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KoCoS America IEEE Switchgear Committee n Breaker Analysis n Relay Testing n Digital Fault Recording

KoCoS America

IEEE Switchgear Committee

n

Breaker Analysis

n

Relay Testing

n

Digital Fault Recording

n

Meter Testing

n

Power Quality Analysis

n

Optical Measurement

Testing Breakers with Both Sides

Grounded

www.kocos.com

n Power Quality Analysis n Optical Measurement Testing Breakers with Both Sides Grounded www.kocos.com
KoCoS Presentation outline
KoCoS Presentation outline

Background

• Main Contact Timing

• Both Side Grounded

Measuring Methods

• Conventional

• Dynamic Timing

• New Method

Tested sample

Comparison

Side Grounded  Measuring Methods • Conventional • Dynamic Timing • New Method  Tested sample

Founded:

Located in:

Managing Directors:

KOCOS AMERICA LLC

October 2001

136 Oak St. Suite A

Westerly, RI

Phone +1 401 213 6518

Guy Wasfy

Thomas Becker

RI Phone +1 401 213 6518 Email: gwasfy@kocos.com www.kocos.com http://twitter.com/KoCoS_America Guy Wasfy Thomas Becker

Jean-Guy Wasfy

43 years old

Born in Montreal.

Guy Wasfy received his BSEE from

University of Rhode Island, graduating in

1990.

First job was for Doble Engineering, performed many roles, such as as a client

service engineer, a product manager, and

an International Sales manager.

In 2001, formed a subsidiary along with KoCoS AG, for all of North American Operations.

KOCOS AMERICA LLC

Sales manager. In 2001, formed a subsidiary along with KoCoS AG, for all of North American
Sales manager. In 2001, formed a subsidiary along with KoCoS AG, for all of North American
KoCoS Presentation Context / Background  Switching devices are essential equipment in a substation. 

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Context / Background  Switching devices are essential equipment in a substation.  The

Context / Background

KoCoS Presentation Context / Background  Switching devices are essential equipment in a substation.  The

Switching devices are essential equipment in a substation.

The current must be interrupted if a failure occurs.

To guarantee the operation the circuit breaker need maintenance.

Reasons:

• Wear of the moving parts

• leak on valves and seals

• Failures in control circuits

• Deterioration of contact parts

• Problems with compressors, springs, and other “speed” parts

KoCoS Presentation Why is a determination of the main contact timing important?  Fundamental and

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Why is a determination of the main contact timing important?  Fundamental and important

Why is a determination of the main contact timing important?

Why is a determination of the main contact timing important?  Fundamental and important test for

Fundamental and important test for testing circuit breakers:

Determination of main contact timing

Determination of timing from command until execution.

Circuit breaker need maintenance

Determination of:

1) Synchronisation between poles

2) Synchronisation of contacts within one pole

KoCoS Presentation Parameters measured - main contact velocity, - main contact travel and - the

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Parameters measured - main contact velocity, - main contact travel and - the operating

Parameters measured

KoCoS Presentation Parameters measured - main contact velocity, - main contact travel and - the operating

- main contact velocity,

- main contact travel and

- the operating times of all switching contacts.

- Coil operating currents,

- the operating currents of spring-tensioning or pump

motors,

- valve pressures,

- valve travel and mechanical main contact travel,

- in addition main and auxiliary contact state,

- Main contact resistance.

KoCoS Presentation Typical Close-Open-Operation Main contacts Main contact travel Coil current Closed position Contact

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Typical Close-Open-Operation Main contacts Main contact travel Coil current Closed position Contact

Typical Close-Open-Operation

KoCoS Presentation Typical Close-Open-Operation Main contacts Main contact travel Coil current Closed position Contact

Main contacts

Main contact travel

Coil current

Closed position Contact closure Closing Opening time time
Closed position
Contact closure
Closing
Opening
time
time
KoCoS Presentation Example: main contact timing

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Example: main contact timing

Example: main contact timing

KoCoS Presentation Example: main contact timing
KoCoS Presentation Example: main contact timing
KoCoS Presentation Conventional Method  Decommission of circuit breaker - danger through: • undesirable electrical

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Conventional Method  Decommission of circuit breaker - danger through: • undesirable electrical

Conventional Method

KoCoS Presentation Conventional Method  Decommission of circuit breaker - danger through: • undesirable electrical

Decommission of circuit breaker - danger through:

undesirable electrical potential

capacitive or inductively coupled voltages

Safety through connection of the circuit breaker to ground.

Exception: measurement of main contact timing

Practice: the ground must be removed on one side of the

breaker pole for test

Used for the conventional measurement method.

