AcidNumber
Sponification Number
IodineNumber

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DetectionofChinawood Oil
DetectionofRosinsandResins
TestingofPigments
LightResistance
TheResistanceofPigmentsofBleeding
h
f
f l d
ResistancetoAcidsandAlkalies
ParticleSizeofPigments375
Wettability andAbsorption
g
TheTestingofFinishedInks

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12.ROLLERS
InksandRollersUsed
13.DIRECTORY
IndiaStandardsonInksandAlliedProducts
ListofSuppliersfo Printing&WritingInkMachinery
ListofSuppliersofRawMaterialstoInkIndustries
ListofMajorManuracturers fo PrintingInksInIndia
DirectoryofInk%AlliedProductsManufacturer'sInIndia

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world for p
providing
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We adopt a systematic approach to provide the

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Biodegradable&Bioplastic BasedProjects
Chemicals(OrganicAndInorganic)
Confectionery,Bakery/BakingAndOtherFood
CerealProcessing
g
CoconutAndCoconutBasedProducts
ColdStorageForFruits&Vegetables
Coal&CoalByproduct
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Sectors We Cover
SectorsWeCover
Copper&CopperBasedProjects
Dairy/MilkProcessing
Disinfectants,Pesticides,Insecticides,Mosquito
Disinfectants Pesticides Insecticides Mosquito

Repellents,
Electrical,ElectronicAndComputerbasedProjects
ect ca , ect o c d Co pute based ojects
EssentialOils,Oils&FatsAndAllied
EngineeringGoods
Fibre Glass&FloatGlass
FastMovingConsumerGoods
Food,Bakery,AgroProcessing
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SectorsWeCover

Fruits&VegetablesProcessing
FerroAlloysBasedProjects
Fertilizers&Biofertilizers
Ginger&GingerBasedProjects
HerbsAndMedicinalCultivationAndJatropha
(Biofuel)
Hotel&HospitabilityProjects
l
bl
HospitalBasedProjects
HerbalBasedProjects
Inks,StationeryAndExportIndustries
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SectorsWeCover
InfrastructureProjects
Jute&JuteBasedProducts
LeatherAndLeatherBasedProjects
Leisure&EntertainmentBasedProjects
L i
&E t t i
tB dP j t
LivestockFarmingOfBirds&Animals
MineralsAndMinerals
Mi
l A dMi
l
MaizeProcessing(WetMilling)&MaizeBasedProjects
MedicalPlastics,DisposablesPlasticSyringe,BloodBags
M di lPl i Di
bl Pl i S i
Bl dB
OrganicFarming,Neem ProductsEtc.
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Sectors We Cover
SectorsWeCover

Paints,Pigments,Varnish&Lacquer
g
q
PaperAndPaperBoard,PaperRecyclingProjects
PrintingInks
PackagingBasedProjects
Perfumes,CosmeticsAndFlavours
PowerGenerationBasedProjects&RenewableEnergy
BasedProjects
PharmaceuticalsAndDrugs
Plantations,FarmingAndCultivations
PlasticFilm PlasticWasteAndPlasticCompounds
PlasticFilm,PlasticWasteAndPlasticCompounds
Plastic,PVC,PET,HDPE,LDPEEtc.
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SectorsWeCover
PotatoAndPotatoBasedProjects
PrintingAndPackaging
g
g g
RealEstate,LeisureAndHospitality
RubberAndRubberProducts
SoapsAndDetergents
StationaryProducts
SpicesAndSnacksFood
Steel&SteelProducts
S l&S lP d
TextileAuxiliaryAndChemicals
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Sectors We Cover
SectorsWeCover
Township&ResidentialComplex
TextilesAndReadymadeGarments
T il A dR d
d G
WasteManagement&Recycling
Wood&WoodProducts
WaterIndustry(PackagedDrinkingWater&Mineral

Water)
Wire&Cable

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Niir Project Consultancy Services


106--E,, Kamla Nagar,
106
g , New DelhiDelhi-110007,, India.
Email: npcs.india@gmail.com , info@niir.org
Tel: +91+91-11
11--23843955, 23845654, 23845886
Mobile: +91+91-9811043595
Fax: +91
+91--11
11--23841561
Website :
www.niir.org
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