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Design of Reinforced Concrete

Chapter 3: Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

wcliao@ntu.edu.tw
R803;; 3366-4337

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
1.
2.
3
3.
4.
5
5.
6.

Introduction
Bending of Homogeneous Beams
R i f
Reinforced
d Concrete
C
t Beam
B
B
Behavior
h i
Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams
Practical Considerations in Design of Beams
Rectangular Beams with Tension and Compression
Reinforcement
7. T-Beams

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
Bending
B di off Homogeneous
H
Beams
B
Essential Assumptions
o Plane sections (before loading) remain plane (after
loading) Compatibility

o Development of stress and strain in the materials
follows a given stress-strain diagram Constitutive
oEquilibrium- in any section all the time

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
M

Reinforced
Concrete Beam
Behavior

(III)

EIcr

EIg

(II)

(I)

Sectional Analysis:
I
I.
U
Uncracked
k d section
ti
Linear
Li
Behavior
B h i
II. Cracked section Linear Behavior
III. Cracked section Nonlinear Behavior
Compatibility, Constitutive, Equilibrium

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
(I) Uncracked section Linear Behavior

Modular ratio

Esteel
n
Econcrete

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
(I) Uncracked section Linear Behavior
Sol1: Method of Transformed Section
bh( h ) ( n 1) As d
2
y
bh (n 1) As
1 3 1
I g b y b( h y )3 ( n 1) As ( d y ) 2
3
3
M
fc
y
Ig
M cr f r

Ig

(h y )
fr
M cr
ct
E
cr

EI g h y h y

Mcr:

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
(II) Cracked section Linear Behavior

Limits off Linearity, fc< 0.5 fc and fs< fy

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
(II) Cracked section Linear Behavior
Sol 1: Method of Transformed Section

y
(b y ) nAs ( d y )
2
1 3
I cr b y nAs (d y ) 2
3
1
y
M b y fc (d )
2
3
M

EI cr

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
(II) Cracked section Linear Behavior
Sol 2: Sectional Analysis

compatibility :

c
kd

s
d kd

1
f c bkd
2
f s Es s , T As f s bdf s

constitutive : f c Ec c , C

: C T
equilibrium
q

E
1
1
f c bkd bdff s k s s
2
2
Ec c

1
1 k
1 2
k n
k nk n 0
2
k
2
k ( n) 2 2 n n

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
(II) Cracked section Linear Behavior
Sol 2: Sectional Analysis
kd
k
location of N . A. : jd d
j 1
3
3
M
Moment : M Tjd
j As f s jd
j fs
As jd

1
1
2M
2
M s Cjd
j , f c bkdjd
j f c kjbd
j
fc
2
2
kjbd 2

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
(III) Cracked section Nonlinear Behavior

fc:: ,
stress-strain
stress strain curve
c: ,stress-strain curve

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
(III) Cracked section Nonlinear Behavior

u
c
p
y:
compatibility
s d c
constitutive : C f c ' bc
T As f s
As f s
fsd
equilibrium : C T f c ' bc As f s c

fc ' b fc '
(location of N . A.)
Moment : M Tz As f s (d c )
Cz f c ' bc ( d c )

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
(III) Cracked section Nonlinear Behavior
Code format
q
of first yyielding
g of steel fs=fy for limited steel
Requirement
amount

f yd
fsd
c
c
fc '
fc '

fyd
fy
2
M n As f y ( d c ) bdf y ( d
) bd f y (1
)
fc '
fc '
Nominal moment

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Review
(III) Cracked section Nonlinear Behavior

f yd
fy
2
M n As f y ( d c ) bdf y ( d
) bd f y (1
)
fc '
fc '

M n bd f y (1 0.59
2

fy
fc '

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.3 Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior


Balanced Reinforcement ratio
Balanced failure condition: simultaneously crushing of concrete
and initiation of steel yielding
y
g

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.3 Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior


Balanced Reinforcement ratio

u
cb

y
d cb

cb

u y

C T ; f c ' bcb b bdff y

fc '

f y u y

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.3 Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior


Balanced Reinforcement ratio
(a) < b (under reinforced) , , ductile!!

M n bd f y (1 0.59
2

fy
fc '

(b) > b (over reinforced) ,,


brittle!!

f s Es s f y
As f s
d c
s
u c
c
fc ' b
M As f s ( d c )

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.3 Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior


Balanced Reinforcement ratio
Why
y always
y < b ?

= b

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.3 Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior


Balanced Reinforcement ratio

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.3 Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

Chapter Outline
1.
2.
3
3.
4.
5
5.
6.