KoCoS Presentation Conventional Method  Ground both sides of the breaker with grounding cables 

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Conventional Method  Ground both sides of the breaker with grounding cables  Connect

Conventional Method

KoCoS Presentation Conventional Method  Ground both sides of the breaker with grounding cables  Connect

Ground both sides of the breaker with grounding cables

Connect timing set to breaker

Remove ground from one side of breaker

Perform tests

Ground the one side that is not connected

Remove leads

IEEE and OSHA Require that the breaker be grounded at

both sides during maintenance

Accepted exception to laws and standards that call for both sides to be grounded at all times, but not recommended.

KoCoS Presentation Conventional Method  Electrical Risk! - Fault - Lightning - Electrical coupling •

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Conventional Method  Electrical Risk! - Fault - Lightning - Electrical coupling • IEC

Conventional Method

Electrical Risk!

KoCoS Presentation Conventional Method  Electrical Risk! - Fault - Lightning - Electrical coupling • IEC

- Fault

- Lightning

- Electrical coupling IEC ® EN 61010 considers any current above 3.5 mA dangerous

KoCoS Presentation Why test with Both Sides Grounded?  Financial – the cost of removing

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Why test with Both Sides Grounded?  Financial – the cost of removing the

Why test with Both Sides Grounded?

KoCoS Presentation Why test with Both Sides Grounded?  Financial – the cost of removing the

Financial the cost of removing the ground from one side of the breaker can be costly utility studies have shown the cost could reach $6,000 or higher.

- Overtime

- Bucket truck

- Harness

- Supervisor

- GCB, big conductors

Safety through connection of the circuit breaker to ground.

- Testing and operations can be done inside the ground circuit of the breaker

Ease of use

Reduced switching time

Less paperwork

KoCoS Presentation Example: Earthed on both sides

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Example: Earthed on both sides

Example: Earthed on both sides

KoCoS Presentation Example: Earthed on both sides
KoCoS Presentation Example: Earthed on both sides
KoCoS Presentation Conventional measuring method  Binary measurement inputs for main contact timing  by

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Conventional measuring method  Binary measurement inputs for main contact timing  by

Conventional measuring method

KoCoS Presentation Conventional measuring method  Binary measurement inputs for main contact timing  by

Binary measurement inputs for main contact timing by comparator method

inputs for main contact timing  by comparator method  Signal threshold: • R < 30

Signal threshold:

R < 30 Ω

30 Ω < R < 30 kΩ Resistive contact closed

R > 30 kΩ

Main and resistive contact closed

Main and resistive contact open

Earthing: main contact status CLOSED

total resistance of the earth loop < 30 Ω

The earth must be removed on one side of the breaker!

KoCoS Presentation Connection diagram with Main Contacts IN  Circuit breaker must be grounded on

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Connection diagram with Main Contacts IN  Circuit breaker must be grounded on both

Connection diagram with Main Contacts IN

KoCoS Presentation Connection diagram with Main Contacts IN  Circuit breaker must be grounded on both
KoCoS Presentation Connection diagram with Main Contacts IN  Circuit breaker must be grounded on both

Circuit breaker must be grounded on both sides when the measuring leads are being

attached.

The ground must be removed on one side of the breaker for the test.

The ground connection should always remain in place on the side on which there is the greatest danger of capacitive or inductively coupled voltages.

KoCoS Presentation Analog main contact measurement inputs  Hardware option Dynamic Timing  Voltage drop

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Analog main contact measurement inputs  Hardware option Dynamic Timing  Voltage drop
KoCoS Presentation Analog main contact measurement inputs  Hardware option Dynamic Timing  Voltage drop

Analog main contact measurement inputs

Hardware option Dynamic Timing

Voltage drop measurement with test current 10 A

Determination of operating instants special algorithm

ACTAS P22: 6 analog voltage measurement inputs

per Pole: 2 measurement inputs

Range: 200 mV / 10 V

10 A constant-current source per pole

inputs • per Pole: 2 measurement inputs • Range: 200 mV / 10 V • 10
KoCoS Presentation Connection diagram for voltage drop measurement -Sense -I CONST +I CONST +Sense 

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Connection diagram for voltage drop measurement -Sense -I CONST +I CONST +Sense  Leads

Connection diagram for voltage drop measurement

Presentation Connection diagram for voltage drop measurement -Sense -I CONST +I CONST +Sense  Leads for
-Sense -I CONST +I CONST +Sense
-Sense
-I CONST
+I CONST
+Sense

Leads for the electricity supply and the voltage drop measurement are not attached at the same place.

The measuring leads should be attached close to the test

object.

The earth connections may remain connected on both sides of the breaker pole during tests!

