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ARTICLE in ENERGY MAY 2015

Impact Factor: 4.84 DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2015.04.009

READS

42

2 AUTHORS:

Xiangdong Xie

Q. Wang

University of Manitoba

University of Manitoba

18 PUBLICATIONS 35 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

SEE PROFILE

Retrieved on: 31 October 2015

Energy

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

X.D. Xie b, Q. Wang a, b, *

a

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 2 February 2015

Received in revised form

16 March 2015

Accepted 10 April 2015

Available online 6 May 2015

A dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester is developed for energy harvesting from ambient vibrations of a

vehicle suspension system subjected to roughness of road surfaces. The harvester is made of a sprung

mass (body mass) and an unsprung mass (wheel mass) connected by a piezoelectric bar transducer

which is equivalently modeled as a suspension spring and a damper in a mathematics model. The dualmass piezoelectric bar harvester is practically designed in a vehicle suspension system on wheels to

generate an electric charge. To describe the energy harvesting process, a mathematics model is developed to calculate the output charge and voltage from the harvester by an iteration method in the

temporal domain. The inuences of some practical considerations, such as the width of the piezoelectric

bar, the speed of vehicles, and the class of the road roughness, on the root mean square of the generated

electric power are discussed. Our results show that a power up to 738 W can be realized for a practical

design of the harvester with a width and height of the piezoelectric bar of 0.015 m and 0.1 m respectively.

This research develops a new design method for efcient and practical energy harvesting from vehicle

vibrations.

2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Piezoelectric bar harvester

Energy harvesting from vehicle suspension

Gauss white noise

RMS (Root mean square)

1. Introduction

Energy crisis and environmental problems such as oil shortage

and atmospheric pollution have brought challenges for new

development of an energy saving, efcient and environmentally

friendly power transmission system in vehicles. In recent years,

electric vehicles play a major role in attaining sustainability and

reducing air pollution [1]. The current status of EV (electric vehicle)

developments is encouraging. Several countries worldwide have

ambitions to electrify their car eet [2]. In regions such as China, by

this year there should be more than 100 000 PHEV (plug-in hybrid

electric vehicles) just in Beijing and 150 000 000 all over China

according to the Twelfth Five Year Plan [3].

EVs have an advantage over conventional internal combustion

engine automobiles since they do not emit harmful tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power [4]. However, there still

remain many challenges and unsolved issues in the development of

EVs. The price of EVs is signicantly higher than traditional vehicles, even after considering government incentives for EVs available

Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Tel.: 971 (0) 2 501 8437.

E-mail address: quan.wang@kustar.ac.ae (Q. Wang).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.04.009

0360-5442/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

in several countries. The primary reason for high prices is the high

cost of vehicle batteries. The U.S. Department of Energy has set cost

targets for its sponsored battery research of US$300 per kilowatt

hour in 2015 and US$125 per kilowatt hour by 2022 [5]. In addition,

the efciency of EVs is low because they have a short driving range

and a long charging time. Electricity consumption for air conditioning or cabin heating can also shorten the driving range in areas

with hot/cold weather [6].

Due to the unsolved problems, research efforts turn to developments of energy harvesting from the vehicle kinetic energy as

a new driving source to increase the efciency of vehicles and

decrease their costs. In fact, only a small part of energy from the

onboard source of vehicles is used for driving, while most of the

energy dissipating during vibrations and motions [7]. If vibrations

of vehicles can be absorbed and reused fully, the utilization efciency of onboard source could be improved notably. Research efforts on energy recovery from vehicle suspensions, rst as an

auxiliary power source for active suspension control, and later as

energy regenerating devices in their own accord, have been

developed during recent years. A research [8] presented a design

and analysis of an efcient energy harvesting hydraulic electromagnetic shock absorber with least weight penalty on a vehicle.

The conceived shock absorber uses mechanical amplication and

linear generator along with a displacement sensitive uid damper.