Introduction
Bending of Homogeneous Beams
R i f
Reinforced
d Concrete
C
t Beam
B
B
Behavior
h i
Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams
Practical Considerations in Design of Beams
Rectangular Beams with Tension and Compression
Reinforcement
7. T-Beams

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


Analysis:
A given section (reinforcement layout, material strength)
Find capacity (Mn, Vn, Pn)
Design:
A given load condition

Factored Load ()

A l i (Mu,
Analysis
(M Vu,
V Pu)
P )

Find section dimension,


dimension reinforcement so that
Mn> Mu, Vn> Vu, Pn> Pu (: strength reduction factor)

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


Section Definition

As '
'
bd

d = distance from extreme compression


fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension
reinforcement
dt = distance from extreme compression
fiber to centroid of extreme layer of
longitudinal tension steel
d = distance from extreme compression
fiber to centroid of longitudinal
g
compression reinforcement
As = area of nonprestressed longitudinal
tension reinforcement

As

bd

As= area of compression reinforcement


Cover: 1.5 (4cm) to stirrup

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.1 Equivalent
q
Rectangular
g
Stress Distribution

Whitney Stress Block

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.1 Equivalent
q
Rectangular
g
Stress Distribution
Equivalent Stress Distribution same effect

magnitude of resultant :
c
C f c ' cb f c ' ab
a
location of resultant :
a
a a
c
1 2
2
1 2

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.1 Equivalent
q
Rectangular
g
Stress Distribution

c
a

; 1 2
for f c ' 280

kgf
, 1 2 2 0.425 0.85
2
cm
c
c

0.72
0 72

0.85
a
1c 1 2 0.85

In
n gene
general
al ,
fc' - 280
= 0.85; 1 = 0.85 - 0.05
and 0.65 1 0.85
70

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.1 Equivalent
q
Rectangular
g
Stress Distribution
c
a

; 1 2
fc' - 280
and 0.65 1 0.85
= 0.85; 1 = 0.85 - 0.05
70

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.2 Balanced Strain Condition

cb

u y

T C b f y bd 0.85 f c ' bab 0.851 f c ' bcb


fc ' u
b 0.851
f y u y

compare
fc ' u
b
f y u y

c
c

1c 1
a

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.3 Under-reinforced Beams ((Tension Failure))

b
()
T( fs=ffy) T
T(,
T=C
C C
(c2>c1 c2>c1)
, (c2<c1)
(ductile)
(warning)

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.4 Over-reinforced Beams (Compression Failure)

b
crushing (c1=0.003) ()

T
T T=C
T C C
C
()
C (c2>c1)
C,
(brittle)
(no warning)

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.4 Over-reinforced Beams (Compression Failure)
Analysis :
f s Es s f y

00.003
003
d c
s s 0.003
c
d c
c
d c
f s Es s 0.003
0 003
Es
c
d a
a 1c f s 0.003
0 003 1
Es
a
C T 0.85 f c ' ab As f s 0.003

1d a
a

0.85 f c ' 2
(
) a ad 1d 2 0 find a
0.003Es
a
M 0.85 f c ' ab( d )
2

Es bd

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.5 ACI Code Provisions for Under-reinforced Beams

1. =b (NOT preferred)
Mechanical properties of materials vary
Amount of materials varies
Strain-hardening
Strain hardening of steel
Just yielding without ductility for warning
2. Code addresses
The minimum tensile reinforcement strain allowed
at nominal strength
The strength reduction factor accordingly

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.5 ACI Code Provisions for Under-reinforced Beams

1. (tension-controlled)
c=0.003;
=0 003;
t>0.005
2. (compression-controlled)
c=0.003;
t<y=0.002
3 t
3.
Pu<0.1fcAg,
t>0.004

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.5 ACI Code Provisions for Under-reinforced Beams

c
0 003
0.003

d t 0.003 0.002
0.600
0 600

c
0 003
0.003

d t 0.003 0.004
0.429
0 429
min t (code) max

c
0 003
0.003

d t 0.003 0.005
0.375
0 375

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams

cb

u y

T C b f y bd 0.85 f c ' bab 0.851 f c ' bcb

b 0.851

fc ' u
f y u y

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.5 ACI Code Provisions for Under-reinforced Beams

t 0.004 max

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.6 Minimum Reinforcement Ratio

Objective: To avoid brittle failure


Method:

Mn
Mcr

Strength of RC beam with Strength of Plain Concrete beam


min

fr 2 fc '

a
M n min bdff y ( d )
2

bh3
Ig
M cr f r
2 f c ' 12
h
y
2

f c 'bh 2
3

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.6 Minimum Reinforcement Ratio

For typical sections with small

a
h
assume 0.05d ;
1.1
2
d
M n M cr
a
M n bdf y ( d ) bdf y 0.95
0 95d M cr
2
fc '
00.333
333 f c ' h 2

( ) 0.425
fy
0.95 f y d

f c 'bh 2
3

f c ' 210

kgf
6.2

cm 2
fy

f c ' 280

7.1
kgf

fy
cm 2

f c ' 350

kgf
8.0

cm 2
fy

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.6 Minimum Reinforcement Ratio

ACI code ( 401-100) takes Mn,min 2Mcr

min

0 8 fc '
0.8

As ,mini

fy

14

fy

0.8 f c '
fy

For beam, min 0.5%

14
bw d bw d
fy

R
Remarks:
k M
Maximum
i
R
Reinforcement
i f
tR
Ratio
ti ((t=0.004)
0 004)

max

fc ' u
fc '
0.003
0.85
0 851
00.85
851
f y u t
f y 0.003 0.004

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.6 Minimum Reinforcement Ratio

For statically determinate T-beam with the flange in tension

bE: effective width of flange

0.8 f c '
14
(2bw ) d (2bw )d
As ,min
fy
fy

smaller
0 8 fc '
0.8

As ,min
(bE ) d

fy

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.7 Examples
p

Analysis:
g
Given: section,, reinforcement,, material strength
Find: moment capacity
Design:
D
i
Given: required moment capacity, material strength
Find: section dimension,
dimension reinforcement
fy
2
M n f y bd (1 0.59
) Rbd 2
fc '

R f y ((1 0.59

fy
fc '

f c ',' f y

( flexural resistance factor )

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams

max 0.851
a

fc '
u
f y u t ( 0.004)

As f y
0.85 fc'b

M n bd f y (1 0.59
2

4066462kgf
k f cm
40.66tf m

fy
fc '

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams

wL2
Multimate
8

t 0.004

max

0.85
0 851
for 0.9

fc '
u
f y u t ( 0.005)

M n bd f y (1 0.59
2

fy
fc '

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.7 Design
g Aid

Appendix A of Design of Concrete Structures, Nilson


Tables A.1,, A.2,, A.4~6;; Graph
p A.1

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.7 Design
g Aid

Appendix A of Design of Concrete Structures, Nilson


Tables A.1,, A.2,, A.4~7;; Graph
p A.1

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.7 Design
g Aid

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.7 Design
g Aid

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams

Mn bd f y (1 0.59
2

fy
fc '

Rbd 2 949 12 17.52 3487575 lb in


40.6 tf m

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


Detailing

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.7 Design
g Aid

Design Algorithm 1
p
concrete section
Optimum
1. Mu=Mn= Rbd2

2. Choose , min< <max (Table A.4), says =0.6 max

3. Find R (Table A.5)

4 Choose b and d to satisfy bd2=Mu/(R)


4.

5. Choose steel As= bd (Table A.1); larger bar sizes placement costs

6. Check detailing (Table A.7)

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.4 Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams


3.4.7 Design
g Aid

Design Algorithm 2
Select concrete section find
1. Select b and d, find R=Mu/(bd2)

2. Find by Table A.5

3. Choose steel As= bd (Table A.1)

4 Check detailing (Table A


4.
A.7)
7)

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.5 Practical considerations in Design of Beams


Objective: Translating theoretical requirement to practical design
Detailing
D
t ili
off Beams:
B
1. 5cm (2)
2
2.
3. , steel #11 or smaller
4
4.

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.5 Practical considerations in Design of Beams


a.
b.

c.

d.

e.

1.5
1.5 (4cm) clear cover to stirrup
Stirrup bar diameter
at least #3 tie for #10 or smaller
att least
l
t #4 titie ffor #11,
#11 #14
#14, #18
and bundled
diameter of corner bar is
assumed
d tto be
b llocated
t d tto
intersect the horizontal tangent to
stirrup bend
For #11 or smaller, c=3/4
(2cm)
For #14 and #18, c=0.5db
Clear spacing db or 1 (2.5cm)
or > 1.33 dmax ()
whichever is greater
Clear spacing 1 (2.5cm)

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.5 Practical considerations in Design of Beams

Design of Reinforced Concrete 101-1


Chapter 3. Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams

3.5 Practical considerations in Design of Beams