KoCoS Presentation Kelvin (4-wire) resistance measurement  Measurement of electrical resistance  Known current

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Kelvin (4-wire) resistance measurement  Measurement of electrical resistance  Known current
KoCoS Presentation Kelvin (4-wire) resistance measurement  Measurement of electrical resistance  Known current

Kelvin (4-wire) resistance measurement

Measurement of electrical resistance

Known current through test object (resistance)

Measurement of voltage drop

Measuring faults through voltage drop on current lead are avoided

Calculation of the resistance is based on Ohm’s Law:

R=V/I

KoCoS Presentation Diagram: Kelvin (4-wire) resistance measurement I CONST R WIRE R WIRE U OBJECT

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Diagram: Kelvin (4-wire) resistance measurement I CONST R WIRE R WIRE U OBJECT R

Diagram: Kelvin (4-wire) resistance measurement

I CONST

R WIRE R WIRE U OBJECT R WIRE R WIRE
R
WIRE
R
WIRE
U
OBJECT
R
WIRE
R
WIRE
Kelvin (4-wire) resistance measurement I CONST R WIRE R WIRE U OBJECT R WIRE R WIRE

I CONST

R OBJECT

KoCoS Presentation Basic information: Earthing  For grounded long connection leads: ~ 20 mΩ 

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Basic information: Earthing  For grounded long connection leads: ~ 20 mΩ  Contact

Basic information: Earthing

KoCoS Presentation Basic information: Earthing  For grounded long connection leads: ~ 20 mΩ  Contact

For grounded long connection leads: ~ 20 mΩ

Contact resistance of the circuit breaker: ~ 20 μΩ

Target: reliable detection of contact state

Resistance of ground has no affect of the test.

KoCoS Presentation Basic information R WIRE R WIRE I CONST U R CONTACT

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Basic information R WIRE R WIRE I CONST U R CONTACT

Basic information

KoCoS Presentation Basic information R WIRE R WIRE I CONST U R CONTACT
KoCoS Presentation Basic information R WIRE R WIRE I CONST U R CONTACT
R WIRE R WIRE I CONST U R CONTACT
R
WIRE
R
WIRE
I
CONST
U
R
CONTACT
KoCoS Presentation Worked sample: Without Earthing Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST =

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Worked sample: Without Earthing Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10

Worked sample: Without Earthing

KoCoS Presentation Worked sample: Without Earthing Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10

Circuit breaker: OPEN

Circuit breaker: CLOSED

I CONST = 10 A

Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V ~ 5 V I
Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V ~ 5 V I
Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V ~ 5 V I

V ~ 5 V

I CONST = 10 A

Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V ~ 5 V I
R CB = 20 μΩ
R CB = 20 μΩ
Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V ~ 5 V I

V = 0.2 mV

KoCoS Presentation Worked sample: With Earthing Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST =

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Worked sample: With Earthing Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10

Worked sample: With Earthing

KoCoS Presentation Worked sample: With Earthing Circuit breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10

Circuit breaker: OPEN

Circuit breaker: CLOSED

I CONST = 10 A

breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V = 200 mV R W
breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V = 200 mV R W
breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V = 200 mV R W
breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V = 200 mV R W
breaker: OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V = 200 mV R W

V = 200 mV

OPEN Circuit breaker: CLOSED I CONST = 10 A V = 200 mV R W =

R W = 10 m

R W = 10 m

I CONST = 10 A

mV R W = 10 m Ω R W = 10 m Ω I CONST =
mV R W = 10 m Ω R W = 10 m Ω I CONST =

R CB = 20 μΩ

R W = 10 m Ω I CONST = 10 A R C B = 20

V = 0.199 mV

m Ω I CONST = 10 A R C B = 20 μΩ V = 0.199
I CB = 9.99 A
I CB = 9.99 A

R W = 10 m

R W = 10 m

= 10 A R C B = 20 μΩ V = 0.199 mV I CB =

I WIRE = 0.009 A

KoCoS Presentation  Measurement of the Earth Current (new development)  Another method to determine

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation  Measurement of the Earth Current (new development)  Another method to determine the
KoCoS Presentation  Measurement of the Earth Current (new development)  Another method to determine the

Measurement of the Earth Current (new development)

Another method to determine the times at both side grounded breaker is to capture a current change in the ground lines during a switching operation.

The grounding at both ends of the switching device results in a parallel

connection of the contact and the earth.

A constant current is connected to the contact, and is divided in the parallel circuit to a ground current and current to the contact.

If the contact is open the constant current flows through the earth, with closed contact to inform on the current.

KoCoS Presentation  Measurement of the Earth Current (new development)  These current changes the

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation  Measurement of the Earth Current (new development)  These current changes the switching
KoCoS Presentation  Measurement of the Earth Current (new development)  These current changes the switching

Measurement of the Earth Current (new development)

These current changes the switching times of the contact can be determined For feeding the constant current sources are the dynamic timing function

(ICON = 10 A) connected to the switching unit. The current probes detect

the current IE in the ground wire and connected to the 200mV/10V- measurement inputs.