386

[9], which can not only isolate vibration but also recover energy

from vibration of vehicles. The damping characteristic of the HESA

prototype is tested, and its performance is proven to be good under

low cracking pressure and small excitation amplitude without

taking into account the requirement that damping force in

compression stroke is greater than that in extension stroke. A new

kind of semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system was

proposed [10] to recover the suspension vibration energy, as well as

to reduce the suspension cost and demands for the motor-rated

capacity. A design and optimization of tubular LETs (linear electromagnetic transducers) was further presented [11] for vibration

energy harvesting from vehicle suspensions, and an average power

of 26e33 W was found to be achieved at a RMS (root mean square)

of suspension velocity of 0.25 m/s for different LETs of an outer

diameter of 300 and a compressed length of 1200 . A design, modeling,

bench experiments, and road tests were proposed [12] for a retrot

regenerative shock absorber based on a permanent magnetic

generator and a rackepinion mechanism for energy harvesting and

vibration damping. A peak power of 68 W and average power of

19 W were attained from one prototype shock absorber when the

vehicle is driven at 48 km/h (30 mi/h) on a fairly smooth campus

road.

Previous studies on regenerative vibration absorbers of vehicles

were all designed to generate electric energy from vibrations of

vehicles by electromagnetic materials. These absorbers were xed in

parallel with a suspension spring which indispensably dissipates a

part of vehicle vibration energy, and hence cannot fully absorb and

transfer the kinetic energy from the suspension system. In addition,

the conversion efciency of electromagnetic materials is not very

high. Currently, the mostly available vibration-to-electric conversion mechanisms are electromagnetic, electrostatic, and piezoelectric transductions. Among the three types of energy transductions,

the efciency of piezoelectric transductions is preferred and much

higher than the other two. It was indicated that the energy density of

piezoelectric transduction is three times higher than the other two

transductions [13]. Therefore, many research works have been

conducted on applications of piezoelectric materials for energy

conversion from ambient environmental vibrations. By both numerical simulations and experimental studies, A PEHSA (piezoelectric energy-harvesting shock absorber) system was developed

[14] for vehicles to act as an energy harvester that converts vibration energy to electrical energy. Cylindrical piezoelectric transducers are combined with a cylinder of the shock absorber to

generate electricity from changes in uid pressure produced by

piston vibrations. A design and testing of a vibration energy

harvester [15] was proposed with tunable resonance frequency,

wherein the tuning is accomplished by changing the attraction force

between two permanent magnets by adjusting the distance between the magnets. An optimal design of a piezoelectric coupled

cantilever structure attached by a mass subjected to vibrations was

introduced [16] to achieve a higher efcient energy harvesting. Sea

wave piezoelectric energy harvesters from longitudinal/transversal

wave motion of water particles were introduced later [17,18]. The

results show that the harvesters can generate power up to 55 W/

30 W for a practical longitudinal/transversal wave motion. A ring

piezoelectric energy harvester excited by magnetic forces was

developed [19] and it was found that a power up to 5274.8 W can be

realized for a practical design of the harvester with a radius around

0.5 m. The above references show that the piezoelectric technology

has the ability of generating up to thousands of watts of electric

power through absorbing ambient vibration energy. It is expected

that the piezoelectric harvesting energy technology may also be

used in absorbing kinetic energy from vehicles as a new driving

source to increase the efciency of vehicles and decrease their costs.

driving vehicles with piezoelectric technology, a dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester for absorbing energy from vibrations and

motions of a suspension system under random excitations from

road roughness is developed. A mathematical model of the dualmass piezoelectric bar harvester is established and studied by an

iteration method in temporal domain. Some key considerations for

the developed harvester are hence discussed for achieving a high

efciency of energy harvesting.

