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Sampling Techniques

Doyinmola Ojifinni
Community Medicine Dept., University College Hospital, Ibadan

What Is Sampling?
Sampling is the process of selecting a sample from
a population

Necessitated by factors such as feasibility and


limited resources
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Definition of Terms
The term population is used to describe a large set or

collection of items that have something in common


In medicine, population generally refers to patients or
other living organisms, but the term can also be used
to denote collections of inanimate objects such as
autopsy reports, birth certificates etc.
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Population
Sample

Definition of Terms

A sample is a subset of the population


Suppose a population consists of all patients in a certain
ward

Measuring the heights of only a fraction of these patients


for analysis is working with a sample
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Definition of Terms

Sampling frame
Units of sampling
Study units or units of the investigation/enquiry

Principles of Sampling
Avoidance of bias
Systematic deviation from the truth

Achieve high precision for the available resources


Time, funds
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Types of Sampling Techniques


Probability or random sampling the chance of
selecting every unit in the population is known

Non probability or non random sampling the


chance of selecting units is not known
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Examples Of Probability Samples

Simple Random Sample


Systematic Sample
Stratified Random Sample
Cluster Sample
Multi-stage Random Sample
Multi-phase Random Sample
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Examples Of Non-probability Samples

Volunteers
Haphazard
Quota
Purposive
Convenience
Snowballing
Respondent driven sampling
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Simple random sampling


Every unit has an equal chance of being selected.
Can be done using a table of random numbers,
balloting, computer generated list of random
numbers

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Simple random sampling


Characteristics
Sampling frame must be available which is a complete list of
all the units of the population
Precision of estimate is the highest of all methods
However construction of frame may be laborious and
expensive

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Systematic random sampling


Every kth item is selected
k is the sampling interval and is determined by dividing the number of
items in the sampling frame by the desired sample size

First subject selected using simple random methods


Should not be used when a cyclic repetition is inherent in
the sampling frame
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Stratified random sampling


Population is divided into homogenous strata
according to some characteristic e.g. department,
course of study etc.

Random sample selected from each stratum


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Cluster sampling
Results from a process in which the population is divided
into clusters

Subset of the clusters is randomly selected


Clusters commonly based on geographic areas or districts
More common in epidemiological surveys than clinical
studies

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Multistage sampling
Sampling by stages between 2 to 6
The population is divided into 1st stage units and a
sample of these is selected
Each selected first stage unit is subdivided in to second
stage units and a sample is these is selected.
The procedure continues until the units of enquiry are
reached
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What sampling methods would you use?


Selection of 300 PLWHAs attending care at the antiretroviral
treatment clinic
Selection of 340 women attending care at the Antenatal Clinic of
the UCH Ibadan
Selection of 150 medical students of the University of Ibadan in
clinical school
Selection of 189 street children to assess their psychoactive drug
use
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Questions?

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Thank you!

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