Both methods for determining the switching times, the above-described 4-

wire method, and the earth current measurement are selectable in the

software.

KoCoS Presentation New method I K CB I CB I E I K R CB

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation New method I K CB I CB I E I K R CB R

New method

I K CB I CB I E
I K
CB
I CB
I E
KoCoS Presentation New method I K CB I CB I E I K R CB R
I K R CB R E
I K
R CB
R E
KoCoS Presentation Test with Main Contact IN - CLOSE

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Test with Main Contact IN - CLOSE

Test with Main Contact IN - CLOSE

KoCoS Presentation Test with Main Contact IN - CLOSE
KoCoS Presentation Test with Main Contact IN - CLOSE
KoCoS Presentation Test with Main Contact IN - OPEN

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Test with Main Contact IN - OPEN

Test with Main Contact IN - OPEN

KoCoS Presentation Test with Main Contact IN - OPEN
KoCoS Presentation Test with Main Contact IN - OPEN
KoCoS Presentation Test with Dynamic Timing – CLOSE without Earthing (Short Circuit) Measurement of voltage

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Test with Dynamic Timing – CLOSE without Earthing (Short Circuit) Measurement of voltage drop

Test with Dynamic Timing CLOSE without Earthing (Short Circuit)

Dynamic Timing – CLOSE without Earthing (Short Circuit) Measurement of voltage drop 3 phase  Short
Measurement of voltage drop 3 phase
Measurement of voltage drop
3 phase

Short circuit: ~ 3 mΩ (~ 32 mV, 10 A)

KoCoS Presentation Test with Dynamic Timing – OPEN without Earthing (Short Circuit)

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Test with Dynamic Timing – OPEN without Earthing (Short Circuit)

Test with Dynamic Timing OPEN without Earthing (Short Circuit)

KoCoS Presentation Test with Dynamic Timing – OPEN without Earthing (Short Circuit)
KoCoS Presentation Test with Dynamic Timing – OPEN without Earthing (Short Circuit)
KoCoS Presentation Comparison CLOSE – Operation OPEN - Operation C Time A B C  

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Comparison CLOSE – Operation OPEN - Operation C Time A B C   Main

Comparison

KoCoS Presentation Comparison CLOSE – Operation OPEN - Operation C Time A B C   Main

CLOSE Operation

OPEN - Operation

C Time

A

B

C

 

Main Contact IN

64.10

63.90

64.90

ms

Dynamic Timing

64.40

64.60

65.40

ms

(without)

Dynamic Timing

64.10

63.80

65.20

ms

(with)

O Time

A

B

C

 

Main Contact IN

34.70

34.60

34.90

ms

Dynamic Timing

35.10

34.80

35.20

ms

(without)

Dynamic Timing

35.50

35.00

35.40

ms

(with)

KoCoS Presentation Advantages ©RWE  Test with both sides earthing possible.  No additional equipment

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Advantages ©RWE  Test with both sides earthing possible.  No additional equipment required

Advantages

KoCoS Presentation Advantages ©RWE  Test with both sides earthing possible.  No additional equipment required
©RWE
©RWE

Test with both sides earthing possible.

No additional equipment required

Safety of the operator is secured

Determination of Graphite Contacts

KoCoS Presentation Advantages  Additional external measuring devices are not required.  No special measuring

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Advantages  Additional external measuring devices are not required.  No special measuring

Advantages

Additional external measuring devices are not required.

No special measuring cables are necessary.

Connect directly to a device. The workload is therefore low.

No calibration or adjustment to the electrical conditions of the apparatus.

No triggering of external devices and the associated distortion of the switching times needed.

The measuring current may be permanently made ​​available. A waiting time until the next circuit is not required.

A dynamic analysis is the recorded traces. This allows for precise analysis of contact systems with material transitions, such as Graphite-metal.

traces. This allows for precise analysis of contact systems with material transitions, such as Graphite-metal .
traces. This allows for precise analysis of contact systems with material transitions, such as Graphite-metal .
©RWE
©RWE
KoCoS Presentation Method used on any breaker
KoCoS Presentation Method used on any breaker

KoCoS Presentation

KoCoS Presentation Method used on any breaker
KoCoS Presentation Method used on any breaker

Method used on any breaker

KoCoS Presentation Method used on any breaker
KoCoS Presentation Method used on any breaker
KoCoS Presentation Method used on any breaker
KoCoS Presentation Method used on any breaker
KoCoS America n Breaker Analysis n Relay Testing n Digital Fault Recording n Meter Testing

KoCoS America

n

Breaker Analysis

n

Relay Testing

n

Digital Fault Recording

n

Meter Testing

n

Power Quality Analysis

n

Optical Measurement

Thank you for your interest.

www.kocos.com

n Meter Testing n Power Quality Analysis n Optical Measurement Thank you for your interest. www.kocos.com