2. Design and methods

Design of a dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester is depicted in

Fig. 1(aec). The piezoelectric bar transducer model is schematically

illustrated in Fig. 1a which consists of a spring with a stiffness coefcient of k, a lever AB consisting of a long moment arm of AC with a

length of L1 and a short moment arm of BC with a length of L2, a xedhinge for restricting linear displacements of the lever at point C, and

a piezoelectric bar with a Yong's modulus, a width and height of Ep, a,

and h respectively. The equivalent stiffness coefcient of the device

assembled by the lever and the piezoelectric bar is k Epa2/n2h

(n L1/L2). Therefore, the total stiffness coefcient of the piezoelectric bar transducer is equal to kk/(k k). A typical quarter car

model is shown in Fig. 1b which includes a chassis and a wheel

connected by a spring and damper which can replace the piezoelectric bar transducer as an equivalence in the model. Because the

wheel can be modeled by a mass and a spring moving on a random

rough road with a motion function of q(t), the quarter car model can

be furthermore modeled by a dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester

model shown in Fig. 1c for the convenience of analysis. The dualmass piezoelectric bar harvester consists of a sprung mass of m2,

an unsprung mass of m1, namely the mass of the wheel with a spring

stiffness coefcient of k1. Two masses are connected in series by a

suspension spring with stiffness of k2 kk'/(k k') and a damper

with an equivalent damping coefcient of c2. Based on the model in

Fig. 1c,a mathematical model for the dual-mass piezoelectric bar

harvester is developed and solved by an iteration method.

According to the principle that the dissipation energy of a

damper is equal to the electric energy generated by the piezoelectric bar harvester, the damping coefcient c2 can be derived as

below:

c2 n2 d233 k22

.

p2 cv f ;

(1)

where n L1/L2 is a ratio of the moment arms of the lever; d33 is the

piezoelectric constant in the polling direction; cv is the electrical

capacity of the piezoelectric bar; f is the rst natural vibration

frequency of the vehicle suspension.

The governing differential equations of the dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester system in Fig. 1c are expressed below according to Newton second law:

m1 z1 c2 z_2 z_1 k2 z2 z1 k1 z1 qt 0

;

m2 z2 c2 z_2 z_1 k2 z2 z1 0

(2)

sprung mass with respect to their respective equilibrium positions;

q(t) is the transverse motions function of road surface, which can be

obtained by the equation:

_ 2pf0 qt 2pn0

qt

q

Gq n0 vtwt;

(3)

n0 is a reference spatial frequency with a value of 0.1 m1; f0 is a

387

Fig. 1. Sketch of the dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester of a quarter-car. (a) A piezoelectric bar transducer, (b) The Quarter-car model, and (c) The qual-mass piezoelectric energy

harvester.

Table 1

Material properties and dimensions of a dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester.

Dual-mass piezoelectric energy

harvester

bar (PZT4)

m1(kg)

m2(kg)

a(m)

24

Cv0 (nF)))

350

85 270

60 000 0.015e0.025 0.1

5e9

6.4e-10

0.375 for the piezoelectric patch with the geometry of 0.01, 0.01,

0.0001 m

k1(N/m)

k(N/m)

h(m)

n(L1/L2)

d33(C/N)

Table 2

Road-roughness coefcients Gq(n0) (m3) classied by ISO/TC108/SC2N67.

Road class

Gq(n0)(106)

16

64

256

1024

4096

16 384

65 536

262 144

vehicle velocity in m/s; w(t) is a zero-mean (temporal) white noise

process [20].

The natural frequencies, 1, 2, and mode shapes, {f}1,2, of the 2

DOF (degree-of-freedom) dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester

system are therefore listed below [21]:

8

0 2

s311=2

>

>

>

1

k

k

k

k1 k2 k2 2

k k

>

1

2

2

4

@

>

4 1 2 5A

u

>

1

>

>

2

m1

m2

m1

m2

m1 m2

<

0 2

s311=2 ;

>

>

>

>

1 k k2 k2

k1 k2 k2 2

k k

>

>

>

u2 @ 4 1

4 1 2 5A

>

:

2

m1

m2

m1

m2

m1 m2

(4)

Fig. 2. Displacements and RMS of electric power versus ratio of L1/L2 based on a certain Gauss white noise. (a) Gauss white noise with zero mean value, (b) Transverse displacement

of road surface, (c) Relative displacement of sprung mass and unsprung mass, and (d) RMS of electric power versus ratio of L1/L2.

388

Table 3

Dimensions and harvesting capacity of two different vehicle suspension harvesters.

Type of harvester

Dimension

Piezoelectric bar harvester

Width:1.5 cm

ffg1;2

k2

:

k1 k2 m1 u21;2

Height:10 cm

(5)

z1

0

c

k k2

z_1

2

1

z2

0 c2

k2

z_2

0 c2

k1 qt

z_1

;

c2 0

z_2

0

m1

0

0

m2

k2

k2

z1

z2

(6)

or simply written as

n o

n o

n o

C Z_ KfZg fPg C 0 Z_ :

M Z

(7)

(8)

RMS of suspension

velocity

Average power

0.25 cm/s

0.29 cm/s

26e33 W

738 W

coordinates.

Substituting Eq. (8) into Eq. (7) and multiplying it by f4gT1 and

f4gT2 respectively lead to

C C 0 Y_ K Y P C 0 Y_ P ;

M1 Y

1

1

1

1 1

11

1

11

12 2

(9)

C C 0 Y_ K Y P C 0 Y_ P ;

M2 Y

2

2

2

2 2

22

2

22

21 1

(10)

C2 f4gT2 Cf4g2 ,

K1 f4gT1 Kf4g1 ,

K2 f4gT2 Kf4g2 ,

0 f4gT C 0 f4g ,

P11 f4gT1 fPg,

P22 f4gT2 fPg,

C11

1

1

T 0

T 0

0

0

0

C12 f4g1 C f4g2 , C22 f4g2 C f4g2 , C 21 f4gT2 C 0 f4g1 .

The generalized coordinates, Y1 and Y2, can be obtained by an

iteration method. In order to ensure the constringency of the iteration, the forces of P1 and P2 are separated into small incremental

segments in time domain and are supposed to be linear with time

at each time interval. The governing differential equations at each

time interval are thus given as:

Fig. 3. Displacements and RMS of electric power versus width of the piezoelectric bar based on a certain Gauss white noise. (a) Gauss white noise with zero mean value, (b)

Transverse displacement of road surface, (c) Relative displacement of sprung mass and unsprung mass, and (d) RMS of electric power versus width.

t C C 0 Y_ t K Y t P t C 0 Y_ t

M1 Y

1

1

1

1 1

11

11

12 2

P1 t P1i a1i t;

(11)

t C C 0 Y_ t K Y t P t C 0 Y_ t

M2 Y

2

2

2

2 2

22

22

21 1

poling direction at time ti is a random excitation at the end of the

lever from the driving vehicle. Hence the RMS of the generated

power from 0 to t from the piezoelectric bar can be obtained as:

Perms

P2 t P2i a2i t;

389

v

u Zt

u

u1

t

Pe t2 dt;

t

(16)

(12)

Where

ti t ti1 ,

ti1 ti Dt,

0 Y_ t ; i 0; 1; 2; / ,

P1i P11 ti C12

a1i P1i1 P1i =Dt,

2 i

0 Y_ t ; i 0; 1; 2; / , a P

P2i P22 ti C21

1 i

2i

2i1 P2i =Dt.

Consequently, we can obtain the displacements, z1, z2 and velocities, z_ 1, z_ 2 at each time point of the unsprung mass and sprung

mass at their respective equilibrium positions. The relative displacements, z21 z2z1, and velocities, z_ 21 z_ 2z_ 1, of the sprung

mass and the unsprung mass can also be obtained. Then the

generated charge, Qg(ti), and voltage, Vg(ti), from the piezoelectric

bar at time ti can be solved by equations below:

(13)

(14)

(15)

capacity of the piezoelectric bar in nF;Cv0 is the unit capacitance of

the piezoelectric patch with an geometry of a 0.01 m, b 0.01 m,

where Pe t d233 n2 k22 z21 tz_21 t=Cv is the generated power of the

piezoelectric bar at time t (0 < t < t).

To estimate the RMS of the generated power, the period, t, can

be separated into j time steps with a sufciently short time interval

Dt. As a result, the expression in Eq. (16) can be rewritten in a

discrete form below:

Perms

v

u

j

u

X

Dt

Pe ti 2 Pe ti1 2 :

t

2t Dt i2

(17)

3. Results

In the following simulations, some important factors in designs,

such as the ratio of the moment arms of the lever, the width of the

piezoelectric bar, the velocity of vehicles, and the road roughness

coefcient, that inuence the RMS (root mean square) of the

generated power are investigated for the proposed harvester. The

dimensions and material properties of the energy harvester are

Fig. 4. Displacements and RMS of electric power on a road of class B based on a certain Gauss white noise. (a) Gauss white noise with zero mean value, (b) Transverse displacement

of road surface, (c) Relative displacement of sprung mass and unsprung mass, and (d) RMS of electric power versus speed of vehicle.

390

classes, namely classes of B, C, and D, which are given in Table 2. The

piezoelectric bar and lever are made of PZT4 (lead zirconate titanate) and hardened steel, respectively.

The effect of the ratio of the moment arms of the lever on the

RMS of the electric power generated by the dual-mass piezoelectric

bar harvester is studies in Fig. 2(aed). A random Gauss white noise

with a zero mean value is shown in Fig. 2a, and the transversal

motions in 30 s of the car with a velocity of 35 m/s on a road of class

D is shown in Fig. 2b. The motions are with a maximum amplitude

of 0.097 m based on the white noise shown in Fig. 2a. The relative

displacement, with the maximum amplitude of 0.094 m, of sprung

mass and unsprung mass excited by the random road transversal

motions in Fig. 2b is shown in Fig. 2c. A nonlinear increase of the

RMS with an increase in the ratio of the moment arms of the lever is

shown in Fig. 2d. The results shown by the solid curve in Fig. 2d are

calculated based on the white noise excitation shown in Fig. 2a. The

results by the solid line show that the highest RMS of the generated

power is 714 W with a width and height of the piezoelectric bar, the

vehicle speed, the road roughness coefcient, and the ratio of

moment arms of the lever being a 0.015 m, h 0.1 m, v 35 m/s,

Gq(n0) 1024e-6 m3, and L1/L2 9, respectively. The results indicate that the RMS can be in a range of 457 We714 W when the ratio

of the moment arms of the lever changes from 5 to 9. It is concluded

that the novel dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester is very efcient

compared to the developed electromagnetic harvesters. For

example, as indicated in Table 3, an average power of 33 W can only

be achieved from vibrations of a vehicle suspension by an optimal

tubular LETs (linear electromagnetic transducers) of an outer

diameter of 300 and a compressed length of 1200 [11]. In addition to

efciency than that by the electro-magnetic technology, a piezoelectric bar harvester can fully harvest the energy induced by the

suspension system of vehicles. The results by dashed curves in

Fig. 2d are obtained based on random white noise excitations 2 and

3 that are with a same intensity of that shown in Fig. 2a, but are

chosen randomly in calculations. It is clearly seen that although a

difference in the obtained RMS can be identied, the variations of

the generated power remain same when white noises with a same

mean value are used in evaluating the power by the model. The

results show that the difference is within 10% only. The above

analysis indicates that the model of the dual-mass piezoelectric bar

harvester is robust since it is relatively insensitive to the environmental factors such as various white noise excitations.

The effect of the width of the piezoelectric bar on the RMS of

electric power generated by the dual-mass piezoelectric bar

harvester is shown in Fig. 3(aed). A random Gauss white noise

excitation with a zero mean value is given in Fig. 3a. The transversal

motions in 30 s of the car with a velocity of 35 m/s on a road of class

D are provided in Fig. 3b. The motions are with a maximum

amplitude of 0.106 m. The relative displacement, with a maximum

amplitude of 0.106 m, of the sprung mass and the unsprung mass

excited by the random road transversal motions given in Fig. 3b is

shown in Fig. 3c. The variations of the RMS versus the width of the

piezoelectric bar is provided in Fig. 3d. The geometry and material

parameters of the dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester in this

simulation are set to be: L1/L2 9, h 0.1 m, m1 24 kg,

m2 350 kg, k1 85 270 N/m, k 60 000 N/m, f0 0.0628 Hz,

v 35 m/s and Gq(n0) 1024e-6 m3. It can be found that the RMS

nonlinearly decreases with an increase in the width of the

Fig. 5. Displacements and RMS of electric power on a road of class C based on a certain Gauss white noise. (a) Gauss white noise with zero mean value, (b) Transverse displacement

of road surface, (c) Relative displacement of sprung mass and unsprung mass, and (d) RMS of electric power versus speed of vehicle.

391

Fig. 6. Displacements and RMS of electric power on a road of class D based on a certain Gauss white noise. (a) Gauss white noise with zero mean value, (b) Transverse displacement

of road surface, (c) Relative displacement of sprung mass and unsprung mass, and (d) RMS of electric power versus speed of vehicle.

the width of the piezoelectric bar would lead to an increase in the

electric capacity of Cv, and in turn a decrease in the electric voltage,

i.e. a decreased generated power (see Eqs. (14) and (16)). It can be

seen from Fig. 3d that the RMS decreases from 738 W to 340 W

when the width of the piezoelectric bar changes from 0.015 m to

0.025 m.

The effects of velocities of vehicles on the RMS of the electric

power generated by cars on road classes of B, C, and D are revealed

in Figs. 4e6. Three different random Gauss white noises are provided in Figs. 4ae6a with a zero mean value. The transversal motions in 30 s of the car are provided in Figs. 4ae6b with a velocity of

35 m/s on a road of classes B, C, and D. The motions are with a

maximum amplitude of 0.02 m, 0.05 m and 0.107 m, respectively.

Accordingly, three relative displacements, with maximum amplitudes of 0.032 m, 0.052 m, and 0.099 m, of the sprung mass and

unsprung mass excited by the random road transversal motions in

Figs. 4be6b are provided in Figs. 4ce6c, respectively. The relationship between the RMS and velocities of vehicles in a range of

10 m/s to 35 m/s on a road of classes B, C, and D, is demonstrated in

Figs. 4e6d respectively. These simulations adopt the same geometry and material parameters with previous simulations. It is found

in Figs. 4de6d that the RMS linearly increases with an increase in

the velocity of vehicles. The observation is interpreted by the fact

that the transversal motions and velocities of the road surface and

the relative displacements and velocities of the sprung mass and

unsprung mass are all proportional to the square root of the velocity of vehicles shown as Eq. (3). It can be seen from Figs. 4e6d

that the RMS increase from 18 W to 40 W, 70 W to 162 W and

281 W to 652 W, respectively, when the velocity of vehicle changes

from 10 m/s to 35 m/s. Thus it is obvious that a slight increase of

RMS.

4. Conclusions

A novel efcient dual-mass piezoelectric bar harvester is

developed for energy harvesting from ambient vibrations of a

vehicle suspension system subjected to roughness of road surfaces.

A mathematics model is developed to calculate the output charge,

voltage, and electric power from the harvester by an iteration

method in temporal domain. The computation results show that

the RMS increases with an increase in the velocity of vehicles and

the class of road surface, an increase in the ratio of the moment

arms of the lever, and a decrease in the width of the piezoelectric

bar. For an energy harvester structure with geometry and material

parameters of a 0.015 m, L1/L2 9, h 0.1 m, m1 24 kg,

m2 350 kg, k1 85 270 N/m, k 60 000 N/m, f0 0.0628 Hz,

v 35 m/s and Gq(n0) 1024e-6 m3, a value of RMS about 738 W

can be achieved. It is expected that in practice four or more of the

novel piezoelectric bar energy harvesters could be installed on a

vehicle and provide more efcient energy harvesting as an auxiliary

energy of vehicles. The research develops a new design method for

an efcient and practical energy harvesting from vehicle vibrations,

and hence would have a signicant impact on automobile industry.

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